Merge branch 'maint'

* maint:
  More topics for 2.8.4
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index 5087ce1..05cb58a 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -179,39 +179,6 @@
 /gitweb/gitweb.cgi
 /gitweb/static/gitweb.js
 /gitweb/static/gitweb.min.*
-/test-chmtime
-/test-ctype
-/test-config
-/test-date
-/test-delta
-/test-dump-cache-tree
-/test-dump-split-index
-/test-dump-untracked-cache
-/test-fake-ssh
-/test-scrap-cache-tree
-/test-genrandom
-/test-hashmap
-/test-index-version
-/test-line-buffer
-/test-match-trees
-/test-mergesort
-/test-mktemp
-/test-parse-options
-/test-path-utils
-/test-prio-queue
-/test-read-cache
-/test-regex
-/test-revision-walking
-/test-run-command
-/test-sha1
-/test-sha1-array
-/test-sigchain
-/test-string-list
-/test-submodule-config
-/test-subprocess
-/test-svn-fe
-/test-urlmatch-normalization
-/test-wildmatch
 /common-cmds.h
 *.tar.gz
 *.dsc
diff --git a/.travis.yml b/.travis.yml
index adab5b8..c20ec54 100644
--- a/.travis.yml
+++ b/.travis.yml
@@ -18,6 +18,7 @@
   apt:
     packages:
     - language-pack-is
+    - git-svn
 
 env:
   global:
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index 3e39e28..f6e288b 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -204,6 +204,7 @@
 	QUIET_DBLATEX	= @echo '   ' DBLATEX $@;
 	QUIET_XSLTPROC	= @echo '   ' XSLTPROC $@;
 	QUIET_GEN	= @echo '   ' GEN $@;
+	QUIET_LINT	= @echo '   ' LINT $@;
 	QUIET_STDERR	= 2> /dev/null
 	QUIET_SUBDIR0	= +@subdir=
 	QUIET_SUBDIR1	= ;$(NO_SUBDIR) echo '   ' SUBDIR $$subdir; \
@@ -427,4 +428,7 @@
 print-man1:
 	@for i in $(MAN1_TXT); do echo $$i; done
 
+lint-docs::
+	$(QUIET_LINT)$(PERL_PATH) lint-gitlink.perl
+
 .PHONY: FORCE
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1bfcce0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,499 @@
+Git 2.9 Release Notes
+=====================
+
+Backward compatibility note
+---------------------------
+
+The end-user facing Porcelain level commands in the "git diff" and
+"git log" by default enables the rename detection; you can still use
+"diff.renames" configuration variable to disable this.
+
+Merging two branches that have no common ancestor with "git merge" is
+by default forbidden now to prevent creating such an unusual merge by
+mistake.
+
+The output formats of "git log" that indents the commit log message by
+4 spaces now expands HT in the log message by default.  You can use
+the "--no-expand-tabs" option to disable this.
+
+"git commit-tree" plumbing command required the user to always sign
+its result when the user sets the commit.gpgsign configuration
+variable, which was an ancient mistake, which this release corrects.
+A script that drives commit-tree, if it relies on this mistake, now
+needs to read commit.gpgsign and pass the -S option as necessary.
+
+
+Updates since v2.8
+------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * Comes with git-multimail 1.3.1 (in contrib/).
+
+ * The end-user facing Porcelain level commands like "diff" and "log"
+   now enables the rename detection by default.
+
+ * The credential.helper configuration variable is cumulative and
+   there is no good way to override it from the command line.  As
+   a special case, giving an empty string as its value now serves
+   as the signal to clear the values specified in various files.
+
+ * A new "interactive.diffFilter" configuration can be used to
+   customize the diff shown in "git add -i" session.
+
+ * "git p4" now allows P4 author names to be mapped to Git author
+   names.
+
+ * "git rebase -x" can be used without passing "-i" option.
+
+ * "git -c credential.<var>=<value> submodule" can now be used to
+   propagate configuration variables related to credential helper
+   down to the submodules.
+
+ * "git tag" can create an annotated tag without explicitly given an
+   "-a" (or "-s") option (i.e. when a tag message is given).  A new
+   configuration variable, tag.forceSignAnnotated, can be used to tell
+   the command to create signed tag in such a situation.
+
+ * "git merge" used to allow merging two branches that have no common
+   base by default, which led to a brand new history of an existing
+   project created and then get pulled by an unsuspecting maintainer,
+   which allowed an unnecessary parallel history merged into the
+   existing project.  The command has been taught not to allow this by
+   default, with an escape hatch "--allow-unrelated-histories" option
+   to be used in a rare event that merges histories of two projects
+   that started their lives independently.
+
+ * "git pull" has been taught to pass --allow-unrelated-histories
+   option to underlying "git merge".
+
+ * "git apply -v" learned to report paths in the patch that were
+   skipped via --include/--exclude mechanism or being outside the
+   current working directory.
+
+ * Shell completion (in contrib/) updates.
+
+ * The commit object name reported when "rebase -i" stops has been
+   shortened.
+
+ * "git worktree add" can be given "--no-checkout" option to only
+   create an empty worktree without checking out the files.
+
+ * "git mergetools" learned to drive ExamDiff.
+
+ * "git pull --rebase" learned "--[no-]autostash" option, so that
+   the rebase.autostash configuration variable set to true can be
+   overridden from the command line.
+
+ * When "git log" shows the log message indented by 4-spaces, the
+   remainder of a line after a HT does not align in the way the author
+   originally intended.  The command now expands tabs by default in
+   such a case, and allows the users to override it with a new option,
+   "--no-expand-tabs".
+
+ * "git send-email" now uses a more readable timestamps when
+   formulating a message ID.
+
+ * "git rerere" can encounter two or more files with the same conflict
+   signature that have to be resolved in different ways, but there was
+   no way to record these separate resolutions.
+   (merge d9d501b068 jc/rerere-multi later to maint).
+
+ * "git p4" learned to record P4 jobs in Git commit that imports from
+   the history in Perforce.
+
+ * "git describe --contains" often made a hard-to-justify choice of
+   tag to give name to a given commit, because it tried to come up
+   with a name with smallest number of hops from a tag, causing an old
+   commit whose close descendant that is recently tagged were not
+   described with respect to an old tag but with a newer tag.  It did
+   not help that its computation of "hop" count was further tweaked to
+   penalize being on a side branch of a merge.  The logic has been
+   updated to favor using the tag with the oldest tagger date, which
+   is a lot easier to explain to the end users: "We describe a commit
+   in terms of the (chronologically) oldest tag that contains the
+   commit."
+   (merge 7550424 js/name-rev-use-oldest-ref later to maint).
+
+ * "git clone" learned "--shallow-submodules" option.
+
+ * HTTP transport clients learned to throw extra HTTP headers at the
+   server, specified via http.extraHeader configuration variable.
+
+ * Patch output from "git diff" and friends has been tweaked to be
+   more readable by using a blank line as a strong hint that the
+   contents before and after it belong to a logically separate unit.
+
+ * A new configuration variable core.hooksPath allows customizing
+   where the hook directory is.
+
+ * An earlier addition of "sanitize_submodule_env" with 14111fc4 (git:
+   submodule honor -c credential.* from command line, 2016-02-29)
+   turned out to be a convoluted no-op; implement what it wanted to do
+   correctly, and stop filtering settings given via "git -c var=val".
+
+ * "git commit --dry-run" reported "No, no, you cannot commit." in one
+   case where "git commit" would have allowed you to commit, and this
+   improves it a little bit ("git commit --dry-run --short" still does
+   not give you the correct answer, for example).  This is a stop-gap
+   measure in that "commit --short --dry-run" still gives an incorrect
+   result.
+
+ * The experimental "multiple worktree" feature gains more safety to
+   forbid operations on a branch that is checked out or being actively
+   worked on elsewhere, by noticing that e.g. it is being rebased.
+
+ * "git format-patch" learned a new "--base" option to record what
+   (public, well-known) commit the original series was built on in
+   its output.
+
+ * "git commit" learned to pay attention to "commit.verbose"
+   configuration variable and act as if "--verbose" option was
+   given from the command line.
+
+ * Give hints to GMail users with two-factor auth enabled that
+   they need app-specific-password when using send-email.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * The embedded args argv-array in the child process is used to build
+   the command line to run pack-objects instead of using a separate
+   array of strings.
+
+ * A test for tags has been restructured so that more parts of it can
+   easily be run on a platform without a working GnuPG.
+
+ * The startup_info data, which records if we are working inside a
+   repository (among other things), are now uniformly available to Git
+   subcommand implementations, and Git avoids attempting to touch
+   references when we are not in a repository.
+
+ * The command line argument parser for "receive-pack" has been
+   rewritten to use parse-options.
+
+ * A major part of "git submodule update" has been ported to C to take
+   advantage of the recently added framework to run download tasks in
+   parallel.
+
+ * Rename bunch of tests on "git clone" for better organization.
+
+ * The tests that involve running httpd leaked the system-wide
+   configuration in /etc/gitconfig to the tested environment.
+
+ * Build updates for MSVC.
+
+ * The repository set-up sequence has been streamlined (the biggest
+   change is that there is no longer git_config_early()), so that we
+   do not attempt to look into refs/* when we know we do not have a
+   Git repository.
+
+ * Code restructuring around the "refs" area to prepare for pluggable
+   refs backends.
+
+ * Sources to many test helper binaries (and the generated helpers)
+   have been moved to t/helper/ subdirectory to reduce clutter at the
+   top level of the tree.
+
+ * Unify internal logic between "git tag -v" and "git verify-tag"
+   commands by making one directly call into the other.
+   (merge bef234b st/verify-tag later to maint).
+
+ * "merge-recursive" strategy incorrectly checked if a path that is
+   involved in its internal merge exists in the working tree.
+
+ * The test scripts for "git p4" (but not "git p4" implementation
+   itself) has been updated so that they would work even on a system
+   where the installed version of Python is python 3.
+
+ * As nobody maintains our in-tree git.spec.in and distros use their
+   own spec file, we stopped pretending that we support "make rpm".
+
+ * Move from unsigned char[20] to struct object_id continues.
+
+ * Update of "git submodule" to move pieces of logic to C continues.
+
+ * The code for warning_errno/die_errno has been refactored and a new
+   error_errno() reporting helper is introduced.
+   (merge 1da045f nd/error-errno later to maint).
+
+ * Running tests with '-x' option to trace the individual command
+   executions is a useful way to debug test scripts, but some tests
+   that capture the standard error stream and check what the command
+   said can be broken with the trace output mixed in.  When running
+   our tests under "bash", however, we can redirect the trace output
+   to another file descriptor to keep the standard error of programs
+   being tested intact.
+   (merge d88785e jk/test-send-sh-x-trace-elsewhere later to maint).
+
+ * t0040 had too many unnecessary repetitions in its test data.  Teach
+   test-parse-options program so that a caller can tell what it
+   expects in its output, so that these repetitions can be cleaned up.
+
+ * Add perf test for "rebase -i"
+
+ * Common mistakes when writing gitlink: in our documentation are
+   found by "make check-docs".
+
+ * t9xxx series has been updated primarily for readability, while
+   fixing small bugs in it.  A few scripted Porcelains have also been
+   updated to fix possible bugs around their use of "test -z" and
+   "test -n".
+
+ * CI test was taught to run git-svn tests.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.8
+----------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.8 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'
+notes for details).
+
+ * "git config --get-urlmatch", unlike other variants of the "git
+   config --get" family, did not signal error with its exit status
+   when there was no matching configuration.
+
+ * The "--local-env-vars" and "--resolve-git-dir" options of "git
+   rev-parse" failed to work outside a repository when the command's
+   option parsing was rewritten in 1.8.5 era.
+
+ * "git index-pack --keep[=<msg>] pack-$name.pack" simply did not work.
+
+ * Fetching of history by naming a commit object name directly didn't
+   work across remote-curl transport.
+
+ * A small memory leak in an error codepath has been plugged in xdiff
+   code.
+
+ * strbuf_getwholeline() did not NUL-terminate the buffer on certain
+   corner cases in its error codepath.
+
+ * "git mergetool" did not work well with conflicts that both sides
+   deleted.
+
+ * "git send-email" had trouble parsing alias file in mailrc format
+   when lines in it had trailing whitespaces on them.
+
+ * When "git merge --squash" stopped due to conflict, the concluding
+   "git commit" failed to read in the SQUASH_MSG that shows the log
+   messages from all the squashed commits.
+
+ * "git merge FETCH_HEAD" dereferenced NULL pointer when merging
+   nothing into an unborn history (which is arguably unusual usage,
+   which perhaps was the reason why nobody noticed it).
+
+ * When "git worktree" feature is in use, "git branch -d" allowed
+   deletion of a branch that is checked out in another worktree,
+   which was wrong.
+
+ * When "git worktree" feature is in use, "git branch -m" renamed a
+   branch that is checked out in another worktree without adjusting
+   the HEAD symbolic ref for the worktree.
+
+ * "git diff -M" used to work better when two originally identical
+   files A and B got renamed to X/A and X/B by pairing A to X/A and B
+   to X/B, but this was broken in the 2.0 timeframe.
+
+ * "git send-pack --all <there>" was broken when its command line
+   option parsing was written in the 2.6 timeframe.
+
+ * "git format-patch --help" showed `-s` and `--no-patch` as if these
+   are valid options to the command.  We already hide `--patch` option
+   from the documentation, because format-patch is about showing the
+   diff, and the documentation now hides these options as well.
+
+ * When running "git blame $path" with unnormalized data in the index
+   for the path, the data in the working tree was blamed, even though
+   "git add" would not have changed what is already in the index, due
+   to "safe crlf" that disables the line-end conversion.  It has been
+   corrected.
+
+ * A change back in version 2.7 to "git branch" broke display of a
+   symbolic ref in a non-standard place in the refs/ hierarchy (we
+   expect symbolic refs to appear in refs/remotes/*/HEAD to point at
+   the primary branch the remote has, and as .git/HEAD to point at the
+   branch we locally checked out).
+
+ * A partial rewrite of "git submodule" in the 2.7 timeframe changed
+   the way the gitdir: pointer in the submodules point at the real
+   repository location to use absolute paths by accident.  This has
+   been corrected.
+
+ * "git commit" misbehaved in a few minor ways when an empty message
+   is given via -m '', all of which has been corrected.
+
+ * Support for CRAM-MD5 authentication method in "git imap-send" did
+   not work well.
+
+ * Upcoming OpenSSL 1.1.0 will break compilation b updating a few APIs
+   we use in imap-send, which has been adjusted for the change.
+
+ * The socks5:// proxy support added back in 2.6.4 days was not aware
+   that socks5h:// proxies behave differently.
+
+ * "git config" had a codepath that tried to pass a NULL to
+   printf("%s"), which nobody seems to have noticed.
+
+ * On Cygwin, object creation uses the "create a temporary and then
+   rename it to the final name" pattern, not "create a temporary,
+   hardlink it to the final name and then unlink the temporary"
+   pattern.
+
+   This is necessary to use Git on Windows shared directories, and is
+   already enabled for the MinGW and plain Windows builds.  It also
+   has been used in Cygwin packaged versions of Git for quite a while.
+   See http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/291853
+
+ * "merge-octopus" strategy did not ensure that the index is clean
+   when merge begins.
+
+ * When "git merge" notices that the merge can be resolved purely at
+   the tree level (without having to merge blobs) and the resulting
+   tree happens to already exist in the object store, it forgot to
+   update the index, which lead to an inconsistent state for later
+   operations.
+
+ * "git submodule" reports the paths of submodules the command
+   recurses into, but this was incorrect when the command was not run
+   from the root level of the superproject.
+
+ * The "user.useConfigOnly" configuration variable makes it an error
+   if users do not explicitly set user.name and user.email.  However,
+   its check was not done early enough and allowed another error to
+   trigger, reporting that the default value we guessed from the
+   system setting was unusable.  This was a suboptimal end-user
+   experience as we want the users to set user.name/user.email without
+   relying on the auto-detection at all.
+
+ * "git mv old new" did not adjust the path for a submodule that lives
+   as a subdirectory inside old/ directory correctly.
+
+ * "git replace -e" did not honour "core.editor" configuration.
+
+ * "git push" from a corrupt repository that attempts to push a large
+   number of refs deadlocked; the thread to relay rejection notices
+   for these ref updates blocked on writing them to the main thread,
+   after the main thread at the receiving end notices that the push
+   failed and decides not to read these notices and return a failure.
+
+ * mmap emulation on Windows has been optimized and work better without
+   consuming paging store when not needed.
+
+ * A question by "git send-email" to ask the identity of the sender
+   has been updated.
+
+ * UI consistency improvements for "git mergetool".
+
+ * "git rebase -m" could be asked to rebase an entire branch starting
+   from the root, but failed by assuming that there always is a parent
+   commit to the first commit on the branch.
+   (merge 79f4344 bw/rebase-merge-entire-branch later to maint).
+
+ * Fix a broken "p4 lfs" test.
+
+ * Recent update to Git LFS broke "git p4" by changing the output from
+   its "lfs pointer" subcommand.
+
+ * "git fetch" test t5510 was flaky while running a (forced) automagic
+   garbage collection.
+
+ * Documentation updates to help contributors setting up Travis CI
+   test for their patches.
+
+ * Some multi-byte encoding can have a backslash byte as a later part
+   of one letter, which would confuse "highlight" filter used in
+   gitweb.
+
+ * "git commit-tree" plumbing command required the user to always sign
+   its result when the user sets the commit.gpgsign configuration
+   variable, which was an ancient mistake.  Rework "git rebase" that
+   relied on this mistake so that it reads commit.gpgsign and pass (or
+   not pass) the -S option to "git commit-tree" to keep the end-user
+   expectation the same, while teaching "git commit-tree" to ignore
+   the configuration variable.  This will stop requiring the users to
+   sign commit objects used internally as an implementation detail of
+   "git stash".
+   (merge 6694856 jc/commit-tree-ignore-commit-gpgsign later to maint).
+
+ * "http.cookieFile" configuration variable clearly wants a pathname,
+   but we forgot to treat it as such by e.g. applying tilde expansion.
+   (merge e5a39ad bn/http-cookiefile-config later to maint).
+
+ * Consolidate description of tilde-expansion that is done to
+   configuration variables that take pathname to a single place.
+   (merge dca83ab jc/config-pathname-type later to maint).
+
+ * Correct faulty recommendation to use "git submodule deinit ." when
+   de-initialising all submodules, which would result in a strange
+   error message in a pathological corner case.
+   (merge f6a5279 sb/submodule-deinit-all later to maint).
+
+ * Many 'linkgit:<git documentation page>' references were broken,
+   which are all fixed with this.
+   (merge 1cca17d jc/linkgit-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git rerere" can get confused by conflict markers deliberately left
+   by the inner merge step, because they are indistinguishable from
+   the real conflict markers left by the outermost merge which are
+   what the end user and "rerere" need to look at.  This was fixed by
+   making the conflict markers left by the inner merges a bit longer.
+   (merge 0f9fd5c jc/ll-merge-internal later to maint).
+
+ * CI test was taught to build documentation pages.
+   (merge b98712b ls/travis-build-doc later to maint).
+
+ * "git fsck" learned to catch NUL byte in a commit object as
+   potential error and warn.
+   (merge 6d2d780 jc/fsck-nul-in-commit later to maint).
+
+ * Portability enhancement for "rebase -i" to help platforms whose
+   shell does not like "for i in <empty>" (which is not POSIX-kosher).
+   (merge 8e98b35 jk/rebase-interative-eval-fix later to maint).
+
+ * On Windows, .git and optionally any files whose name starts with a
+   dot are now marked as hidden, with a core.hideDotFiles knob to
+   customize this behaviour.
+   (merge ebf31e7 js/windows-dotgit later to maint).
+
+ * Documentation for "git merge --verify-signatures" has been updated
+   to clarify that the signature of only the commit at the tip is
+   verified.  Also the phrasing used for signature and key validity is
+   adjusted to align with that used by OpenPGP.
+   (merge 05a5869 kf/gpg-sig-verification-doc later to maint).
+
+ * A couple of bugs around core.autocrlf have been fixed.
+   (merge caa47ad tb/core-eol-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Many commands normalize command line arguments from NFD to NFC
+   variant of UTF-8 on OSX, but commands in the "diff" family did
+   not, causing "git diff $path" to complain that no such path is
+   known to Git.  They have been taught to do the normalization.
+   (merge 90a78b8 ar/diff-args-osx-precompose later to maint).
+
+ * "git difftool" learned to handle unmerged paths correctly in
+   dir-diff mode.
+   (merge 366f9ce da/difftool later to maint).
+
+ * The "are we talking with TTY, doing an interactive session?"
+   detection has been updated to work better for "Git for Windows".
+   (merge f7f90e0 kb/msys2-tty later to maint).
+
+ * We forgot to add "git log --decorate=auto" to documentation when we
+   added the feature back in v2.1.0 timeframe.
+   (merge 462cbb4 rj/log-decorate-auto later to maint).
+
+ * Other minor clean-ups and documentation updates
+   (merge 832c0e5 lp/typofixes later to maint).
+   (merge f5ee54a sb/z-is-gnutar-ism later to maint).
+   (merge 2e3926b va/i18n-misc-updates later to maint).
+   (merge f212dcc bn/config-doc-tt-varnames later to maint).
+   (merge f54bea4 nd/remote-plural-ours-plus-theirs later to maint).
+   (merge 2bb0518 ak/t4151-ls-files-could-be-empty later to maint).
+   (merge 4df4313 jc/test-seq later to maint).
+   (merge a75a308 tb/t5601-sed-fix later to maint).
+   (merge 6c1fbe1 va/i18n-remote-comment-to-align later to maint).
+   (merge dee2303 va/mailinfo-doc-typofix later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index b945d67..2e1b2e4 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -353,9 +353,9 @@
 
 core.eol::
 	Sets the line ending type to use in the working directory for
-	files that have the `text` property set.  Alternatives are
-	'lf', 'crlf' and 'native', which uses the platform's native
-	line ending.  The default value is `native`.  See
+	files that have the `text` property set when core.autocrlf is false.
+	Alternatives are 'lf', 'crlf' and 'native', which uses the platform's
+	native line ending.  The default value is `native`.  See
 	linkgit:gitattributes[5] for more information on end-of-line
 	conversion.
 
@@ -633,6 +633,23 @@
 	`$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/attributes`. If `$XDG_CONFIG_HOME` is either not
 	set or empty, `$HOME/.config/git/attributes` is used instead.
 
+core.hooksPath::
+	By default Git will look for your hooks in the
+	'$GIT_DIR/hooks' directory. Set this to different path,
+	e.g. '/etc/git/hooks', and Git will try to find your hooks in
+	that directory, e.g. '/etc/git/hooks/pre-receive' instead of
+	in '$GIT_DIR/hooks/pre-receive'.
++
+The path can be either absolute or relative. A relative path is
+taken as relative to the directory where the hooks are run (see
+the "DESCRIPTION" section of linkgit:githooks[5]).
++
+This configuration variable is useful in cases where you'd like to
+centrally configure your Git hooks instead of configuring them on a
+per-repository basis, or as a more flexible and centralized
+alternative to having an `init.templateDir` where you've changed
+default hooks.
+
 core.editor::
 	Commands such as `commit` and `tag` that lets you edit
 	messages by launching an editor uses the value of this
@@ -1124,11 +1141,16 @@
 	Specify the pathname of a file to use as the template for
 	new commit messages.
 
+commit.verbose::
+	A boolean or int to specify the level of verbose with `git commit`.
+	See linkgit:git-commit[1].
+
 credential.helper::
 	Specify an external helper to be called when a username or
 	password credential is needed; the helper may consult external
-	storage to avoid prompting the user for the credentials. See
-	linkgit:gitcredentials[7] for details.
+	storage to avoid prompting the user for the credentials. Note
+	that multiple helpers may be defined. See linkgit:gitcredentials[7]
+	for details.
 
 credential.useHttpPath::
 	When acquiring credentials, consider the "path" component of an http
@@ -1272,6 +1294,10 @@
 	Set a custom directory to store the resulting files instead of the
 	current working directory.
 
+format.useAutoBase::
+	A boolean value which lets you enable the `--base=auto` option of
+	format-patch by default.
+
 filter.<driver>.clean::
 	The command which is used to convert the content of a worktree
 	file to a blob upon checkin.  See linkgit:gitattributes[5] for
@@ -1668,6 +1694,12 @@
 	a username in the URL, as libcurl normally requires a username for
 	authentication.
 
+http.extraHeader::
+	Pass an additional HTTP header when communicating with a server.  If
+	more than one such entry exists, all of them are added as extra
+	headers.  To allow overriding the settings inherited from the system
+	config, an empty value will reset the extra headers to the empty list.
+
 http.cookieFile::
 	The pathname of a file containing previously stored cookie lines,
 	which should be used
@@ -1901,6 +1933,14 @@
 	setting is silently ignored if portable keystroke input
 	is not available; requires the Perl module Term::ReadKey.
 
+interactive.diffFilter::
+	When an interactive command (such as `git add --patch`) shows
+	a colorized diff, git will pipe the diff through the shell
+	command defined by this configuration variable. The command may
+	mark up the diff further for human consumption, provided that it
+	retains a one-to-one correspondence with the lines in the
+	original diff. Defaults to disabled (no filtering).
+
 log.abbrevCommit::
 	If true, makes linkgit:git-log[1], linkgit:git-show[1], and
 	linkgit:git-whatchanged[1] assume `--abbrev-commit`. You may
@@ -1916,7 +1956,10 @@
 	command. If 'short' is specified, the ref name prefixes 'refs/heads/',
 	'refs/tags/' and 'refs/remotes/' will not be printed. If 'full' is
 	specified, the full ref name (including prefix) will be printed.
-	This is the same as the log commands '--decorate' option.
+	If 'auto' is specified, then if the output is going to a terminal,
+	the ref names are shown as if 'short' were given, otherwise no ref
+	names are shown. This is the same as the '--decorate' option
+	of the `git log`.
 
 log.follow::
 	If `true`, `git log` will act as if the `--follow` option was used when
@@ -2748,6 +2791,17 @@
 	"--ignore-submodules" option. The 'git submodule' commands are not
 	affected by this setting.
 
+submodule.fetchJobs::
+	Specifies how many submodules are fetched/cloned at the same time.
+	A positive integer allows up to that number of submodules fetched
+	in parallel. A value of 0 will give some reasonable default.
+	If unset, it defaults to 1.
+
+tag.forceSignAnnotated::
+	A boolean to specify whether annotated tags created should be GPG signed.
+	If `--annotate` is specified on the command line, it takes
+	precedence over this option.
+
 tag.sort::
 	This variable controls the sort ordering of tags when displayed by
 	linkgit:git-tag[1]. Without the "--sort=<value>" option provided, the
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-config.txt b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
index 6eaa452..edba565 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
@@ -108,9 +108,13 @@
 	detection; equivalent to the 'git diff' option '-l'.
 
 diff.renames::
-	Tells Git to detect renames.  If set to any boolean value, it
-	will enable basic rename detection.  If set to "copies" or
-	"copy", it will detect copies, as well.
+	Whether and how Git detects renames.  If set to "false",
+	rename detection is disabled. If set to "true", basic rename
+	detection is enabled.  If set to "copies" or "copy", Git will
+	detect copies, as well.  Defaults to true.  Note that this
+	affects only 'git diff' Porcelain like linkgit:git-diff[1] and
+	linkgit:git-log[1], and not lower level commands such as
+	linkgit:git-diff-files[1].
 
 diff.suppressBlankEmpty::
 	A boolean to inhibit the standard behavior of printing a space
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index b7c467a..1b15cd7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -14,8 +14,8 @@
 	  [-o <name>] [-b <name>] [-u <upload-pack>] [--reference <repository>]
 	  [--dissociate] [--separate-git-dir <git dir>]
 	  [--depth <depth>] [--[no-]single-branch]
-	  [--recursive | --recurse-submodules] [--] <repository>
-	  [<directory>]
+	  [--recursive | --recurse-submodules] [--[no-]shallow-submodules]
+	  [--jobs <n>] [--] <repository> [<directory>]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -191,7 +191,9 @@
 	Create a 'shallow' clone with a history truncated to the
 	specified number of commits. Implies `--single-branch` unless
 	`--no-single-branch` is given to fetch the histories near the
-	tips of all branches.
+	tips of all branches. This implies `--shallow-submodules`. If
+	you want to have a shallow superproject clone, but full submodules,
+	also pass `--no-shallow-submodules`.
 
 --[no-]single-branch::
 	Clone only the history leading to the tip of a single branch,
@@ -212,6 +214,9 @@
 	repository does not have a worktree/checkout (i.e. if any of
 	`--no-checkout`/`-n`, `--bare`, or `--mirror` is given)
 
+--[no-]shallow-submodules::
+	All submodules which are cloned will be shallow with a depth of 1.
+
 --separate-git-dir=<git dir>::
 	Instead of placing the cloned repository where it is supposed
 	to be, place the cloned repository at the specified directory,
@@ -219,6 +224,10 @@
 	The result is Git repository can be separated from working
 	tree.
 
+-j <n>::
+--jobs <n>::
+	The number of submodules fetched at the same time.
+	Defaults to the `submodule.fetchJobs` option.
 
 <repository>::
 	The (possibly remote) repository to clone from.  See the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
index 48c33d7..cb69faa 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
@@ -61,8 +61,8 @@
 	stuck to the option without a space.
 
 --no-gpg-sign::
-	Countermand `commit.gpgSign` configuration variable that is
-	set to force each and every commit to be signed.
+	Do not GPG-sign commit, to countermand a `--gpg-sign` option
+	given earlier on the command line.
 
 
 Commit Information
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 9ec6b3c..d474226 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -290,7 +290,8 @@
 	what changes the commit has.
 	Note that this diff output doesn't have its
 	lines prefixed with '#'. This diff will not be a part
-	of the commit message.
+	of the commit message. See the `commit.verbose` configuration
+	variable in linkgit:git-config[1].
 +
 If specified twice, show in addition the unified diff between
 what would be committed and the worktree files, i.e. the unstaged
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index 6821441..bdeecd5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -265,6 +265,11 @@
   Output an all-zero hash in each patch's From header instead
   of the hash of the commit.
 
+--base=<commit>::
+	Record the base tree information to identify the state the
+	patch series applies to.  See the BASE TREE INFORMATION section
+	below for details.
+
 --root::
 	Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it
 	is just a single commit (that would normally be treated as a
@@ -520,6 +525,61 @@
 5. Back in the compose window: add whatever other text you wish to the
    message, complete the addressing and subject fields, and press send.
 
+BASE TREE INFORMATION
+---------------------
+
+The base tree information block is used for maintainers or third party
+testers to know the exact state the patch series applies to. It consists
+of the 'base commit', which is a well-known commit that is part of the
+stable part of the project history everybody else works off of, and zero
+or more 'prerequisite patches', which are well-known patches in flight
+that is not yet part of the 'base commit' that need to be applied on top
+of 'base commit' in topological order before the patches can be applied.
+
+The 'base commit' is shown as "base-commit: " followed by the 40-hex of
+the commit object name.  A 'prerequisite patch' is shown as
+"prerequisite-patch-id: " followed by the 40-hex 'patch id', which can
+be obtained by passing the patch through the `git patch-id --stable`
+command.
+
+Imagine that on top of the public commit P, you applied well-known
+patches X, Y and Z from somebody else, and then built your three-patch
+series A, B, C, the history would be like:
+
+................................................
+---P---X---Y---Z---A---B---C
+................................................
+
+With `git format-patch --base=P -3 C` (or variants thereof, e.g. with
+`--cover-letter` of using `Z..C` instead of `-3 C` to specify the
+range), the base tree information block is shown at the end of the
+first message the command outputs (either the first patch, or the
+cover letter), like this:
+
+------------
+base-commit: P
+prerequisite-patch-id: X
+prerequisite-patch-id: Y
+prerequisite-patch-id: Z
+------------
+
+For non-linear topology, such as
+
+................................................
+---P---X---A---M---C
+    \         /
+     Y---Z---B
+................................................
+
+You can also use `git format-patch --base=P -3 C` to generate patches
+for A, B and C, and the identifiers for P, X, Y, Z are appended at the
+end of the first message.
+
+If set `--base=auto` in cmdline, it will track base commit automatically,
+the base commit will be the merge base of tip commit of the remote-tracking
+branch and revision-range specified in cmdline.
+For a local branch, you need to track a remote branch by `git branch
+--set-upstream-to` before using this option.
 
 EXAMPLES
 --------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-init.txt b/Documentation/git-init.txt
index 8174d27..6364e5d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-init.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-init.txt
@@ -130,7 +130,12 @@
  - the default template directory: `/usr/share/git-core/templates`.
 
 The default template directory includes some directory structure, suggested
-"exclude patterns" (see linkgit:gitignore[5]), and sample hook files (see linkgit:githooks[5]).
+"exclude patterns" (see linkgit:gitignore[5]), and sample hook files.
+
+The sample hooks are all disabled by default, To enable one of the
+sample hooks rename it by removing its `.sample` suffix.
+
+See linkgit:githooks[5] for more general info on hook execution.
 
 EXAMPLES
 --------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
index 03f9580..dec379b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -29,12 +29,14 @@
 	(works only for a single file).
 
 --no-decorate::
---decorate[=short|full|no]::
+--decorate[=short|full|auto|no]::
 	Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown. If 'short' is
 	specified, the ref name prefixes 'refs/heads/', 'refs/tags/' and
 	'refs/remotes/' will not be printed. If 'full' is specified, the
-	full ref name (including prefix) will be printed. The default option
-	is 'short'.
+	full ref name (including prefix) will be printed. If 'auto' is
+	specified, then if the output is going to a terminal, the ref names
+	are shown as if 'short' were given, otherwise no ref names are
+	shown. The default option is 'short'.
 
 --source::
 	Print out the ref name given on the command line by which each
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index 07f7295..b758d55 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -11,6 +11,7 @@
 [verse]
 'git merge' [-n] [--stat] [--no-commit] [--squash] [--[no-]edit]
 	[-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>] [-S[<keyid>]]
+	[--[no-]allow-unrelated-histories]
 	[--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [<commit>...]
 'git merge' <msg> HEAD <commit>...
 'git merge' --abort
diff --git a/Documentation/git-p4.txt b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
index 35e3170..88ba42b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-p4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
@@ -551,6 +551,17 @@
 	A changelist that contains only excluded files will be imported
 	as an empty commit if this boolean option is set to true.
 
+git-p4.mapUser::
+	Map a P4 user to a name and email address in Git. Use a string
+	with the following format to create a mapping:
++
+-------------
+git config --add git-p4.mapUser "p4user = First Last <mail@address.com>"
+-------------
++
+A mapping will override any user information from P4. Mappings for
+multiple P4 user can be defined.
+
 Submit variables
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 git-p4.detectRenames::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
index a62a2a6..d033b25 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pull.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
@@ -128,6 +128,15 @@
 --no-rebase::
 	Override earlier --rebase.
 
+--autostash::
+--no-autostash::
+	Before starting rebase, stash local modifications away (see
+	linkgit:git-stash[1]) if needed, and apply the stash when
+	done. `--no-autostash` is useful to override the `rebase.autoStash`
+	configuration variable (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
++
+This option is only valid when "--rebase" is used.
+
 Options related to fetching
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index 6ed610a..0387b40 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -391,9 +391,6 @@
 	final history. <cmd> will be interpreted as one or more shell
 	commands.
 +
-This option can only be used with the `--interactive` option
-(see INTERACTIVE MODE below).
-+
 You may execute several commands by either using one instance of `--exec`
 with several commands:
 +
@@ -406,6 +403,9 @@
 If `--autosquash` is used, "exec" lines will not be appended for
 the intermediate commits, and will only appear at the end of each
 squash/fixup series.
++
+This uses the `--interactive` machinery internally, but it can be run
+without an explicit `--interactive`.
 
 --root::
 	Rebase all commits reachable from <branch>, instead of
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index 771a7b5..edbba3a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -450,6 +450,19 @@
 		smtpUser = yourname@gmail.com
 		smtpServerPort = 587
 
+If you have multifactor authentication setup on your gmail acocunt, you will
+need to generate an app-specific password for use with 'git send-email'. Visit
+https://security.google.com/settings/security/apppasswords to setup an
+app-specific password.  Once setup, you can store it with the credentials
+helper:
+
+	$ git credential fill
+	protocol=smtp
+	host=smtp.gmail.com
+	username=youname@gmail.com
+	password=app-password
+
+
 Once your commits are ready to be sent to the mailing list, run the
 following commands:
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index ad85183..9226c43 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@
 'git submodule' [--quiet] deinit [-f|--force] (--all|[--] <path>...)
 'git submodule' [--quiet] update [--init] [--remote] [-N|--no-fetch]
 	      [-f|--force] [--rebase|--merge] [--reference <repository>]
-	      [--depth <depth>] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
+	      [--depth <depth>] [--recursive] [--jobs <n>] [--] [<path>...]
 'git submodule' [--quiet] summary [--cached|--files] [(-n|--summary-limit) <n>]
 	      [commit] [--] [<path>...]
 'git submodule' [--quiet] foreach [--recursive] <command>
@@ -384,6 +384,11 @@
 	clone with a history truncated to the specified number of revisions.
 	See linkgit:git-clone[1]
 
+-j <n>::
+--jobs <n>::
+	This option is only valid for the update command.
+	Clone new submodules in parallel with as many jobs.
+	Defaults to the `submodule.fetchJobs` option.
 
 <path>...::
 	Paths to submodule(s). When specified this will restrict the command
diff --git a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
index 62c76c1..c622345 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git worktree add' [-f] [--detach] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<branch>]
+'git worktree add' [-f] [--detach] [--checkout] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<branch>]
 'git worktree prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>]
 'git worktree list' [--porcelain]
 
@@ -87,6 +87,12 @@
 	With `add`, detach HEAD in the new working tree. See "DETACHED HEAD"
 	in linkgit:git-checkout[1].
 
+--[no-]checkout::
+	By default, `add` checks out `<branch>`, however, `--no-checkout` can
+	be used to suppress checkout in order to make customizations,
+	such as configuring sparse-checkout. See "Sparse checkout"
+	in linkgit:git-read-tree[1].
+
 -n::
 --dry-run::
 	With `prune`, do not remove anything; just report what it would
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt b/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
index 1c75be0..f3a75d1 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
@@ -106,6 +106,11 @@
 password, or nothing. Once Git has acquired both a username and a
 password, no more helpers will be tried.
 
