maintenance: add loose-objects task

One goal of background maintenance jobs is to allow a user to
disable auto-gc (gc.auto=0) but keep their repository in a clean
state. Without any cleanup, loose objects will clutter the object
database and slow operations. In addition, the loose objects will
take up extra space because they are not stored with deltas against
similar objects.

Create a 'loose-objects' task for the 'git maintenance run' command.
This helps clean up loose objects without disrupting concurrent Git
commands using the following sequence of events:

1. Run 'git prune-packed' to delete any loose objects that exist
   in a pack-file. Concurrent commands will prefer the packed
   version of the object to the loose version. (Of course, there
   are exceptions for commands that specifically care about the
   location of an object. These are rare for a user to run on
   purpose, and we hope a user that has selected background
   maintenance will not be trying to do foreground maintenance.)

2. Run 'git pack-objects' on a batch of loose objects. These
   objects are grouped by scanning the loose object directories in
   lexicographic order until listing all loose objects -or-
   reaching 50,000 objects. This is more than enough if the loose
   objects are created only by a user doing normal development.
   We noticed users with _millions_ of loose objects because VFS
   for Git downloads blobs on-demand when a file read operation
   requires populating a virtual file.

This step is based on a similar step in Scalar [1] and VFS for Git.
[1] https://github.com/microsoft/scalar/blob/master/Scalar.Common/Maintenance/LooseObjectsStep.cs

Signed-off-by: Derrick Stolee <dstolee@microsoft.com>
Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
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README.md

Build status

Git - fast, scalable, distributed revision control system

Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations and full access to internals.

Git is an Open Source project covered by the GNU General Public License version 2 (some parts of it are under different licenses, compatible with the GPLv2). It was originally written by Linus Torvalds with help of a group of hackers around the net.

Please read the file INSTALL for installation instructions.

Many Git online resources are accessible from https://git-scm.com/ including full documentation and Git related tools.

See Documentation/gittutorial.txt to get started, then see Documentation/giteveryday.txt for a useful minimum set of commands, and Documentation/git-<commandname>.txt for documentation of each command. If git has been correctly installed, then the tutorial can also be read with man gittutorial or git help tutorial, and the documentation of each command with man git-<commandname> or git help <commandname>.

CVS users may also want to read Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt (man gitcvs-migration or git help cvs-migration if git is installed).

The user discussion and development of Git take place on the Git mailing list -- everyone is welcome to post bug reports, feature requests, comments and patches to git@vger.kernel.org (read Documentation/SubmittingPatches for instructions on patch submission). To subscribe to the list, send an email with just “subscribe git” in the body to majordomo@vger.kernel.org. The mailing list archives are available at https://lore.kernel.org/git/, http://marc.info/?l=git and other archival sites.

Issues which are security relevant should be disclosed privately to the Git Security mailing list git-security@googlegroups.com.

The maintainer frequently sends the “What's cooking” reports that list the current status of various development topics to the mailing list. The discussion following them give a good reference for project status, development direction and remaining tasks.

The name “git” was given by Linus Torvalds when he wrote the very first version. He described the tool as “the stupid content tracker” and the name as (depending on your mood):

  • random three-letter combination that is pronounceable, and not actually used by any common UNIX command. The fact that it is a mispronunciation of “get” may or may not be relevant.
  • stupid. contemptible and despicable. simple. Take your pick from the dictionary of slang.
  • “global information tracker”: you're in a good mood, and it actually works for you. Angels sing, and a light suddenly fills the room.
  • “goddamn idiotic truckload of sh*t”: when it breaks