+If `credential.helper` is configured to the empty string, this resets
+the helper list to empty (so you may override a helper set by a
+lower-priority config file by configuring the empty-string helper,
+followed by whatever set of helpers you would like).
+
 
 CREDENTIAL CONTEXTS
 -------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/githooks.txt b/Documentation/githooks.txt
index a2f59b1..d82e912 100644
--- a/Documentation/githooks.txt
+++ b/Documentation/githooks.txt
@@ -7,24 +7,35 @@
 
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
-$GIT_DIR/hooks/*
+$GIT_DIR/hooks/* (or \`git config core.hooksPath`/*)
 
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
 
-Hooks are little scripts you can place in `$GIT_DIR/hooks`
-directory to trigger action at certain points.  When
-'git init' is run, a handful of example hooks are copied into the
-`hooks` directory of the new repository, but by default they are
-all disabled.  To enable a hook, rename it by removing its `.sample`
-suffix.
+Hooks are programs you can place in a hooks directory to trigger
+actions at certain points in git's execution. Hooks that don't have
+the executable bit set are ignored.
 
-NOTE: It is also a requirement for a given hook to be executable.
-However - in a freshly initialized repository - the `.sample` files are
-executable by default.
+By default the hooks directory is `$GIT_DIR/hooks`, but that can be
+changed via the `core.hooksPath` configuration variable (see
+linkgit:git-config[1]).
 
-This document describes the currently defined hooks.
+Before Git invokes a hook, it changes its working directory to either
+the root of the working tree in a non-bare repository, or to the
+$GIT_DIR in a bare repository.
+
+Hooks can get their arguments via the environment, command-line
+arguments, and stdin. See the documentation for each hook below for
+details.
+
+'git init' may copy hooks to the new repository, depending on its
+configuration. See the "TEMPLATE DIRECTORY" section in
+linkgit:git-init[1] for details. When the rest of this document refers
+to "default hooks" it's talking about the default template shipped
+with Git.
+
+The currently supported hooks are described below.
 
 HOOKS
 -----
@@ -32,15 +43,15 @@
 applypatch-msg
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-This hook is invoked by 'git am' script.  It takes a single
+This hook is invoked by 'git am'.  It takes a single
 parameter, the name of the file that holds the proposed commit
-log message.  Exiting with non-zero status causes
-'git am' to abort before applying the patch.
+log message.  Exiting with a non-zero status causes 'git am' to abort
+before applying the patch.
 
 The hook is allowed to edit the message file in place, and can
 be used to normalize the message into some project standard
-format (if the project has one). It can also be used to refuse
-the commit after inspecting the message file.
+format. It can also be used to refuse the commit after inspecting
+the message file.
 
 The default 'applypatch-msg' hook, when enabled, runs the
 'commit-msg' hook, if the latter is enabled.
@@ -73,10 +84,10 @@
 ~~~~~~~~~~
 
 This hook is invoked by 'git commit', and can be bypassed
-with `--no-verify` option.  It takes no parameter, and is
+with the `--no-verify` option.  It takes no parameters, and is
 invoked before obtaining the proposed commit log message and
-making a commit.  Exiting with non-zero status from this script
-causes the 'git commit' to abort.
+making a commit.  Exiting with a non-zero status from this script
+causes the 'git commit' command to abort before creating a commit.
 
 The default 'pre-commit' hook, when enabled, catches introduction
 of lines with trailing whitespaces and aborts the commit when
@@ -115,15 +126,15 @@
 ~~~~~~~~~~
 
 This hook is invoked by 'git commit', and can be bypassed
-with `--no-verify` option.  It takes a single parameter, the
+with the `--no-verify` option.  It takes a single parameter, the
 name of the file that holds the proposed commit log message.
-Exiting with non-zero status causes the 'git commit' to
+Exiting with a non-zero status causes the 'git commit' to
 abort.
 
-The hook is allowed to edit the message file in place, and can
-be used to normalize the message into some project standard
-format (if the project has one). It can also be used to refuse
-the commit after inspecting the message file.
+The hook is allowed to edit the message file in place, and can be used
+to normalize the message into some project standard format. It
+can also be used to refuse the commit after inspecting the message
+file.
 
 The default 'commit-msg' hook, when enabled, detects duplicate
 "Signed-off-by" lines, and aborts the commit if one is found.
@@ -131,8 +142,8 @@
 post-commit
 ~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-This hook is invoked by 'git commit'.  It takes no
-parameter, and is invoked after a commit is made.
+This hook is invoked by 'git commit'. It takes no parameters, and is
+invoked after a commit is made.
 
 This hook is meant primarily for notification, and cannot affect
 the outcome of 'git commit'.
@@ -267,9 +278,11 @@
 firing one e-mail per ref when used naively, though.  The
 <<post-receive,'post-receive'>> hook is more suited to that.
 
-Another use suggested on the mailing list is to use this hook to
-implement access control which is finer grained than the one
-based on filesystem group.
+In an environment that restricts the users' access only to git
+commands over the wire, this hook can be used to implement access
+control without relying on filesystem ownership and group
+membership. See linkgit:git-shell[1] for how you might use the login
+shell to restrict the user's access to only git commands.
 
 Both standard output and standard error output are forwarded to
 'git send-pack' on the other end, so you can simply `echo` messages
diff --git a/Documentation/lint-gitlink.perl b/Documentation/lint-gitlink.perl
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..476cc30
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/lint-gitlink.perl
@@ -0,0 +1,71 @@
+#!/usr/bin/perl
+
+use File::Find;
+use Getopt::Long;
+
+my $basedir = ".";
+GetOptions("basedir=s" => \$basedir)
+	or die("Cannot parse command line arguments\n");
+
+my $found_errors = 0;
+
+sub report {
+	my ($where, $what, $error) = @_;
+	print "$where: $error: $what\n";
+	$found_errors = 1;
+}
+
+sub grab_section {
+	my ($page) = @_;
+	open my $fh, "<", "$basedir/$page.txt";
+	my $firstline = <$fh>;
+	chomp $firstline;
+	close $fh;
+	my ($section) = ($firstline =~ /.*\((\d)\)$/);
+	return $section;
+}
+
+sub lint {
+	my ($file) = @_;
+	open my $fh, "<", $file
+		or return;
+	while (<$fh>) {
+		my $where = "$file:$.";
+		while (s/linkgit:((.*?)\[(\d)\])//) {
+			my ($target, $page, $section) = ($1, $2, $3);
+
+			# De-AsciiDoc
+			$page =~ s/{litdd}/--/g;
+
+			if ($page !~ /^git/) {
+				report($where, $target, "nongit link");
+				next;
+			}
+			if (! -f "$basedir/$page.txt") {
+				report($where, $target, "no such source");
+				next;
+			}
+			$real_section = grab_section($page);
+			if ($real_section != $section) {
+				report($where, $target,
+					"wrong section (should be $real_section)");
+				next;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	close $fh;
+}
+
+sub lint_it {
+	lint($File::Find::name) if -f && /\.txt$/;
+}
+
+if (!@ARGV) {
+	find({ wanted => \&lint_it, no_chdir => 1 }, $basedir);
+} else {
+	for (@ARGV) {
+		lint($_);
+	}
+}
+
+exit $found_errors;
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-options.txt b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
index 30808a0..5b4a62e 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
@@ -117,3 +117,11 @@
 	reporting.
 
 endif::git-pull[]
+
+--allow-unrelated-histories::
+	By default, `git merge` command refuses to merge histories
+	that do not share a common ancestor.  This option can be
+	used to override this safety when merging histories of two
+	projects that started their lives independently. As that is
+	a very rare occasion, no configuration variable to enable
+	this by default exists and will not be added.
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
index 54b88b6..6c67182 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
@@ -42,6 +42,20 @@
 	verbatim; this means that invalid sequences in the original
 	commit may be copied to the output.
 
+--expand-tabs=<n>::
+--expand-tabs::
+--no-expand-tabs::
+	Perform a tab expansion (replace each tab with enough spaces
+	to fill to the next display column that is multiple of '<n>')
+	in the log message before showing it in the output.
+	`--expand-tabs` is a short-hand for `--expand-tabs=8`, and
+	`--no-expand-tabs` is a short-hand for `--expand-tabs=0`,
+	which disables tab expansion.
++
+By default, tabs are expanded in pretty formats that indent the log
+message by 4 spaces (i.e.  'medium', which is the default, 'full',
+and 'fuller').
+
 ifndef::git-rev-list[]
 --notes[=<treeish>]::
 	Show the notes (see linkgit:git-notes[1]) that annotate the
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
index 695bd4b..27bd701 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
@@ -144,8 +144,12 @@
 
 `OPT_COUNTUP(short, long, &int_var, description)`::
 	Introduce a count-up option.
-	`int_var` is incremented on each use of `--option`, and
-	reset to zero with `--no-option`.
+	Each use of `--option` increments `int_var`, starting from zero
+	(even if initially negative), and `--no-option` resets it to
+	zero. To determine if `--option` or `--no-option` was encountered at
+	all, initialize `int_var` to a negative value, and if it is still
+	negative after parse_options(), then neither `--option` nor
+	`--no-option` was seen.
 
 `OPT_BIT(short, long, &int_var, description, mask)`::
 	Introduce a boolean option.
diff --git a/GIT-VERSION-GEN b/GIT-VERSION-GEN
index 596965a..e3d0bed 100755
--- a/GIT-VERSION-GEN
+++ b/GIT-VERSION-GEN
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
 #!/bin/sh
 
 GVF=GIT-VERSION-FILE
-DEF_VER=v2.8.3
+DEF_VER=v2.9.0-rc0
 
 LF='
 '
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index e11e626..0d59718 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -440,7 +440,6 @@
 TAR = tar
 FIND = find
 INSTALL = install
-RPMBUILD = rpmbuild
 TCL_PATH = tclsh
 TCLTK_PATH = wish
 XGETTEXT = xgettext
@@ -621,7 +620,7 @@
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-urlmatch-normalization
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-wildmatch
 
-TEST_PROGRAMS = $(patsubst %,%$X,$(TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X))
+TEST_PROGRAMS = $(patsubst %,t/helper/%$X,$(TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X))
 
 # List built-in command $C whose implementation cmd_$C() is not in
 # builtin/$C.o but is linked in as part of some other command.
@@ -1898,7 +1897,7 @@
 VCSSVN_OBJS += vcs-svn/svndiff.o
 VCSSVN_OBJS += vcs-svn/svndump.o
 
-TEST_OBJS := $(patsubst test-%$X,test-%.o,$(TEST_PROGRAMS))
+TEST_OBJS := $(patsubst %$X,%.o,$(TEST_PROGRAMS))
 OBJECTS := $(LIB_OBJS) $(BUILTIN_OBJS) $(PROGRAM_OBJS) $(TEST_OBJS) \
 	$(XDIFF_OBJS) \
 	$(VCSSVN_OBJS) \
@@ -2205,7 +2204,7 @@
 	@mkdir -p bin-wrappers
 	$(QUIET_GEN)sed -e '1s|#!.*/sh|#!$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)|' \
 	     -e 's|@@BUILD_DIR@@|$(shell pwd)|' \
-	     -e 's|@@PROG@@|$(@F)|' < $< > $@ && \
+	     -e 's|@@PROG@@|$(patsubst test-%,t/helper/test-%,$(@F))|' < $< > $@ && \
 	chmod +x $@
 
 # GNU make supports exporting all variables by "export" without parameters.
@@ -2225,25 +2224,25 @@
 
 .PHONY: test perf
 
-test-ctype$X: ctype.o
+t/helper/test-ctype$X: ctype.o
 
-test-date$X: date.o ctype.o
+t/helper/test-date$X: date.o ctype.o
 
-test-delta$X: diff-delta.o patch-delta.o
+t/helper/test-delta$X: diff-delta.o patch-delta.o
 
-test-line-buffer$X: vcs-svn/lib.a
+t/helper/test-line-buffer$X: vcs-svn/lib.a
 
-test-parse-options$X: parse-options.o parse-options-cb.o
+t/helper/test-parse-options$X: parse-options.o parse-options-cb.o
 
-test-svn-fe$X: vcs-svn/lib.a
+t/helper/test-svn-fe$X: vcs-svn/lib.a
 
 .PRECIOUS: $(TEST_OBJS)
 
-test-%$X: test-%.o GIT-LDFLAGS $(GITLIBS)
+t/helper/test-%$X: t/helper/test-%.o GIT-LDFLAGS $(GITLIBS)
 	$(QUIET_LINK)$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) -o $@ $(ALL_LDFLAGS) $(filter %.o,$^) $(filter %.a,$^) $(LIBS)
 
-check-sha1:: test-sha1$X
-	./test-sha1.sh
+check-sha1:: t/helper/test-sha1$X
+	t/helper/test-sha1.sh
 
 SP_OBJ = $(patsubst %.o,%.sp,$(C_OBJ))
 
@@ -2390,31 +2389,25 @@
 
 ### Maintainer's dist rules
 
-git.spec: git.spec.in GIT-VERSION-FILE
-	sed -e 's/@@VERSION@@/$(GIT_VERSION)/g' < $< > $@+
-	mv $@+ $@
-
 GIT_TARNAME = git-$(GIT_VERSION)
-dist: git.spec git-archive$(X) configure
+dist: git-archive$(X) configure
 	./git-archive --format=tar \
 		--prefix=$(GIT_TARNAME)/ HEAD^{tree} > $(GIT_TARNAME).tar
 	@mkdir -p $(GIT_TARNAME)
-	@cp git.spec configure $(GIT_TARNAME)
+	@cp configure $(GIT_TARNAME)
 	@echo $(GIT_VERSION) > $(GIT_TARNAME)/version
 	@$(MAKE) -C git-gui TARDIR=../$(GIT_TARNAME)/git-gui dist-version
 	$(TAR) rf $(GIT_TARNAME).tar \
-		$(GIT_TARNAME)/git.spec \
 		$(GIT_TARNAME)/configure \
 		$(GIT_TARNAME)/version \
 		$(GIT_TARNAME)/git-gui/version
 	@$(RM) -r $(GIT_TARNAME)
 	gzip -f -9 $(GIT_TARNAME).tar
 
-rpm: dist
-	$(RPMBUILD) \
-		--define "_source_filedigest_algorithm md5" \
-		--define "_binary_filedigest_algorithm md5" \
-		-ta $(GIT_TARNAME).tar.gz
+rpm::
+	@echo >&2 "Use distro packaged sources to run rpmbuild"
+	@false
+.PHONY: rpm
 
 htmldocs = git-htmldocs-$(GIT_VERSION)
 manpages = git-manpages-$(GIT_VERSION)
@@ -2450,8 +2443,8 @@
 	$(RM) $(addsuffix *.gcno,$(addprefix $(PROFILE_DIR)/, $(object_dirs)))
 
 clean: profile-clean coverage-clean
-	$(RM) *.o *.res refs/*.o block-sha1/*.o ppc/*.o compat/*.o compat/*/*.o
-	$(RM) xdiff/*.o vcs-svn/*.o ewah/*.o builtin/*.o
+	$(RM) *.res
+	$(RM) $(OBJECTS)
 	$(RM) $(LIB_FILE) $(XDIFF_LIB) $(VCSSVN_LIB)
 	$(RM) $(ALL_PROGRAMS) $(SCRIPT_LIB) $(BUILT_INS) git$X
 	$(RM) $(TEST_PROGRAMS) $(NO_INSTALL)
@@ -2490,6 +2483,7 @@
 
 .PHONY: check-docs
 check-docs::
+	$(MAKE) -C Documentation lint-docs
 	@(for v in $(ALL_COMMANDS); \
 	do \
 		case "$$v" in \
diff --git a/README.md b/README.md
index d1ffbb6..2087748 100644
--- a/README.md
+++ b/README.md
@@ -17,11 +17,11 @@
 
 See [Documentation/gittutorial.txt][] to get started, then see
 [Documentation/giteveryday.txt][] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
-[Documentation/git-commandname.txt][] for documentation of each command.
+Documentation/git-*commandname*.txt for documentation of each command.
 If git has been correctly installed, then the tutorial can also be
 read with "man gittutorial" or "git help tutorial", and the
-documentation of each command with "man git-commandname" or "git help
-commandname".
+documentation of each command with "man git-*commandname*" or "git help
+*commandname*".
 
 CVS users may also want to read [Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt][]
 ("man gitcvs-migration" or "git help cvs-migration" if git is
@@ -57,6 +57,5 @@
 [INSTALL]: INSTALL
 [Documentation/gittutorial.txt]: Documentation/gittutorial.txt
 [Documentation/giteveryday.txt]: Documentation/giteveryday.txt
-[Documentation/git-commandname.txt]: Documentation/git-commandname.txt
 [Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt]: Documentation/gitcvs-migration.txt
 [Documentation/SubmittingPatches]: Documentation/SubmittingPatches
diff --git a/RelNotes b/RelNotes
index eb82eea..6660673 120000
--- a/RelNotes
+++ b/RelNotes
@@ -1 +1 @@
-Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.3.txt
\ No newline at end of file
+Documentation/RelNotes/2.9.0.txt
\ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/bisect.c b/bisect.c
index 7996c29..6d93edb 100644
--- a/bisect.c
+++ b/bisect.c
@@ -860,8 +860,8 @@
 	/* Create file BISECT_ANCESTORS_OK. */
 	fd = open(filename, O_CREAT | O_TRUNC | O_WRONLY, 0600);
 	if (fd < 0)
-		warning("could not create file '%s': %s",
-			filename, strerror(errno));
+		warning_errno("could not create file '%s'",
+			      filename);
 	else
 		close(fd);
  done:
@@ -910,8 +910,7 @@
 			*read_good = "good";
 			return;
 		} else {
-			die("could not read file '%s': %s", filename,
-				strerror(errno));
+			die_errno("could not read file '%s'", filename);
 		}
 	} else {
 		strbuf_getline_lf(&str, fp);
diff --git a/branch.c b/branch.c
index 4162443..a5a8dcb 100644
--- a/branch.c
+++ b/branch.c
@@ -334,15 +334,16 @@
 	unlink(git_path_squash_msg());
 }
 
-void die_if_checked_out(const char *branch)
+void die_if_checked_out(const char *branch, int ignore_current_worktree)
 {
-	char *existing;
+	const struct worktree *wt;
 
-	existing = find_shared_symref("HEAD", branch);
-	if (existing) {
-		skip_prefix(branch, "refs/heads/", &branch);
-		die(_("'%s' is already checked out at '%s'"), branch, existing);
-	}
+	wt = find_shared_symref("HEAD", branch);
+	if (!wt || (ignore_current_worktree && wt->is_current))
+		return;
+	skip_prefix(branch, "refs/heads/", &branch);
+	die(_("'%s' is already checked out at '%s'"),
+	    branch, wt->path);
 }
 
 int replace_each_worktree_head_symref(const char *oldref, const char *newref)
@@ -357,7 +358,8 @@
 		if (strcmp(oldref, worktrees[i]->head_ref))
 			continue;
 
-		if (set_worktree_head_symref(worktrees[i]->git_dir, newref)) {
+		if (set_worktree_head_symref(get_worktree_git_dir(worktrees[i]),
+					     newref)) {
 			ret = -1;
 			error(_("HEAD of working tree %s is not updated"),
 			      worktrees[i]->path);
diff --git a/branch.h b/branch.h
index d69163d..b2f9649 100644
--- a/branch.h
+++ b/branch.h
@@ -58,7 +58,7 @@
  * worktree and die (with a message describing its checkout location) if
  * it is.
  */
-extern void die_if_checked_out(const char *branch);
+extern void die_if_checked_out(const char *branch, int ignore_current_worktree);
 
 /*
  * Update all per-worktree HEADs pointing at the old ref to point the new ref.
diff --git a/builtin/am.c b/builtin/am.c
index d003939..3dfe70b 100644
--- a/builtin/am.c
+++ b/builtin/am.c
@@ -769,15 +769,15 @@
 			in = fopen(*paths, "r");
 
 		if (!in)
-			return error(_("could not open '%s' for reading: %s"),
-					*paths, strerror(errno));
+			return error_errno(_("could not open '%s' for reading"),
+					   *paths);
 
 		mail = mkpath("%s/%0*d", state->dir, state->prec, i + 1);
 
 		out = fopen(mail, "w");
 		if (!out)
-			return error(_("could not open '%s' for writing: %s"),
-					mail, strerror(errno));
+			return error_errno(_("could not open '%s' for writing"),
+					   mail);
 
 		ret = fn(out, in, keep_cr);
 
@@ -857,8 +857,7 @@
 
 	fp = fopen(*paths, "r");
 	if (!fp)
-		return error(_("could not open '%s' for reading: %s"), *paths,
-				strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno(_("could not open '%s' for reading"), *paths);
 
 	while (!strbuf_getline_lf(&sb, fp)) {
 		if (*sb.buf == '#')
diff --git a/builtin/apply.c b/builtin/apply.c
index ce3b778..8e4da2e 100644
--- a/builtin/apply.c
+++ b/builtin/apply.c
@@ -4383,6 +4383,8 @@
 			listp = &patch->next;
 		}
 		else {
+			if (apply_verbosely)
+				say_patch_name(stderr, _("Skipped patch '%s'."), patch);
 			free_patch(patch);
 			skipped_patch++;
 		}
diff --git a/builtin/branch.c b/builtin/branch.c
index 37af771..2ecde53 100644
--- a/builtin/branch.c
+++ b/builtin/branch.c
@@ -220,12 +220,12 @@
 		name = mkpathdup(fmt, bname.buf);
 
 		if (kinds == FILTER_REFS_BRANCHES) {
-			char *worktree = find_shared_symref("HEAD", name);
-			if (worktree) {
+			const struct worktree *wt =
+				find_shared_symref("HEAD", name);
+			if (wt) {
 				error(_("Cannot delete branch '%s' "
 					"checked out at '%s'"),
-				      bname.buf, worktree);
-				free(worktree);
+				      bname.buf, wt->path);
 				ret = 1;
 				continue;
 			}
@@ -526,6 +526,29 @@
 	ref_array_clear(&array);
 }
 
+static void reject_rebase_or_bisect_branch(const char *target)
+{
+	struct worktree **worktrees = get_worktrees();
+	int i;
+
+	for (i = 0; worktrees[i]; i++) {
+		struct worktree *wt = worktrees[i];
+
+		if (!wt->is_detached)
+			continue;
+
+		if (is_worktree_being_rebased(wt, target))
+			die(_("Branch %s is being rebased at %s"),
+			    target, wt->path);
+
+		if (is_worktree_being_bisected(wt, target))
+			die(_("Branch %s is being bisected at %s"),
+			    target, wt->path);
+	}
+
+	free_worktrees(worktrees);
+}
+
 static void rename_branch(const char *oldname, const char *newname, int force)
 {
 	struct strbuf oldref = STRBUF_INIT, newref = STRBUF_INIT, logmsg = STRBUF_INIT;
@@ -555,6 +578,8 @@
 
 	validate_new_branchname(newname, &newref, force, clobber_head_ok);
 
+	reject_rebase_or_bisect_branch(oldref.buf);
+
 	strbuf_addf(&logmsg, "Branch: renamed %s to %s",
 		 oldref.buf, newref.buf);
 
@@ -595,8 +620,7 @@
 		    branch_name, comment_line_char);
 	if (write_file_gently(git_path(edit_description), "%s", buf.buf)) {
 		strbuf_release(&buf);
-		return error(_("could not write branch description template: %s"),
-			     strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno(_("could not write branch description template"));
 	}
 	strbuf_reset(&buf);
 	if (launch_editor(git_path(edit_description), &buf, NULL)) {
diff --git a/builtin/cat-file.c b/builtin/cat-file.c
index 54db118..618103f 100644
--- a/builtin/cat-file.c
+++ b/builtin/cat-file.c
@@ -154,6 +154,13 @@
 	 * elements above, so you can retrieve the response from there.
 	 */
 	struct object_info info;
+
+	/*
+	 * This flag will be true if the requested batch format and options
+	 * don't require us to call sha1_object_info, which can then be
+	 * optimized out.
+	 */
+	unsigned skip_object_info : 1;
 };
 
 static int is_atom(const char *atom, const char *s, int slen)
@@ -258,7 +265,8 @@
 {
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 
-	if (sha1_object_info_extended(data->sha1, &data->info, LOOKUP_REPLACE_OBJECT) < 0) {
+	if (!data->skip_object_info &&
+	    sha1_object_info_extended(data->sha1, &data->info, LOOKUP_REPLACE_OBJECT) < 0) {
 		printf("%s missing\n", obj_name ? obj_name : sha1_to_hex(data->sha1));
 		fflush(stdout);
 		return;
@@ -369,6 +377,13 @@
 	strbuf_expand(&buf, opt->format, expand_format, &data);
 	data.mark_query = 0;
 
+	if (opt->all_objects) {
+		struct object_info empty;
+		memset(&empty, 0, sizeof(empty));
+		if (!memcmp(&data.info, &empty, sizeof(empty)))
+			data.skip_object_info = 1;
+	}
+
 	/*
 	 * If we are printing out the object, then always fill in the type,
 	 * since we will want to decide whether or not to stream.
@@ -489,6 +504,7 @@
 
 	git_config(git_cat_file_config, NULL);
 
+	batch.buffer_output = -1;
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options, cat_file_usage, 0);
 
 	if (opt) {
@@ -512,6 +528,9 @@
 		usage_with_options(cat_file_usage, options);
 	}
 
+	if (batch.buffer_output < 0)
+		batch.buffer_output = batch.all_objects;
+
 	if (batch.enabled)
 		return batch_objects(&batch);
 
diff --git a/builtin/checkout.c b/builtin/checkout.c
index efcbd8f..3398c61 100644
--- a/builtin/checkout.c
+++ b/builtin/checkout.c
@@ -242,7 +242,6 @@
 	struct checkout state;
 	static char *ps_matched;
 	unsigned char rev[20];
-	int flag;
 	struct commit *head;
 	int errs = 0;
 	struct lock_file *lock_file;
@@ -375,7 +374,7 @@
 	if (write_locked_index(&the_index, lock_file, COMMIT_LOCK))
 		die(_("unable to write new index file"));
 
-	read_ref_full("HEAD", 0, rev, &flag);
+	read_ref_full("HEAD", 0, rev, NULL);
 	head = lookup_commit_reference_gently(rev, 1);
 
 	errs |= post_checkout_hook(head, head, 0);
@@ -1111,7 +1110,7 @@
 		char *head_ref = resolve_refdup("HEAD", 0, sha1, &flag);
 		if (head_ref &&
 		    (!(flag & REF_ISSYMREF) || strcmp(head_ref, new->path)))
-			die_if_checked_out(new->path);
+			die_if_checked_out(new->path, 1);
 		free(head_ref);
 	}
 
diff --git a/builtin/clone.c b/builtin/clone.c
index 6616392..5f867e6 100644
--- a/builtin/clone.c
+++ b/builtin/clone.c
@@ -40,6 +40,7 @@
 
 static int option_no_checkout, option_bare, option_mirror, option_single_branch = -1;
 static int option_local = -1, option_no_hardlinks, option_shared, option_recursive;
+static int option_shallow_submodules = -1;
 static char *option_template, *option_depth;
 static char *option_origin = NULL;
 static char *option_branch = NULL;
@@ -51,6 +52,7 @@
 static struct string_list option_config;
 static struct string_list option_reference;
 static int option_dissociate;
+static int max_jobs = -1;
 
 static struct option builtin_clone_options[] = {
 	OPT__VERBOSITY(&option_verbosity),
@@ -73,6 +75,8 @@
 		    N_("initialize submodules in the clone")),
 	OPT_BOOL(0, "recurse-submodules", &option_recursive,
 		    N_("initialize submodules in the clone")),
+	OPT_INTEGER('j', "jobs", &max_jobs,
+		    N_("number of submodules cloned in parallel")),
 	OPT_STRING(0, "template", &option_template, N_("template-directory"),
 		   N_("directory from which templates will be used")),
 	OPT_STRING_LIST(0, "reference", &option_reference, N_("repo"),
@@ -89,6 +93,8 @@
 		    N_("create a shallow clone of that depth")),
 	OPT_BOOL(0, "single-branch", &option_single_branch,
 		    N_("clone only one branch, HEAD or --branch")),
+	OPT_BOOL(0, "shallow-submodules", &option_shallow_submodules,
+		    N_("any cloned submodules will be shallow")),
 	OPT_STRING(0, "separate-git-dir", &real_git_dir, N_("gitdir"),
 		   N_("separate git dir from working tree")),
 	OPT_STRING_LIST('c', "config", &option_config, N_("key=value"),
@@ -100,10 +106,6 @@
 	OPT_END()
 };
 
-static const char *argv_submodule[] = {
-	"submodule", "update", "--init", "--recursive", NULL
-};
-
 static const char *get_repo_path_1(struct strbuf *path, int *is_bundle)
 {
 	static char *suffix[] = { "/.git", "", ".git/.git", ".git" };
@@ -732,8 +734,20 @@
 	err |= run_hook_le(NULL, "post-checkout", sha1_to_hex(null_sha1),
 			   sha1_to_hex(sha1), "1", NULL);
 
-	if (!err && option_recursive)
-		err = run_command_v_opt(argv_submodule, RUN_GIT_CMD);
+	if (!err && option_recursive) {
+		struct argv_array args = ARGV_ARRAY_INIT;
+		argv_array_pushl(&args, "submodule", "update", "--init", "--recursive", NULL);
+
+		if (option_shallow_submodules == 1
+		    || (option_shallow_submodules == -1 && option_depth))
+			argv_array_push(&args, "--depth=1");
+
+		if (max_jobs != -1)
+			argv_array_pushf(&args, "--jobs=%d", max_jobs);
+
+		err = run_command_v_opt(args.argv, RUN_GIT_CMD);
+		argv_array_clear(&args);
+	}
 
 	return err;
 }
diff --git a/builtin/commit-tree.c b/builtin/commit-tree.c
index 3feeffe..8a674bc 100644
--- a/builtin/commit-tree.c
+++ b/builtin/commit-tree.c
@@ -33,10 +33,6 @@
 	int status = git_gpg_config(var, value, NULL);
 	if (status)
 		return status;
-	if (!strcmp(var, "commit.gpgsign")) {
-		sign_commit = git_config_bool(var, value) ? "" : NULL;
-		return 0;
-	}
 	return git_default_config(var, value, cb);
 }
 
diff --git a/builtin/commit.c b/builtin/commit.c
index e133037..443ff91 100644
--- a/builtin/commit.c
+++ b/builtin/commit.c
@@ -114,6 +114,7 @@
 static int all, also, interactive, patch_interactive, only, amend, signoff;
 static int edit_flag = -1; /* unspecified */
 static int quiet, verbose, no_verify, allow_empty, dry_run, renew_authorship;
+static int config_commit_verbose = -1; /* unspecified */
 static int no_post_rewrite, allow_empty_message;
 static char *untracked_files_arg, *force_date, *ignore_submodule_arg;
 static char *sign_commit;
@@ -186,6 +187,7 @@
 	gitmodules_config();
 	git_config(fn, s);
 	determine_whence(s);
+	init_diff_ui_defaults();
 	s->hints = advice_status_hints; /* must come after git_config() */
 }
 
@@ -1514,6 +1516,11 @@
 		sign_commit = git_config_bool(k, v) ? "" : NULL;
 		return 0;
 	}
+	if (!strcmp(k, "commit.verbose")) {
+		int is_bool;
+		config_commit_verbose = git_config_bool_or_int(k, v, &is_bool);
+		return 0;
+	}
 
 	status = git_gpg_config(k, v, NULL);
 	if (status)
@@ -1660,9 +1667,13 @@
 		if (parse_commit(current_head))
 			die(_("could not parse HEAD commit"));
 	}
+	verbose = -1; /* unspecified */
 	argc = parse_and_validate_options(argc, argv, builtin_commit_options,
 					  builtin_commit_usage,
 					  prefix, current_head, &s);
+	if (verbose == -1)
+		verbose = (config_commit_verbose < 0) ? 0 : config_commit_verbose;
+
 	if (dry_run)
 		return dry_run_commit(argc, argv, prefix, current_head, &s);
 	index_file = prepare_index(argc, argv, prefix, current_head, 0);
diff --git a/builtin/diff-files.c b/builtin/diff-files.c
index 8ed2eb8..15c61fd 100644
--- a/builtin/diff-files.c
+++ b/builtin/diff-files.c
@@ -24,6 +24,7 @@
 	gitmodules_config();
 	git_config(git_diff_basic_config, NULL); /* no "diff" UI options */
 	rev.abbrev = 0;
+	precompose_argv(argc, argv);
 
 	argc = setup_revisions(argc, argv, &rev, NULL);
 	while (1 < argc && argv[1][0] == '-') {
diff --git a/builtin/diff-index.c b/builtin/diff-index.c
index d979824..1af373d 100644
--- a/builtin/diff-index.c
+++ b/builtin/diff-index.c
@@ -21,6 +21,7 @@
 	gitmodules_config();
 	git_config(git_diff_basic_config, NULL); /* no "diff" UI options */
 	rev.abbrev = 0;
+	precompose_argv(argc, argv);
 
 	argc = setup_revisions(argc, argv, &rev, NULL);
 	for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {
diff --git a/builtin/diff-tree.c b/builtin/diff-tree.c
index 2a12b81..806dd7a 100644
--- a/builtin/diff-tree.c
+++ b/builtin/diff-tree.c
@@ -114,6 +114,8 @@
 	opt->disable_stdin = 1;
 	memset(&s_r_opt, 0, sizeof(s_r_opt));
 	s_r_opt.tweak = diff_tree_tweak_rev;
+
+	precompose_argv(argc, argv);
 	argc = setup_revisions(argc, argv, opt, &s_r_opt);
 
 	while (--argc > 0) {
diff --git a/builtin/diff.c b/builtin/diff.c
index 52c98a9..b7a9405 100644
--- a/builtin/diff.c
+++ b/builtin/diff.c
@@ -318,7 +318,9 @@
 
 	if (!no_index)
 		gitmodules_config();
+	init_diff_ui_defaults();
 	git_config(git_diff_ui_config, NULL);
+	precompose_argv(argc, argv);
 
 	init_revisions(&rev, prefix);
 
diff --git a/builtin/fetch.c b/builtin/fetch.c
index e4639d8..1582ca7 100644
--- a/builtin/fetch.c
+++ b/builtin/fetch.c
@@ -37,7 +37,7 @@
 static int all, append, dry_run, force, keep, multiple, update_head_ok, verbosity;
 static int progress = -1, recurse_submodules = RECURSE_SUBMODULES_DEFAULT;
 static int tags = TAGS_DEFAULT, unshallow, update_shallow;
-static int max_children = 1;
+static int max_children = -1;
 static enum transport_family family;
 static const char *depth;
 static const char *upload_pack;
@@ -607,7 +607,7 @@
 
 	fp = fopen(filename, "a");
 	if (!fp)
-		return error(_("cannot open %s: %s\n"), filename, strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno(_("cannot open %s"), filename);
 
 	if (raw_url)
 		url = transport_anonymize_url(raw_url);
@@ -848,7 +848,7 @@
 	FILE *fp = fopen_for_writing(filename);
 
 	if (!fp)
-		return error(_("cannot open %s: %s\n"), filename, strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno(_("cannot open %s"), filename);
 	fclose(fp);
 	return 0;
 }
diff --git a/builtin/fsck.c b/builtin/fsck.c
index 55eac75..3f27456 100644
--- a/builtin/fsck.c
+++ b/builtin/fsck.c
@@ -493,13 +493,12 @@
 
 static int fsck_head_link(void)
 {
-	int flag;
 	int null_is_error = 0;
 
 	if (verbose)
 		fprintf(stderr, "Checking HEAD link\n");
 
-	head_points_at = resolve_ref_unsafe("HEAD", 0, head_oid.hash, &flag);
+	head_points_at = resolve_ref_unsafe("HEAD", 0, head_oid.hash, NULL);
 	if (!head_points_at) {
 		errors_found |= ERROR_REFS;
 		return error("Invalid HEAD");
diff --git a/builtin/grep.c b/builtin/grep.c
index 111b6f6..462e607 100644
--- a/builtin/grep.c
+++ b/builtin/grep.c
@@ -438,7 +438,7 @@
 		strbuf_add(base, entry.path, te_len);
 
 		if (S_ISREG(entry.mode)) {
-			hit |= grep_sha1(opt, entry.sha1, base->buf, tn_len,
+			hit |= grep_sha1(opt, entry.oid->hash, base->buf, tn_len,
 					 check_attr ? base->buf + tn_len : NULL);
 		}
 		else if (S_ISDIR(entry.mode)) {
@@ -447,10 +447,10 @@
 			void *data;
 			unsigned long size;
 
-			data = lock_and_read_sha1_file(entry.sha1, &type, &size);
+			data = lock_and_read_sha1_file(entry.oid->hash, &type, &size);
 			if (!data)
 				die(_("unable to read tree (%s)"),
-				    sha1_to_hex(entry.sha1));
+				    oid_to_hex(entry.oid));
 
 			strbuf_addch(base, '/');
 			init_tree_desc(&sub, data, size);
diff --git a/builtin/help.c b/builtin/help.c
index 3c55ce4..8848013 100644
--- a/builtin/help.c
+++ b/builtin/help.c
@@ -127,7 +127,7 @@
 			path = "emacsclient";
 		strbuf_addf(&man_page, "(woman \"%s\")", page);
 		execlp(path, "emacsclient", "-e", man_page.buf, (char *)NULL);
-		warning(_("failed to exec '%s': %s"), path, strerror(errno));
+		warning_errno(_("failed to exec '%s'"), path);
 	}
 }
 
@@ -148,7 +148,7 @@
 			path = "kfmclient";
 		strbuf_addf(&man_page, "man:%s(1)", page);
 		execlp(path, filename, "newTab", man_page.buf, (char *)NULL);
-		warning(_("failed to exec '%s': %s"), path, strerror(errno));
+		warning_errno(_("failed to exec '%s'"), path);
 	}
 }
 
@@ -157,7 +157,7 @@
 	if (!path)
 		path = "man";
 	execlp(path, "man", page, (char *)NULL);
-	warning(_("failed to exec '%s': %s"), path, strerror(errno));
+	warning_errno(_("failed to exec '%s'"), path);
 }
 
 static void exec_man_cmd(const char *cmd, const char *page)
@@ -165,7 +165,7 @@
 	struct strbuf shell_cmd = STRBUF_INIT;
 	strbuf_addf(&shell_cmd, "%s %s", cmd, page);
 	execl(SHELL_PATH, SHELL_PATH, "-c", shell_cmd.buf, (char *)NULL);
-	warning(_("failed to exec '%s': %s"), cmd, strerror(errno));
+	warning(_("failed to exec '%s'"), cmd);
 }
 
 static void add_man_viewer(const char *name)
diff --git a/builtin/log.c b/builtin/log.c
index 0d738d6..099f4f7 100644
--- a/builtin/log.c
+++ b/builtin/log.c
@@ -100,6 +100,12 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static void init_log_defaults(void)
+{
+	init_grep_defaults();
+	init_diff_ui_defaults();
+}
+
 static void cmd_log_init_defaults(struct rev_info *rev)
 {
 	if (fmt_pretty)
@@ -416,7 +422,7 @@
 	struct rev_info rev;
 	struct setup_revision_opt opt;
 
-	init_grep_defaults();
+	init_log_defaults();
 	git_config(git_log_config, NULL);
 
 	init_revisions(&rev, prefix);
@@ -527,7 +533,7 @@
 	struct pathspec match_all;
 	int i, count, ret = 0;
 
-	init_grep_defaults();
+	init_log_defaults();
 	git_config(git_log_config, NULL);
 
 	memset(&match_all, 0, sizeof(match_all));
@@ -608,7 +614,7 @@
 	struct rev_info rev;
 	struct setup_revision_opt opt;
 
-	init_grep_defaults();
+	init_log_defaults();
 	git_config(git_log_config, NULL);
 
 	init_revisions(&rev, prefix);
@@ -647,7 +653,7 @@
 	struct rev_info rev;
 	struct setup_revision_opt opt;
 
-	init_grep_defaults();
+	init_log_defaults();
 	git_config(git_log_config, NULL);
 
 	init_revisions(&rev, prefix);
@@ -696,6 +702,7 @@
 #define THREAD_DEEP 2
 static int thread;
 static int do_signoff;
+static int base_auto;
 static const char *signature = git_version_string;
 static const char *signature_file;
 static int config_cover_letter;
@@ -780,6 +787,10 @@
 	}
 	if (!strcmp(var, "format.outputdirectory"))
 		return git_config_string(&config_output_directory, var, value);
+	if (!strcmp(var, "format.useautobase")) {
+		base_auto = git_config_bool(var, value);
+		return 0;
+	}
 
 	return git_log_config(var, value, cb);
 }
@@ -1185,6 +1196,155 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+struct base_tree_info {
+	struct object_id base_commit;
+	int nr_patch_id, alloc_patch_id;
+	struct object_id *patch_id;
+};
+
+static struct commit *get_base_commit(const char *base_commit,
+				      struct commit **list,
+				      int total)
+{
+	struct commit *base = NULL;
+	struct commit **rev;
+	int i = 0, rev_nr = 0;
+
+	if (base_commit && strcmp(base_commit, "auto")) {
+		base = lookup_commit_reference_by_name(base_commit);
+		if (!base)
+			die(_("Unknown commit %s"), base_commit);
+	} else if ((base_commit && !strcmp(base_commit, "auto")) || base_auto) {
+		struct branch *curr_branch = branch_get(NULL);
+		const char *upstream = branch_get_upstream(curr_branch, NULL);
+		if (upstream) {
+			struct commit_list *base_list;
+			struct commit *commit;
+			unsigned char sha1[20];
+
+			if (get_sha1(upstream, sha1))
+				die(_("Failed to resolve '%s' as a valid ref."), upstream);
+			commit = lookup_commit_or_die(sha1, "upstream base");
+			base_list = get_merge_bases_many(commit, total, list);
+			/* There should be one and only one merge base. */
+			if (!base_list || base_list->next)
+				die(_("Could not find exact merge base."));
+			base = base_list->item;
+			free_commit_list(base_list);
+		} else {
+			die(_("Failed to get upstream, if you want to record base commit automatically,\n"
+			      "please use git branch --set-upstream-to to track a remote branch.\n"
+			      "Or you could specify base commit by --base=<base-commit-id> manually."));
+		}
+	}
+
+	ALLOC_ARRAY(rev, total);
+	for (i = 0; i < total; i++)
+		rev[i] = list[i];
+
+	rev_nr = total;
+	/*
+	 * Get merge base through pair-wise computations
+	 * and store it in rev[0].
+	 */
+	while (rev_nr > 1) {
+		for (i = 0; i < rev_nr / 2; i++) {
+			struct commit_list *merge_base;
+			merge_base = get_merge_bases(rev[2 * i], rev[2 * i + 1]);
+			if (!merge_base || merge_base->next)
+				die(_("Failed to find exact merge base"));
+
+			rev[i] = merge_base->item;
+		}
+
+		if (rev_nr % 2)
+			rev[i] = rev[2 * i];
+		rev_nr = (rev_nr + 1) / 2;
+	}
+
+	if (!in_merge_bases(base, rev[0]))
+		die(_("base commit should be the ancestor of revision list"));
+
+	for (i = 0; i < total; i++) {
+		if (base == list[i])
+			die(_("base commit shouldn't be in revision list"));
+	}
+
+	free(rev);
+	return base;
+}
+
+static void prepare_bases(struct base_tree_info *bases,
+			  struct commit *base,
+			  struct commit **list,
+			  int total)
+{
+	struct commit *commit;
+	struct rev_info revs;
+	struct diff_options diffopt;
+	int i;
+
+	if (!base)
+		return;
+
+	diff_setup(&diffopt);
+	DIFF_OPT_SET(&diffopt, RECURSIVE);
+	diff_setup_done(&diffopt);
+
+	oidcpy(&bases->base_commit, &base->object.oid);
+
+	init_revisions(&revs, NULL);
+	revs.max_parents = 1;
+	revs.topo_order = 1;
+	for (i = 0; i < total; i++) {
+		list[i]->object.flags &= ~UNINTERESTING;
+		add_pending_object(&revs, &list[i]->object, "rev_list");
+		list[i]->util = (void *)1;
+	}
+	base->object.flags |= UNINTERESTING;
+	add_pending_object(&revs, &base->object, "base");
+
+	if (prepare_revision_walk(&revs))
+		die(_("revision walk setup failed"));
+	/*
+	 * Traverse the commits list, get prerequisite patch ids
+	 * and stuff them in bases structure.
+	 */
+	while ((commit = get_revision(&revs)) != NULL) {
+		unsigned char sha1[20];
+		struct object_id *patch_id;
+		if (commit->util)
+			continue;
+		if (commit_patch_id(commit, &diffopt, sha1))
+			die(_("cannot get patch id"));
+		ALLOC_GROW(bases->patch_id, bases->nr_patch_id + 1, bases->alloc_patch_id);
+		patch_id = bases->patch_id + bases->nr_patch_id;
+		hashcpy(patch_id->hash, sha1);
+		bases->nr_patch_id++;
+	}
+}
+
+static void print_bases(struct base_tree_info *bases)
+{
+	int i;
+
+	/* Only do this once, either for the cover or for the first one */
+	if (is_null_oid(&bases->base_commit))
+		return;
+
+	/* Show the base commit */
+	printf("base-commit: %s\n", oid_to_hex(&bases->base_commit));
+
+	/* Show the prerequisite patches */
+	for (i = bases->nr_patch_id - 1; i >= 0; i--)
+		printf("prerequisite-patch-id: %s\n", oid_to_hex(&bases->patch_id[i]));
+
+	free(bases->patch_id);
+	bases->nr_patch_id = 0;
+	bases->alloc_patch_id = 0;
+	oidclr(&bases->base_commit);
+}
+
 int cmd_format_patch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
 	struct commit *commit;
@@ -1209,6 +1369,9 @@
 	int reroll_count = -1;
 	char *branch_name = NULL;
 	char *from = NULL;
+	char *base_commit = NULL;
+	struct base_tree_info bases;
+
 	const struct option builtin_format_patch_options[] = {
 		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 'n', "numbered", &numbered, NULL,
 			    N_("use [PATCH n/m] even with a single patch"),
@@ -1271,6 +1434,8 @@
 			    PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, thread_callback },
 		OPT_STRING(0, "signature", &signature, N_("signature"),
 			    N_("add a signature")),
+		OPT_STRING(0, "base", &base_commit, N_("base-commit"),
+			   N_("add prerequisite tree info to the patch series")),
 		OPT_FILENAME(0, "signature-file", &signature_file,
 				N_("add a signature from a file")),
 		OPT__QUIET(&quiet, N_("don't print the patch filenames")),
@@ -1280,10 +1445,11 @@
 	extra_hdr.strdup_strings = 1;
 	extra_to.strdup_strings = 1;
 	extra_cc.strdup_strings = 1;
-	init_grep_defaults();
+	init_log_defaults();
 	git_config(git_format_config, NULL);
 	init_revisions(&rev, prefix);
 	rev.commit_format = CMIT_FMT_EMAIL;
+	rev.expand_tabs_in_log_default = 0;
 	rev.verbose_header = 1;
 	rev.diff = 1;
 	rev.max_parents = 1;
@@ -1507,6 +1673,13 @@
 		signature = strbuf_detach(&buf, NULL);
 	}
 
+	memset(&bases, 0, sizeof(bases));
+	if (base_commit || base_auto) {
+		struct commit *base = get_base_commit(base_commit, list, nr);
+		reset_revision_walk();
+		prepare_bases(&bases, base, list, nr);
+	}
+
 	if (in_reply_to || thread || cover_letter)
 		rev.ref_message_ids = xcalloc(1, sizeof(struct string_list));
 	if (in_reply_to) {
@@ -1520,6 +1693,7 @@
 			gen_message_id(&rev, "cover");
 		make_cover_letter(&rev, use_stdout,
 				  origin, nr, list, branch_name, quiet);
+		print_bases(&bases);
 		total++;
 		start_number--;
 	}
@@ -1585,6 +1759,7 @@
 				       rev.mime_boundary);
 			else
 				print_signature();
+			print_bases(&bases);
 		}
 		if (!use_stdout)
 			fclose(stdout);
diff --git a/builtin/mailsplit.c b/builtin/mailsplit.c
index 104277a..4859ede 100644
--- a/builtin/mailsplit.c
+++ b/builtin/mailsplit.c
@@ -109,7 +109,7 @@
 		if ((dir = opendir(name)) == NULL) {
 			if (errno == ENOENT)
 				continue;
-			error("cannot opendir %s (%s)", name, strerror(errno));
+			error_errno("cannot opendir %s", name);
 			goto out;
 		}
 
@@ -174,12 +174,12 @@
 
 		f = fopen(file, "r");
 		if (!f) {
-			error("cannot open mail %s (%s)", file, strerror(errno));
+			error_errno("cannot open mail %s", file);
 			goto out;
 		}
 
 		if (strbuf_getwholeline(&buf, f, '\n')) {
-			error("cannot read mail %s (%s)", file, strerror(errno));
+			error_errno("cannot read mail %s", file);
 			goto out;
 		}
 
@@ -210,7 +210,7 @@
 	int file_done = 0;
 
 	if (!f) {
-		error("cannot open mbox %s", file);
+		error_errno("cannot open mbox %s", file);
 		goto out;
 	}
 
@@ -318,7 +318,7 @@
 		}
 
 		if (stat(arg, &argstat) == -1) {
-			error("cannot stat %s (%s)", arg, strerror(errno));
+			error_errno("cannot stat %s", arg);
 			return 1;
 		}
 
diff --git a/builtin/merge-file.c b/builtin/merge-file.c
index 5544705..13e22a2 100644
--- a/builtin/merge-file.c
+++ b/builtin/merge-file.c
@@ -62,8 +62,7 @@
 		usage_with_options(merge_file_usage, options);
 	if (quiet) {
 		if (!freopen("/dev/null", "w", stderr))
-			return error("failed to redirect stderr to /dev/null: "
-				     "%s", strerror(errno));
+			return error_errno("failed to redirect stderr to /dev/null");
 	}
 
 	if (prefix)
@@ -95,12 +94,13 @@
 		FILE *f = to_stdout ? stdout : fopen(fpath, "wb");
 
 		if (!f)
-			ret = error("Could not open %s for writing", filename);
+			ret = error_errno("Could not open %s for writing",
+					  filename);
 		else if (result.size &&
 			 fwrite(result.ptr, result.size, 1, f) != 1)
-			ret = error("Could not write to %s", filename);
+			ret = error_errno("Could not write to %s", filename);
 		else if (fclose(f))
-			ret = error("Could not close %s", filename);
+			ret = error_errno("Could not close %s", filename);
 		free(result.ptr);
 	}
 
diff --git a/builtin/merge-tree.c b/builtin/merge-tree.c
index ca57004..5b7ab9b 100644
--- a/builtin/merge-tree.c
+++ b/builtin/merge-tree.c
@@ -150,15 +150,15 @@
 /* An empty entry never compares same, not even to another empty entry */
 static int same_entry(struct name_entry *a, struct name_entry *b)
 {
-	return	a->sha1 &&
-		b->sha1 &&
-		!hashcmp(a->sha1, b->sha1) &&
+	return	a->oid &&
+		b->oid &&
+		!oidcmp(a->oid, b->oid) &&
 		a->mode == b->mode;
 }
 
 static int both_empty(struct name_entry *a, struct name_entry *b)
 {
-	return !(a->sha1 || b->sha1);
+	return !(a->oid || b->oid);
 }
 
 static struct merge_list *create_entry(unsigned stage, unsigned mode, const unsigned char *sha1, const char *path)
@@ -188,8 +188,8 @@
 		return;
 
 	path = traverse_path(info, result);
-	orig = create_entry(2, ours->mode, ours->sha1, path);
-	final = create_entry(0, result->mode, result->sha1, path);
+	orig = create_entry(2, ours->mode, ours->oid->hash, path);
+	final = create_entry(0, result->mode, result->oid->hash, path);
 
 	final->link = orig;
 
@@ -213,7 +213,7 @@
 
 	newbase = traverse_path(info, p);
 
-#define ENTRY_SHA1(e) (((e)->mode && S_ISDIR((e)->mode)) ? (e)->sha1 : NULL)
+#define ENTRY_SHA1(e) (((e)->mode && S_ISDIR((e)->mode)) ? (e)->oid->hash : NULL)
 	buf0 = fill_tree_descriptor(t+0, ENTRY_SHA1(n + 0));
 	buf1 = fill_tree_descriptor(t+1, ENTRY_SHA1(n + 1));
 	buf2 = fill_tree_descriptor(t+2, ENTRY_SHA1(n + 2));
@@ -239,7 +239,7 @@
 		path = entry->path;
 	else
 		path = traverse_path(info, n);
-	link = create_entry(stage, n->mode, n->sha1, path);
+	link = create_entry(stage, n->mode, n->oid->hash, path);
 	link->link = entry;
 	return link;
 }
@@ -314,7 +314,7 @@
 	}
 
 	if (same_entry(entry+0, entry+1)) {
-		if (entry[2].sha1 && !S_ISDIR(entry[2].mode)) {
+		if (entry[2].oid && !S_ISDIR(entry[2].mode)) {
 			/* We did not touch, they modified -- take theirs */
 			resolve(info, entry+1, entry+2);
 			return mask;
diff --git a/builtin/merge.c b/builtin/merge.c
index bf2f261..b555a1b 100644
--- a/builtin/merge.c
+++ b/builtin/merge.c
@@ -64,6 +64,7 @@
 static int verbosity;
 static int allow_rerere_auto;
 static int abort_current_merge;
+static int allow_unrelated_histories;
 static int show_progress = -1;
 static int default_to_upstream = 1;
 static const char *sign_commit;
@@ -221,6 +222,8 @@
 	OPT__VERBOSITY(&verbosity),
 	OPT_BOOL(0, "abort", &abort_current_merge,
 		N_("abort the current in-progress merge")),
+	OPT_BOOL(0, "allow-unrelated-histories", &allow_unrelated_histories,
+		 N_("allow merging unrelated histories")),
 	OPT_SET_INT(0, "progress", &show_progress, N_("force progress reporting"), 1),
 	{ OPTION_STRING, 'S', "gpg-sign", &sign_commit, N_("key-id"),
 	  N_("GPG sign commit"), PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, NULL, (intptr_t) "" },
@@ -819,6 +822,14 @@
 {
 	unsigned char result_tree[20], result_commit[20];
 	struct commit_list *parents, **pptr = &parents;
+	static struct lock_file lock;
+
+	hold_locked_index(&lock, 1);
+	refresh_cache(REFRESH_QUIET);
+	if (active_cache_changed &&
+	    write_locked_index(&the_index, &lock, COMMIT_LOCK))
+		return error(_("Unable to write index."));
+	rollback_lock_file(&lock);
 
 	write_tree_trivial(result_tree);
 	printf(_("Wonderful.\n"));
@@ -1165,7 +1176,7 @@
 	struct commit *head_commit;
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 	const char *head_arg;
-	int flag, i, ret = 0, head_subsumed;
+	int i, ret = 0, head_subsumed;
 	int best_cnt = -1, merge_was_ok = 0, automerge_was_ok = 0;
 	struct commit_list *common = NULL;
 	const char *best_strategy = NULL, *wt_strategy = NULL;
@@ -1179,7 +1190,7 @@
 	 * Check if we are _not_ on a detached HEAD, i.e. if there is a
 	 * current branch.
 	 */
-	branch = branch_to_free = resolve_refdup("HEAD", 0, head_sha1, &flag);
+	branch = branch_to_free = resolve_refdup("HEAD", 0, head_sha1, NULL);
 	if (branch && starts_with(branch, "refs/heads/"))
 		branch += 11;
 	if (!branch || is_null_sha1(head_sha1))
@@ -1187,6 +1198,7 @@
 	else
 		head_commit = lookup_commit_or_die(head_sha1, "HEAD");
 
+	init_diff_ui_defaults();
 	git_config(git_merge_config, NULL);
 
 	if (branch_mergeoptions)
@@ -1397,9 +1409,12 @@
 	update_ref("updating ORIG_HEAD", "ORIG_HEAD", head_commit->object.oid.hash,
 		   NULL, 0, UPDATE_REFS_DIE_ON_ERR);
 
-	if (remoteheads && !common)
-		; /* No common ancestors found. We need a real merge. */
-	else if (!remoteheads ||
+	if (remoteheads && !common) {
+		/* No common ancestors found. */
+		if (!allow_unrelated_histories)
+			die(_("refusing to merge unrelated histories"));
+		/* otherwise, we need a real merge. */
+	} else if (!remoteheads ||
 		 (!remoteheads->next && !common->next &&
 		  common->item == remoteheads->item)) {
 		/*
diff --git a/builtin/notes.c b/builtin/notes.c
index 6fd058d..c65b59a 100644
--- a/builtin/notes.c
+++ b/builtin/notes.c
@@ -847,15 +847,15 @@
 		update_ref(msg.buf, default_notes_ref(), result_sha1, NULL,
 			   0, UPDATE_REFS_DIE_ON_ERR);
 	else { /* Merge has unresolved conflicts */
-		char *existing;
+		const struct worktree *wt;
 		/* Update .git/NOTES_MERGE_PARTIAL with partial merge result */
 		update_ref(msg.buf, "NOTES_MERGE_PARTIAL", result_sha1, NULL,
 			   0, UPDATE_REFS_DIE_ON_ERR);
 		/* Store ref-to-be-updated into .git/NOTES_MERGE_REF */
-		existing = find_shared_symref("NOTES_MERGE_REF", default_notes_ref());
-		if (existing)
+		wt = find_shared_symref("NOTES_MERGE_REF", default_notes_ref());
+		if (wt)
 			die(_("A notes merge into %s is already in-progress at %s"),
-			    default_notes_ref(), existing);
+			    default_notes_ref(), wt->path);
 		if (create_symref("NOTES_MERGE_REF", default_notes_ref(), NULL))
 			die("Failed to store link to current notes ref (%s)",
 			    default_notes_ref());
diff --git a/builtin/pack-objects.c b/builtin/pack-objects.c
index b6664ce..8f5e358 100644
--- a/builtin/pack-objects.c
+++ b/builtin/pack-objects.c
@@ -835,8 +835,7 @@
 			 * to preserve this property.
 			 */
 			if (stat(pack_tmp_name, &st) < 0) {
-				warning("failed to stat %s: %s",
-					pack_tmp_name, strerror(errno));
+				warning_errno("failed to stat %s", pack_tmp_name);
 			} else if (!last_mtime) {
 				last_mtime = st.st_mtime;
 			} else {
@@ -844,8 +843,7 @@
 				utb.actime = st.st_atime;
 				utb.modtime = --last_mtime;
 				if (utime(pack_tmp_name, &utb) < 0)
-					warning("failed utime() on %s: %s",
-						pack_tmp_name, strerror(errno));
+					warning_errno("failed utime() on %s", pack_tmp_name);
 			}
 
 			strbuf_addf(&tmpname, "%s-", base_name);
@@ -1193,7 +1191,7 @@
 		if (cmp < 0)
 			return;
 		if (name[cmplen] != '/') {
-			add_object_entry(entry.sha1,
+			add_object_entry(entry.oid->hash,
 					 object_type(entry.mode),
 					 fullname, 1);
 			return;
@@ -1204,7 +1202,7 @@
 			const char *down = name+cmplen+1;
 			int downlen = name_cmp_len(down);
 
-			tree = pbase_tree_get(entry.sha1);
+			tree = pbase_tree_get(entry.oid->hash);
 			if (!tree)
 				return;
 			init_tree_desc(&sub, tree->tree_data, tree->tree_size);
diff --git a/builtin/pull.c b/builtin/pull.c
index 6214af9..1d7333c 100644
--- a/builtin/pull.c
+++ b/builtin/pull.c
@@ -86,9 +86,12 @@
 static char *opt_edit;
 static char *opt_ff;
 static char *opt_verify_signatures;
+static int opt_autostash = -1;
+static int config_autostash;
 static struct argv_array opt_strategies = ARGV_ARRAY_INIT;
 static struct argv_array opt_strategy_opts = ARGV_ARRAY_INIT;
 static char *opt_gpg_sign;
+static int opt_allow_unrelated_histories;
 
 /* Options passed to git-fetch */
 static char *opt_all;
@@ -149,6 +152,8 @@
 	OPT_PASSTHRU(0, "verify-signatures", &opt_verify_signatures, NULL,
 		N_("verify that the named commit has a valid GPG signature"),
 		PARSE_OPT_NOARG),
+	OPT_BOOL(0, "autostash", &opt_autostash,
+		N_("automatically stash/stash pop before and after rebase")),
 	OPT_PASSTHRU_ARGV('s', "strategy", &opt_strategies, N_("strategy"),
 		N_("merge strategy to use"),
 		0),
@@ -159,6 +164,9 @@
 	OPT_PASSTHRU('S', "gpg-sign", &opt_gpg_sign, N_("key-id"),
 		N_("GPG sign commit"),
 		PARSE_OPT_OPTARG),
+	OPT_SET_INT(0, "allow-unrelated-histories",
+		    &opt_allow_unrelated_histories,
+		    N_("allow merging unrelated histories"), 1),
 
 	/* Options passed to git-fetch */
 	OPT_GROUP(N_("Options related to fetching")),
@@ -306,6 +314,18 @@
 }
 
 /**
+ * Read config variables.
+ */
+static int git_pull_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
+{
+	if (!strcmp(var, "rebase.autostash")) {
+		config_autostash = git_config_bool(var, value);
+		return 0;
+	}
+	return git_default_config(var, value, cb);
+}
+
+/**
  * Returns 1 if there are unstaged changes, 0 otherwise.
  */
 static int has_unstaged_changes(const char *prefix)
@@ -612,6 +632,8 @@
 	argv_array_pushv(&args, opt_strategy_opts.argv);
 	if (opt_gpg_sign)
 		argv_array_push(&args, opt_gpg_sign);
+	if (opt_allow_unrelated_histories > 0)
+		argv_array_push(&args, "--allow-unrelated-histories");
 
 	argv_array_push(&args, "FETCH_HEAD");
 	ret = run_command_v_opt(args.argv, RUN_GIT_CMD);
@@ -789,6 +811,10 @@
 	argv_array_pushv(&args, opt_strategy_opts.argv);
 	if (opt_gpg_sign)
 		argv_array_push(&args, opt_gpg_sign);
+	if (opt_autostash == 0)
+		argv_array_push(&args, "--no-autostash");
+	else if (opt_autostash == 1)
+		argv_array_push(&args, "--autostash");
 
 	argv_array_push(&args, "--onto");
 	argv_array_push(&args, sha1_to_hex(merge_head));
@@ -823,7 +849,7 @@
 	if (opt_rebase < 0)
 		opt_rebase = config_get_rebase();
 
-	git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
+	git_config(git_pull_config, NULL);
 
 	if (read_cache_unmerged())
 		die_resolve_conflict("Pull");
@@ -834,13 +860,17 @@
 	if (get_sha1("HEAD", orig_head))
 		hashclr(orig_head);
 
+	if (!opt_rebase && opt_autostash != -1)
+		die(_("--[no-]autostash option is only valid with --rebase."));
+
 	if (opt_rebase) {
-		int autostash = 0;
+		int autostash = config_autostash;
+		if (opt_autostash != -1)
+			autostash = opt_autostash;
 
 		if (is_null_sha1(orig_head) && !is_cache_unborn())
 			die(_("Updating an unborn branch with changes added to the index."));
 
-		git_config_get_bool("rebase.autostash", &autostash);
 		if (!autostash)
 			die_on_unclean_work_tree(prefix);
 
diff --git a/builtin/receive-pack.c b/builtin/receive-pack.c
index c8e32b2..a744437 100644
--- a/builtin/receive-pack.c
+++ b/builtin/receive-pack.c
@@ -21,7 +21,10 @@
 #include "sigchain.h"
 #include "fsck.h"
 
-static const char receive_pack_usage[] = "git receive-pack <git-dir>";
+static const char * const receive_pack_usage[] = {
+	N_("git receive-pack <git-dir>"),
+	NULL
+};
 
 enum deny_action {
 	DENY_UNCONFIGURED,
@@ -49,7 +52,7 @@
 static int prefer_ofs_delta = 1;
 static int auto_update_server_info;
 static int auto_gc = 1;
-static int fix_thin = 1;
+static int reject_thin;
 static int stateless_rpc;
 static const char *service_dir;
 static const char *head_name;
@@ -1081,13 +1084,13 @@
 	if (!(flag & REF_ISSYMREF))
 		return;
 
-	dst_name = strip_namespace(dst_name);
 	if (!dst_name) {
 		rp_error("refusing update to broken symref '%s'", cmd->ref_name);
 		cmd->skip_update = 1;
 		cmd->error_string = "broken symref";
 		return;
 	}
+	dst_name = strip_namespace(dst_name);
 
 	if ((item = string_list_lookup(list, dst_name)) == NULL)
 		return;
@@ -1548,7 +1551,7 @@
 		if (fsck_objects)
 			argv_array_pushf(&child.args, "--strict%s",
 				fsck_msg_types.buf);
-		if (fix_thin)
+		if (!reject_thin)
 			argv_array_push(&child.args, "--fix-thin");
 		child.out = -1;
 		child.err = err_fd;
@@ -1707,45 +1710,29 @@
 int cmd_receive_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
 	int advertise_refs = 0;
-	int i;
 	struct command *commands;
 	struct sha1_array shallow = SHA1_ARRAY_INIT;
 	struct sha1_array ref = SHA1_ARRAY_INIT;
 	struct shallow_info si;
 
+	struct option options[] = {
+		OPT__QUIET(&quiet, N_("quiet")),
+		OPT_HIDDEN_BOOL(0, "stateless-rpc", &stateless_rpc, NULL),
+		OPT_HIDDEN_BOOL(0, "advertise-refs", &advertise_refs, NULL),
+		OPT_HIDDEN_BOOL(0, "reject-thin-pack-for-testing", &reject_thin, NULL),
+		OPT_END()
+	};
+
 	packet_trace_identity("receive-pack");
 
-	argv++;
-	for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {
-		const char *arg = *argv++;
+	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options, receive_pack_usage, 0);
 
-		if (*arg == '-') {
-			if (!strcmp(arg, "--quiet")) {
-				quiet = 1;
-				continue;
-			}
+	if (argc > 1)
+		usage_msg_opt(_("Too many arguments."), receive_pack_usage, options);
+	if (argc == 0)
+		usage_msg_opt(_("You must specify a directory."), receive_pack_usage, options);
 
-			if (!strcmp(arg, "--advertise-refs")) {
-				advertise_refs = 1;
-				continue;
-			}
-			if (!strcmp(arg, "--stateless-rpc")) {
-				stateless_rpc = 1;
-				continue;
-			}
-			if (!strcmp(arg, "--reject-thin-pack-for-testing")) {
-				fix_thin = 0;
-				continue;
-			}
-
-			usage(receive_pack_usage);
-		}
-		if (service_dir)
-			usage(receive_pack_usage);
-		service_dir = arg;
-	}
-	if (!service_dir)
-		usage(receive_pack_usage);
+	service_dir = argv[0];
 
 	setup_path();
 
diff --git a/builtin/reflog.c b/builtin/reflog.c
index 2d46b64..7a7136e 100644
--- a/builtin/reflog.c
+++ b/builtin/reflog.c
@@ -84,8 +84,8 @@
 	init_tree_desc(&desc, tree->buffer, tree->size);
 	complete = 1;
 	while (tree_entry(&desc, &entry)) {
-		if (!has_sha1_file(entry.sha1) ||
-		    (S_ISDIR(entry.mode) && !tree_is_complete(entry.sha1))) {
+		if (!has_sha1_file(entry.oid->hash) ||
+		    (S_ISDIR(entry.mode) && !tree_is_complete(entry.oid->hash))) {
 			tree->object.flags |= INCOMPLETE;
 			complete = 0;
 		}
diff --git a/builtin/rm.c b/builtin/rm.c
index be83c43..8abb020 100644
--- a/builtin/rm.c
+++ b/builtin/rm.c
@@ -152,7 +152,7 @@
 
 		if (lstat(ce->name, &st) < 0) {
 			if (errno != ENOENT && errno != ENOTDIR)
-				warning("'%s': %s", ce->name, strerror(errno));
+				warning_errno(_("failed to stat '%s'"), ce->name);
 			/* It already vanished from the working tree */
 			continue;
 		}
diff --git a/builtin/submodule--helper.c b/builtin/submodule--helper.c
index 3bea3aa..8da263f 100644
--- a/builtin/submodule--helper.c
+++ b/builtin/submodule--helper.c
@@ -9,6 +9,211 @@
 #include "submodule-config.h"
 #include "string-list.h"
 #include "run-command.h"
+#include "remote.h"
+#include "refs.h"
+#include "connect.h"
+
+static char *get_default_remote(void)
+{
+	char *dest = NULL, *ret;
+	unsigned char sha1[20];
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+	const char *refname = resolve_ref_unsafe("HEAD", 0, sha1, NULL);
+
+	if (!refname)
+		die(_("No such ref: %s"), "HEAD");
+
+	/* detached HEAD */
+	if (!strcmp(refname, "HEAD"))
+		return xstrdup("origin");
+
+	if (!skip_prefix(refname, "refs/heads/", &refname))
+		die(_("Expecting a full ref name, got %s"), refname);
+
+	strbuf_addf(&sb, "branch.%s.remote", refname);
+	if (git_config_get_string(sb.buf, &dest))
+		ret = xstrdup("origin");
+	else
+		ret = dest;
+
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
+	return ret;
+}
+
+static int starts_with_dot_slash(const char *str)
+{
+	return str[0] == '.' && is_dir_sep(str[1]);
+}
+
+static int starts_with_dot_dot_slash(const char *str)
+{
+	return str[0] == '.' && str[1] == '.' && is_dir_sep(str[2]);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Returns 1 if it was the last chop before ':'.
+ */
+static int chop_last_dir(char **remoteurl, int is_relative)
+{
+	char *rfind = find_last_dir_sep(*remoteurl);
+	if (rfind) {
+		*rfind = '\0';
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	rfind = strrchr(*remoteurl, ':');
+	if (rfind) {
+		*rfind = '\0';
+		return 1;
+	}
+
+	if (is_relative || !strcmp(".", *remoteurl))
+		die(_("cannot strip one component off url '%s'"),
+			*remoteurl);
+
+	free(*remoteurl);
+	*remoteurl = xstrdup(".");
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * The `url` argument is the URL that navigates to the submodule origin
+ * repo. When relative, this URL is relative to the superproject origin
+ * URL repo. The `up_path` argument, if specified, is the relative
+ * path that navigates from the submodule working tree to the superproject
+ * working tree. Returns the origin URL of the submodule.
+ *
+ * Return either an absolute URL or filesystem path (if the superproject
+ * origin URL is an absolute URL or filesystem path, respectively) or a
+ * relative file system path (if the superproject origin URL is a relative
+ * file system path).
+ *
+ * When the output is a relative file system path, the path is either
+ * relative to the submodule working tree, if up_path is specified, or to
+ * the superproject working tree otherwise.
+ *
+ * NEEDSWORK: This works incorrectly on the domain and protocol part.
+ * remote_url      url              outcome          expectation
+ * http://a.com/b  ../c             http://a.com/c   as is
+ * http://a.com/b  ../../c          http://c         error out
+ * http://a.com/b  ../../../c       http:/c          error out
+ * http://a.com/b  ../../../../c    http:c           error out
+ * http://a.com/b  ../../../../../c    .:c           error out
+ * NEEDSWORK: Given how chop_last_dir() works, this function is broken
+ * when a local part has a colon in its path component, too.
+ */
+static char *relative_url(const char *remote_url,
+				const char *url,
+				const char *up_path)
+{
+	int is_relative = 0;
+	int colonsep = 0;
+	char *out;
+	char *remoteurl = xstrdup(remote_url);
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+	size_t len = strlen(remoteurl);
+
+	if (is_dir_sep(remoteurl[len]))
+		remoteurl[len] = '\0';
+
+	if (!url_is_local_not_ssh(remoteurl) || is_absolute_path(remoteurl))
+		is_relative = 0;
+	else {
+		is_relative = 1;
+		/*
+		 * Prepend a './' to ensure all relative
+		 * remoteurls start with './' or '../'
+		 */
+		if (!starts_with_dot_slash(remoteurl) &&
+		    !starts_with_dot_dot_slash(remoteurl)) {
+			strbuf_reset(&sb);
+			strbuf_addf(&sb, "./%s", remoteurl);
+			free(remoteurl);
+			remoteurl = strbuf_detach(&sb, NULL);
+		}
+	}
+	/*
+	 * When the url starts with '../', remove that and the
+	 * last directory in remoteurl.
+	 */
+	while (url) {
+		if (starts_with_dot_dot_slash(url)) {
+			url += 3;
+			colonsep |= chop_last_dir(&remoteurl, is_relative);
+		} else if (starts_with_dot_slash(url))
+			url += 2;
+		else
+			break;
+	}
+	strbuf_reset(&sb);
+	strbuf_addf(&sb, "%s%s%s", remoteurl, colonsep ? ":" : "/", url);
+	free(remoteurl);
+
+	if (starts_with_dot_slash(sb.buf))
+		out = xstrdup(sb.buf + 2);
+	else
+		out = xstrdup(sb.buf);
+	strbuf_reset(&sb);
+
+	if (!up_path || !is_relative)
+		return out;
+
+	strbuf_addf(&sb, "%s%s", up_path, out);
+	free(out);
+	return strbuf_detach(&sb, NULL);
+}
+
+static int resolve_relative_url(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+	char *remoteurl = NULL;
+	char *remote = get_default_remote();
+	const char *up_path = NULL;
+	char *res;
+	const char *url;
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	if (argc != 2 && argc != 3)
+		die("resolve-relative-url only accepts one or two arguments");
+
+	url = argv[1];
+	strbuf_addf(&sb, "remote.%s.url", remote);
+	free(remote);
+
+	if (git_config_get_string(sb.buf, &remoteurl))
+		/* the repository is its own authoritative upstream */
+		remoteurl = xgetcwd();
+
+	if (argc == 3)
+		up_path = argv[2];
+
+	res = relative_url(remoteurl, url, up_path);
+	puts(res);
+	free(res);
+	free(remoteurl);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int resolve_relative_url_test(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+	char *remoteurl, *res;
+	const char *up_path, *url;
+
+	if (argc != 4)
+		die("resolve-relative-url-test only accepts three arguments: <up_path> <remoteurl> <url>");
+
+	up_path = argv[1];
+	remoteurl = xstrdup(argv[2]);
+	url = argv[3];
+
+	if (!strcmp(up_path, "(null)"))
+		up_path = NULL;
+
+	res = relative_url(remoteurl, url, up_path);
+	puts(res);
+	free(res);
+	free(remoteurl);
+	return 0;
+}
 
 struct module_list {
 	const struct cache_entry **entries;
@@ -100,6 +305,125 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static void init_submodule(const char *path, const char *prefix, int quiet)
+{
+	const struct submodule *sub;
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+	char *upd = NULL, *url = NULL, *displaypath;
+
+	/* Only loads from .gitmodules, no overlay with .git/config */
+	gitmodules_config();
+
+	if (prefix) {
+		strbuf_addf(&sb, "%s%s", prefix, path);
+		displaypath = strbuf_detach(&sb, NULL);
+	} else
+		displaypath = xstrdup(path);
+
+	sub = submodule_from_path(null_sha1, path);
+
+	if (!sub)
+		die(_("No url found for submodule path '%s' in .gitmodules"),
+			displaypath);
+
+	/*
+	 * Copy url setting when it is not set yet.
+	 * To look up the url in .git/config, we must not fall back to
+	 * .gitmodules, so look it up directly.
+	 */
+	strbuf_reset(&sb);
+	strbuf_addf(&sb, "submodule.%s.url", sub->name);
+	if (git_config_get_string(sb.buf, &url)) {
+		url = xstrdup(sub->url);
+
+		if (!url)
+			die(_("No url found for submodule path '%s' in .gitmodules"),
+				displaypath);
+
+		/* Possibly a url relative to parent */
+		if (starts_with_dot_dot_slash(url) ||
+		    starts_with_dot_slash(url)) {
+			char *remoteurl, *relurl;
+			char *remote = get_default_remote();
+			struct strbuf remotesb = STRBUF_INIT;
+			strbuf_addf(&remotesb, "remote.%s.url", remote);
+			free(remote);
+
+			if (git_config_get_string(remotesb.buf, &remoteurl))
+				/*
+				 * The repository is its own
+				 * authoritative upstream
+				 */
+				remoteurl = xgetcwd();
+			relurl = relative_url(remoteurl, url, NULL);
+			strbuf_release(&remotesb);
+			free(remoteurl);
+			free(url);
+			url = relurl;
+		}
+
+		if (git_config_set_gently(sb.buf, url))
+			die(_("Failed to register url for submodule path '%s'"),
+			    displaypath);
+		if (!quiet)
+			fprintf(stderr,
+				_("Submodule '%s' (%s) registered for path '%s'\n"),
+				sub->name, url, displaypath);
+	}
+
+	/* Copy "update" setting when it is not set yet */
+	strbuf_reset(&sb);
+	strbuf_addf(&sb, "submodule.%s.update", sub->name);
+	if (git_config_get_string(sb.buf, &upd) &&
+	    sub->update_strategy.type != SM_UPDATE_UNSPECIFIED) {
+		if (sub->update_strategy.type == SM_UPDATE_COMMAND) {
+			fprintf(stderr, _("warning: command update mode suggested for submodule '%s'\n"),
+				sub->name);
+			upd = xstrdup("none");
+		} else
+			upd = xstrdup(submodule_strategy_to_string(&sub->update_strategy));
+
+		if (git_config_set_gently(sb.buf, upd))
+			die(_("Failed to register update mode for submodule path '%s'"), displaypath);
+	}
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
+	free(displaypath);
+	free(url);
+	free(upd);
+}
+
+static int module_init(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+	struct pathspec pathspec;
+	struct module_list list = MODULE_LIST_INIT;
+	int quiet = 0;
+	int i;
+
+	struct option module_init_options[] = {
+		OPT_STRING(0, "prefix", &prefix,
+			   N_("path"),
+			   N_("alternative anchor for relative paths")),
+		OPT__QUIET(&quiet, N_("Suppress output for initializing a submodule")),
+		OPT_END()
+	};
+
+	const char *const git_submodule_helper_usage[] = {
+		N_("git submodule--helper init [<path>]"),
+		NULL
+	};
+
+	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, module_init_options,
+			     git_submodule_helper_usage, 0);
+
+	if (module_list_compute(argc, argv, prefix, &pathspec, &list) < 0)
+		return 1;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < list.nr; i++)
+		init_submodule(list.entries[i]->name, prefix, quiet);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
 static int module_name(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
 	const struct submodule *sub;
@@ -118,6 +442,7 @@
 
 	return 0;
 }
+
 static int clone_submodule(const char *path, const char *gitdir, const char *url,
 			   const char *depth, const char *reference, int quiet)
 {
@@ -139,7 +464,7 @@
 	argv_array_push(&cp.args, path);
 
 	cp.git_cmd = 1;
-	cp.env = local_repo_env;
+	prepare_submodule_repo_env(&cp.env_array);
 	cp.no_stdin = 1;
 
 	return run_command(&cp);
@@ -180,16 +505,17 @@
 
 	const char *const git_submodule_helper_usage[] = {
 		N_("git submodule--helper clone [--prefix=<path>] [--quiet] "
-		   "[--reference <repository>] [--name <name>] [--url <url>]"
-		   "[--depth <depth>] [--] [<path>...]"),
+		   "[--reference <repository>] [--name <name>] [--depth <depth>] "
+		   "--url <url> --path <path>"),
 		NULL
 	};
 
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, module_clone_options,
 			     git_submodule_helper_usage, 0);
 
-	if (!path || !*path)
-		die(_("submodule--helper: unspecified or empty --path"));
+	if (argc || !url || !path || !*path)
+		usage_with_options(git_submodule_helper_usage,
+				   module_clone_options);
 
 	strbuf_addf(&sb, "%s/modules/%s", get_git_dir(), name);
 	sm_gitdir = xstrdup(absolute_path(sb.buf));
@@ -244,6 +570,269 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+struct submodule_update_clone {
+	/* index into 'list', the list of submodules to look into for cloning */
+	int current;
+	struct module_list list;
+	unsigned warn_if_uninitialized : 1;
+
+	/* update parameter passed via commandline */
+	struct submodule_update_strategy update;
+
+	/* configuration parameters which are passed on to the children */
+	int quiet;
+	const char *reference;
+	const char *depth;
+	const char *recursive_prefix;
+	const char *prefix;
+
+	/* Machine-readable status lines to be consumed by git-submodule.sh */
+	struct string_list projectlines;
+
+	/* If we want to stop as fast as possible and return an error */
+	unsigned quickstop : 1;
+};
+#define SUBMODULE_UPDATE_CLONE_INIT {0, MODULE_LIST_INIT, 0, \
+	SUBMODULE_UPDATE_STRATEGY_INIT, 0, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, \
+	STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP, 0}
+
+
+static void next_submodule_warn_missing(struct submodule_update_clone *suc,
+		struct strbuf *out, const char *displaypath)
+{
+	/*
+	 * Only mention uninitialized submodules when their
+	 * paths have been specified.
+	 */
+	if (suc->warn_if_uninitialized) {
+		strbuf_addf(out,
+			_("Submodule path '%s' not initialized"),
+			displaypath);
+		strbuf_addch(out, '\n');
+		strbuf_addstr(out,
+			_("Maybe you want to use 'update --init'?"));
+		strbuf_addch(out, '\n');
+	}
+}
+
+/**
+ * Determine whether 'ce' needs to be cloned. If so, prepare the 'child' to
+ * run the clone. Returns 1 if 'ce' needs to be cloned, 0 otherwise.
+ */
+static int prepare_to_clone_next_submodule(const struct cache_entry *ce,
+					   struct child_process *child,
+					   struct submodule_update_clone *suc,
+					   struct strbuf *out)
+{
+	const struct submodule *sub = NULL;
+	struct strbuf displaypath_sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+	const char *displaypath = NULL;
+	char *url = NULL;
+	int needs_cloning = 0;
+
+	if (ce_stage(ce)) {
+		if (suc->recursive_prefix)
+			strbuf_addf(&sb, "%s/%s", suc->recursive_prefix, ce->name);
+		else
+			strbuf_addf(&sb, "%s", ce->name);
+		strbuf_addf(out, _("Skipping unmerged submodule %s"), sb.buf);
+		strbuf_addch(out, '\n');
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
+
+	sub = submodule_from_path(null_sha1, ce->name);
+
+	if (suc->recursive_prefix)
+		displaypath = relative_path(suc->recursive_prefix,
+					    ce->name, &displaypath_sb);
+	else
+		displaypath = ce->name;
+
+	if (!sub) {
+		next_submodule_warn_missing(suc, out, displaypath);
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
+
+	if (suc->update.type == SM_UPDATE_NONE
+	    || (suc->update.type == SM_UPDATE_UNSPECIFIED
+		&& sub->update_strategy.type == SM_UPDATE_NONE)) {
+		strbuf_addf(out, _("Skipping submodule '%s'"), displaypath);
+		strbuf_addch(out, '\n');
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Looking up the url in .git/config.
+	 * We must not fall back to .gitmodules as we only want
+	 * to process configured submodules.
+	 */
+	strbuf_reset(&sb);
+	strbuf_addf(&sb, "submodule.%s.url", sub->name);
+	git_config_get_string(sb.buf, &url);
+	if (!url) {
+		next_submodule_warn_missing(suc, out, displaypath);
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
+
+	strbuf_reset(&sb);
+	strbuf_addf(&sb, "%s/.git", ce->name);
+	needs_cloning = !file_exists(sb.buf);
+
+	strbuf_reset(&sb);
+	strbuf_addf(&sb, "%06o %s %d %d\t%s\n", ce->ce_mode,
+			sha1_to_hex(ce->sha1), ce_stage(ce),
+			needs_cloning, ce->name);
+	string_list_append(&suc->projectlines, sb.buf);
+
+	if (!needs_cloning)
+		goto cleanup;
+
+	child->git_cmd = 1;
+	child->no_stdin = 1;
+	child->stdout_to_stderr = 1;
+	child->err = -1;
+	argv_array_push(&child->args, "submodule--helper");
+	argv_array_push(&child->args, "clone");
+	if (suc->quiet)
+		argv_array_push(&child->args, "--quiet");
+	if (suc->prefix)
+		argv_array_pushl(&child->args, "--prefix", suc->prefix, NULL);
+	argv_array_pushl(&child->args, "--path", sub->path, NULL);
+	argv_array_pushl(&child->args, "--name", sub->name, NULL);
+	argv_array_pushl(&child->args, "--url", url, NULL);
+	if (suc->reference)
+		argv_array_push(&child->args, suc->reference);
+	if (suc->depth)
+		argv_array_push(&child->args, suc->depth);
+
+cleanup:
+	free(url);
+	strbuf_reset(&displaypath_sb);
+	strbuf_reset(&sb);
+
+	return needs_cloning;
+}
+
+static int update_clone_get_next_task(struct child_process *child,
+				      struct strbuf *err,
+				      void *suc_cb,
+				      void **void_task_cb)
+{
+	struct submodule_update_clone *suc = suc_cb;
+
+	for (; suc->current < suc->list.nr; suc->current++) {
+		const struct cache_entry *ce = suc->list.entries[suc->current];
+		if (prepare_to_clone_next_submodule(ce, child, suc, err)) {
+			suc->current++;
+			return 1;
+		}
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int update_clone_start_failure(struct strbuf *err,
+				      void *suc_cb,
+				      void *void_task_cb)
+{
+	struct submodule_update_clone *suc = suc_cb;
+	suc->quickstop = 1;
+	return 1;
+}
+
+static int update_clone_task_finished(int result,
+				      struct strbuf *err,
+				      void *suc_cb,
+				      void *void_task_cb)
+{
+	struct submodule_update_clone *suc = suc_cb;
+
+	if (!result)
+		return 0;
+
+	suc->quickstop = 1;
+	return 1;
+}
+
+static int update_clone(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+	const char *update = NULL;
+	int max_jobs = -1;
+	struct string_list_item *item;
+	struct pathspec pathspec;
+	struct submodule_update_clone suc = SUBMODULE_UPDATE_CLONE_INIT;
+
+	struct option module_update_clone_options[] = {
+		OPT_STRING(0, "prefix", &prefix,
+			   N_("path"),
+			   N_("path into the working tree")),
+		OPT_STRING(0, "recursive-prefix", &suc.recursive_prefix,
+			   N_("path"),
+			   N_("path into the working tree, across nested "
+			      "submodule boundaries")),
+		OPT_STRING(0, "update", &update,
+			   N_("string"),
+			   N_("rebase, merge, checkout or none")),
+		OPT_STRING(0, "reference", &suc.reference, N_("repo"),
+			   N_("reference repository")),
+		OPT_STRING(0, "depth", &suc.depth, "<depth>",
+			   N_("Create a shallow clone truncated to the "
+			      "specified number of revisions")),
+		OPT_INTEGER('j', "jobs", &max_jobs,
+			    N_("parallel jobs")),
+		OPT__QUIET(&suc.quiet, N_("don't print cloning progress")),
+		OPT_END()
+	};
+
+	const char *const git_submodule_helper_usage[] = {
+		N_("git submodule--helper update_clone [--prefix=<path>] [<path>...]"),
+		NULL
+	};
+	suc.prefix = prefix;
+
+	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, module_update_clone_options,
+			     git_submodule_helper_usage, 0);
+
+	if (update)
+		if (parse_submodule_update_strategy(update, &suc.update) < 0)
+			die(_("bad value for update parameter"));
+
+	if (module_list_compute(argc, argv, prefix, &pathspec, &suc.list) < 0)
+		return 1;
+
+	if (pathspec.nr)
+		suc.warn_if_uninitialized = 1;
+
+	/* Overlay the parsed .gitmodules file with .git/config */
+	gitmodules_config();
+	git_config(submodule_config, NULL);
+
+	if (max_jobs < 0)
+		max_jobs = parallel_submodules();
+
+	run_processes_parallel(max_jobs,
+			       update_clone_get_next_task,
+			       update_clone_start_failure,
+			       update_clone_task_finished,
+			       &suc);
+
+	/*
+	 * We saved the output and put it out all at once now.
+	 * That means:
+	 * - the listener does not have to interleave their (checkout)
+	 *   work with our fetching.  The writes involved in a
+	 *   checkout involve more straightforward sequential I/O.
+	 * - the listener can avoid doing any work if fetching failed.
+	 */
+	if (suc.quickstop)
+		return 1;
+
+	for_each_string_list_item(item, &suc.projectlines)
+		utf8_fprintf(stdout, "%s", item->string);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
 struct cmd_struct {
 	const char *cmd;
 	int (*fn)(int, const char **, const char *);
@@ -253,19 +842,23 @@
 	{"list", module_list},
 	{"name", module_name},
 	{"clone", module_clone},
+	{"update-clone", update_clone},
+	{"resolve-relative-url", resolve_relative_url},
+	{"resolve-relative-url-test", resolve_relative_url_test},
+	{"init", module_init}
 };
 
 int cmd_submodule__helper(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
 	int i;
 	if (argc < 2)
-		die(_("fatal: submodule--helper subcommand must be "
+		die(_("submodule--helper subcommand must be "
 		      "called with a subcommand"));
 
 	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(commands); i++)
 		if (!strcmp(argv[1], commands[i].cmd))
 			return commands[i].fn(argc - 1, argv + 1, prefix);
 
-	die(_("fatal: '%s' is not a valid submodule--helper "
+	die(_("'%s' is not a valid submodule--helper "
 	      "subcommand"), argv[1]);
 }
diff --git a/builtin/tag.c b/builtin/tag.c
index 1705c94..50e4ae5 100644
--- a/builtin/tag.c
+++ b/builtin/tag.c
@@ -29,6 +29,7 @@
 };
 
 static unsigned int colopts;
+static int force_sign_annotate;
 
 static int list_tags(struct ref_filter *filter, struct ref_sorting *sorting, const char *format)
 {
@@ -104,13 +105,7 @@
 static int verify_tag(const char *name, const char *ref,
 				const unsigned char *sha1)
 {
-	const char *argv_verify_tag[] = {"verify-tag",
-					"-v", "SHA1_HEX", NULL};
-	argv_verify_tag[2] = sha1_to_hex(sha1);
-
-	if (run_command_v_opt(argv_verify_tag, RUN_GIT_CMD))
-		return error(_("could not verify the tag '%s'"), name);
-	return 0;
+	return gpg_verify_tag(sha1, name, GPG_VERIFY_VERBOSE);
 }
 
 static int do_sign(struct strbuf *buffer)
@@ -166,6 +161,11 @@
 	status = git_gpg_config(var, value, cb);
 	if (status)
 		return status;
+	if (!strcmp(var, "tag.forcesignannotated")) {
+		force_sign_annotate = git_config_bool(var, value);
+		return 0;
+	}
+
 	if (starts_with(var, "column."))
 		return git_column_config(var, value, "tag", &colopts);
 	return git_default_config(var, value, cb);
@@ -327,7 +327,7 @@
 	char *cleanup_arg = NULL;
 	int create_reflog = 0;
 	int annotate = 0, force = 0;
-	int cmdmode = 0;
+	int cmdmode = 0, create_tag_object = 0;
 	const char *msgfile = NULL, *keyid = NULL;
 	struct msg_arg msg = { 0, STRBUF_INIT };
 	struct ref_transaction *transaction;
@@ -385,12 +385,12 @@
 		opt.sign = 1;
 		set_signing_key(keyid);
 	}
-	if (opt.sign)
-		annotate = 1;
+	create_tag_object = (opt.sign || annotate || msg.given || msgfile);
+
 	if (argc == 0 && !cmdmode)
 		cmdmode = 'l';
 
-	if ((annotate || msg.given || msgfile || force) && (cmdmode != 0))
+	if ((create_tag_object || force) && (cmdmode != 0))
 		usage_with_options(git_tag_usage, options);
 
 	finalize_colopts(&colopts, -1);
@@ -431,7 +431,6 @@
 	if (msg.given || msgfile) {
 		if (msg.given && msgfile)
 			die(_("only one -F or -m option is allowed."));
-		annotate = 1;
 		if (msg.given)
 			strbuf_addbuf(&buf, &(msg.buf));
 		else {
@@ -474,8 +473,11 @@
 	else
 		die(_("Invalid cleanup mode %s"), cleanup_arg);
 
-	if (annotate)
+	if (create_tag_object) {
+		if (force_sign_annotate && !annotate)
+			opt.sign = 1;
 		create_tag(object, tag, &buf, &opt, prev, object);
+	}
 
 	transaction = ref_transaction_begin(&err);
 	if (!transaction ||
diff --git a/builtin/update-index.c b/builtin/update-index.c
index 1c94ca5..b8b8522 100644
--- a/builtin/update-index.c
+++ b/builtin/update-index.c
@@ -255,7 +255,7 @@
 {
 	if (err == ENOENT || err == ENOTDIR)
 		return remove_one_path(path);
-	return error("lstat(\"%s\"): %s", path, strerror(errno));
+	return error("lstat(\"%s\"): %s", path, strerror(err));
 }
 
 static int add_one_path(const struct cache_entry *old, const char *path, int len, struct stat *st)
diff --git a/builtin/upload-archive.c b/builtin/upload-archive.c
index dbfe14f..2caedf1 100644
--- a/builtin/upload-archive.c
+++ b/builtin/upload-archive.c
@@ -104,8 +104,7 @@
 		pfd[1].events = POLLIN;
 		if (poll(pfd, 2, -1) < 0) {
 			if (errno != EINTR) {
-				error("poll failed resuming: %s",
-				      strerror(errno));
+				error_errno("poll failed resuming");
 				sleep(1);
 			}
 			continue;
diff --git a/builtin/verify-tag.c b/builtin/verify-tag.c
index 00663f6..99f8148 100644
--- a/builtin/verify-tag.c
+++ b/builtin/verify-tag.c
@@ -18,55 +18,6 @@
 		NULL
 };
 
-static int run_gpg_verify(const char *buf, unsigned long size, unsigned flags)
-{
-	struct signature_check sigc;
-	int len;
-	int ret;
-
-	memset(&sigc, 0, sizeof(sigc));
-
-	len = parse_signature(buf, size);
-
-	if (size == len) {
-		if (flags & GPG_VERIFY_VERBOSE)
-			write_in_full(1, buf, len);
-		return error("no signature found");
-	}
-
-	ret = check_signature(buf, len, buf + len, size - len, &sigc);
-	print_signature_buffer(&sigc, flags);
-
-	signature_check_clear(&sigc);
-	return ret;
-}
-
-static int verify_tag(const char *name, unsigned flags)
-{
-	enum object_type type;
-	unsigned char sha1[20];
-	char *buf;
-	unsigned long size;
-	int ret;
-
-	if (get_sha1(name, sha1))
-		return error("tag '%s' not found.", name);
-
-	type = sha1_object_info(sha1, NULL);
-	if (type != OBJ_TAG)
-		return error("%s: cannot verify a non-tag object of type %s.",
-				name, typename(type));
-
-	buf = read_sha1_file(sha1, &type, &size);
-	if (!buf)
-		return error("%s: unable to read file.", name);
-
-	ret = run_gpg_verify(buf, size, flags);
-
-	free(buf);
-	return ret;
-}
-
 static int git_verify_tag_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
 {
 	int status = git_gpg_config(var, value, cb);
@@ -95,11 +46,13 @@
 	if (verbose)
 		flags |= GPG_VERIFY_VERBOSE;
 
-	/* sometimes the program was terminated because this signal
-	 * was received in the process of writing the gpg input: */
-	signal(SIGPIPE, SIG_IGN);
-	while (i < argc)
-		if (verify_tag(argv[i++], flags))
+	while (i < argc) {
+		unsigned char sha1[20];
+		const char *name = argv[i++];
+		if (get_sha1(name, sha1))
+			had_error = !!error("tag '%s' not found.", name);
+		else if (gpg_verify_tag(sha1, name, flags))
 			had_error = 1;
+	}
 	return had_error;
 }
diff --git a/builtin/worktree.c b/builtin/worktree.c
index 38b5609..96a2834 100644
--- a/builtin/worktree.c
+++ b/builtin/worktree.c
@@ -21,6 +21,7 @@
 struct add_opts {
 	int force;
 	int detach;
+	int checkout;
 	const char *new_branch;
 	int force_new_branch;
 };
@@ -109,7 +110,7 @@
 		if (ret < 0 && errno == ENOTDIR)
 			ret = unlink(path.buf);
 		if (ret)
-			error(_("failed to remove: %s"), strerror(errno));
+			error_errno(_("failed to remove '%s'"), path.buf);
 	}
 	closedir(dir);
 	if (!show_only)
@@ -204,7 +205,7 @@
 	if (!opts->detach && !strbuf_check_branch_ref(&symref, refname) &&
 		 ref_exists(symref.buf)) { /* it's a branch */
 		if (!opts->force)
-			die_if_checked_out(symref.buf);
+			die_if_checked_out(symref.buf, 0);
 	} else { /* must be a commit */
 		commit = lookup_commit_reference_by_name(refname);
 		if (!commit)
@@ -284,18 +285,22 @@
 	if (ret)
 		goto done;
 
-	cp.argv = NULL;
-	argv_array_clear(&cp.args);
-	argv_array_pushl(&cp.args, "reset", "--hard", NULL);
-	cp.env = child_env.argv;
-	ret = run_command(&cp);
-	if (!ret) {
-		is_junk = 0;
-		free(junk_work_tree);
-		free(junk_git_dir);
-		junk_work_tree = NULL;
-		junk_git_dir = NULL;
+	if (opts->checkout) {
+		cp.argv = NULL;
+		argv_array_clear(&cp.args);
+		argv_array_pushl(&cp.args, "reset", "--hard", NULL);
+		cp.env = child_env.argv;
+		ret = run_command(&cp);
+		if (ret)
+			goto done;
 	}
+
+	is_junk = 0;
+	free(junk_work_tree);
+	free(junk_git_dir);
+	junk_work_tree = NULL;
+	junk_git_dir = NULL;
+
 done:
 	strbuf_reset(&sb);
 	strbuf_addf(&sb, "%s/locked", sb_repo.buf);
@@ -320,10 +325,12 @@
 		OPT_STRING('B', NULL, &new_branch_force, N_("branch"),
 			   N_("create or reset a branch")),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "detach", &opts.detach, N_("detach HEAD at named commit")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "checkout", &opts.checkout, N_("populate the new working tree")),
 		OPT_END()
 	};
 
 	memset(&opts, 0, sizeof(opts));
+	opts.checkout = 1;
 	ac = parse_options(ac, av, prefix, options, worktree_usage, 0);
 	if (!!opts.detach + !!opts.new_branch + !!new_branch_force > 1)
 		die(_("-b, -B, and --detach are mutually exclusive"));
@@ -342,7 +349,7 @@
 		if (!opts.force &&
 		    !strbuf_check_branch_ref(&symref, opts.new_branch) &&
 		    ref_exists(symref.buf))
-			die_if_checked_out(symref.buf);
+			die_if_checked_out(symref.buf, 0);
 		strbuf_release(&symref);
 	}
 
diff --git a/cache-tree.c b/cache-tree.c
index 3ebf9c3..ddf0cc9 100644
--- a/cache-tree.c
+++ b/cache-tree.c
@@ -663,7 +663,7 @@
 			cnt++;
 		else {
 			struct cache_tree_sub *sub;
-			struct tree *subtree = lookup_tree(entry.sha1);
+			struct tree *subtree = lookup_tree(entry.oid->hash);
 			if (!subtree->object.parsed)
 				parse_tree(subtree);
 			sub = cache_tree_sub(it, entry.path);
@@ -710,7 +710,7 @@
 
 	it = find_cache_tree_from_traversal(root, info);
 	it = cache_tree_find(it, ent->path);
-	if (it && it->entry_count > 0 && !hashcmp(ent->sha1, it->sha1))
+	if (it && it->entry_count > 0 && !hashcmp(ent->oid->hash, it->sha1))
 		return it->entry_count;
 	return 0;
 }
diff --git a/cache.h b/cache.h
index 4ff196c..6049f86 100644
--- a/cache.h
+++ b/cache.h
@@ -654,6 +654,7 @@
 extern const char *apply_default_whitespace;
 extern const char *apply_default_ignorewhitespace;
 extern const char *git_attributes_file;
+extern const char *git_hooks_path;
 extern int zlib_compression_level;
 extern int core_compression_level;
 extern int core_compression_seen;
@@ -807,11 +808,14 @@
  */
 extern const char *mkpath(const char *fmt, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
 extern const char *git_path(const char *fmt, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
+extern const char *git_common_path(const char *fmt, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
 
 extern char *mksnpath(char *buf, size_t n, const char *fmt, ...)
 	__attribute__((format (printf, 3, 4)));
 extern void strbuf_git_path(struct strbuf *sb, const char *fmt, ...)
 	__attribute__((format (printf, 2, 3)));
+extern void strbuf_git_common_path(struct strbuf *sb, const char *fmt, ...)
+	__attribute__((format (printf, 2, 3)));
 extern char *git_path_buf(struct strbuf *buf, const char *fmt, ...)
 	__attribute__((format (printf, 2, 3)));
 extern void strbuf_git_path_submodule(struct strbuf *sb, const char *path,
@@ -1162,6 +1166,8 @@
 extern void maybe_die_on_misspelt_object_name(const char *name, const char *prefix);
 extern int get_sha1_with_context(const char *str, unsigned flags, unsigned char *sha1, struct object_context *orc);
 
+extern int get_oid(const char *str, struct object_id *oid);
+
 typedef int each_abbrev_fn(const unsigned char *sha1, void *);
 extern int for_each_abbrev(const char *prefix, each_abbrev_fn, void *);
 
@@ -1772,8 +1778,8 @@
 extern int diff_auto_refresh_index;
 
 /* match-trees.c */
-void shift_tree(const unsigned char *, const unsigned char *, unsigned char *, int);
-void shift_tree_by(const unsigned char *, const unsigned char *, unsigned char *, const char *);
+void shift_tree(const struct object_id *, const struct object_id *, struct object_id *, int);
+void shift_tree_by(const struct object_id *, const struct object_id *, struct object_id *, const char *);
 
 /*
  * whitespace rules.
diff --git a/check-racy.c b/check-racy.c
index 00d92a1..24b6542 100644
--- a/check-racy.c
+++ b/check-racy.c
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@
 		struct stat st;
 
 		if (lstat(ce->name, &st)) {
-			error("lstat(%s): %s", ce->name, strerror(errno));
+			error_errno("lstat(%s)", ce->name);
 			continue;
 		}
 
diff --git a/combine-diff.c b/combine-diff.c
index 0e1d4b0..8f2313d 100644
--- a/combine-diff.c
+++ b/combine-diff.c
@@ -1005,8 +1005,7 @@
 			struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 
 			if (strbuf_readlink(&buf, elem->path, st.st_size) < 0) {
-				error("readlink(%s): %s", elem->path,
-				      strerror(errno));
+				error_errno("readlink(%s)", elem->path);
 				return;
 			}
 			result_size = buf.len;
diff --git a/commit.h b/commit.h
index 5d58be0..b06db4d 100644
--- a/commit.h
+++ b/commit.h
@@ -147,6 +147,7 @@
 	int preserve_subject;
 	struct date_mode date_mode;
 	unsigned date_mode_explicit:1;
+	int expand_tabs_in_log;
 	int need_8bit_cte;
 	char *notes_message;
 	struct reflog_walk_info *reflog_info;
diff --git a/compat/win32/syslog.c b/compat/win32/syslog.c
index b905aea..6c7c9b6 100644
--- a/compat/win32/syslog.c
+++ b/compat/win32/syslog.c
@@ -28,13 +28,13 @@
 	va_end(ap);
 
 	if (str_len < 0) {
-		warning("vsnprintf failed: '%s'", strerror(errno));
+		warning_errno("vsnprintf failed");
 		return;
 	}
 
 	str = malloc(st_add(str_len, 1));
 	if (!str) {
-		warning("malloc failed: '%s'", strerror(errno));
+		warning_errno("malloc failed");
 		return;
 	}
 
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@
 	while ((pos = strstr(str, "%1")) != NULL) {
 		str = realloc(str, st_add(++str_len, 1));
 		if (!str) {
-			warning("realloc failed: '%s'", strerror(errno));
+			warning_errno("realloc failed");
 			return;
 		}
 		memmove(pos + 2, pos + 1, strlen(pos));
diff --git a/compat/winansi.c b/compat/winansi.c
index 5dfa5ed..3be60ce 100644
--- a/compat/winansi.c
+++ b/compat/winansi.c
@@ -483,6 +483,7 @@
 #define IOINFO_L2E 5
 #define IOINFO_ARRAY_ELTS (1 << IOINFO_L2E)
 
+#define FPIPE 0x08
 #define FDEV  0x40
 
 static inline ioinfo* _pioinfo(int fd)
@@ -530,6 +531,45 @@
 	return old_handle;
 }
 
+#ifdef DETECT_MSYS_TTY
+
+#include <winternl.h>
+#include <ntstatus.h>
+
+static void detect_msys_tty(int fd)
+{
+	ULONG result;
+	BYTE buffer[1024];
+	POBJECT_NAME_INFORMATION nameinfo = (POBJECT_NAME_INFORMATION) buffer;
+	PWSTR name;
+
+	/* check if fd is a pipe */
+	HANDLE h = (HANDLE) _get_osfhandle(fd);
+	if (GetFileType(h) != FILE_TYPE_PIPE)
+		return;
+
+	/* get pipe name */
+	if (!NT_SUCCESS(NtQueryObject(h, ObjectNameInformation,
+			buffer, sizeof(buffer) - 2, &result)))
+		return;
+	name = nameinfo->Name.Buffer;
+	name[nameinfo->Name.Length] = 0;
+
+	/* check if this could be a MSYS2 pty pipe ('msys-XXXX-ptyN-XX') */
+	if (!wcsstr(name, L"msys-") || !wcsstr(name, L"-pty"))
+		return;
+
+	/* init ioinfo size if we haven't done so */
+	if (init_sizeof_ioinfo())
+		return;
+
+	/* set FDEV flag, reset FPIPE flag */
+	_pioinfo(fd)->osflags &= ~FPIPE;
+	_pioinfo(fd)->osflags |= FDEV;
+}
+
+#endif
+
 void winansi_init(void)
 {
 	int con1, con2;
@@ -538,8 +578,15 @@
 	/* check if either stdout or stderr is a console output screen buffer */
 	con1 = is_console(1);
 	con2 = is_console(2);
-	if (!con1 && !con2)
+	if (!con1 && !con2) {
+#ifdef DETECT_MSYS_TTY
+		/* check if stdin / stdout / stderr are MSYS2 pty pipes */
+		detect_msys_tty(0);
+		detect_msys_tty(1);
+		detect_msys_tty(2);
+#endif
 		return;
+	}
 
 	/* create a named pipe to communicate with the console thread */
 	xsnprintf(name, sizeof(name), "\\\\.\\pipe\\winansi%lu", GetCurrentProcessId());
@@ -575,8 +622,11 @@
 HANDLE winansi_get_osfhandle(int fd)
 {
 	HANDLE hnd = (HANDLE) _get_osfhandle(fd);
-	if ((fd == 1 || fd == 2) && isatty(fd)
-	    && GetFileType(hnd) == FILE_TYPE_PIPE)
-		return (fd == 1) ? hconsole1 : hconsole2;
+	if (isatty(fd) && GetFileType(hnd) == FILE_TYPE_PIPE) {
+		if (fd == 1 && hconsole1)
+			return hconsole1;
+		else if (fd == 2 && hconsole2)
+			return hconsole2;
+	}
 	return hnd;
 }
diff --git a/config.c b/config.c
index adf12a1..f51c56b 100644
--- a/config.c
+++ b/config.c
@@ -162,7 +162,7 @@
 {
 	struct strbuf env = STRBUF_INIT;
 	const char *old = getenv(CONFIG_DATA_ENVIRONMENT);
-	if (old) {
+	if (old && *old) {
 		strbuf_addstr(&env, old);
 		strbuf_addch(&env, ' ');
 	}
@@ -717,6 +717,9 @@
 	if (!strcmp(var, "core.attributesfile"))
 		return git_config_pathname(&git_attributes_file, var, value);
 
+	if (!strcmp(var, "core.hookspath"))
+		return git_config_pathname(&git_hooks_path, var, value);
+
 	if (!strcmp(var, "core.bare")) {
 		is_bare_repository_cfg = git_config_bool(var, value);
 		return 0;
@@ -803,8 +806,6 @@
 
 	if (!strcmp(var, "core.autocrlf")) {
 		if (value && !strcasecmp(value, "input")) {
-			if (core_eol == EOL_CRLF)
-				return error("core.autocrlf=input conflicts with core.eol=crlf");
 			auto_crlf = AUTO_CRLF_INPUT;
 			return 0;
 		}
@@ -830,8 +831,6 @@
 			core_eol = EOL_NATIVE;
 		else
 			core_eol = EOL_UNSET;
-		if (core_eol == EOL_CRLF && auto_crlf == AUTO_CRLF_INPUT)
-			return error("core.autocrlf=input conflicts with core.eol=crlf");
 		return 0;
 	}
 
@@ -2017,7 +2016,7 @@
 	lock = xcalloc(1, sizeof(struct lock_file));
 	fd = hold_lock_file_for_update(lock, config_filename, 0);
 	if (fd < 0) {
-		error("could not lock config file %s: %s", config_filename, strerror(errno));
+		error_errno("could not lock config file %s", config_filename);
 		free(store.key);
 		ret = CONFIG_NO_LOCK;
 		goto out_free;
@@ -2031,8 +2030,7 @@
 		free(store.key);
 
 		if ( ENOENT != errno ) {
-			error("opening %s: %s", config_filename,
-			      strerror(errno));
+			error_errno("opening %s", config_filename);
 			ret = CONFIG_INVALID_FILE; /* same as "invalid config file" */
 			goto out_free;
 		}
@@ -2116,8 +2114,7 @@
 		if (contents == MAP_FAILED) {
 			if (errno == ENODEV && S_ISDIR(st.st_mode))
 				errno = EISDIR;
-			error("unable to mmap '%s': %s",
-			      config_filename, strerror(errno));
+			error_errno("unable to mmap '%s'", config_filename);
 			ret = CONFIG_INVALID_FILE;
 			contents = NULL;
 			goto out_free;
@@ -2126,8 +2123,7 @@
 		in_fd = -1;
 
 		if (chmod(get_lock_file_path(lock), st.st_mode & 07777) < 0) {
-			error("chmod on %s failed: %s",
-			      get_lock_file_path(lock), strerror(errno));
+			error_errno("chmod on %s failed", get_lock_file_path(lock));
 			ret = CONFIG_NO_WRITE;
 			goto out_free;
 		}
@@ -2183,8 +2179,7 @@
 	}
 
 	if (commit_lock_file(lock) < 0) {
-		error("could not write config file %s: %s", config_filename,
-		      strerror(errno));
+		error_errno("could not write config file %s", config_filename);
 		ret = CONFIG_NO_WRITE;
 		lock = NULL;
 		goto out_free;
@@ -2335,8 +2330,8 @@
 	fstat(fileno(config_file), &st);
 
 	if (chmod(get_lock_file_path(lock), st.st_mode & 07777) < 0) {
-		ret = error("chmod on %s failed: %s",
-			    get_lock_file_path(lock), strerror(errno));
+		ret = error_errno("chmod on %s failed",
+				  get_lock_file_path(lock));
 		goto out;
 	}
 
@@ -2390,8 +2385,8 @@
 	fclose(config_file);
 unlock_and_out:
 	if (commit_lock_file(lock) < 0)
-		ret = error("could not write config file %s: %s",
-			    config_filename, strerror(errno));
+		ret = error_errno("could not write config file %s",
+				  config_filename);
 out:
 	free(filename_buf);
 	return ret;
diff --git a/config.mak.uname b/config.mak.uname
index 40d6b29..a88f139 100644
--- a/config.mak.uname
+++ b/config.mak.uname
@@ -557,7 +557,8 @@
 			BASIC_LDFLAGS += -Wl,--large-address-aware
 		endif
 		CC = gcc
-		COMPAT_CFLAGS += -D__USE_MINGW_ANSI_STDIO=0
+		COMPAT_CFLAGS += -D__USE_MINGW_ANSI_STDIO=0 -DDETECT_MSYS_TTY
+		EXTLIBS += -lntdll
 		INSTALL = /bin/install
 		NO_R_TO_GCC_LINKER = YesPlease
 		INTERNAL_QSORT = YesPlease
diff --git a/connected.c b/connected.c
index 299c560..bf1b12e 100644
--- a/connected.c
+++ b/connected.c
@@ -86,17 +86,14 @@
 		memcpy(commit, sha1_to_hex(sha1), 40);
 		if (write_in_full(rev_list.in, commit, 41) < 0) {
 			if (errno != EPIPE && errno != EINVAL)
-				error(_("failed write to rev-list: %s"),
-				      strerror(errno));
+				error_errno(_("failed write to rev-list"));
 			err = -1;
 			break;
 		}
 	} while (!fn(cb_data, sha1));
 
-	if (close(rev_list.in)) {
-		error(_("failed to close rev-list's stdin: %s"), strerror(errno));
-		err = -1;
-	}
+	if (close(rev_list.in))
+		err = error_errno(_("failed to close rev-list's stdin"));
 
 	sigchain_pop(SIGPIPE);
 	return finish_command(&rev_list) || err;
diff --git a/contrib/completion/git-completion.bash b/contrib/completion/git-completion.bash
index e3918c8..3402475 100644
--- a/contrib/completion/git-completion.bash
+++ b/contrib/completion/git-completion.bash
@@ -1339,15 +1339,15 @@
 {
 	case "$cur" in
 	--*)
-		__gitcomp "--all --info --man --web"
+		__gitcomp "--all --guides --info --man --web"
 		return
 		;;
 	esac
 	__git_compute_all_commands
 	__gitcomp "$__git_all_commands $(__git_aliases)
 		attributes cli core-tutorial cvs-migration
-		diffcore gitk glossary hooks ignore modules
-		namespaces repository-layout tutorial tutorial-2
+		diffcore everyday gitk glossary hooks ignore modules
+		namespaces repository-layout revisions tutorial tutorial-2
 		workflows
 		"
 }
@@ -1458,6 +1458,7 @@
 			--relative-date --date=
 			--pretty= --format= --oneline
 			--show-signature
+			--cherry-mark
 			--cherry-pick
 			--graph
 			--decorate --decorate=
diff --git a/contrib/hooks/multimail/CHANGES b/contrib/hooks/multimail/CHANGES
index 53c71b4..100cc7a 100644
--- a/contrib/hooks/multimail/CHANGES
+++ b/contrib/hooks/multimail/CHANGES
@@ -1,3 +1,11 @@
+Release 1.3.1 (bugfix-only release)
+===================================
+
+* Generate links to commits in combined emails (it was done only for
+  commit emails in 1.3.0).
+
+* Fix broken links on PyPi.
+
 Release 1.3.0
 =============
 
diff --git a/contrib/hooks/multimail/README b/contrib/hooks/multimail/README
index 1e04801..0c91d19 100644
--- a/contrib/hooks/multimail/README
+++ b/contrib/hooks/multimail/README
@@ -1,4 +1,4 @@
-git-multimail 1.3.0
+git-multimail 1.3.1
 ===================
 
 .. image:: https://travis-ci.org/git-multimail/git-multimail.svg?branch=master
diff --git a/contrib/hooks/multimail/README.Git b/contrib/hooks/multimail/README.Git
index ee1fa75..1210bde 100644
--- a/contrib/hooks/multimail/README.Git
+++ b/contrib/hooks/multimail/README.Git
@@ -6,10 +6,10 @@
     https://github.com/git-multimail/git-multimail
 
 The version in this directory was obtained from the upstream project
-on May 03 2016 and consists of the "git-multimail" subdirectory from
+on May 13 2016 and consists of the "git-multimail" subdirectory from
 revision
 
-    26f3ae9f86aa7f8a054ba89235c4d3879f98b03d refs/tags/1.3.0
+    3ce5470d4abf7251604cbf64e73a962e1b617f5e refs/tags/1.3.1
 
 Please see the README file in this directory for information about how
 to report bugs or contribute to git-multimail.
diff --git a/contrib/hooks/multimail/git_multimail.py b/contrib/hooks/multimail/git_multimail.py
index f2c92ae..54ab4a4 100755
--- a/contrib/hooks/multimail/git_multimail.py
+++ b/contrib/hooks/multimail/git_multimail.py
@@ -1,6 +1,6 @@
 #! /usr/bin/env python
 
-__version__ = '1.3.0'
+__version__ = '1.3.1'
 
 # Copyright (c) 2015 Matthieu Moy and others
 # Copyright (c) 2012-2014 Michael Haggerty and others
@@ -1704,6 +1704,14 @@
         self.header_template = COMBINED_HEADER_TEMPLATE
         self.intro_template = COMBINED_INTRO_TEMPLATE
         self.footer_template = COMBINED_FOOTER_TEMPLATE
+
+        def revision_gen_link(base_url):
+            # revision is used only to generate the body, and
+            # _content_type is set while generating headers. Get it
+            # from the BranchChange object.
+            revision._content_type = self._content_type
+            return revision.generate_browse_link(base_url)
+        self.generate_browse_link = revision_gen_link
         for line in self.generate_email(push, body_filter, values):
             yield line
 
diff --git a/convert.c b/convert.c
index f524b8d..b1614bf 100644
--- a/convert.c
+++ b/convert.c
@@ -1380,27 +1380,22 @@
 struct stream_filter *get_stream_filter(const char *path, const unsigned char *sha1)
 {
 	struct conv_attrs ca;
-	enum crlf_action crlf_action;
 	struct stream_filter *filter = NULL;
 
 	convert_attrs(&ca, path);
-
 	if (ca.drv && (ca.drv->smudge || ca.drv->clean))
-		return filter;
+		return NULL;
+
+	if (ca.crlf_action == CRLF_AUTO || ca.crlf_action == CRLF_AUTO_CRLF)
+		return NULL;
 
 	if (ca.ident)
 		filter = ident_filter(sha1);
 
-	crlf_action = ca.crlf_action;
-
-	if ((crlf_action == CRLF_BINARY) ||
-			crlf_action == CRLF_AUTO_INPUT ||
-			(crlf_action == CRLF_TEXT_INPUT))
-		filter = cascade_filter(filter, &null_filter_singleton);
-
-	else if (output_eol(crlf_action) == EOL_CRLF &&
-		 !(crlf_action == CRLF_AUTO || crlf_action == CRLF_AUTO_CRLF))
+	if (output_eol(ca.crlf_action) == EOL_CRLF)
 		filter = cascade_filter(filter, lf_to_crlf_filter());
+	else
+		filter = cascade_filter(filter, &null_filter_singleton);
 
 	return filter;
 }
diff --git a/copy.c b/copy.c
index 574fa1f..4de6a11 100644
--- a/copy.c
+++ b/copy.c
@@ -42,15 +42,15 @@
 	status = copy_fd(fdi, fdo);
 	switch (status) {
 	case COPY_READ_ERROR:
-		error("copy-fd: read returned %s", strerror(errno));
+		error_errno("copy-fd: read returned");
 		break;
 	case COPY_WRITE_ERROR:
-		error("copy-fd: write returned %s", strerror(errno));
+		error_errno("copy-fd: write returned");
 		break;
 	}
 	close(fdi);
 	if (close(fdo) != 0)
-		return error("%s: close error: %s", dst, strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno("%s: close error", dst);
 
 	if (!status && adjust_shared_perm(dst))
 		return -1;
diff --git a/credential-cache--daemon.c b/credential-cache--daemon.c
index 291c0fd..1f14d56 100644
--- a/credential-cache--daemon.c
+++ b/credential-cache--daemon.c
@@ -179,12 +179,12 @@
 
 		client = accept(fd, NULL, NULL);
 		if (client < 0) {
-			warning("accept failed: %s", strerror(errno));
+			warning_errno("accept failed");
 			return 1;
 		}
 		client2 = dup(client);
 		if (client2 < 0) {
-			warning("dup failed: %s", strerror(errno));
+			warning_errno("dup failed");
 			close(client);
 			return 1;
 		}
diff --git a/credential.c b/credential.c
index 7d6501d..aa99666 100644
--- a/credential.c
+++ b/credential.c
@@ -63,9 +63,12 @@
 		key = dot + 1;
 	}
 
-	if (!strcmp(key, "helper"))
-		string_list_append(&c->helpers, value);
-	else if (!strcmp(key, "username")) {
+	if (!strcmp(key, "helper")) {
+		if (*value)
+			string_list_append(&c->helpers, value);
+		else
+			string_list_clear(&c->helpers, 0);
+	} else if (!strcmp(key, "username")) {
 		if (!c->username)
 			c->username = xstrdup(value);
 	}
diff --git a/diff-no-index.c b/diff-no-index.c
index 03daadb..1f8999b 100644
--- a/diff-no-index.c
+++ b/diff-no-index.c
@@ -65,8 +65,7 @@
 	size_t size = 0;
 
 	if (strbuf_read(&buf, 0, 0) < 0)
-		return error("error while reading from stdin %s",
-				     strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno("error while reading from stdin");
 
 	s->should_munmap = 0;
 	s->data = strbuf_detach(&buf, &size);
diff --git a/diff.c b/diff.c
index 059123c..d3734d3 100644
--- a/diff.c
+++ b/diff.c
@@ -26,6 +26,7 @@
 #endif
 
 static int diff_detect_rename_default;
+static int diff_compaction_heuristic = 1;
 static int diff_rename_limit_default = 400;
 static int diff_suppress_blank_empty;
 static int diff_use_color_default = -1;
@@ -168,6 +169,11 @@
  * never be affected by the setting of diff.renames
  * the user happens to have in the configuration file.
  */
+void init_diff_ui_defaults(void)
+{
+	diff_detect_rename_default = 1;
+}
+
 int git_diff_ui_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
 {
 	if (!strcmp(var, "diff.color") || !strcmp(var, "color.diff")) {
@@ -184,6 +190,10 @@
 		diff_detect_rename_default = git_config_rename(var, value);
 		return 0;
 	}
+	if (!strcmp(var, "diff.compactionheuristic")) {
+		diff_compaction_heuristic = git_config_bool(var, value);
+		return 0;
+	}
 	if (!strcmp(var, "diff.autorefreshindex")) {
 		diff_auto_refresh_index = git_config_bool(var, value);
 		return 0;
@@ -3273,6 +3283,8 @@
 	options->use_color = diff_use_color_default;
 	options->detect_rename = diff_detect_rename_default;
 	options->xdl_opts |= diff_algorithm;
+	if (diff_compaction_heuristic)
+		DIFF_XDL_SET(options, COMPACTION_HEURISTIC);
 
 	options->orderfile = diff_order_file_cfg;
 
@@ -3793,6 +3805,10 @@
 		DIFF_XDL_SET(options, IGNORE_WHITESPACE_AT_EOL);
 	else if (!strcmp(arg, "--ignore-blank-lines"))
 		DIFF_XDL_SET(options, IGNORE_BLANK_LINES);
+	else if (!strcmp(arg, "--compaction-heuristic"))
+		DIFF_XDL_SET(options, COMPACTION_HEURISTIC);
+	else if (!strcmp(arg, "--no-compaction-heuristic"))
+		DIFF_XDL_CLR(options, COMPACTION_HEURISTIC);
 	else if (!strcmp(arg, "--patience"))
 		options->xdl_opts = DIFF_WITH_ALG(options, PATIENCE_DIFF);
 	else if (!strcmp(arg, "--histogram"))
diff --git a/diff.h b/diff.h
index e7d68ed..125447b 100644
--- a/diff.h
+++ b/diff.h
@@ -266,6 +266,7 @@
 			 const char **optarg);
 
 extern int git_diff_basic_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb);
+extern void init_diff_ui_defaults(void);
 extern int git_diff_ui_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb);
 extern void diff_setup(struct diff_options *);
 extern int diff_opt_parse(struct diff_options *, const char **, int, const char *);
diff --git a/dir.c b/dir.c
index 656f272..6172b34 100644
--- a/dir.c
+++ b/dir.c
@@ -53,13 +53,12 @@
 	int check_only, const struct path_simplify *simplify);
 static int get_dtype(struct dirent *de, const char *path, int len);
 
-/* helper string functions with support for the ignore_case flag */
-int strcmp_icase(const char *a, const char *b)
+int fspathcmp(const char *a, const char *b)
 {
 	return ignore_case ? strcasecmp(a, b) : strcmp(a, b);
 }
 
-int strncmp_icase(const char *a, const char *b, size_t count)
+int fspathncmp(const char *a, const char *b, size_t count)
 {
 	return ignore_case ? strncasecmp(a, b, count) : strncmp(a, b, count);
 }
@@ -795,12 +794,12 @@
 {
 	if (prefix == patternlen) {
 		if (patternlen == basenamelen &&
-		    !strncmp_icase(pattern, basename, basenamelen))
+		    !fspathncmp(pattern, basename, basenamelen))
 			return 1;
 	} else if (flags & EXC_FLAG_ENDSWITH) {
 		/* "*literal" matching against "fooliteral" */
 		if (patternlen - 1 <= basenamelen &&
-		    !strncmp_icase(pattern + 1,
+		    !fspathncmp(pattern + 1,
 				   basename + basenamelen - (patternlen - 1),
 				   patternlen - 1))
 			return 1;
@@ -837,7 +836,7 @@
 	 */
 	if (pathlen < baselen + 1 ||
 	    (baselen && pathname[baselen] != '/') ||
-	    strncmp_icase(pathname, base, baselen))
+	    fspathncmp(pathname, base, baselen))
 		return 0;
 
 	namelen = baselen ? pathlen - baselen - 1 : pathlen;
@@ -851,7 +850,7 @@
 		if (prefix > namelen)
 			return 0;
 
-		if (strncmp_icase(pattern, name, prefix))
+		if (fspathncmp(pattern, name, prefix))
 			return 0;
 		pattern += prefix;
 		patternlen -= prefix;
diff --git a/dir.h b/dir.h
index d56d2fb..bfde698 100644
--- a/dir.h
+++ b/dir.h
@@ -270,8 +270,8 @@
 /* tries to remove the path with empty directories along it, ignores ENOENT */
 extern int remove_path(const char *path);
 
-extern int strcmp_icase(const char *a, const char *b);
-extern int strncmp_icase(const char *a, const char *b, size_t count);
+extern int fspathcmp(const char *a, const char *b);
+extern int fspathncmp(const char *a, const char *b, size_t count);
 
 /*
  * The prefix part of pattern must not contains wildcards.
diff --git a/editor.c b/editor.c
index 01c644c..7519ede 100644
--- a/editor.c
+++ b/editor.c
@@ -63,7 +63,6 @@
 	if (!buffer)
 		return 0;
 	if (strbuf_read_file(buffer, path, 0) < 0)
-		return error("could not read file '%s': %s",
-				path, strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno("could not read file '%s'", path);
 	return 0;
 }
diff --git a/entry.c b/entry.c
index a410957..519e042 100644
--- a/entry.c
+++ b/entry.c
@@ -168,8 +168,8 @@
 			ret = symlink(new, path);
 			free(new);
 			if (ret)
-				return error("unable to create symlink %s (%s)",
-					     path, strerror(errno));
+				return error_errno("unable to create symlink %s",
+						   path);
 			break;
 		}
 
@@ -186,8 +186,7 @@
 		fd = open_output_fd(path, ce, to_tempfile);
 		if (fd < 0) {
 			free(new);
-			return error("unable to create file %s (%s)",
-				path, strerror(errno));
+			return error_errno("unable to create file %s", path);
 		}
 
 		wrote = write_in_full(fd, new, size);
@@ -284,8 +283,7 @@
 				return error("%s is a directory", path.buf);
 			remove_subtree(&path);
 		} else if (unlink(path.buf))
-			return error("unable to unlink old '%s' (%s)",
-				     path.buf, strerror(errno));
+			return error_errno("unable to unlink old '%s'", path.buf);
 	} else if (state->not_new)
 		return 0;
 
diff --git a/environment.c b/environment.c
index 96160a7..ca72464 100644
--- a/environment.c
+++ b/environment.c
@@ -31,6 +31,7 @@
 const char *apply_default_whitespace;
 const char *apply_default_ignorewhitespace;
 const char *git_attributes_file;
+const char *git_hooks_path;
 int zlib_compression_level = Z_BEST_SPEED;
 int core_compression_level;
 int core_compression_seen;
diff --git a/fast-import.c b/fast-import.c
index 9fc7093..c504ef7 100644
--- a/fast-import.c
+++ b/fast-import.c
@@ -329,6 +329,7 @@
 static const char *import_marks_file;
 static int import_marks_file_from_stream;
 static int import_marks_file_ignore_missing;
+static int import_marks_file_done;
 static int relative_marks_paths;
 
 /* Our last blob */
@@ -414,7 +415,7 @@
 	struct recent_command *rc;
 
 	if (!rpt) {
-		error("can't write crash report %s: %s", loc, strerror(errno));
+		error_errno("can't write crash report %s", loc);
 		free(loc);
 		return;
 	}
@@ -1512,7 +1513,7 @@
 	t = root->tree;
 	for (i = 0; i < t->entry_count; i++) {
 		e = t->entries[i];
-		if (e->name->str_len == n && !strncmp_icase(p, e->name->str_dat, n)) {
+		if (e->name->str_len == n && !fspathncmp(p, e->name->str_dat, n)) {
 			if (!*slash1) {
 				if (!S_ISDIR(mode)
 						&& e->versions[1].mode == mode
@@ -1602,7 +1603,7 @@
 	t = root->tree;
 	for (i = 0; i < t->entry_count; i++) {
 		e = t->entries[i];
-		if (e->name->str_len == n && !strncmp_icase(p, e->name->str_dat, n)) {
+		if (e->name->str_len == n && !fspathncmp(p, e->name->str_dat, n)) {
 			if (*slash1 && !S_ISDIR(e->versions[1].mode))
 				/*
 				 * If p names a file in some subdirectory, and a
@@ -1669,7 +1670,7 @@
 	t = root->tree;
 	for (i = 0; i < t->entry_count; i++) {
 		e = t->entries[i];
-		if (e->name->str_len == n && !strncmp_icase(p, e->name->str_dat, n)) {
+		if (e->name->str_len == n && !fspathncmp(p, e->name->str_dat, n)) {
 			if (!*slash1)
 				goto found_entry;
 			if (!S_ISDIR(e->versions[1].mode))
@@ -1802,12 +1803,12 @@
 	static struct lock_file mark_lock;
 	FILE *f;
 
-	if (!export_marks_file)
+	if (!export_marks_file || (import_marks_file && !import_marks_file_done))
 		return;
 
 	if (hold_lock_file_for_update(&mark_lock, export_marks_file, 0) < 0) {
-		failure |= error("Unable to write marks file %s: %s",
-			export_marks_file, strerror(errno));
+		failure |= error_errno("Unable to write marks file %s",
+				       export_marks_file);
 		return;
 	}
 
@@ -1822,8 +1823,8 @@
 
 	dump_marks_helper(f, 0, marks);
 	if (commit_lock_file(&mark_lock)) {
-		failure |= error("Unable to write file %s: %s",
-			export_marks_file, strerror(errno));
+		failure |= error_errno("Unable to write file %s",
+				       export_marks_file);
 		return;
 	}
 }
@@ -1835,7 +1836,7 @@
 	if (f)
 		;
 	else if (import_marks_file_ignore_missing && errno == ENOENT)
-		return; /* Marks file does not exist */
+		goto done; /* Marks file does not exist */
 	else
 		die_errno("cannot read '%s'", import_marks_file);
 	while (fgets(line, sizeof(line), f)) {
@@ -1865,6 +1866,8 @@
 		insert_mark(mark, e);
 	}
 	fclose(f);
+done:
+	import_marks_file_done = 1;
 }
 
 
diff --git a/fsck.c b/fsck.c
index 3366b3f..0531545 100644
--- a/fsck.c
+++ b/fsck.c
@@ -313,9 +313,9 @@
 		if (S_ISGITLINK(entry.mode))
 			continue;
 		if (S_ISDIR(entry.mode))
-			result = options->walk(&lookup_tree(entry.sha1)->object, OBJ_TREE, data, options);
+			result = options->walk(&lookup_tree(entry.oid->hash)->object, OBJ_TREE, data, options);
 		else if (S_ISREG(entry.mode) || S_ISLNK(entry.mode))
-			result = options->walk(&lookup_blob(entry.sha1)->object, OBJ_BLOB, data, options);
+			result = options->walk(&lookup_blob(entry.oid->hash)->object, OBJ_BLOB, data, options);
 		else {
 			result = error("in tree %s: entry %s has bad mode %.6o",
 					oid_to_hex(&tree->object.oid), entry.path, entry.mode);
@@ -451,11 +451,11 @@
 	while (desc.size) {
 		unsigned mode;
 		const char *name;
-		const unsigned char *sha1;
+		const struct object_id *oid;
 
-		sha1 = tree_entry_extract(&desc, &name, &mode);
+		oid = tree_entry_extract(&desc, &name, &mode);
 
-		has_null_sha1 |= is_null_sha1(sha1);
+		has_null_sha1 |= is_null_oid(oid);
 		has_full_path |= !!strchr(name, '/');
 		has_empty_name |= !*name;
 		has_dot |= !strcmp(name, ".");
diff --git a/git-add--interactive.perl b/git-add--interactive.perl
index 77876d4..822f857 100755
--- a/git-add--interactive.perl
+++ b/git-add--interactive.perl
@@ -45,6 +45,7 @@
 my $normal_color = $repo->get_color("", "reset");
 
 my $diff_algorithm = $repo->config('diff.algorithm');
+my $diff_filter = $repo->config('interactive.difffilter');
 
 my $use_readkey = 0;
 my $use_termcap = 0;
@@ -754,7 +755,14 @@
 	my @diff = run_cmd_pipe("git", @diff_cmd, "--", $path);
 	my @colored = ();
 	if ($diff_use_color) {
-		@colored = run_cmd_pipe("git", @diff_cmd, qw(--color --), $path);
+		my @display_cmd = ("git", @diff_cmd, qw(--color --), $path);
+		if (defined $diff_filter) {
+			# quotemeta is overkill, but sufficient for shell-quoting
+			my $diff = join(' ', map { quotemeta } @display_cmd);
+			@display_cmd = ("$diff | $diff_filter");
+		}
+
+		@colored = run_cmd_pipe(@display_cmd);
 	}
 	my (@hunk) = { TEXT => [], DISPLAY => [], TYPE => 'header' };
 
@@ -765,7 +773,7 @@
 		}
 		push @{$hunk[-1]{TEXT}}, $diff[$i];
 		push @{$hunk[-1]{DISPLAY}},
-			($diff_use_color ? $colored[$i] : $diff[$i]);
+			(@colored ? $colored[$i] : $diff[$i]);
 	}
 	return @hunk;
 }
diff --git a/git-compat-util.h b/git-compat-util.h
index 1f8b5f3..49d4029 100644
--- a/git-compat-util.h
+++ b/git-compat-util.h
@@ -409,7 +409,9 @@
 extern NORETURN void die(const char *err, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
 extern NORETURN void die_errno(const char *err, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
 extern int error(const char *err, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
+extern int error_errno(const char *err, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
 extern void warning(const char *err, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
+extern void warning_errno(const char *err, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
 
 #ifndef NO_OPENSSL
 #ifdef APPLE_COMMON_CRYPTO
diff --git a/git-difftool.perl b/git-difftool.perl
index 488d14b..ebd13ba 100755
--- a/git-difftool.perl
+++ b/git-difftool.perl
@@ -138,6 +138,7 @@
 	my %submodule;
 	my %symlink;
 	my @working_tree = ();
+	my %working_tree_dups = ();
 	my @rawdiff = split('\0', $diffrtn);
 
 	my $i = 0;
@@ -188,6 +189,10 @@
 		}
 
 		if ($rmode ne $null_mode) {
+			# Avoid duplicate working_tree entries
+			if ($working_tree_dups{$dst_path}++) {
+				next;
+			}
 			my ($use, $wt_sha1) = use_wt_file($repo, $workdir,
 							  $dst_path, $rsha1);
 			if ($use) {
@@ -273,7 +278,7 @@
 	# temporary file to both the left and right directories to show the
 	# change in the recorded SHA1 for the submodule.
 	for my $path (keys %submodule) {
-		my $ok;
+		my $ok = 0;
 		if (defined($submodule{$path}{left})) {
 			$ok = write_to_file("$ldir/$path",
 				"Subproject commit $submodule{$path}{left}");
@@ -289,7 +294,7 @@
 	# shows only the link itself, not the contents of the link target.
 	# This loop replicates that behavior.
 	for my $path (keys %symlink) {
-		my $ok;
+		my $ok = 0;
 		if (defined($symlink{$path}{left})) {
 			$ok = write_to_file("$ldir/$path",
 					$symlink{$path}{left});
diff --git a/git-merge-octopus.sh b/git-merge-octopus.sh
index 8643f74..dc2fd1b 100755
--- a/git-merge-octopus.sh
+++ b/git-merge-octopus.sh
@@ -44,6 +44,12 @@
 # MRC is the current "merge reference commit"
 # MRT is the current "merge result tree"
 
+if ! git diff-index --quiet --cached HEAD --
+then
+    echo "Error: Your local changes to the following files would be overwritten by merge"
+    git diff-index --cached --name-only HEAD -- | sed -e 's/^/    /'
+    exit 2
+fi
 MRC=$(git rev-parse --verify -q $head)
 MRT=$(git write-tree)
 NON_FF_MERGE=0
diff --git a/git-mergetool--lib.sh b/git-mergetool--lib.sh
index 92adcc0..9abd00b 100644
--- a/git-mergetool--lib.sh
+++ b/git-mergetool--lib.sh
@@ -372,3 +372,28 @@
 	fi
 	echo "$merge_tool"
 }
+
+mergetool_find_win32_cmd () {
+	executable=$1
+	sub_directory=$2
+
+	# Use $executable if it exists in $PATH
+	if type -p "$executable" >/dev/null 2>&1
+	then
+		printf '%s' "$executable"
+		return
+	fi
+
+	# Look for executable in the typical locations
+	for directory in $(env | grep -Ei '^PROGRAM(FILES(\(X86\))?|W6432)=' |
+		cut -d '=' -f 2- | sort -u)
+	do
+		if test -n "$directory" && test -x "$directory/$sub_directory/$executable"
+		then
+			printf '%s' "$directory/$sub_directory/$executable"
+			return
+		fi
+	done
+
+	printf '%s' "$executable"
+}
diff --git a/git-p4.py b/git-p4.py
index e752153..b6593cf 100755
--- a/git-p4.py
+++ b/git-p4.py
@@ -1167,6 +1167,15 @@
             self.users[output["User"]] = output["FullName"] + " <" + output["Email"] + ">"
             self.emails[output["Email"]] = output["User"]
 
+        mapUserConfigRegex = re.compile(r"^\s*(\S+)\s*=\s*(.+)\s*<(\S+)>\s*$", re.VERBOSE)
+        for mapUserConfig in gitConfigList("git-p4.mapUser"):
+            mapUser = mapUserConfigRegex.findall(mapUserConfig)
+            if mapUser and len(mapUser[0]) == 3:
+                user = mapUser[0][0]
+                fullname = mapUser[0][1]
+                email = mapUser[0][2]
+                self.users[user] = fullname + " <" + email + ">"
+                self.emails[email] = user
 
         s = ''
         for (key, val) in self.users.items():
@@ -2318,6 +2327,15 @@
             fnum = fnum + 1
         return files
 
+    def extractJobsFromCommit(self, commit):
+        jobs = []
+        jnum = 0
+        while commit.has_key("job%s" % jnum):
+            job = commit["job%s" % jnum]
+            jobs.append(job)
+            jnum = jnum + 1
+        return jobs
+
     def stripRepoPath(self, path, prefixes):
         """When streaming files, this is called to map a p4 depot path
            to where it should go in git.  The prefixes are either
@@ -2663,6 +2681,7 @@
     def commit(self, details, files, branch, parent = ""):
         epoch = details["time"]
         author = details["user"]
+        jobs = self.extractJobsFromCommit(details)
 
         if self.verbose:
             print('commit into {0}'.format(branch))
@@ -2690,6 +2709,8 @@
 
         self.gitStream.write("data <<EOT\n")
         self.gitStream.write(details["desc"])
+        if len(jobs) > 0:
+            self.gitStream.write("\nJobs: %s" % (' '.join(jobs)))
         self.gitStream.write("\n[git-p4: depot-paths = \"%s\": change = %s" %
                              (','.join(self.branchPrefixes), details["change"]))
         if len(details['options']) > 0:
diff --git a/git-rebase--interactive.sh b/git-rebase--interactive.sh
index 655ebaa..9d2bfb7 100644
--- a/git-rebase--interactive.sh
+++ b/git-rebase--interactive.sh
@@ -549,7 +549,8 @@
 
 		mark_action_done
 		do_pick $sha1 "$rest"
-		warn "Stopped at $sha1... $rest"
+		sha1_abbrev=$(git rev-parse --short $sha1)
+		warn "Stopped at $sha1_abbrev... $rest"
 		exit_with_patch $sha1 0
 		;;
 	squash|s|fixup|f)
@@ -866,12 +867,12 @@
 # $3: the input filename
 check_commit_sha () {
 	badsha=0
-	if test -z $1
+	if test -z "$1"
 	then
 		badsha=1
 	else
 		sha1_verif="$(git rev-parse --verify --quiet $1^{commit})"
-		if test -z $sha1_verif
+		if test -z "$sha1_verif"
 		then
 			badsha=1
 		fi
diff --git a/git-rebase--merge.sh b/git-rebase--merge.sh
index 2cc2a6d..8d43db9 100644
--- a/git-rebase--merge.sh
+++ b/git-rebase--merge.sh
@@ -67,7 +67,9 @@
 		GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY=1 && export GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY
 	fi
 	test -z "$strategy" && strategy=recursive
-	eval 'git-merge-$strategy' $strategy_opts '"$cmt^" -- "$hd" "$cmt"'
+	# If cmt doesn't have a parent, don't include it as a base
+	base=$(git rev-parse --verify --quiet $cmt^)
+	eval 'git-merge-$strategy' $strategy_opts $base ' -- "$hd" "$cmt"'
 	rv=$?
 	case "$rv" in
 	0)
diff --git a/git-rebase.sh b/git-rebase.sh
index cf60c43..44ede36 100755
--- a/git-rebase.sh
+++ b/git-rebase.sh
@@ -87,7 +87,10 @@
 autosquash=
 keep_empty=
 test "$(git config --bool rebase.autosquash)" = "true" && autosquash=t
-gpg_sign_opt=
+case "$(git config --bool commit.gpgsign)" in
+true)	gpg_sign_opt=-S ;;
+*)	gpg_sign_opt= ;;
+esac
 
 read_basic_state () {
 	test -f "$state_dir/head-name" &&
@@ -248,6 +251,7 @@
 		;;
 	--exec=*)
 		cmd="${cmd}exec ${1#--exec=}${LF}"
+		test -z "$interactive_rebase" && interactive_rebase=implied
 		;;
 	--interactive)
 		interactive_rebase=explicit
@@ -348,12 +352,6 @@
 done
 test $# -gt 2 && usage
 
-if test -n "$cmd" &&
-   test "$interactive_rebase" != explicit
-then
-	die "$(gettext "The --exec option must be used with the --interactive option")"
-fi
-
 if test -n "$action"
 then
 	test -z "$in_progress" && die "$(gettext "No rebase in progress?")"
diff --git a/git-stash.sh b/git-stash.sh
index c7c65e2..c7509e8 100755
--- a/git-stash.sh
+++ b/git-stash.sh
@@ -185,7 +185,7 @@
 
 	git update-ref --create-reflog -m "$stash_msg" $ref_stash $w_commit
 	ret=$?
-	test $ret != 0 && test -z $quiet &&
+	test $ret != 0 && test -z "$quiet" &&
 	die "$(eval_gettext "Cannot update \$ref_stash with \$w_commit")"
 	return $ret
 }
@@ -277,7 +277,7 @@
 			git clean --force --quiet -d $CLEAN_X_OPTION
 		fi
 
-		if test "$keep_index" = "t" && test -n $i_tree
+		if test "$keep_index" = "t" && test -n "$i_tree"
 		then
 			git read-tree --reset -u $i_tree
 		fi
diff --git a/git-submodule.sh b/git-submodule.sh
index d56207e..5a4dec0 100755
--- a/git-submodule.sh
+++ b/git-submodule.sh
@@ -46,79 +46,6 @@
 custom_name=
 depth=
 
-# The function takes at most 2 arguments. The first argument is the
-# URL that navigates to the submodule origin repo. When relative, this URL
-# is relative to the superproject origin URL repo. The second up_path
-# argument, if specified, is the relative path that navigates
-# from the submodule working tree to the superproject working tree.
-#
-# The output of the function is the origin URL of the submodule.
-#
-# The output will either be an absolute URL or filesystem path (if the
-# superproject origin URL is an absolute URL or filesystem path,
-# respectively) or a relative file system path (if the superproject
-# origin URL is a relative file system path).
-#
-# When the output is a relative file system path, the path is either
-# relative to the submodule working tree, if up_path is specified, or to
-# the superproject working tree otherwise.
-resolve_relative_url ()
-{
-	remote=$(get_default_remote)
-	remoteurl=$(git config "remote.$remote.url") ||
-		remoteurl=$(pwd) # the repository is its own authoritative upstream
-	url="$1"
-	remoteurl=${remoteurl%/}
-	sep=/
-	up_path="$2"
-
-	case "$remoteurl" in
-	*:*|/*)
-		is_relative=
-		;;
-	./*|../*)
-		is_relative=t
-		;;
-	*)
-		is_relative=t
-		remoteurl="./$remoteurl"
-		;;
-	esac
-
-	while test -n "$url"
-	do
-		case "$url" in
-		../*)
-			url="${url#../}"
-			case "$remoteurl" in
-			*/*)
-				remoteurl="${remoteurl%/*}"
-				;;
-			*:*)
-				remoteurl="${remoteurl%:*}"
-				sep=:
-				;;
-			*)
-				if test -z "$is_relative" || test "." = "$remoteurl"
-				then
-					die "$(eval_gettext "cannot strip one component off url '\$remoteurl'")"
-				else
-					remoteurl=.
-				fi
-				;;
-			esac
-			;;
-		./*)
-			url="${url#./}"
-			;;
-		*)
-			break;;
-		esac
-	done
-	remoteurl="$remoteurl$sep${url%/}"
-	echo "${is_relative:+${up_path}}${remoteurl#./}"
-}
-
 # Resolve a path to be relative to another path.  This is intended for
 # converting submodule paths when git-submodule is run in a subdirectory
 # and only handles paths where the directory separator is '/'.
@@ -192,6 +119,17 @@
 	n=$(($1 + 0)) 2>/dev/null && test "$n" = "$1"
 }
 
+# Sanitize the local git environment for use within a submodule. We
+# can't simply use clear_local_git_env since we want to preserve some
+# of the settings from GIT_CONFIG_PARAMETERS.
+sanitize_submodule_env()
+{
+	save_config=$GIT_CONFIG_PARAMETERS
+	clear_local_git_env
+	GIT_CONFIG_PARAMETERS=$save_config
+	export GIT_CONFIG_PARAMETERS
+}
+
 #
 # Add a new submodule to the working tree, .gitmodules and the index
 #
@@ -281,7 +219,7 @@
 		die "$(gettext "Relative path can only be used from the toplevel of the working tree")"
 
 		# dereference source url relative to parent's url
-		realrepo=$(resolve_relative_url "$repo") || exit
+		realrepo=$(git submodule--helper resolve-relative-url "$repo") || exit
 		;;
 	*:*|/*)
 		# absolute url
@@ -347,9 +285,9 @@
 				echo "$(eval_gettext "Reactivating local git directory for submodule '\$sm_name'.")"
 			fi
 		fi
-		git submodule--helper clone ${GIT_QUIET:+--quiet} --prefix "$wt_prefix" --path "$sm_path" --name "$sm_name" --url "$realrepo" "$reference" "$depth" || exit
+		git submodule--helper clone ${GIT_QUIET:+--quiet} --prefix "$wt_prefix" --path "$sm_path" --name "$sm_name" --url "$realrepo" ${reference:+"$reference"} ${depth:+"$depth"} || exit
 		(
-			clear_local_git_env
+			sanitize_submodule_env
 			cd "$sm_path" &&
 			# ash fails to wordsplit ${branch:+-b "$branch"...}
 			case "$branch" in
@@ -418,7 +356,7 @@
 			name=$(git submodule--helper name "$sm_path")
 			(
 				prefix="$prefix$sm_path/"
-				clear_local_git_env
+				sanitize_submodule_env
 				cd "$sm_path" &&
 				sm_path=$(relative_path "$sm_path") &&
 				# we make $path available to scripts ...
@@ -467,50 +405,7 @@
 		shift
 	done
 
-	git submodule--helper list --prefix "$wt_prefix" "$@" |
-	while read mode sha1 stage sm_path
-	do
-		die_if_unmatched "$mode"
-		name=$(git submodule--helper name "$sm_path") || exit
-
-		displaypath=$(relative_path "$prefix$sm_path")
-
-		# Copy url setting when it is not set yet
-		if test -z "$(git config "submodule.$name.url")"
-		then
-			url=$(git config -f .gitmodules submodule."$name".url)
-			test -z "$url" &&
-			die "$(eval_gettext "No url found for submodule path '\$displaypath' in .gitmodules")"
-
-			# Possibly a url relative to parent
-			case "$url" in
-			./*|../*)
-				url=$(resolve_relative_url "$url") || exit
-				;;
-			esac
-			git config submodule."$name".url "$url" ||
-			die "$(eval_gettext "Failed to register url for submodule path '\$displaypath'")"
-
-			say "$(eval_gettext "Submodule '\$name' (\$url) registered for path '\$displaypath'")"
-		fi
-
-		# Copy "update" setting when it is not set yet
-		if upd="$(git config -f .gitmodules submodule."$name".update)" &&
-		   test -n "$upd" &&
-		   test -z "$(git config submodule."$name".update)"
-		then
-			case "$upd" in
-			checkout | rebase | merge | none)
-				;; # known modes of updating
-			*)
-				echo >&2 "warning: unknown update mode '$upd' suggested for submodule '$name'"
-				upd=none
-				;;
-			esac
-			git config submodule."$name".update "$upd" ||
-			die "$(eval_gettext "Failed to register update mode for submodule path '\$displaypath'")"
-		fi
-	done
+	git ${wt_prefix:+-C "$wt_prefix"} submodule--helper init ${GIT_QUIET:+--quiet} ${prefix:+--prefix "$prefix"} "$@"
 }
 
 #
@@ -601,14 +496,14 @@
 }
 
 is_tip_reachable () (
-	clear_local_git_env
+	sanitize_submodule_env &&
 	cd "$1" &&
 	rev=$(git rev-list -n 1 "$2" --not --all 2>/dev/null) &&
 	test -z "$rev"
 )
 
 fetch_in_submodule () (
-	clear_local_git_env
+	sanitize_submodule_env &&
 	cd "$1" &&
 	case "$2" in
 	'')
@@ -672,6 +567,14 @@
 		--depth=*)
 			depth=$1
 			;;
+		-j|--jobs)
+			case "$2" in '') usage ;; esac
+			jobs="--jobs=$2"
+			shift
+			;;
+		--jobs=*)
+			jobs=$1
+			;;
 		--)
 			shift
 			break
@@ -691,17 +594,21 @@
 		cmd_init "--" "$@" || return
 	fi
 
-	cloned_modules=
-	git submodule--helper list --prefix "$wt_prefix" "$@" | {
+	{
+	git submodule--helper update-clone ${GIT_QUIET:+--quiet} \
+		${wt_prefix:+--prefix "$wt_prefix"} \
+		${prefix:+--recursive-prefix "$prefix"} \
+		${update:+--update "$update"} \
+		${reference:+--reference "$reference"} \
+		${depth:+--depth "$depth"} \
+		${jobs:+$jobs} \
+		"$@" || echo "#unmatched"
+	} | {
 	err=
-	while read mode sha1 stage sm_path
+	while read mode sha1 stage just_cloned sm_path
 	do
 		die_if_unmatched "$mode"
-		if test "$stage" = U
-		then
-			echo >&2 "Skipping unmerged submodule $prefix$sm_path"
-			continue
-		fi
+
 		name=$(git submodule--helper name "$sm_path") || exit
 		url=$(git config submodule."$name".url)
 		branch=$(get_submodule_config "$name" branch master)
@@ -718,29 +625,12 @@
 
 		displaypath=$(relative_path "$prefix$sm_path")
 
-		if test "$update_module" = "none"
+		if test $just_cloned -eq 1
 		then
-			echo "Skipping submodule '$displaypath'"
-			continue
-		fi
-
-		if test -z "$url"
-		then
-			# Only mention uninitialized submodules when its
-			# path have been specified
-			test "$#" != "0" &&
-			say "$(eval_gettext "Submodule path '\$displaypath' not initialized
-Maybe you want to use 'update --init'?")"
-			continue
-		fi
-
-		if ! test -d "$sm_path"/.git && ! test -f "$sm_path"/.git
-		then
-			git submodule--helper clone ${GIT_QUIET:+--quiet} --prefix "$prefix" --path "$sm_path" --name "$name" --url "$url" "$reference" "$depth" || exit
-			cloned_modules="$cloned_modules;$name"
 			subsha1=
+			update_module=checkout
 		else
-			subsha1=$(clear_local_git_env; cd "$sm_path" &&
+			subsha1=$(sanitize_submodule_env; cd "$sm_path" &&
 				git rev-parse --verify HEAD) ||
 			die "$(eval_gettext "Unable to find current revision in submodule path '\$displaypath'")"
 		fi
@@ -750,11 +640,11 @@
 			if test -z "$nofetch"
 			then
 				# Fetch remote before determining tracking $sha1
-				(clear_local_git_env; cd "$sm_path" && git-fetch) ||
+				(sanitize_submodule_env; cd "$sm_path" && git-fetch) ||
 				die "$(eval_gettext "Unable to fetch in submodule path '\$sm_path'")"
 			fi
-			remote_name=$(clear_local_git_env; cd "$sm_path" && get_default_remote)
-			sha1=$(clear_local_git_env; cd "$sm_path" &&
+			remote_name=$(sanitize_submodule_env; cd "$sm_path" && get_default_remote)
+			sha1=$(sanitize_submodule_env; cd "$sm_path" &&
 				git rev-parse --verify "${remote_name}/${branch}") ||
 			die "$(eval_gettext "Unable to find current ${remote_name}/${branch} revision in submodule path '\$sm_path'")"
 		fi
@@ -783,13 +673,6 @@
 				die "$(eval_gettext "Fetched in submodule path '\$displaypath', but it did not contain $sha1. Direct fetching of that commit failed.")"
 			fi
 
-			# Is this something we just cloned?
-			case ";$cloned_modules;" in
-			*";$name;"*)
-				# then there is no local change to integrate
-				update_module=checkout ;;
-			esac
-
 			must_die_on_failure=
 			case "$update_module" in
 			checkout)
@@ -819,7 +702,7 @@
 				die "$(eval_gettext "Invalid update mode '$update_module' for submodule '$name'")"
 			esac
 
-			if (clear_local_git_env; cd "$sm_path" && $command "$sha1")
+			if (sanitize_submodule_env; cd "$sm_path" && $command "$sha1")
 			then
 				say "$say_msg"
 			elif test -n "$must_die_on_failure"
@@ -834,8 +717,9 @@
 		if test -n "$recursive"
 		then
 			(
-				prefix="$prefix$sm_path/"
-				clear_local_git_env
+				prefix=$(relative_path "$prefix$sm_path/")
+				wt_prefix=
+				sanitize_submodule_env
 				cd "$sm_path" &&
 				eval cmd_update
 			)
@@ -873,7 +757,7 @@
 
 set_name_rev () {
 	revname=$( (
-		clear_local_git_env
+		sanitize_submodule_env
 		cd "$1" && {
 			git describe "$2" 2>/dev/null ||
 			git describe --tags "$2" 2>/dev/null ||
@@ -1157,7 +1041,7 @@
 		else
 			if test -z "$cached"
 			then
-				sha1=$(clear_local_git_env; cd "$sm_path" && git rev-parse --verify HEAD)
+				sha1=$(sanitize_submodule_env; cd "$sm_path" && git rev-parse --verify HEAD)
 			fi
 			set_name_rev "$sm_path" "$sha1"
 			say "+$sha1 $displaypath$revname"
@@ -1167,7 +1051,7 @@
 		then
 			(
 				prefix="$displaypath/"
-				clear_local_git_env
+				sanitize_submodule_env
 				wt_prefix=
 				cd "$sm_path" &&
 				eval cmd_status
@@ -1223,9 +1107,9 @@
 			# guarantee a trailing /
 			up_path=${up_path%/}/ &&
 			# path from submodule work tree to submodule origin repo
-			sub_origin_url=$(resolve_relative_url "$url" "$up_path") &&
+			sub_origin_url=$(git submodule--helper resolve-relative-url "$url" "$up_path") &&
 			# path from superproject work tree to submodule origin repo
-			super_config_url=$(resolve_relative_url "$url") || exit
+			super_config_url=$(git submodule--helper resolve-relative-url "$url") || exit
 			;;
 		*)
 			sub_origin_url="$url"
@@ -1242,7 +1126,7 @@
 			if test -e "$sm_path"/.git
 			then
 			(
-				clear_local_git_env
+				sanitize_submodule_env
 				cd "$sm_path"
 				remote=$(get_default_remote)
 				git config remote."$remote".url "$sub_origin_url"
diff --git a/git.spec.in b/git.spec.in
deleted file mode 100644
index bfd1cfb..0000000
--- a/git.spec.in
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,330 +0,0 @@
-# Pass --without docs to rpmbuild if you don't want the documentation
-
-Name: 		git
-Version: 	@@VERSION@@
-Release: 	1%{?dist}
-Summary:  	Core git tools
-License: 	GPL
-Group: 		Development/Tools
-URL: 		http://kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/
-Source: 	http://kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/%{name}-%{version}.tar.gz
-BuildRequires:	zlib-devel >= 1.2, openssl-devel, curl-devel, expat-devel, gettext  %{!?_without_docs:, xmlto, asciidoc > 6.0.3}
-BuildRoot:	%{_tmppath}/%{name}-%{version}-%{release}-root-%(%{__id_u} -n)
-
-Requires:	perl-Git = %{version}-%{release}
-Requires:	zlib >= 1.2, rsync, less, openssh-clients, expat
-Provides:	git-core = %{version}-%{release}
-Obsoletes:	git-core <= 1.5.4.2
-Obsoletes:	git-p4
-
-%description
-Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
-unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
-and full access to internals.
-
-The git rpm installs the core tools with minimal dependencies.  To
-install all git packages, including tools for integrating with other
-SCMs, install the git-all meta-package.
-
-%package all
-Summary:	Meta-package to pull in all git tools
-Group:		Development/Tools
-Requires:	git = %{version}-%{release}
-Requires:	git-svn = %{version}-%{release}
-Requires:	git-cvs = %{version}-%{release}
-Requires:	git-arch = %{version}-%{release}
-Requires:	git-email = %{version}-%{release}
-Requires:	gitk = %{version}-%{release}
-Requires:	gitweb = %{version}-%{release}
-Requires:	git-gui = %{version}-%{release}
-Obsoletes:	git <= 1.5.4.2
-
-%description all
-Git is a fast, scalable, distributed revision control system with an
-unusually rich command set that provides both high-level operations
-and full access to internals.
-
-This is a dummy package which brings in all subpackages.
-
-%package svn
-Summary:        Git tools for importing Subversion repositories
-Group:          Development/Tools
-Requires:       git = %{version}-%{release}, subversion
-%description svn
-Git tools for importing Subversion repositories.
-
-%package cvs
-Summary:        Git tools for importing CVS repositories
-Group:          Development/Tools
-Requires:       git = %{version}-%{release}, cvs, cvsps
-%description cvs
-Git tools for importing CVS repositories.
-
-%package arch
-Summary:        Git tools for importing Arch repositories
-Group:          Development/Tools
-Requires:       git = %{version}-%{release}, tla
-%description arch
-Git tools for importing Arch repositories.
-
-%package email
-Summary:        Git tools for sending email
-Group:          Development/Tools
-Requires:	git = %{version}-%{release}
-%description email
-Git tools for sending email.
-
-%package gui
-Summary:        Git GUI tool
-Group:          Development/Tools
-Requires:       git = %{version}-%{release}, tk >= 8.4
-%description gui
-Git GUI tool
-
-%package -n gitk
-Summary:        Git revision tree visualiser ('gitk')
-Group:          Development/Tools
-Requires:       git = %{version}-%{release}, tk >= 8.4
-%description -n gitk
-Git revision tree visualiser ('gitk')
-
-%package -n gitweb
-Summary:	Git web interface
-Group:          Development/Tools
-Requires:       git = %{version}-%{release}
-%description -n gitweb
-Browsing git repository on the web
-
-%package -n perl-Git
-Summary:        Perl interface to Git
-Group:          Development/Libraries
-Requires:       git = %{version}-%{release}
-Requires:       perl(:MODULE_COMPAT_%(eval "`%{__perl} -V:version`"; echo $version))
-BuildRequires:  perl(Error)
-BuildRequires:  perl(ExtUtils::MakeMaker)
-
-%description -n perl-Git
-Perl interface to Git
-
-%define path_settings ETC_GITCONFIG=/etc/gitconfig prefix=%{_prefix} mandir=%{_mandir} htmldir=%{_docdir}/%{name}-%{version}
-%{!?python_sitelib: %global python_sitelib %(%{__python} -c "from distutils.sysconfig import get_python_lib; print get_python_lib()")}
-
-%prep
-%setup -q
-
-%build
-make %{_smp_mflags} CFLAGS="$RPM_OPT_FLAGS" \
-     %{path_settings} \
-     all %{!?_without_docs: doc}
-
-%install
-rm -rf $RPM_BUILD_ROOT
-make %{_smp_mflags} CFLAGS="$RPM_OPT_FLAGS" DESTDIR=$RPM_BUILD_ROOT \
-     %{path_settings} \
-     INSTALLDIRS=vendor install %{!?_without_docs: install-doc}
-test ! -d $RPM_BUILD_ROOT%{python_sitelib} || rm -fr $RPM_BUILD_ROOT%{python_sitelib}
-find $RPM_BUILD_ROOT -type f -name .packlist -exec rm -f {} ';'
-find $RPM_BUILD_ROOT -type f -name '*.bs' -empty -exec rm -f {} ';'
-find $RPM_BUILD_ROOT -type f -name perllocal.pod -exec rm -f {} ';'
-
-(find $RPM_BUILD_ROOT%{_bindir} -type f | grep -vE "archimport|svn|cvs|email|gitk|git-gui|git-citool" | sed -e s@^$RPM_BUILD_ROOT@@)               > bin-man-doc-files
-(find $RPM_BUILD_ROOT%{_libexecdir}/git-core -type f | grep -vE "archimport|svn|cvs|email|gitk|git-gui|git-citool" | sed -e s@^$RPM_BUILD_ROOT@@)               >> bin-man-doc-files
-(find $RPM_BUILD_ROOT%{perl_vendorlib} -type f | sed -e s@^$RPM_BUILD_ROOT@@) >> perl-files
-%if %{!?_without_docs:1}0
-(find $RPM_BUILD_ROOT%{_mandir} $RPM_BUILD_ROOT/Documentation -type f | grep -vE "archimport|svn|git-cvs|email|gitk|git-gui|git-citool" | sed -e s@^$RPM_BUILD_ROOT@@ -e 's/$/*/' ) >> bin-man-doc-files
-%else
-rm -rf $RPM_BUILD_ROOT%{_mandir}
-%endif
-rm -rf $RPM_BUILD_ROOT%{_datadir}/locale
-
-mkdir -p $RPM_BUILD_ROOT%{_sysconfdir}/bash_completion.d
-install -m 644 -T contrib/completion/git-completion.bash $RPM_BUILD_ROOT%{_sysconfdir}/bash_completion.d/git
-
-%clean
-rm -rf $RPM_BUILD_ROOT
-
-%files -f bin-man-doc-files
-%defattr(-,root,root)
-%{_datadir}/git-core/
-%doc README.md COPYING Documentation/*.txt
-%{!?_without_docs: %doc Documentation/*.html Documentation/howto}
-%{!?_without_docs: %doc Documentation/technical}
-%{_sysconfdir}/bash_completion.d
-
-%files svn
-%defattr(-,root,root)
-%{_libexecdir}/git-core/*svn*
-%doc Documentation/*svn*.txt
-%{!?_without_docs: %{_mandir}/man1/*svn*.1*}
-%{!?_without_docs: %doc Documentation/*svn*.html }
-
-%files cvs
-%defattr(-,root,root)
-%doc Documentation/*git-cvs*.txt
-%{_bindir}/git-cvsserver
-%{_libexecdir}/git-core/*cvs*
-%{!?_without_docs: %{_mandir}/man1/*cvs*.1*}
-%{!?_without_docs: %doc Documentation/*git-cvs*.html }
-
-%files arch
-%defattr(-,root,root)
-%doc Documentation/git-archimport.txt
-%{_libexecdir}/git-core/git-archimport
-%{!?_without_docs: %{_mandir}/man1/git-archimport.1*}
-%{!?_without_docs: %doc Documentation/git-archimport.html }
-
-%files email
-%defattr(-,root,root)
-%doc Documentation/*email*.txt
-%{_libexecdir}/git-core/*email*
-%{!?_without_docs: %{_mandir}/man1/*email*.1*}
-%{!?_without_docs: %doc Documentation/*email*.html }
-
-%files gui
-%defattr(-,root,root)
-%{_libexecdir}/git-core/git-gui
-%{_libexecdir}/git-core/git-citool
-%{_libexecdir}/git-core/git-gui--askpass
-%{_datadir}/git-gui/
-%{!?_without_docs: %{_mandir}/man1/git-gui.1*}
-%{!?_without_docs: %doc Documentation/git-gui.html}
-%{!?_without_docs: %{_mandir}/man1/git-citool.1*}
-%{!?_without_docs: %doc Documentation/git-citool.html}
-
-%files -n gitk
-%defattr(-,root,root)
-%doc Documentation/*gitk*.txt
-%{_bindir}/*gitk*
-%{_datadir}/gitk/
-%{!?_without_docs: %{_mandir}/man1/*gitk*.1*}
-%{!?_without_docs: %doc Documentation/*gitk*.html }
-
-%files -n gitweb
-%defattr(-,root,root)
-%doc gitweb/README gitweb/INSTALL Documentation/*gitweb*.txt
-%{_datadir}/gitweb
-%{!?_without_docs: %{_mandir}/man1/*gitweb*.1*}
-%{!?_without_docs: %{_mandir}/man5/*gitweb*.5*}
-%{!?_without_docs: %doc Documentation/*gitweb*.html }
-
-%files -n perl-Git -f perl-files
-%defattr(-,root,root)
-
-%files all
-# No files for you!
-
-%changelog
-* Sun Sep 18 2011 Jakub Narebski <jnareb@gmail.com>
-- Add gitweb manpages to 'gitweb' subpackage
-
-* Wed Jun 30 2010 Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
-- Add 'gitweb' subpackage.
-
-* Fri Mar 26 2010 Ian Ward Comfort <icomfort@stanford.edu>
-- Ship bash completion support from contrib/ in the core package.
-
-* Sun Jan 31 2010 Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
-- Do not use %define inside %{!?...} construct.
-
-* Sat Jan 30 2010 Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
-- We don't ship Python bits until a real foreign scm interface comes.
-
-* Mon Feb 04 2009 David J. Mellor <dmellor@whistlingcat.com>
-- fixed broken git help -w after renaming the git-core package to git.
-
-* Fri Sep 12 2008 Quy Tonthat <qtonthat@gmail.com>
-- move git-cvsserver to bindir.
-
-* Sun Jun 15 2008 Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
-- Remove curl from Requires list.
-
-* Fri Feb 15 2008 Kristian Høgsberg <krh@redhat.com>
-- Rename git-core to just git and rename meta package from git to git-all.
-
-* Sun Feb 03 2008 James Bowes <jbowes@dangerouslyinc.com>
-- Add a BuildRequires for gettext
-
-* Fri Jan 11 2008 Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
-- Include gitk message files
-
-* Sun Jan 06 2008 James Bowes <jbowes@dangerouslyinc.com>
-- Make the metapackage require the same version of the subpackages.
-
-* Wed Dec 12 2007 Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
-- Adjust htmldir to point at /usr/share/doc/git-core-$version/
-
-* Sun Jul 15 2007 Sean Estabrooks <seanlkml@sympatico.ca>
-- Removed p4import.
-
-* Tue Jun 26 2007 Quy Tonthat <qtonthat@gmail.com>
-- Fixed problems looking for wrong manpages.
-
-* Thu Jun 21 2007 Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>
-- Added documentation files for git-gui
-
-* Tue May 13 2007 Quy Tonthat <qtonthat@gmail.com>
-- Added lib files for git-gui
-- Added Documentation/technical (As needed by Git Users Manual)
-
-* Tue May 8 2007 Quy Tonthat <qtonthat@gmail.com>
-- Added howto files
-
-* Tue Mar 27 2007 Eygene Ryabinkin <rea-git@codelabs.ru>
-- Added the git-p4 package: Perforce import stuff.
-
-* Mon Feb 13 2007 Nicolas Pitre <nico@fluxnic.net>
-- Update core package description (Git isn't as stupid as it used to be)
-
-* Mon Feb 12 2007 Junio C Hamano <junkio@cox.net>
-- Add git-gui and git-citool.
-
-* Mon Nov 14 2005 H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com> 0.99.9j-1
-- Change subpackage names to git-<name> instead of git-core-<name>
-- Create empty root package which brings in all subpackages
-- Rename git-tk -> gitk
-
-* Thu Nov 10 2005 Chris Wright <chrisw@osdl.org> 0.99.9g-1
-- zlib dependency fix
-- Minor cleanups from split
-- Move arch import to separate package as well
-
-* Tue Sep 27 2005 Jim Radford <radford@blackbean.org>
-- Move programs with non-standard dependencies (svn, cvs, email)
-  into separate packages
-
-* Tue Sep 27 2005 H. Peter Anvin <hpa@zytor.com>
-- parallelize build
-- COPTS -> CFLAGS
-
-* Fri Sep 16 2005 Chris Wright <chrisw@osdl.org> 0.99.6-1
-- update to 0.99.6
-
-* Fri Sep 16 2005 Horst H. von Brand <vonbrand@inf.utfsm.cl>
-- Linus noticed that less is required, added to the dependencies
-
-* Sun Sep 11 2005 Horst H. von Brand <vonbrand@inf.utfsm.cl>
-- Updated dependencies
-- Don't assume manpages are gzipped
-
-* Thu Aug 18 2005 Chris Wright <chrisw@osdl.org> 0.99.4-4
-- drop sh_utils, sh-utils, diffutils, mktemp, and openssl Requires
-- use RPM_OPT_FLAGS in spec file, drop patch0
-
-* Wed Aug 17 2005 Tom "spot" Callaway <tcallawa@redhat.com> 0.99.4-3
-- use dist tag to differentiate between branches
-- use rpm optflags by default (patch0)
-- own %{_datadir}/git-core/
-
-* Mon Aug 15 2005 Chris Wright <chrisw@osdl.org>
-- update spec file to fix Buildroot, Requires, and drop Vendor
-
-* Sun Aug 07 2005 Horst H. von Brand <vonbrand@inf.utfsm.cl>
-- Redid the description
-- Cut overlong make line, loosened changelog a bit
-- I think Junio (or perhaps OSDL?) should be vendor...
-
-* Thu Jul 14 2005 Eric Biederman <ebiederm@xmission.com>
-- Add the man pages, and the --without docs build option
-
-* Wed Jul 7 2005 Chris Wright <chris@osdl.org>
-- initial git spec file
diff --git a/gpg-interface.c b/gpg-interface.c
index 3dc2fe3..c4b1e8c 100644
--- a/gpg-interface.c
+++ b/gpg-interface.c
@@ -219,11 +219,9 @@
 	args_gpg[0] = gpg_program;
 	fd = git_mkstemp(path, PATH_MAX, ".git_vtag_tmpXXXXXX");
 	if (fd < 0)
-		return error(_("could not create temporary file '%s': %s"),
-			     path, strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno(_("could not create temporary file '%s'"), path);
 	if (write_in_full(fd, signature, signature_size) < 0)
-		return error(_("failed writing detached signature to '%s': %s"),
-			     path, strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno(_("failed writing detached signature to '%s'"), path);
 	close(fd);
 
 	gpg.argv = args_gpg;
@@ -237,6 +235,7 @@
 		return error(_("could not run gpg."));
 	}
 
+	sigchain_push(SIGPIPE, SIG_IGN);
 	write_in_full(gpg.in, payload, payload_size);
 	close(gpg.in);
 
@@ -250,6 +249,7 @@
 	close(gpg.out);
 
 	ret = finish_command(&gpg);
+	sigchain_pop(SIGPIPE);
 
 	unlink_or_warn(path);
 
diff --git a/grep.c b/grep.c
index 528b652..ec6f7ff 100644
--- a/grep.c
+++ b/grep.c
@@ -1732,7 +1732,7 @@
 	if (lstat(filename, &st) < 0) {
 	err_ret:
 		if (errno != ENOENT)
-			error(_("'%s': %s"), filename, strerror(errno));
+			error_errno(_("failed to stat '%s'"), filename);
 		return -1;
 	}
 	if (!S_ISREG(st.st_mode))
@@ -1743,7 +1743,7 @@
 		goto err_ret;
 	data = xmallocz(size);
 	if (st.st_size != read_in_full(i, data, size)) {
-		error(_("'%s': short read %s"), filename, strerror(errno));
+		error_errno(_("'%s': short read"), filename);
 		close(i);
 		free(data);
 		return -1;
diff --git a/http-backend.c b/http-backend.c
index 8870a26..2148814 100644
--- a/http-backend.c
+++ b/http-backend.c
@@ -484,9 +484,9 @@
 		const char *target = resolve_ref_unsafe(refname,
 							RESOLVE_REF_READING,
 							unused.hash, NULL);
-		const char *target_nons = strip_namespace(target);
 
-		strbuf_addf(buf, "ref: %s\n", target_nons);
+		if (target)
+			strbuf_addf(buf, "ref: %s\n", strip_namespace(target));
 	} else {
 		strbuf_addf(buf, "%s\n", oid_to_hex(oid));
 	}
diff --git a/http-push.c b/http-push.c
index bd60668..a092f02 100644
--- a/http-push.c
+++ b/http-push.c
@@ -211,7 +211,7 @@
 static struct curl_slist *get_dav_token_headers(struct remote_lock *lock, enum dav_header_flag options)
 {
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
-	struct curl_slist *dav_headers = NULL;
+	struct curl_slist *dav_headers = http_copy_default_headers();
 
 	if (options & DAV_HEADER_IF) {
 		strbuf_addf(&buf, "If: (<%s>)", lock->token);
@@ -417,7 +417,7 @@
 static void start_move(struct transfer_request *request)
 {
 	struct active_request_slot *slot;
-	struct curl_slist *dav_headers = NULL;
+	struct curl_slist *dav_headers = http_copy_default_headers();
 
 	slot = get_active_slot();
 	slot->callback_func = process_response;
@@ -845,7 +845,7 @@
 	char *ep;
 	char timeout_header[25];
 	struct remote_lock *lock = NULL;
-	struct curl_slist *dav_headers = NULL;
+	struct curl_slist *dav_headers = http_copy_default_headers();
 	struct xml_ctx ctx;
 	char *escaped;
 
@@ -1126,7 +1126,7 @@
 	struct slot_results results;
 	struct strbuf in_buffer = STRBUF_INIT;
 	struct buffer out_buffer = { STRBUF_INIT, 0 };
-	struct curl_slist *dav_headers = NULL;
+	struct curl_slist *dav_headers = http_copy_default_headers();
 	struct xml_ctx ctx;
 	struct remote_ls_ctx ls;
 
@@ -1204,7 +1204,7 @@
 	struct slot_results results;
 	struct strbuf in_buffer = STRBUF_INIT;
 	struct buffer out_buffer = { STRBUF_INIT, 0 };
-	struct curl_slist *dav_headers = NULL;
+	struct curl_slist *dav_headers = http_copy_default_headers();
 	struct xml_ctx ctx;
 	int lock_flags = 0;
 	char *escaped;
@@ -1312,10 +1312,10 @@
 	while (tree_entry(&desc, &entry))
 		switch (object_type(entry.mode)) {
 		case OBJ_TREE:
-			p = process_tree(lookup_tree(entry.sha1), p);
+			p = process_tree(lookup_tree(entry.oid->hash), p);
 			break;
 		case OBJ_BLOB:
-			p = process_blob(lookup_blob(entry.sha1), p);
+			p = process_blob(lookup_blob(entry.oid->hash), p);
 			break;
 		default:
 			/* Subproject commit - not in this repository */
diff --git a/http.c b/http.c
index 1044f9b..df6dd01 100644
--- a/http.c
+++ b/http.c
@@ -114,6 +114,7 @@
 
 static struct curl_slist *pragma_header;
 static struct curl_slist *no_pragma_header;
+static struct curl_slist *extra_http_headers;
 
 static struct active_request_slot *active_queue_head;
 
@@ -323,6 +324,19 @@
 #endif
 	}
 
+	if (!strcmp("http.extraheader", var)) {
+		if (!value) {
+			return config_error_nonbool(var);
+		} else if (!*value) {
+			curl_slist_free_all(extra_http_headers);
+			extra_http_headers = NULL;
+		} else {
+			extra_http_headers =
+				curl_slist_append(extra_http_headers, value);
+		}
+		return 0;
+	}
+
 	/* Fall back on the default ones */
 	return git_default_config(var, value, cb);
 }
@@ -446,8 +460,7 @@
 
 	rc = setsockopt(fd, SOL_SOCKET, SO_KEEPALIVE, (void *)&ka, len);
 	if (rc < 0)
-		warning("unable to set SO_KEEPALIVE on socket %s",
-			strerror(errno));
+		warning_errno("unable to set SO_KEEPALIVE on socket");
 
 	return 0; /* CURL_SOCKOPT_OK only exists since curl 7.21.5 */
 }
@@ -678,8 +691,10 @@
 	if (remote)
 		var_override(&http_proxy_authmethod, remote->http_proxy_authmethod);
 
-	pragma_header = curl_slist_append(pragma_header, "Pragma: no-cache");
-	no_pragma_header = curl_slist_append(no_pragma_header, "Pragma:");
+	pragma_header = curl_slist_append(http_copy_default_headers(),
+		"Pragma: no-cache");
+	no_pragma_header = curl_slist_append(http_copy_default_headers(),
+		"Pragma:");
 
 #ifdef USE_CURL_MULTI
 	{
@@ -765,6 +780,9 @@
 #endif
 	curl_global_cleanup();
 
+	curl_slist_free_all(extra_http_headers);
+	extra_http_headers = NULL;
+
 	curl_slist_free_all(pragma_header);
 	pragma_header = NULL;
 
@@ -1163,6 +1181,16 @@
 	return handle_curl_result(results);
 }
 
+struct curl_slist *http_copy_default_headers(void)
+{
+	struct curl_slist *headers = NULL, *h;
+
+	for (h = extra_http_headers; h; h = h->next)
+		headers = curl_slist_append(headers, h->data);
+
+	return headers;
+}
+
 static CURLcode curlinfo_strbuf(CURL *curl, CURLINFO info, struct strbuf *buf)
 {
 	char *ptr;
@@ -1380,7 +1408,7 @@
 {
 	struct active_request_slot *slot;
 	struct slot_results results;
-	struct curl_slist *headers = NULL;
+	struct curl_slist *headers = http_copy_default_headers();
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 	const char *accept_language;
 	int ret;
@@ -1894,8 +1922,7 @@
 	}
 
 	if (freq->localfile < 0) {
-		error("Couldn't create temporary file %s: %s",
-		      freq->tmpfile, strerror(errno));
+		error_errno("Couldn't create temporary file %s", freq->tmpfile);
 		goto abort;
 	}
 
@@ -1940,8 +1967,8 @@
 			prev_posn = 0;
 			lseek(freq->localfile, 0, SEEK_SET);
 			if (ftruncate(freq->localfile, 0) < 0) {
-				error("Couldn't truncate temporary file %s: %s",
-					  freq->tmpfile, strerror(errno));
+				error_errno("Couldn't truncate temporary file %s",
+					    freq->tmpfile);
 				goto abort;
 			}
 		}
diff --git a/http.h b/http.h
index 4ef4bbd..36f558b 100644
--- a/http.h
+++ b/http.h
@@ -106,6 +106,7 @@
 extern void http_init(struct remote *remote, const char *url,
 		      int proactive_auth);
 extern void http_cleanup(void);
+extern struct curl_slist *http_copy_default_headers(void);
 
 extern long int git_curl_ipresolve;
 extern int active_requests;
diff --git a/ident.c b/ident.c
index 4fd82d1..139c528 100644
--- a/ident.c
+++ b/ident.c
@@ -75,14 +75,12 @@
 	mailname = fopen("/etc/mailname", "r");
 	if (!mailname) {
 		if (errno != ENOENT)
-			warning("cannot open /etc/mailname: %s",
-				strerror(errno));
+			warning_errno("cannot open /etc/mailname");
 		return -1;
 	}
 	if (strbuf_getline(&mailnamebuf, mailname) == EOF) {
 		if (ferror(mailname))
-			warning("cannot read /etc/mailname: %s",
-				strerror(errno));
+			warning_errno("cannot read /etc/mailname");
 		strbuf_release(&mailnamebuf);
 		fclose(mailname);
 		return -1;
@@ -125,7 +123,7 @@
 	char buf[1024];
 
 	if (gethostname(buf, sizeof(buf))) {
-		warning("cannot get host name: %s", strerror(errno));
+		warning_errno("cannot get host name");
 		strbuf_addstr(out, "(none)");
 		*is_bogus = 1;
 		return;
diff --git a/list-objects.c b/list-objects.c
index 917cc5d..f3ca6aa 100644
--- a/list-objects.c
+++ b/list-objects.c
@@ -110,16 +110,16 @@
 
 		if (S_ISDIR(entry.mode))
 			process_tree(revs,
-				     lookup_tree(entry.sha1),
+				     lookup_tree(entry.oid->hash),
 				     show, base, entry.path,
 				     cb_data);
 		else if (S_ISGITLINK(entry.mode))
-			process_gitlink(revs, entry.sha1,
+			process_gitlink(revs, entry.oid->hash,
 					show, base, entry.path,
 					cb_data);
 		else
 			process_blob(revs,
-				     lookup_blob(entry.sha1),
+				     lookup_blob(entry.oid->hash),
 				     show, base, entry.path,
 				     cb_data);
 	}
diff --git a/ll-merge.c b/ll-merge.c
index ff4a43a..ad8be42 100644
--- a/ll-merge.c
+++ b/ll-merge.c
@@ -47,7 +47,9 @@
 	assert(opts);
 
 	/*
-	 * The tentative merge result is the or common ancestor for an internal merge.
+	 * The tentative merge result is the common ancestor for an
+	 * internal merge.  For the final merge, it is "ours" by
+	 * default but -Xours/-Xtheirs can tweak the choice.
 	 */
 	if (opts->virtual_ancestor) {
 		stolen = orig;
@@ -383,8 +385,12 @@
 		}
 	}
 	driver = find_ll_merge_driver(ll_driver_name);
-	if (opts->virtual_ancestor && driver->recursive)
-		driver = find_ll_merge_driver(driver->recursive);
+
+	if (opts->virtual_ancestor) {
+		if (driver->recursive)
+			driver = find_ll_merge_driver(driver->recursive);
+		marker_size += 2;
+	}
 	return driver->fn(driver, result_buf, path, ancestor, ancestor_label,
 			  ours, our_label, theirs, their_label,
 			  opts, marker_size);
diff --git a/log-tree.c b/log-tree.c
index 60f9839..78a5381 100644
--- a/log-tree.c
+++ b/log-tree.c
@@ -683,6 +683,7 @@
 	ctx.fmt = opt->commit_format;
 	ctx.mailmap = opt->mailmap;
 	ctx.color = opt->diffopt.use_color;
+	ctx.expand_tabs_in_log = opt->expand_tabs_in_log;
 	ctx.output_encoding = get_log_output_encoding();
 	if (opt->from_ident.mail_begin && opt->from_ident.name_begin)
 		ctx.from_ident = &opt->from_ident;
diff --git a/mailmap.c b/mailmap.c
index 9726237..b5c521f 100644
--- a/mailmap.c
+++ b/mailmap.c
@@ -189,8 +189,7 @@
 	if (!f) {
 		if (errno == ENOENT)
 			return 0;
-		return error("unable to open mailmap at %s: %s",
-			     filename, strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno("unable to open mailmap at %s", filename);
 	}
 
 	while (fgets(buffer, sizeof(buffer), f) != NULL)
diff --git a/match-trees.c b/match-trees.c
index 1ce0954..396b733 100644
--- a/match-trees.c
+++ b/match-trees.c
@@ -48,17 +48,17 @@
 }
 
 static void *fill_tree_desc_strict(struct tree_desc *desc,
-				   const unsigned char *hash)
+				   const struct object_id *hash)
 {
 	void *buffer;
 	enum object_type type;
 	unsigned long size;
 
-	buffer = read_sha1_file(hash, &type, &size);
+	buffer = read_sha1_file(hash->hash, &type, &size);
 	if (!buffer)
-		die("unable to read tree (%s)", sha1_to_hex(hash));
+		die("unable to read tree (%s)", oid_to_hex(hash));
 	if (type != OBJ_TREE)
-		die("%s is not a tree", sha1_to_hex(hash));
+		die("%s is not a tree", oid_to_hex(hash));
 	init_tree_desc(desc, buffer, size);
 	return buffer;
 }
@@ -73,7 +73,7 @@
 /*
  * Inspect two trees, and give a score that tells how similar they are.
  */
-static int score_trees(const unsigned char *hash1, const unsigned char *hash2)
+static int score_trees(const struct object_id *hash1, const struct object_id *hash2)
 {
 	struct tree_desc one;
 	struct tree_desc two;
@@ -104,7 +104,7 @@
 		else if (cmp > 0)
 			/* path2 does not appear in one */
 			score += score_missing(e2.mode, e2.path);
-		else if (hashcmp(e1.sha1, e2.sha1))
+		else if (oidcmp(e1.oid, e2.oid))
 			/* they are different */
 			score += score_differs(e1.mode, e2.mode, e1.path);
 		else
@@ -119,8 +119,8 @@
 /*
  * Match one itself and its subtrees with two and pick the best match.
  */
-static void match_trees(const unsigned char *hash1,
-			const unsigned char *hash2,
+static void match_trees(const struct object_id *hash1,
+			const struct object_id *hash2,
 			int *best_score,
 			char **best_match,
 			const char *base,
@@ -131,7 +131,7 @@
 
 	while (one.size) {
 		const char *path;
-		const unsigned char *elem;
+		const struct object_id *elem;
 		unsigned mode;
 		int score;
 
@@ -191,15 +191,15 @@
 	while (desc.size) {
 		const char *name;
 		unsigned mode;
-		const unsigned char *sha1;
+		const struct object_id *oid;
 
-		sha1 = tree_entry_extract(&desc, &name, &mode);
+		oid = tree_entry_extract(&desc, &name, &mode);
 		if (strlen(name) == toplen &&
 		    !memcmp(name, prefix, toplen)) {
 			if (!S_ISDIR(mode))
 				die("entry %s in tree %s is not a tree",
 				    name, sha1_to_hex(hash1));
-			rewrite_here = (unsigned char *) sha1;
+			rewrite_here = (unsigned char *) oid->hash;
 			break;
 		}
 		update_tree_entry(&desc);
@@ -229,9 +229,9 @@
  * other hand, it could cover tree one and we might need to pick a
  * subtree of it.
  */
-void shift_tree(const unsigned char *hash1,
-		const unsigned char *hash2,
-		unsigned char *shifted,
+void shift_tree(const struct object_id *hash1,
+		const struct object_id *hash2,
+		struct object_id *shifted,
 		int depth_limit)
 {
 	char *add_prefix;
@@ -262,7 +262,7 @@
 	match_trees(hash2, hash1, &del_score, &del_prefix, "", depth_limit);
 
 	/* Assume we do not have to do any shifting */
-	hashcpy(shifted, hash2);
+	oidcpy(shifted, hash2);
 
 	if (add_score < del_score) {
 		/* We need to pick a subtree of two */
@@ -271,16 +271,16 @@
 		if (!*del_prefix)
 			return;
 
-		if (get_tree_entry(hash2, del_prefix, shifted, &mode))
+		if (get_tree_entry(hash2->hash, del_prefix, shifted->hash, &mode))
 			die("cannot find path %s in tree %s",
-			    del_prefix, sha1_to_hex(hash2));
+			    del_prefix, oid_to_hex(hash2));
 		return;
 	}
 
 	if (!*add_prefix)
 		return;
 
-	splice_tree(hash1, add_prefix, hash2, shifted);
+	splice_tree(hash1->hash, add_prefix, hash2->hash, shifted->hash);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -288,22 +288,22 @@
  * Unfortunately we cannot fundamentally tell which one to
  * be prefixed, as recursive merge can work in either direction.
  */
-void shift_tree_by(const unsigned char *hash1,
-		   const unsigned char *hash2,
-		   unsigned char *shifted,
+void shift_tree_by(const struct object_id *hash1,
+		   const struct object_id *hash2,
+		   struct object_id *shifted,
 		   const char *shift_prefix)
 {
-	unsigned char sub1[20], sub2[20];
+	struct object_id sub1, sub2;
 	unsigned mode1, mode2;
 	unsigned candidate = 0;
 
 	/* Can hash2 be a tree at shift_prefix in tree hash1? */
-	if (!get_tree_entry(hash1, shift_prefix, sub1, &mode1) &&
+	if (!get_tree_entry(hash1->hash, shift_prefix, sub1.hash, &mode1) &&
 	    S_ISDIR(mode1))
 		candidate |= 1;
 
 	/* Can hash1 be a tree at shift_prefix in tree hash2? */
-	if (!get_tree_entry(hash2, shift_prefix, sub2, &mode2) &&
+	if (!get_tree_entry(hash2->hash, shift_prefix, sub2.hash, &mode2) &&
 	    S_ISDIR(mode2))
 		candidate |= 2;
 
@@ -313,19 +313,19 @@
 		int score;
 
 		candidate = 0;
-		score = score_trees(sub1, hash2);
+		score = score_trees(&sub1, hash2);
 		if (score > best_score) {
 			candidate = 1;
 			best_score = score;
 		}
-		score = score_trees(sub2, hash1);
+		score = score_trees(&sub2, hash1);
 		if (score > best_score)
 			candidate = 2;
 	}
 
 	if (!candidate) {
 		/* Neither is plausible -- do not shift */
-		hashcpy(shifted, hash2);
+		oidcpy(shifted, hash2);
 		return;
 	}
 
@@ -334,11 +334,11 @@
 		 * shift tree2 down by adding shift_prefix above it
 		 * to match tree1.
 		 */
-		splice_tree(hash1, shift_prefix, hash2, shifted);
+		splice_tree(hash1->hash, shift_prefix, hash2->hash, shifted->hash);
 	else
 		/*
 		 * shift tree2 up by removing shift_prefix from it
 		 * to match tree1.
 		 */
-		hashcpy(shifted, sub2);
+		oidcpy(shifted, &sub2);
 }
diff --git a/merge-recursive.c b/merge-recursive.c
index b880ae5..65cb5d6 100644
--- a/merge-recursive.c
+++ b/merge-recursive.c
@@ -29,9 +29,9 @@
 	struct object_id shifted;
 
 	if (!*subtree_shift) {
-		shift_tree(one->object.oid.hash, two->object.oid.hash, shifted.hash, 0);
+		shift_tree(&one->object.oid, &two->object.oid, &shifted, 0);
 	} else {
-		shift_tree_by(one->object.oid.hash, two->object.oid.hash, shifted.hash,
+		shift_tree_by(&one->object.oid, &two->object.oid, &shifted,
 			      subtree_shift);
 	}
 	if (!oidcmp(&two->object.oid, &shifted))
@@ -622,7 +622,7 @@
 	base_len = newpath.len;
 	while (string_list_has_string(&o->current_file_set, newpath.buf) ||
 	       string_list_has_string(&o->current_directory_set, newpath.buf) ||
-	       file_exists(newpath.buf)) {
+	       (!o->call_depth && file_exists(newpath.buf))) {
 		strbuf_setlen(&newpath, base_len);
 		strbuf_addf(&newpath, "_%d", suffix++);
 	}
@@ -1234,8 +1234,8 @@
 	       a->path, c1->path, ci->branch1,
 	       b->path, c2->path, ci->branch2);
 
-	remove_file(o, 1, a->path, would_lose_untracked(a->path));
-	remove_file(o, 1, b->path, would_lose_untracked(b->path));
+	remove_file(o, 1, a->path, o->call_depth || would_lose_untracked(a->path));
+	remove_file(o, 1, b->path, o->call_depth || would_lose_untracked(b->path));
 
 	mfi_c1 = merge_file_special_markers(o, a, c1, &ci->ren1_other,
 					    o->branch1, c1->path,
@@ -1773,8 +1773,6 @@
 			output(o, 1, _("CONFLICT (%s): There is a directory with name %s in %s. "
 			       "Adding %s as %s"),
 			       conf, path, other_branch, path, new_path);
-			if (o->call_depth)
-				remove_file_from_cache(path);
 			update_file(o, 0, sha, mode, new_path);
 			if (o->call_depth)
 				remove_file_from_cache(path);
diff --git a/mergetools/examdiff b/mergetools/examdiff
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7b524d4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/mergetools/examdiff
@@ -0,0 +1,18 @@
+diff_cmd () {
+	"$merge_tool_path" "$LOCAL" "$REMOTE" -nh
+}
+
+merge_cmd () {
+	touch "$BACKUP"
+	if $base_present
+	then
+		"$merge_tool_path" -merge "$LOCAL" "$BASE" "$REMOTE" -o:"$MERGED" -nh
+	else
+		"$merge_tool_path" -merge "$LOCAL" "$REMOTE" -o:"$MERGED" -nh
+	fi
+	check_unchanged
+}
+
+translate_merge_tool_path() {
+	mergetool_find_win32_cmd "ExamDiff.com" "ExamDiff Pro"
+}
diff --git a/mergetools/winmerge b/mergetools/winmerge
index 74a66d4..f3819d3 100644
--- a/mergetools/winmerge
+++ b/mergetools/winmerge
@@ -13,24 +13,5 @@
 }
 
 translate_merge_tool_path() {
-	# Use WinMergeU.exe if it exists in $PATH
-	if type -p WinMergeU.exe >/dev/null 2>&1
-	then
-		printf WinMergeU.exe
-		return
-	fi
-
-	# Look for WinMergeU.exe in the typical locations
-	winmerge_exe="WinMerge/WinMergeU.exe"
-	for directory in $(env | grep -Ei '^PROGRAM(FILES(\(X86\))?|W6432)=' |
-		cut -d '=' -f 2- | sort -u)
-	do
-		if test -n "$directory" && test -x "$directory/$winmerge_exe"
-		then
-			printf '%s' "$directory/$winmerge_exe"
-			return
-		fi
-	done
-
-	printf WinMergeU.exe
+	mergetool_find_win32_cmd "WinMergeU.exe" "WinMerge"
 }
diff --git a/notes.c b/notes.c
index 88cf474..e4e4854 100644
--- a/notes.c
+++ b/notes.c
@@ -446,7 +446,7 @@
 			l = (struct leaf_node *)
 				xcalloc(1, sizeof(struct leaf_node));
 			hashcpy(l->key_sha1, object_sha1);
-			hashcpy(l->val_sha1, entry.sha1);
+			hashcpy(l->val_sha1, entry.oid->hash);
 			if (len < 20) {
 				if (!S_ISDIR(entry.mode) || path_len != 2)
 					goto handle_non_note; /* not subtree */
@@ -493,7 +493,7 @@
 			}
 			strbuf_addstr(&non_note_path, entry.path);
 			add_non_note(t, strbuf_detach(&non_note_path, NULL),
-				     entry.mode, entry.sha1);
+				     entry.mode, entry.oid->hash);
 		}
 	}
 	free(buf);
diff --git a/parse-options.c b/parse-options.c
index 47a9192..312a85d 100644
--- a/parse-options.c
+++ b/parse-options.c
@@ -110,6 +110,8 @@
 		return 0;
 
 	case OPTION_COUNTUP:
+		if (*(int *)opt->value < 0)
+			*(int *)opt->value = 0;
 		*(int *)opt->value = unset ? 0 : *(int *)opt->value + 1;
 		return 0;
 
diff --git a/patch-ids.c b/patch-ids.c
index b7b3e5a..a4d0016 100644
--- a/patch-ids.c
+++ b/patch-ids.c
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@
 #include "sha1-lookup.h"
 #include "patch-ids.h"
 
-static int commit_patch_id(struct commit *commit, struct diff_options *options,
+int commit_patch_id(struct commit *commit, struct diff_options *options,
 		    unsigned char *sha1)
 {
 	if (commit->parents)
diff --git a/patch-ids.h b/patch-ids.h
index c8c7ca1..eeb56b3 100644
--- a/patch-ids.h
+++ b/patch-ids.h
@@ -13,6 +13,8 @@
 	struct patch_id_bucket *patches;
 };
 
+int commit_patch_id(struct commit *commit, struct diff_options *options,
+		    unsigned char *sha1);
 int init_patch_ids(struct patch_ids *);
 int free_patch_ids(struct patch_ids *);
 struct patch_id *add_commit_patch_id(struct commit *, struct patch_ids *);
diff --git a/path.c b/path.c
index 5037667..259aeed 100644
--- a/path.c
+++ b/path.c
@@ -5,6 +5,7 @@
 #include "strbuf.h"
 #include "string-list.h"
 #include "dir.h"
+#include "worktree.h"
 
 static int get_st_mode_bits(const char *path, int *mode)
 {
@@ -383,10 +384,11 @@
 		update_common_dir(buf, git_dir_len, NULL);
 }
 
-static void do_git_path(struct strbuf *buf, const char *fmt, va_list args)
+static void do_git_path(const struct worktree *wt, struct strbuf *buf,
+			const char *fmt, va_list args)
 {
 	int gitdir_len;
-	strbuf_addstr(buf, get_git_dir());
+	strbuf_addstr(buf, get_worktree_git_dir(wt));
 	if (buf->len && !is_dir_sep(buf->buf[buf->len - 1]))
 		strbuf_addch(buf, '/');
 	gitdir_len = buf->len;
@@ -400,7 +402,7 @@
 	va_list args;
 	strbuf_reset(buf);
 	va_start(args, fmt);
-	do_git_path(buf, fmt, args);
+	do_git_path(NULL, buf, fmt, args);
 	va_end(args);
 	return buf->buf;
 }
@@ -409,7 +411,7 @@
 {
 	va_list args;
 	va_start(args, fmt);
-	do_git_path(sb, fmt, args);
+	do_git_path(NULL, sb, fmt, args);
 	va_end(args);
 }
 
@@ -418,7 +420,7 @@
 	struct strbuf *pathname = get_pathname();
 	va_list args;
 	va_start(args, fmt);
-	do_git_path(pathname, fmt, args);
+	do_git_path(NULL, pathname, fmt, args);
 	va_end(args);
 	return pathname->buf;
 }
@@ -428,7 +430,7 @@
 	struct strbuf path = STRBUF_INIT;
 	va_list args;
 	va_start(args, fmt);
-	do_git_path(&path, fmt, args);
+	do_git_path(NULL, &path, fmt, args);
 	va_end(args);
 	return strbuf_detach(&path, NULL);
 }
@@ -454,6 +456,16 @@
 	return cleanup_path(pathname->buf);
 }
 
+const char *worktree_git_path(const struct worktree *wt, const char *fmt, ...)
+{
+	struct strbuf *pathname = get_pathname();
+	va_list args;
+	va_start(args, fmt);
+	do_git_path(wt, pathname, fmt, args);
+	va_end(args);
+	return pathname->buf;
+}
+
 static void do_submodule_path(struct strbuf *buf, const char *path,
 			      const char *fmt, va_list args)
 {
@@ -503,6 +515,35 @@
 	va_end(args);
 }
 
+static void do_git_common_path(struct strbuf *buf,
+			       const char *fmt,
+			       va_list args)
+{
+	strbuf_addstr(buf, get_git_common_dir());
+	if (buf->len && !is_dir_sep(buf->buf[buf->len - 1]))
+		strbuf_addch(buf, '/');
+	strbuf_vaddf(buf, fmt, args);
+	strbuf_cleanup_path(buf);
+}
+
+const char *git_common_path(const char *fmt, ...)
+{
+	struct strbuf *pathname = get_pathname();
+	va_list args;
+	va_start(args, fmt);
+	do_git_common_path(pathname, fmt, args);
+	va_end(args);
+	return pathname->buf;
+}
+
+void strbuf_git_common_path(struct strbuf *sb, const char *fmt, ...)
+{
+	va_list args;
+	va_start(args, fmt);
+	do_git_common_path(sb, fmt, args);
+	va_end(args);
+}
+
 int validate_headref(const char *path)
 {
 	struct stat st;
diff --git a/perl/Git/SVN.pm b/perl/Git/SVN.pm
index b2c14e2..d94d01c 100644
--- a/perl/Git/SVN.pm
+++ b/perl/Git/SVN.pm
@@ -97,7 +97,8 @@
 				    "existing: $existing\n",
 				    " globbed: $refname\n";
 			}
-			my $u = (::cmt_metadata("$refname"))[0];
+			my $u = (::cmt_metadata("$refname"))[0] or die
+			    "$refname: no associated commit metadata\n";
 			$u =~ s!^\Q$url\E(/|$)!! or die
 			  "$refname: '$url' not found in '$u'\n";
 			if ($pathname ne $u) {
diff --git a/pretty.c b/pretty.c
index 92b2870..87c4497 100644
--- a/pretty.c
+++ b/pretty.c
@@ -16,6 +16,7 @@
 	const char *name;
 	enum cmit_fmt format;
 	int is_tformat;
+	int expand_tabs_in_log;
 	int is_alias;
 	const char *user_format;
 } *commit_formats;
@@ -87,13 +88,13 @@
 static void setup_commit_formats(void)
 {
 	struct cmt_fmt_map builtin_formats[] = {
-		{ "raw",	CMIT_FMT_RAW,		0 },
-		{ "medium",	CMIT_FMT_MEDIUM,	0 },
-		{ "short",	CMIT_FMT_SHORT,		0 },
-		{ "email",	CMIT_FMT_EMAIL,		0 },
-		{ "fuller",	CMIT_FMT_FULLER,	0 },
-		{ "full",	CMIT_FMT_FULL,		0 },
-		{ "oneline",	CMIT_FMT_ONELINE,	1 }
+		{ "raw",	CMIT_FMT_RAW,		0,	0 },
+		{ "medium",	CMIT_FMT_MEDIUM,	0,	8 },
+		{ "short",	CMIT_FMT_SHORT,		0,	0 },
+		{ "email",	CMIT_FMT_EMAIL,		0,	0 },
+		{ "fuller",	CMIT_FMT_FULLER,	0,	8 },
+		{ "full",	CMIT_FMT_FULL,		0,	8 },
+		{ "oneline",	CMIT_FMT_ONELINE,	1,	0 }
 	};
 	commit_formats_len = ARRAY_SIZE(builtin_formats);
 	builtin_formats_len = commit_formats_len;
@@ -172,6 +173,7 @@
 
 	rev->commit_format = commit_format->format;
 	rev->use_terminator = commit_format->is_tformat;
+	rev->expand_tabs_in_log_default = commit_format->expand_tabs_in_log;
 	if (commit_format->format == CMIT_FMT_USERFORMAT) {
 		save_user_format(rev, commit_format->user_format,
 				 commit_format->is_tformat);
@@ -1629,6 +1631,72 @@
 	strbuf_release(&title);
 }
 
+static int pp_utf8_width(const char *start, const char *end)
+{
+	int width = 0;
+	size_t remain = end - start;
+
+	while (remain) {
+		int n = utf8_width(&start, &remain);
+		if (n < 0 || !start)
+			return -1;
+		width += n;
+	}
+	return width;
+}
+
+static void strbuf_add_tabexpand(struct strbuf *sb, int tabwidth,
+				 const char *line, int linelen)
+{
+	const char *tab;
+
+	while ((tab = memchr(line, '\t', linelen)) != NULL) {
+		int width = pp_utf8_width(line, tab);
+
+		/*
+		 * If it wasn't well-formed utf8, or it
+		 * had characters with badly defined
+		 * width (control characters etc), just
+		 * give up on trying to align things.
+		 */
+		if (width < 0)
+			break;
+
+		/* Output the data .. */
+		strbuf_add(sb, line, tab - line);
+
+		/* .. and the de-tabified tab */
+		strbuf_addchars(sb, ' ', tabwidth - (width % tabwidth));
+
+		/* Skip over the printed part .. */
+		linelen -= tab + 1 - line;
+		line = tab + 1;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Print out everything after the last tab without
+	 * worrying about width - there's nothing more to
+	 * align.
+	 */
+	strbuf_add(sb, line, linelen);
+}
+
+/*
+ * pp_handle_indent() prints out the intendation, and
+ * the whole line (without the final newline), after
+ * de-tabifying.
+ */
+static void pp_handle_indent(struct pretty_print_context *pp,
+			     struct strbuf *sb, int indent,
+			     const char *line, int linelen)
+{
+	strbuf_addchars(sb, ' ', indent);
+	if (pp->expand_tabs_in_log)
+		strbuf_add_tabexpand(sb, pp->expand_tabs_in_log, line, linelen);
+	else
+		strbuf_add(sb, line, linelen);
+}
+
 void pp_remainder(struct pretty_print_context *pp,
 		  const char **msg_p,
 		  struct strbuf *sb,
@@ -1653,8 +1721,12 @@
 
 		strbuf_grow(sb, linelen + indent + 20);
 		if (indent)
-			strbuf_addchars(sb, ' ', indent);
-		strbuf_add(sb, line, linelen);
+			pp_handle_indent(pp, sb, indent, line, linelen);
+		else if (pp->expand_tabs_in_log)
+			strbuf_add_tabexpand(sb, pp->expand_tabs_in_log,
+					     line, linelen);
+		else
+			strbuf_add(sb, line, linelen);
 		strbuf_addch(sb, '\n');
 	}
 }
diff --git a/quote.c b/quote.c
index fe884d2..b281a8f 100644
--- a/quote.c
+++ b/quote.c
@@ -43,6 +43,19 @@
 	free(to_free);
 }
 
+void sq_quotef(struct strbuf *dst, const char *fmt, ...)
+{
+	struct strbuf src = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	va_list ap;
+	va_start(ap, fmt);
+	strbuf_vaddf(&src, fmt, ap);
+	va_end(ap);
+
+	sq_quote_buf(dst, src.buf);
+	strbuf_release(&src);
+}
+
 void sq_quote_argv(struct strbuf *dst, const char** argv, size_t maxlen)
 {
 	int i;
diff --git a/quote.h b/quote.h
index 99e04d3..6c53a2c 100644
--- a/quote.h
+++ b/quote.h
@@ -25,10 +25,13 @@
  * sq_quote_buf() writes to an existing buffer of specified size; it
  * will return the number of characters that would have been written
  * excluding the final null regardless of the buffer size.
+ *
+ * sq_quotef() quotes the entire formatted string as a single result.
  */
 
 extern void sq_quote_buf(struct strbuf *, const char *src);
 extern void sq_quote_argv(struct strbuf *, const char **argv, size_t maxlen);
+extern void sq_quotef(struct strbuf *, const char *fmt, ...);
 
 /* This unwraps what sq_quote() produces in place, but returns
  * NULL if the input does not look like what sq_quote would have
diff --git a/reachable.c b/reachable.c
index ed35201..d0199ca 100644
--- a/reachable.c
+++ b/reachable.c
@@ -119,8 +119,7 @@
 		 */
 		if (errno == ENOENT)
 			return 0;
-		return error("unable to stat %s: %s",
-			     sha1_to_hex(sha1), strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno("unable to stat %s", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 	}
 
 	add_recent_object(sha1, st.st_mtime, data);
diff --git a/refs.c b/refs.c
index b0e6ece..87dc82f 100644
--- a/refs.c
+++ b/refs.c
@@ -1080,3 +1080,152 @@
 	strbuf_release(&err);
 	return ret;
 }
+
+int head_ref_submodule(const char *submodule, each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
+{
+	struct object_id oid;
+	int flag;
+
+	if (submodule) {
+		if (resolve_gitlink_ref(submodule, "HEAD", oid.hash) == 0)
+			return fn("HEAD", &oid, 0, cb_data);
+
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	if (!read_ref_full("HEAD", RESOLVE_REF_READING, oid.hash, &flag))
+		return fn("HEAD", &oid, flag, cb_data);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+int head_ref(each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
+{
+	return head_ref_submodule(NULL, fn, cb_data);
+}
+
+int for_each_ref(each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
+{
+	return do_for_each_ref(NULL, "", fn, 0, 0, cb_data);
+}
+
+int for_each_ref_submodule(const char *submodule, each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
+{
+	return do_for_each_ref(submodule, "", fn, 0, 0, cb_data);
+}
+
+int for_each_ref_in(const char *prefix, each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
+{
+	return do_for_each_ref(NULL, prefix, fn, strlen(prefix), 0, cb_data);
+}
+
+int for_each_fullref_in(const char *prefix, each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data, unsigned int broken)
+{
+	unsigned int flag = 0;
+
+	if (broken)
+		flag = DO_FOR_EACH_INCLUDE_BROKEN;
+	return do_for_each_ref(NULL, prefix, fn, 0, flag, cb_data);
+}
+
+int for_each_ref_in_submodule(const char *submodule, const char *prefix,
+		each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
+{
+	return do_for_each_ref(submodule, prefix, fn, strlen(prefix), 0, cb_data);
+}
+
+int for_each_replace_ref(each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
+{
+	return do_for_each_ref(NULL, git_replace_ref_base, fn,
+			       strlen(git_replace_ref_base), 0, cb_data);
+}
+
+int for_each_namespaced_ref(each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
+{
+	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
+	int ret;
+	strbuf_addf(&buf, "%srefs/", get_git_namespace());
+	ret = do_for_each_ref(NULL, buf.buf, fn, 0, 0, cb_data);
+	strbuf_release(&buf);
+	return ret;
+}
+
+int for_each_rawref(each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
+{
+	return do_for_each_ref(NULL, "", fn, 0,
+			       DO_FOR_EACH_INCLUDE_BROKEN, cb_data);
+}
+
+/* This function needs to return a meaningful errno on failure */
+const char *resolve_ref_unsafe(const char *refname, int resolve_flags,
+			       unsigned char *sha1, int *flags)
+{
+	static struct strbuf sb_refname = STRBUF_INIT;
+	int unused_flags;
+	int symref_count;
+
+	if (!flags)
+		flags = &unused_flags;
+
+	*flags = 0;
+
+	if (check_refname_format(refname, REFNAME_ALLOW_ONELEVEL)) {
+		if (!(resolve_flags & RESOLVE_REF_ALLOW_BAD_NAME) ||
+		    !refname_is_safe(refname)) {
+			errno = EINVAL;
+			return NULL;
+		}
+
+		/*
+		 * dwim_ref() uses REF_ISBROKEN to distinguish between
+		 * missing refs and refs that were present but invalid,
+		 * to complain about the latter to stderr.
+		 *
+		 * We don't know whether the ref exists, so don't set
+		 * REF_ISBROKEN yet.
+		 */
+		*flags |= REF_BAD_NAME;
+	}
+
+	for (symref_count = 0; symref_count < SYMREF_MAXDEPTH; symref_count++) {
+		unsigned int read_flags = 0;
+
+		if (read_raw_ref(refname, sha1, &sb_refname, &read_flags)) {
+			*flags |= read_flags;
+			if (errno != ENOENT || (resolve_flags & RESOLVE_REF_READING))
+				return NULL;
+			hashclr(sha1);
+			if (*flags & REF_BAD_NAME)
+				*flags |= REF_ISBROKEN;
+			return refname;
+		}
+
+		*flags |= read_flags;
+
+		if (!(read_flags & REF_ISSYMREF)) {
+			if (*flags & REF_BAD_NAME) {
+				hashclr(sha1);
+				*flags |= REF_ISBROKEN;
+			}
+			return refname;
+		}
+
+		refname = sb_refname.buf;
+		if (resolve_flags & RESOLVE_REF_NO_RECURSE) {
+			hashclr(sha1);
+			return refname;
+		}
+		if (check_refname_format(refname, REFNAME_ALLOW_ONELEVEL)) {
+			if (!(resolve_flags & RESOLVE_REF_ALLOW_BAD_NAME) ||
+			    !refname_is_safe(refname)) {
+				errno = EINVAL;
+				return NULL;
+			}
+
+			*flags |= REF_ISBROKEN | REF_BAD_NAME;
+		}
+	}
+
+	errno = ELOOP;
+	return NULL;
+}
diff --git a/refs/files-backend.c b/refs/files-backend.c
index ea78ce9..1f38076 100644
--- a/refs/files-backend.c
+++ b/refs/files-backend.c
@@ -513,9 +513,6 @@
 	dir->sorted = dir->nr = i;
 }
 
-/* Include broken references in a do_for_each_ref*() iteration: */
-#define DO_FOR_EACH_INCLUDE_BROKEN 0x01
-
 /*
  * Return true iff the reference described by entry can be resolved to
  * an object in the database.  Emit a warning if the referred-to
@@ -1272,8 +1269,6 @@
 	return get_ref_dir(refs->loose);
 }
 
-/* We allow "recursive" symbolic refs. Only within reason, though */
-#define MAXDEPTH 5
 #define MAXREFLEN (1024)
 
 /*
@@ -1303,7 +1298,7 @@
 	char buffer[128], *p;
 	char *path;
 
-	if (recursion > MAXDEPTH || strlen(refname) > MAXREFLEN)
+	if (recursion > SYMREF_MAXDEPTH || strlen(refname) > MAXREFLEN)
 		return -1;
 	path = *refs->name
 		? git_pathdup_submodule(refs->name, "%s", refname)
@@ -1371,13 +1366,11 @@
 }
 
 /*
- * A loose ref file doesn't exist; check for a packed ref.  The
- * options are forwarded from resolve_safe_unsafe().
+ * A loose ref file doesn't exist; check for a packed ref.
  */
 static int resolve_missing_loose_ref(const char *refname,
-				     int resolve_flags,
 				     unsigned char *sha1,
-				     int *flags)
+				     unsigned int *flags)
 {
 	struct ref_entry *entry;
 
@@ -1388,205 +1381,158 @@
 	entry = get_packed_ref(refname);
 	if (entry) {
 		hashcpy(sha1, entry->u.value.oid.hash);
-		if (flags)
-			*flags |= REF_ISPACKED;
+		*flags |= REF_ISPACKED;
 		return 0;
 	}
-	/* The reference is not a packed reference, either. */
-	if (resolve_flags & RESOLVE_REF_READING) {
-		errno = ENOENT;
-		return -1;
-	} else {
-		hashclr(sha1);
-		return 0;
-	}
+	/* refname is not a packed reference. */
+	return -1;
 }
 
-/* This function needs to return a meaningful errno on failure */
-static const char *resolve_ref_1(const char *refname,
-				 int resolve_flags,
-				 unsigned char *sha1,
-				 int *flags,
-				 struct strbuf *sb_refname,
-				 struct strbuf *sb_path,
-				 struct strbuf *sb_contents)
+/*
+ * Read a raw ref from the filesystem or packed refs file.
+ *
+ * If the ref is a sha1, fill in sha1 and return 0.
+ *
+ * If the ref is symbolic, fill in *symref with the referrent
+ * (e.g. "refs/heads/master") and return 0.  The caller is responsible
+ * for validating the referrent.  Set REF_ISSYMREF in flags.
+ *
+ * If the ref doesn't exist, set errno to ENOENT and return -1.
+ *
+ * If the ref exists but is neither a symbolic ref nor a sha1, it is
+ * broken. Set REF_ISBROKEN in flags, set errno to EINVAL, and return
+ * -1.
+ *
+ * If there is another error reading the ref, set errno appropriately and
+ * return -1.
+ *
+ * Backend-specific flags might be set in flags as well, regardless of
+ * outcome.
+ *
+ * sb_path is workspace: the caller should allocate and free it.
+ *
+ * It is OK for refname to point into symref. In this case:
+ * - if the function succeeds with REF_ISSYMREF, symref will be
+ *   overwritten and the memory pointed to by refname might be changed
+ *   or even freed.
+ * - in all other cases, symref will be untouched, and therefore
+ *   refname will still be valid and unchanged.
+ */
+int read_raw_ref(const char *refname, unsigned char *sha1,
+		 struct strbuf *symref, unsigned int *flags)
 {
-	int depth = MAXDEPTH;
-	int bad_name = 0;
+	struct strbuf sb_contents = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct strbuf sb_path = STRBUF_INIT;
+	const char *path;
+	const char *buf;
+	struct stat st;
+	int fd;
+	int ret = -1;
+	int save_errno;
 
-	if (flags)
-		*flags = 0;
+	strbuf_reset(&sb_path);
+	strbuf_git_path(&sb_path, "%s", refname);
+	path = sb_path.buf;
 
-	if (check_refname_format(refname, REFNAME_ALLOW_ONELEVEL)) {
-		if (flags)
-			*flags |= REF_BAD_NAME;
+stat_ref:
+	/*
+	 * We might have to loop back here to avoid a race
+	 * condition: first we lstat() the file, then we try
+	 * to read it as a link or as a file.  But if somebody
+	 * changes the type of the file (file <-> directory
+	 * <-> symlink) between the lstat() and reading, then
+	 * we don't want to report that as an error but rather
+	 * try again starting with the lstat().
+	 */
 
-		if (!(resolve_flags & RESOLVE_REF_ALLOW_BAD_NAME) ||
-		    !refname_is_safe(refname)) {
-			errno = EINVAL;
-			return NULL;
+	if (lstat(path, &st) < 0) {
+		if (errno != ENOENT)
+			goto out;
+		if (resolve_missing_loose_ref(refname, sha1, flags)) {
+			errno = ENOENT;
+			goto out;
 		}
-		/*
-		 * dwim_ref() uses REF_ISBROKEN to distinguish between
-		 * missing refs and refs that were present but invalid,
-		 * to complain about the latter to stderr.
-		 *
-		 * We don't know whether the ref exists, so don't set
-		 * REF_ISBROKEN yet.
-		 */
-		bad_name = 1;
+		ret = 0;
+		goto out;
 	}
-	for (;;) {
-		const char *path;
-		struct stat st;
-		char *buf;
-		int fd;
 
-		if (--depth < 0) {
-			errno = ELOOP;
-			return NULL;
-		}
-
-		strbuf_reset(sb_path);
-		strbuf_git_path(sb_path, "%s", refname);
-		path = sb_path->buf;
-
-		/*
-		 * We might have to loop back here to avoid a race
-		 * condition: first we lstat() the file, then we try
-		 * to read it as a link or as a file.  But if somebody
-		 * changes the type of the file (file <-> directory
-		 * <-> symlink) between the lstat() and reading, then
-		 * we don't want to report that as an error but rather
-		 * try again starting with the lstat().
-		 */
-	stat_ref:
-		if (lstat(path, &st) < 0) {
-			if (errno != ENOENT)
-				return NULL;
-			if (resolve_missing_loose_ref(refname, resolve_flags,
-						      sha1, flags))
-				return NULL;
-			if (bad_name) {
-				hashclr(sha1);
-				if (flags)
-					*flags |= REF_ISBROKEN;
-			}
-			return refname;
-		}
-
-		/* Follow "normalized" - ie "refs/.." symlinks by hand */
-		if (S_ISLNK(st.st_mode)) {
-			strbuf_reset(sb_contents);
-			if (strbuf_readlink(sb_contents, path, 0) < 0) {
-				if (errno == ENOENT || errno == EINVAL)
-					/* inconsistent with lstat; retry */
-					goto stat_ref;
-				else
-					return NULL;
-			}
-			if (starts_with(sb_contents->buf, "refs/") &&
-			    !check_refname_format(sb_contents->buf, 0)) {
-				strbuf_swap(sb_refname, sb_contents);
-				refname = sb_refname->buf;
-				if (flags)
-					*flags |= REF_ISSYMREF;
-				if (resolve_flags & RESOLVE_REF_NO_RECURSE) {
-					hashclr(sha1);
-					return refname;
-				}
-				continue;
-			}
-		}
-
-		/* Is it a directory? */
-		if (S_ISDIR(st.st_mode)) {
-			errno = EISDIR;
-			return NULL;
-		}
-
-		/*
-		 * Anything else, just open it and try to use it as
-		 * a ref
-		 */
-		fd = open(path, O_RDONLY);
-		if (fd < 0) {
-			if (errno == ENOENT)
+	/* Follow "normalized" - ie "refs/.." symlinks by hand */
+	if (S_ISLNK(st.st_mode)) {
+		strbuf_reset(&sb_contents);
+		if (strbuf_readlink(&sb_contents, path, 0) < 0) {
+			if (errno == ENOENT || errno == EINVAL)
 				/* inconsistent with lstat; retry */
 				goto stat_ref;
 			else
-				return NULL;
+				goto out;
 		}
-		strbuf_reset(sb_contents);
-		if (strbuf_read(sb_contents, fd, 256) < 0) {
-			int save_errno = errno;
-			close(fd);
-			errno = save_errno;
-			return NULL;
-		}
-		close(fd);
-		strbuf_rtrim(sb_contents);
-
-		/*
-		 * Is it a symbolic ref?
-		 */
-		if (!starts_with(sb_contents->buf, "ref:")) {
-			/*
-			 * Please note that FETCH_HEAD has a second
-			 * line containing other data.
-			 */
-			if (get_sha1_hex(sb_contents->buf, sha1) ||
-			    (sb_contents->buf[40] != '\0' && !isspace(sb_contents->buf[40]))) {
-				if (flags)
-					*flags |= REF_ISBROKEN;
-				errno = EINVAL;
-				return NULL;
-			}
-			if (bad_name) {
-				hashclr(sha1);
-				if (flags)
-					*flags |= REF_ISBROKEN;
-			}
-			return refname;
-		}
-		if (flags)
+		if (starts_with(sb_contents.buf, "refs/") &&
+		    !check_refname_format(sb_contents.buf, 0)) {
+			strbuf_swap(&sb_contents, symref);
 			*flags |= REF_ISSYMREF;
-		buf = sb_contents->buf + 4;
-		while (isspace(*buf))
-			buf++;
-		strbuf_reset(sb_refname);
-		strbuf_addstr(sb_refname, buf);
-		refname = sb_refname->buf;
-		if (resolve_flags & RESOLVE_REF_NO_RECURSE) {
-			hashclr(sha1);
-			return refname;
-		}
-		if (check_refname_format(buf, REFNAME_ALLOW_ONELEVEL)) {
-			if (flags)
-				*flags |= REF_ISBROKEN;
-
-			if (!(resolve_flags & RESOLVE_REF_ALLOW_BAD_NAME) ||
-			    !refname_is_safe(buf)) {
-				errno = EINVAL;
-				return NULL;
-			}
-			bad_name = 1;
+			ret = 0;
+			goto out;
 		}
 	}
-}
 
-const char *resolve_ref_unsafe(const char *refname, int resolve_flags,
-			       unsigned char *sha1, int *flags)
-{
-	static struct strbuf sb_refname = STRBUF_INIT;
-	struct strbuf sb_contents = STRBUF_INIT;
-	struct strbuf sb_path = STRBUF_INIT;
-	const char *ret;
+	/* Is it a directory? */
+	if (S_ISDIR(st.st_mode)) {
+		errno = EISDIR;
+		goto out;
+	}
 
-	ret = resolve_ref_1(refname, resolve_flags, sha1, flags,
-			    &sb_refname, &sb_path, &sb_contents);
+	/*
+	 * Anything else, just open it and try to use it as
+	 * a ref
+	 */
+	fd = open(path, O_RDONLY);
+	if (fd < 0) {
+		if (errno == ENOENT)
+			/* inconsistent with lstat; retry */
+			goto stat_ref;
+		else
+			goto out;
+	}
+	strbuf_reset(&sb_contents);
+	if (strbuf_read(&sb_contents, fd, 256) < 0) {
+		int save_errno = errno;
+		close(fd);
+		errno = save_errno;
+		goto out;
+	}
+	close(fd);
+	strbuf_rtrim(&sb_contents);
+	buf = sb_contents.buf;
+	if (starts_with(buf, "ref:")) {
+		buf += 4;
+		while (isspace(*buf))
+			buf++;
+
+		strbuf_reset(symref);
+		strbuf_addstr(symref, buf);
+		*flags |= REF_ISSYMREF;
+		ret = 0;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Please note that FETCH_HEAD has additional
+	 * data after the sha.
+	 */
+	if (get_sha1_hex(buf, sha1) ||
+	    (buf[40] != '\0' && !isspace(buf[40]))) {
+		*flags |= REF_ISBROKEN;
+		errno = EINVAL;
+		goto out;
+	}
+
+	ret = 0;
+
+out:
+	save_errno = errno;
 	strbuf_release(&sb_path);
 	strbuf_release(&sb_contents);
+	errno = save_errno;
 	return ret;
 }
 
@@ -1727,10 +1673,13 @@
  * value, stop the iteration and return that value; otherwise, return
  * 0.
  */
-static int do_for_each_ref(struct ref_cache *refs, const char *base,
-			   each_ref_fn fn, int trim, int flags, void *cb_data)
+int do_for_each_ref(const char *submodule, const char *base,
+		    each_ref_fn fn, int trim, int flags, void *cb_data)
 {
 	struct ref_entry_cb data;
+	struct ref_cache *refs;
+
+	refs = get_ref_cache(submodule);
 	data.base = base;
 	data.trim = trim;
 	data.flags = flags;
@@ -1745,86 +1694,6 @@
 	return do_for_each_entry(refs, base, do_one_ref, &data);
 }
 
-static int do_head_ref(const char *submodule, each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
-{
-	struct object_id oid;
-	int flag;
-
-	if (submodule) {
-		if (resolve_gitlink_ref(submodule, "HEAD", oid.hash) == 0)
-			return fn("HEAD", &oid, 0, cb_data);
-
-		return 0;
-	}
-
-	if (!read_ref_full("HEAD", RESOLVE_REF_READING, oid.hash, &flag))
-		return fn("HEAD", &oid, flag, cb_data);
-
-	return 0;
-}
-
-int head_ref(each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
-{
-	return do_head_ref(NULL, fn, cb_data);
-}
-
-int head_ref_submodule(const char *submodule, each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
-{
-	return do_head_ref(submodule, fn, cb_data);
-}
-
-int for_each_ref(each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
-{
-	return do_for_each_ref(&ref_cache, "", fn, 0, 0, cb_data);
-}
-
-int for_each_ref_submodule(const char *submodule, each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
-{
-	return do_for_each_ref(get_ref_cache(submodule), "", fn, 0, 0, cb_data);
-}
-
-int for_each_ref_in(const char *prefix, each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
-{
-	return do_for_each_ref(&ref_cache, prefix, fn, strlen(prefix), 0, cb_data);
-}
-
-int for_each_fullref_in(const char *prefix, each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data, unsigned int broken)
-{
-	unsigned int flag = 0;
-
-	if (broken)
-		flag = DO_FOR_EACH_INCLUDE_BROKEN;
-	return do_for_each_ref(&ref_cache, prefix, fn, 0, flag, cb_data);
-}
-
-int for_each_ref_in_submodule(const char *submodule, const char *prefix,
-		each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
-{
-	return do_for_each_ref(get_ref_cache(submodule), prefix, fn, strlen(prefix), 0, cb_data);
-}
-
-int for_each_replace_ref(each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
-{
-	return do_for_each_ref(&ref_cache, git_replace_ref_base, fn,
-			       strlen(git_replace_ref_base), 0, cb_data);
-}
-
-int for_each_namespaced_ref(each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
-{
-	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
-	int ret;
-	strbuf_addf(&buf, "%srefs/", get_git_namespace());
-	ret = do_for_each_ref(&ref_cache, buf.buf, fn, 0, 0, cb_data);
-	strbuf_release(&buf);
-	return ret;
-}
-
-int for_each_rawref(each_ref_fn fn, void *cb_data)
-{
-	return do_for_each_ref(&ref_cache, "", fn, 0,
-			       DO_FOR_EACH_INCLUDE_BROKEN, cb_data);
-}
-
 static void unlock_ref(struct ref_lock *lock)
 {
 	/* Do not free lock->lk -- atexit() still looks at them */
@@ -3481,7 +3350,8 @@
 	 * reference itself, plus we might need to update the
 	 * reference if --updateref was specified:
 	 */
-	lock = lock_ref_sha1_basic(refname, sha1, NULL, NULL, 0, &type, &err);
+	lock = lock_ref_sha1_basic(refname, sha1, NULL, NULL, REF_NODEREF,
+				   &type, &err);
 	if (!lock) {
 		error("cannot lock ref '%s': %s", refname, err.buf);
 		strbuf_release(&err);
diff --git a/refs/refs-internal.h b/refs/refs-internal.h
index c7dded3..3a4f634 100644
--- a/refs/refs-internal.h
+++ b/refs/refs-internal.h
@@ -197,4 +197,19 @@
 
 int rename_ref_available(const char *oldname, const char *newname);
 
+/* We allow "recursive" symbolic refs. Only within reason, though */
+#define SYMREF_MAXDEPTH 5
+
+/* Include broken references in a do_for_each_ref*() iteration: */
+#define DO_FOR_EACH_INCLUDE_BROKEN 0x01
+
+/*
+ * The common backend for the for_each_*ref* functions
+ */
+int do_for_each_ref(const char *submodule, const char *base,
+		    each_ref_fn fn, int trim, int flags, void *cb_data);
+
+int read_raw_ref(const char *refname, unsigned char *sha1,
+		 struct strbuf *symref, unsigned int *flags);
+
 #endif /* REFS_REFS_INTERNAL_H */
diff --git a/remote-curl.c b/remote-curl.c
index 15e48e2..672b382 100644
--- a/remote-curl.c
+++ b/remote-curl.c
@@ -474,7 +474,7 @@
 static int probe_rpc(struct rpc_state *rpc, struct slot_results *results)
 {
 	struct active_request_slot *slot;
-	struct curl_slist *headers = NULL;
+	struct curl_slist *headers = http_copy_default_headers();
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 	int err;
 
@@ -503,7 +503,7 @@
 static int post_rpc(struct rpc_state *rpc)
 {
 	struct active_request_slot *slot;
-	struct curl_slist *headers = NULL;
+	struct curl_slist *headers = http_copy_default_headers();
 	int use_gzip = rpc->gzip_request;
 	char *gzip_body = NULL;
 	size_t gzip_size = 0;
diff --git a/rerere.c b/rerere.c
index 587b7e2..aaadec1 100644
--- a/rerere.c
+++ b/rerere.c
@@ -8,6 +8,7 @@
 #include "ll-merge.h"
 #include "attr.h"
 #include "pathspec.h"
+#include "sha1-lookup.h"
 
 #define RESOLVED 0
 #define PUNTED 1
@@ -20,6 +21,29 @@
 /* automatically update cleanly resolved paths to the index */
 static int rerere_autoupdate;
 
+static int rerere_dir_nr;
+static int rerere_dir_alloc;
+
+#define RR_HAS_POSTIMAGE 1
+#define RR_HAS_PREIMAGE 2
+static struct rerere_dir {
+	unsigned char sha1[20];
+	int status_alloc, status_nr;
+	unsigned char *status;
+} **rerere_dir;
+
+static void free_rerere_dirs(void)
+{
+	int i;
+	for (i = 0; i < rerere_dir_nr; i++) {
+		free(rerere_dir[i]->status);
+		free(rerere_dir[i]);
+	}
+	free(rerere_dir);
+	rerere_dir_nr = rerere_dir_alloc = 0;
+	rerere_dir = NULL;
+}
+
 static void free_rerere_id(struct string_list_item *item)
 {
 	free(item->util);
@@ -27,7 +51,33 @@
 
 static const char *rerere_id_hex(const struct rerere_id *id)
 {
-	return id->hex;
+	return sha1_to_hex(id->collection->sha1);
+}
+
+static void fit_variant(struct rerere_dir *rr_dir, int variant)
+{
+	variant++;
+	ALLOC_GROW(rr_dir->status, variant, rr_dir->status_alloc);
+	if (rr_dir->status_nr < variant) {
+		memset(rr_dir->status + rr_dir->status_nr,
+		       '\0', variant - rr_dir->status_nr);
+		rr_dir->status_nr = variant;
+	}
+}
+
+static void assign_variant(struct rerere_id *id)
+{
+	int variant;
+	struct rerere_dir *rr_dir = id->collection;
+
+	variant = id->variant;
+	if (variant < 0) {
+		for (variant = 0; variant < rr_dir->status_nr; variant++)
+			if (!rr_dir->status[variant])
+				break;
+	}
+	fit_variant(rr_dir, variant);
+	id->variant = variant;
 }
 
 const char *rerere_path(const struct rerere_id *id, const char *file)
@@ -35,20 +85,103 @@
 	if (!file)
 		return git_path("rr-cache/%s", rerere_id_hex(id));
 
-	return git_path("rr-cache/%s/%s", rerere_id_hex(id), file);
+	if (id->variant <= 0)
+		return git_path("rr-cache/%s/%s", rerere_id_hex(id), file);
+
+	return git_path("rr-cache/%s/%s.%d",
+			rerere_id_hex(id), file, id->variant);
+}
+
+static int is_rr_file(const char *name, const char *filename, int *variant)
+{
+	const char *suffix;
+	char *ep;
+
+	if (!strcmp(name, filename)) {
+		*variant = 0;
+		return 1;
+	}
+	if (!skip_prefix(name, filename, &suffix) || *suffix != '.')
+		return 0;
+
+	errno = 0;
+	*variant = strtol(suffix + 1, &ep, 10);
+	if (errno || *ep)
+		return 0;
+	return 1;
+}
+
+static void scan_rerere_dir(struct rerere_dir *rr_dir)
+{
+	struct dirent *de;
+	DIR *dir = opendir(git_path("rr-cache/%s", sha1_to_hex(rr_dir->sha1)));
+
+	if (!dir)
+		return;
+	while ((de = readdir(dir)) != NULL) {
+		int variant;
+
+		if (is_rr_file(de->d_name, "postimage", &variant)) {
+			fit_variant(rr_dir, variant);
+			rr_dir->status[variant] |= RR_HAS_POSTIMAGE;
+		} else if (is_rr_file(de->d_name, "preimage", &variant)) {
+			fit_variant(rr_dir, variant);
+			rr_dir->status[variant] |= RR_HAS_PREIMAGE;
+		}
+	}
+	closedir(dir);
+}
+
+static const unsigned char *rerere_dir_sha1(size_t i, void *table)
+{
+	struct rerere_dir **rr_dir = table;
+	return rr_dir[i]->sha1;
+}
+
+static struct rerere_dir *find_rerere_dir(const char *hex)
+{
+	unsigned char sha1[20];
+	struct rerere_dir *rr_dir;
+	int pos;
+
+	if (get_sha1_hex(hex, sha1))
+		return NULL; /* BUG */
+	pos = sha1_pos(sha1, rerere_dir, rerere_dir_nr, rerere_dir_sha1);
+	if (pos < 0) {
+		rr_dir = xmalloc(sizeof(*rr_dir));
+		hashcpy(rr_dir->sha1, sha1);
+		rr_dir->status = NULL;
+		rr_dir->status_nr = 0;
+		rr_dir->status_alloc = 0;
+		pos = -1 - pos;
+
+		/* Make sure the array is big enough ... */
+		ALLOC_GROW(rerere_dir, rerere_dir_nr + 1, rerere_dir_alloc);
+		/* ... and add it in. */
+		rerere_dir_nr++;
+		memmove(rerere_dir + pos + 1, rerere_dir + pos,
+			(rerere_dir_nr - pos - 1) * sizeof(*rerere_dir));
+		rerere_dir[pos] = rr_dir;
+		scan_rerere_dir(rr_dir);
+	}
+	return rerere_dir[pos];
 }
 
 static int has_rerere_resolution(const struct rerere_id *id)
 {
-	struct stat st;
+	const int both = RR_HAS_POSTIMAGE|RR_HAS_PREIMAGE;
+	int variant = id->variant;
 
-	return !stat(rerere_path(id, "postimage"), &st);
+	if (variant < 0)
+		return 0;
+	return ((id->collection->status[variant] & both) == both);
 }
 
 static struct rerere_id *new_rerere_id_hex(char *hex)
 {
 	struct rerere_id *id = xmalloc(sizeof(*id));
-	xsnprintf(id->hex, sizeof(id->hex), "%s", hex);
+	id->collection = find_rerere_dir(hex);
+	id->variant = -1; /* not known yet */
 	return id;
 }
 
@@ -75,16 +208,26 @@
 		char *path;
 		unsigned char sha1[20];
 		struct rerere_id *id;
+		int variant;
 
 		/* There has to be the hash, tab, path and then NUL */
 		if (buf.len < 42 || get_sha1_hex(buf.buf, sha1))
 			die("corrupt MERGE_RR");
 
-		if (buf.buf[40] != '\t')
+		if (buf.buf[40] != '.') {
+			variant = 0;
+			path = buf.buf + 40;
+		} else {
+			errno = 0;
+			variant = strtol(buf.buf + 41, &path, 10);
+			if (errno)
+				die("corrupt MERGE_RR");
+		}
+		if (*(path++) != '\t')
 			die("corrupt MERGE_RR");
 		buf.buf[40] = '\0';
-		path = buf.buf + 41;
 		id = new_rerere_id_hex(buf.buf);
+		id->variant = variant;
 		string_list_insert(rr, path)->util = id;
 	}
 	strbuf_release(&buf);
@@ -105,9 +248,16 @@
 		id = rr->items[i].util;
 		if (!id)
 			continue;
-		strbuf_addf(&buf, "%s\t%s%c",
-			    rerere_id_hex(id),
-			    rr->items[i].string, 0);
+		assert(id->variant >= 0);
+		if (0 < id->variant)
+			strbuf_addf(&buf, "%s.%d\t%s%c",
+				    rerere_id_hex(id), id->variant,
+				    rr->items[i].string, 0);
+		else
+			strbuf_addf(&buf, "%s\t%s%c",
+				    rerere_id_hex(id),
+				    rr->items[i].string, 0);
+
 		if (write_in_full(out_fd, buf.buf, buf.len) != buf.len)
 			die("unable to write rerere record");
 
@@ -351,8 +501,7 @@
 		error("There were errors while writing %s (%s)",
 		      path, strerror(io.io.wrerror));
 	if (io.io.output && fclose(io.io.output))
-		io.io.wrerror = error("Failed to flush %s: %s",
-				      path, strerror(errno));
+		io.io.wrerror = error_errno("Failed to flush %s", path);
 
 	if (hunk_no < 0) {
 		if (output)
@@ -365,103 +514,6 @@
 }
 
 /*
- * Subclass of rerere_io that reads from an in-core buffer that is a
- * strbuf
- */
-struct rerere_io_mem {
-	struct rerere_io io;
-	struct strbuf input;
-};
-
-/*
- * ... and its getline() method implementation
- */
-static int rerere_mem_getline(struct strbuf *sb, struct rerere_io *io_)
-{
-	struct rerere_io_mem *io = (struct rerere_io_mem *)io_;
-	char *ep;
-	size_t len;
-
-	strbuf_release(sb);
-	if (!io->input.len)
-		return -1;
-	ep = memchr(io->input.buf, '\n', io->input.len);
-	if (!ep)
-		ep = io->input.buf + io->input.len;
-	else if (*ep == '\n')
-		ep++;
-	len = ep - io->input.buf;
-	strbuf_add(sb, io->input.buf, len);
-	strbuf_remove(&io->input, 0, len);
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static int handle_cache(const char *path, unsigned char *sha1, const char *output)
-{
-	mmfile_t mmfile[3] = {{NULL}};
-	mmbuffer_t result = {NULL, 0};
-	const struct cache_entry *ce;
-	int pos, len, i, hunk_no;
-	struct rerere_io_mem io;
-	int marker_size = ll_merge_marker_size(path);
-
-	/*
-	 * Reproduce the conflicted merge in-core
-	 */
-	len = strlen(path);
-	pos = cache_name_pos(path, len);
-	if (0 <= pos)
-		return -1;
-	pos = -pos - 1;
-
-	while (pos < active_nr) {
-		enum object_type type;
-		unsigned long size;
-
-		ce = active_cache[pos++];
-		if (ce_namelen(ce) != len || memcmp(ce->name, path, len))
-			break;
-		i = ce_stage(ce) - 1;
-		if (!mmfile[i].ptr) {
-			mmfile[i].ptr = read_sha1_file(ce->sha1, &type, &size);
-			mmfile[i].size = size;
-		}
-	}
-	for (i = 0; i < 3; i++)
-		if (!mmfile[i].ptr && !mmfile[i].size)
-			mmfile[i].ptr = xstrdup("");
-
-	/*
-	 * NEEDSWORK: handle conflicts from merges with
-	 * merge.renormalize set, too
-	 */
-	ll_merge(&result, path, &mmfile[0], NULL,
-		 &mmfile[1], "ours",
-		 &mmfile[2], "theirs", NULL);
-	for (i = 0; i < 3; i++)
-		free(mmfile[i].ptr);
-
-	memset(&io, 0, sizeof(io));
-	io.io.getline = rerere_mem_getline;
-	if (output)
-		io.io.output = fopen(output, "w");
-	else
-		io.io.output = NULL;
-	strbuf_init(&io.input, 0);
-	strbuf_attach(&io.input, result.ptr, result.size, result.size);
-
-	/*
-	 * Grab the conflict ID and optionally write the original
-	 * contents with conflict markers out.
-	 */
-	hunk_no = handle_path(sha1, (struct rerere_io *)&io, marker_size);
-	strbuf_release(&io.input);
-	if (io.io.output)
-		fclose(io.io.output);
-	return hunk_no;
-}
-
-/*
  * Look at a cache entry at "i" and see if it is not conflicting,
  * conflicting and we are willing to handle, or conflicting and
  * we are unable to handle, and return the determination in *type.
@@ -569,6 +621,33 @@
 }
 
 /*
+ * Try using the given conflict resolution "ID" to see
+ * if that recorded conflict resolves cleanly what we
+ * got in the "cur".
+ */
+static int try_merge(const struct rerere_id *id, const char *path,
+		     mmfile_t *cur, mmbuffer_t *result)
+{
+	int ret;
+	mmfile_t base = {NULL, 0}, other = {NULL, 0};
+
+	if (read_mmfile(&base, rerere_path(id, "preimage")) ||
+	    read_mmfile(&other, rerere_path(id, "postimage")))
+		ret = 1;
+	else
+		/*
+		 * A three-way merge. Note that this honors user-customizable
+		 * low-level merge driver settings.
+		 */
+		ret = ll_merge(result, path, &base, NULL, cur, "", &other, "", NULL);
+
+	free(base.ptr);
+	free(other.ptr);
+
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/*
  * Find the conflict identified by "id"; the change between its
  * "preimage" (i.e. a previous contents with conflict markers) and its
  * "postimage" (i.e. the corresponding contents with conflicts
@@ -582,30 +661,20 @@
 {
 	FILE *f;
 	int ret;
-	mmfile_t cur = {NULL, 0}, base = {NULL, 0}, other = {NULL, 0};
+	mmfile_t cur = {NULL, 0};
 	mmbuffer_t result = {NULL, 0};
 
 	/*
 	 * Normalize the conflicts in path and write it out to
 	 * "thisimage" temporary file.
 	 */
-	if (handle_file(path, NULL, rerere_path(id, "thisimage")) < 0) {
+	if ((handle_file(path, NULL, rerere_path(id, "thisimage")) < 0) ||
+	    read_mmfile(&cur, rerere_path(id, "thisimage"))) {
 		ret = 1;
 		goto out;
 	}
 
-	if (read_mmfile(&cur, rerere_path(id, "thisimage")) ||
-	    read_mmfile(&base, rerere_path(id, "preimage")) ||
-	    read_mmfile(&other, rerere_path(id, "postimage"))) {
-		ret = 1;
-		goto out;
-	}
-
-	/*
-	 * A three-way merge. Note that this honors user-customizable
-	 * low-level merge driver settings.
-	 */
-	ret = ll_merge(&result, path, &base, NULL, &cur, "", &other, "", NULL);
+	ret = try_merge(id, path, &cur, &result);
 	if (ret)
 		goto out;
 
@@ -614,25 +683,20 @@
 	 * Mark that "postimage" was used to help gc.
 	 */
 	if (utime(rerere_path(id, "postimage"), NULL) < 0)
-		warning("failed utime() on %s: %s",
-			rerere_path(id, "postimage"),
-			strerror(errno));
+		warning_errno("failed utime() on %s",
+			      rerere_path(id, "postimage"));
 
 	/* Update "path" with the resolution */
 	f = fopen(path, "w");
 	if (!f)
-		return error("Could not open %s: %s", path,
-			     strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno("Could not open %s", path);
 	if (fwrite(result.ptr, result.size, 1, f) != 1)
-		error("Could not write %s: %s", path, strerror(errno));
+		error_errno("Could not write %s", path);
 	if (fclose(f))
-		return error("Writing %s failed: %s", path,
-			     strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno("Writing %s failed", path);
 
 out:
 	free(cur.ptr);
-	free(base.ptr);
-	free(other.ptr);
 	free(result.ptr);
 
 	return ret;
@@ -661,6 +725,13 @@
 		rollback_lock_file(&index_lock);
 }
 
+static void remove_variant(struct rerere_id *id)
+{
+	unlink_or_warn(rerere_path(id, "postimage"));
+	unlink_or_warn(rerere_path(id, "preimage"));
+	id->collection->status[id->variant] = 0;
+}
+
 /*
  * The path indicated by rr_item may still have conflict for which we
  * have a recorded resolution, in which case replay it and optionally
@@ -672,12 +743,47 @@
 			       struct string_list *update)
 {
 	const char *path = rr_item->string;
-	const struct rerere_id *id = rr_item->util;
+	struct rerere_id *id = rr_item->util;
+	struct rerere_dir *rr_dir = id->collection;
+	int variant;
 
-	/* Is there a recorded resolution we could attempt to apply? */
-	if (has_rerere_resolution(id)) {
-		if (merge(id, path))
-			return; /* failed to replay */
+	variant = id->variant;
+
+	/* Has the user resolved it already? */
+	if (variant >= 0) {
+		if (!handle_file(path, NULL, NULL)) {
+			copy_file(rerere_path(id, "postimage"), path, 0666);
+			id->collection->status[variant] |= RR_HAS_POSTIMAGE;
+			fprintf(stderr, "Recorded resolution for '%s'.\n", path);
+			free_rerere_id(rr_item);
+			rr_item->util = NULL;
+			return;
+		}
+		/*
+		 * There may be other variants that can cleanly
+		 * replay.  Try them and update the variant number for
+		 * this one.
+		 */
+	}
+
+	/* Does any existing resolution apply cleanly? */
+	for (variant = 0; variant < rr_dir->status_nr; variant++) {
+		const int both = RR_HAS_PREIMAGE | RR_HAS_POSTIMAGE;
+		struct rerere_id vid = *id;
+
+		if ((rr_dir->status[variant] & both) != both)
+			continue;
+
+		vid.variant = variant;
+		if (merge(&vid, path))
+			continue; /* failed to replay */
+
+		/*
+		 * If there already is a different variant that applies
+		 * cleanly, there is no point maintaining our own variant.
+		 */
+		if (0 <= id->variant && id->variant != variant)
+			remove_variant(id);
 
 		if (rerere_autoupdate)
 			string_list_insert(update, path);
@@ -685,15 +791,24 @@
 			fprintf(stderr,
 				"Resolved '%s' using previous resolution.\n",
 				path);
-	} else if (!handle_file(path, NULL, NULL)) {
-		/* The user has resolved it. */
-		copy_file(rerere_path(id, "postimage"), path, 0666);
-		fprintf(stderr, "Recorded resolution for '%s'.\n", path);
-	} else {
+		free_rerere_id(rr_item);
+		rr_item->util = NULL;
 		return;
 	}
-	free_rerere_id(rr_item);
-	rr_item->util = NULL;
+
+	/* None of the existing one applies; we need a new variant */
+	assign_variant(id);
+
+	variant = id->variant;
+	handle_file(path, NULL, rerere_path(id, "preimage"));
+	if (id->collection->status[variant] & RR_HAS_POSTIMAGE) {
+		const char *path = rerere_path(id, "postimage");
+		if (unlink(path))
+			die_errno("cannot unlink stray '%s'", path);
+		id->collection->status[variant] &= ~RR_HAS_POSTIMAGE;
+	}
+	id->collection->status[variant] |= RR_HAS_PREIMAGE;
+	fprintf(stderr, "Recorded preimage for '%s'\n", path);
 }
 
 static int do_plain_rerere(struct string_list *rr, int fd)
@@ -731,24 +846,8 @@
 		id = new_rerere_id(sha1);
 		string_list_insert(rr, path)->util = id;
 
-		/*
-		 * If the directory does not exist, create
-		 * it.  mkdir_in_gitdir() will fail with
-		 * EEXIST if there already is one.
-		 *
-		 * NEEDSWORK: make sure "gc" does not remove
-		 * preimage without removing the directory.
-		 */
-		if (mkdir_in_gitdir(rerere_path(id, NULL)))
-			continue;
-
-		/*
-		 * We are the first to encounter this
-		 * conflict.  Ask handle_file() to write the
-		 * normalized contents to the "preimage" file.
-		 */
-		handle_file(path, NULL, rerere_path(id, "preimage"));
-		fprintf(stderr, "Recorded preimage for '%s'\n", path);
+		/* Ensure that the directory exists. */
+		mkdir_in_gitdir(rerere_path(id, NULL));
 	}
 
 	for (i = 0; i < rr->nr; i++)
@@ -812,12 +911,111 @@
 int rerere(int flags)
 {
 	struct string_list merge_rr = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
-	int fd;
+	int fd, status;
 
 	fd = setup_rerere(&merge_rr, flags);
 	if (fd < 0)
 		return 0;
-	return do_plain_rerere(&merge_rr, fd);
+	status = do_plain_rerere(&merge_rr, fd);
+	free_rerere_dirs();
+	return status;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Subclass of rerere_io that reads from an in-core buffer that is a
+ * strbuf
+ */
+struct rerere_io_mem {
+	struct rerere_io io;
+	struct strbuf input;
+};
+
+/*
+ * ... and its getline() method implementation
+ */
+static int rerere_mem_getline(struct strbuf *sb, struct rerere_io *io_)
+{
+	struct rerere_io_mem *io = (struct rerere_io_mem *)io_;
+	char *ep;
+	size_t len;
+
+	strbuf_release(sb);
+	if (!io->input.len)
+		return -1;
+	ep = memchr(io->input.buf, '\n', io->input.len);
+	if (!ep)
+		ep = io->input.buf + io->input.len;
+	else if (*ep == '\n')
+		ep++;
+	len = ep - io->input.buf;
+	strbuf_add(sb, io->input.buf, len);
+	strbuf_remove(&io->input, 0, len);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int handle_cache(const char *path, unsigned char *sha1, const char *output)
+{
+	mmfile_t mmfile[3] = {{NULL}};
+	mmbuffer_t result = {NULL, 0};
+	const struct cache_entry *ce;
+	int pos, len, i, hunk_no;
+	struct rerere_io_mem io;
+	int marker_size = ll_merge_marker_size(path);
+
+	/*
+	 * Reproduce the conflicted merge in-core
+	 */
+	len = strlen(path);
+	pos = cache_name_pos(path, len);
+	if (0 <= pos)
+		return -1;
+	pos = -pos - 1;
+
+	while (pos < active_nr) {
+		enum object_type type;
+		unsigned long size;
+
+		ce = active_cache[pos++];
+		if (ce_namelen(ce) != len || memcmp(ce->name, path, len))
+			break;
+		i = ce_stage(ce) - 1;
+		if (!mmfile[i].ptr) {
+			mmfile[i].ptr = read_sha1_file(ce->sha1, &type, &size);
+			mmfile[i].size = size;
+		}
+	}
+	for (i = 0; i < 3; i++)
+		if (!mmfile[i].ptr && !mmfile[i].size)
+			mmfile[i].ptr = xstrdup("");
+
+	/*
+	 * NEEDSWORK: handle conflicts from merges with
+	 * merge.renormalize set, too?
+	 */
+	ll_merge(&result, path, &mmfile[0], NULL,
+		 &mmfile[1], "ours",
+		 &mmfile[2], "theirs", NULL);
+	for (i = 0; i < 3; i++)
+		free(mmfile[i].ptr);
+
+	memset(&io, 0, sizeof(io));
+	io.io.getline = rerere_mem_getline;
+	if (output)
+		io.io.output = fopen(output, "w");
+	else
+		io.io.output = NULL;
+	strbuf_init(&io.input, 0);
+	strbuf_attach(&io.input, result.ptr, result.size, result.size);
+
+	/*
+	 * Grab the conflict ID and optionally write the original
+	 * contents with conflict markers out.
+	 */
+	hunk_no = handle_path(sha1, (struct rerere_io *)&io, marker_size);
+	strbuf_release(&io.input);
+	if (io.io.output)
+		fclose(io.io.output);
+	return hunk_no;
 }
 
 static int rerere_forget_one_path(const char *path, struct string_list *rr)
@@ -838,11 +1036,43 @@
 
 	/* Nuke the recorded resolution for the conflict */
 	id = new_rerere_id(sha1);
+
+	for (id->variant = 0;
+	     id->variant < id->collection->status_nr;
+	     id->variant++) {
+		mmfile_t cur = { NULL, 0 };
+		mmbuffer_t result = {NULL, 0};
+		int cleanly_resolved;
+
+		if (!has_rerere_resolution(id))
+			continue;
+
+		handle_cache(path, sha1, rerere_path(id, "thisimage"));
+		if (read_mmfile(&cur, rerere_path(id, "thisimage"))) {
+			free(cur.ptr);
+			error("Failed to update conflicted state in '%s'", path);
+			goto fail_exit;
+		}
+		cleanly_resolved = !try_merge(id, path, &cur, &result);
+		free(result.ptr);
+		free(cur.ptr);
+		if (cleanly_resolved)
+			break;
+	}
+
+	if (id->collection->status_nr <= id->variant) {
+		error("no remembered resolution for '%s'", path);
+		goto fail_exit;
+	}
+
 	filename = rerere_path(id, "postimage");
-	if (unlink(filename))
-		return (errno == ENOENT
-			? error("no remembered resolution for %s", path)
-			: error("cannot unlink %s: %s", filename, strerror(errno)));
+	if (unlink(filename)) {
+		if (errno == ENOENT)
+			error("no remembered resolution for %s", path);
+		else
+			error_errno("cannot unlink %s", filename);
+		goto fail_exit;
+	}
 
 	/*
 	 * Update the preimage so that the user can resolve the
@@ -861,6 +1091,10 @@
 	item->util = id;
 	fprintf(stderr, "Forgot resolution for %s\n", path);
 	return 0;
+
+fail_exit:
+	free(id);
+	return -1;
 }
 
 int rerere_forget(struct pathspec *pathspec)
@@ -897,29 +1131,16 @@
  * Garbage collection support
  */
 
-/*
- * Note that this is not reentrant but is used only one-at-a-time
- * so it does not matter right now.
- */
-static struct rerere_id *dirname_to_id(const char *name)
-{
-	static struct rerere_id id;
-	xsnprintf(id.hex, sizeof(id.hex), "%s", name);
-	return &id;
-}
-
-static time_t rerere_created_at(const char *dir_name)
+static time_t rerere_created_at(struct rerere_id *id)
 {
 	struct stat st;
-	struct rerere_id *id = dirname_to_id(dir_name);
 
 	return stat(rerere_path(id, "preimage"), &st) ? (time_t) 0 : st.st_mtime;
 }
 
-static time_t rerere_last_used_at(const char *dir_name)
+static time_t rerere_last_used_at(struct rerere_id *id)
 {
 	struct stat st;
-	struct rerere_id *id = dirname_to_id(dir_name);
 
 	return stat(rerere_path(id, "postimage"), &st) ? (time_t) 0 : st.st_mtime;
 }
@@ -929,15 +1150,28 @@
  */
 static void unlink_rr_item(struct rerere_id *id)
 {
-	unlink(rerere_path(id, "thisimage"));
-	unlink(rerere_path(id, "preimage"));
-	unlink(rerere_path(id, "postimage"));
-	/*
-	 * NEEDSWORK: what if this rmdir() fails?  Wouldn't we then
-	 * assume that we already have preimage recorded in
-	 * do_plain_rerere()?
-	 */
-	rmdir(rerere_path(id, NULL));
+	unlink_or_warn(rerere_path(id, "thisimage"));
+	remove_variant(id);
+	id->collection->status[id->variant] = 0;
+}
+
+static void prune_one(struct rerere_id *id, time_t now,
+		      int cutoff_resolve, int cutoff_noresolve)
+{
+	time_t then;
+	int cutoff;
+
+	then = rerere_last_used_at(id);
+	if (then)
+		cutoff = cutoff_resolve;
+	else {
+		then = rerere_created_at(id);
+		if (!then)
+			return;
+		cutoff = cutoff_noresolve;
+	}
+	if (then < now - cutoff * 86400)
+		unlink_rr_item(id);
 }
 
 void rerere_gc(struct string_list *rr)
@@ -945,8 +1179,8 @@
 	struct string_list to_remove = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
 	DIR *dir;
 	struct dirent *e;
-	int i, cutoff;
-	time_t now = time(NULL), then;
+	int i;
+	time_t now = time(NULL);
 	int cutoff_noresolve = 15;
 	int cutoff_resolve = 60;
 
@@ -961,25 +1195,32 @@
 		die_errno("unable to open rr-cache directory");
 	/* Collect stale conflict IDs ... */
 	while ((e = readdir(dir))) {
+		struct rerere_dir *rr_dir;
+		struct rerere_id id;
+		int now_empty;
+
 		if (is_dot_or_dotdot(e->d_name))
 			continue;
+		rr_dir = find_rerere_dir(e->d_name);
+		if (!rr_dir)
+			continue; /* or should we remove e->d_name? */
 
-		then = rerere_last_used_at(e->d_name);
-		if (then) {
-			cutoff = cutoff_resolve;
-		} else {
-			then = rerere_created_at(e->d_name);
-			if (!then)
-				continue;
-			cutoff = cutoff_noresolve;
+		now_empty = 1;
+		for (id.variant = 0, id.collection = rr_dir;
+		     id.variant < id.collection->status_nr;
+		     id.variant++) {
+			prune_one(&id, now, cutoff_resolve, cutoff_noresolve);
+			if (id.collection->status[id.variant])
+				now_empty = 0;
 		}
-		if (then < now - cutoff * 86400)
+		if (now_empty)
 			string_list_append(&to_remove, e->d_name);
 	}
 	closedir(dir);
-	/* ... and then remove them one-by-one */
+
+	/* ... and then remove the empty directories */
 	for (i = 0; i < to_remove.nr; i++)
-		unlink_rr_item(dirname_to_id(to_remove.items[i].string));
+		rmdir(git_path("rr-cache/%s", to_remove.items[i].string));
 	string_list_clear(&to_remove, 0);
 	rollback_lock_file(&write_lock);
 }
@@ -1000,8 +1241,10 @@
 
 	for (i = 0; i < merge_rr->nr; i++) {
 		struct rerere_id *id = merge_rr->items[i].util;
-		if (!has_rerere_resolution(id))
+		if (!has_rerere_resolution(id)) {
 			unlink_rr_item(id);
+			rmdir(rerere_path(id, NULL));
+		}
 	}
 	unlink_or_warn(git_path_merge_rr());
 	rollback_lock_file(&write_lock);
diff --git a/rerere.h b/rerere.h
index 1222e91..c2961fe 100644
--- a/rerere.h
+++ b/rerere.h
@@ -16,8 +16,10 @@
  */
 extern void *RERERE_RESOLVED;
 
+struct rerere_dir;
 struct rerere_id {
-	char hex[41];
+	struct rerere_dir *collection;
+	int variant;
 };
 
 extern int setup_rerere(struct string_list *, int);
diff --git a/revision.c b/revision.c
index 8b2dfe3..d30d1c4 100644
--- a/revision.c
+++ b/revision.c
@@ -59,10 +59,10 @@
 	while (tree_entry(&desc, &entry)) {
 		switch (object_type(entry.mode)) {
 		case OBJ_TREE:
-			mark_tree_uninteresting(lookup_tree(entry.sha1));
+			mark_tree_uninteresting(lookup_tree(entry.oid->hash));
 			break;
 		case OBJ_BLOB:
-			mark_blob_uninteresting(lookup_blob(entry.sha1));
+			mark_blob_uninteresting(lookup_blob(entry.oid->hash));
 			break;
 		default:
 			/* Subproject commit - not in this repository */
@@ -1356,8 +1356,10 @@
 	revs->skip_count = -1;
 	revs->max_count = -1;
 	revs->max_parents = -1;
+	revs->expand_tabs_in_log = -1;
 
 	revs->commit_format = CMIT_FMT_DEFAULT;
+	revs->expand_tabs_in_log_default = 8;
 
 	init_grep_defaults();
 	grep_init(&revs->grep_filter, prefix);
@@ -1854,6 +1856,15 @@
 		revs->verbose_header = 1;
 		revs->pretty_given = 1;
 		get_commit_format(arg+9, revs);
+	} else if (!strcmp(arg, "--expand-tabs")) {
+		revs->expand_tabs_in_log = 8;
+	} else if (!strcmp(arg, "--no-expand-tabs")) {
+		revs->expand_tabs_in_log = 0;
+	} else if (skip_prefix(arg, "--expand-tabs=", &arg)) {
+		int val;
+		if (strtol_i(arg, 10, &val) < 0 || val < 0)
+			die("'%s': not a non-negative integer", arg);
+		revs->expand_tabs_in_log = val;
 	} else if (!strcmp(arg, "--show-notes") || !strcmp(arg, "--notes")) {
 		revs->show_notes = 1;
 		revs->show_notes_given = 1;
@@ -2327,6 +2338,9 @@
 	if (revs->first_parent_only && revs->bisect)
 		die(_("--first-parent is incompatible with --bisect"));
 
+	if (revs->expand_tabs_in_log < 0)
+		revs->expand_tabs_in_log = revs->expand_tabs_in_log_default;
+
 	return left;
 }
 
diff --git a/revision.h b/revision.h
index dca0d38..9fac1a6 100644
--- a/revision.h
+++ b/revision.h
@@ -148,6 +148,8 @@
 			linear:1;
 
 	struct date_mode date_mode;
+	int		expand_tabs_in_log; /* unset if negative */
+	int		expand_tabs_in_log_default;
 
 	unsigned int	abbrev;
 	enum cmit_fmt	commit_format;
diff --git a/run-command.c b/run-command.c
index 2d66280..af0c8a1 100644
--- a/run-command.c
+++ b/run-command.c
@@ -233,7 +233,7 @@
 
 	if (waiting < 0) {
 		failed_errno = errno;
-		error("waitpid for %s failed: %s", argv0, strerror(errno));
+		error_errno("waitpid for %s failed", argv0);
 	} else if (waiting != pid) {
 		error("waitpid is confused (%s)", argv0);
 	} else if (WIFSIGNALED(status)) {
@@ -420,8 +420,7 @@
 		}
 	}
 	if (cmd->pid < 0)
-		error("cannot fork() for %s: %s", cmd->argv[0],
-			strerror(errno));
+		error_errno("cannot fork() for %s", cmd->argv[0]);
 	else if (cmd->clean_on_exit)
 		mark_child_for_cleanup(cmd->pid);
 
@@ -482,7 +481,7 @@
 			cmd->dir, fhin, fhout, fherr);
 	failed_errno = errno;
 	if (cmd->pid < 0 && (!cmd->silent_exec_failure || errno != ENOENT))
-		error("cannot spawn %s: %s", cmd->argv[0], strerror(errno));
+		error_errno("cannot spawn %s", cmd->argv[0]);
 	if (cmd->clean_on_exit && cmd->pid >= 0)
 		mark_child_for_cleanup(cmd->pid);
 
@@ -703,7 +702,7 @@
 		if (pipe(fdin) < 0) {
 			if (async->out > 0)
 				close(async->out);
-			return error("cannot create pipe: %s", strerror(errno));
+			return error_errno("cannot create pipe");
 		}
 		async->in = fdin[1];
 	}
@@ -715,7 +714,7 @@
 				close_pair(fdin);
 			else if (async->in)
 				close(async->in);
-			return error("cannot create pipe: %s", strerror(errno));
+			return error_errno("cannot create pipe");
 		}
 		async->out = fdout[0];
 	}
@@ -740,7 +739,7 @@
 
 	async->pid = fork();
 	if (async->pid < 0) {
-		error("fork (async) failed: %s", strerror(errno));
+		error_errno("fork (async) failed");
 		goto error;
 	}
 	if (!async->pid) {
@@ -787,7 +786,7 @@
 	{
 		int err = pthread_create(&async->tid, NULL, run_thread, async);
 		if (err) {
-			error("cannot create thread: %s", strerror(err));
+			error_errno("cannot create thread");
 			goto error;
 		}
 	}
@@ -825,7 +824,10 @@
 	static struct strbuf path = STRBUF_INIT;
 
 	strbuf_reset(&path);
-	strbuf_git_path(&path, "hooks/%s", name);
+	if (git_hooks_path)
+		strbuf_addf(&path, "%s/%s", git_hooks_path, name);
+	else
+		strbuf_git_path(&path, "hooks/%s", name);
 	if (access(path.buf, X_OK) < 0)
 		return NULL;
 	return path.buf;
@@ -912,7 +914,7 @@
 	struct strbuf buffered_output; /* of finished children */
 };
 
-static int default_start_failure(struct strbuf *err,
+static int default_start_failure(struct strbuf *out,
 				 void *pp_cb,
 				 void *pp_task_cb)
 {
@@ -920,7 +922,7 @@
 }
 
 static int default_task_finished(int result,
-				 struct strbuf *err,
+				 struct strbuf *out,
 				 void *pp_cb,
 				 void *pp_task_cb)
 {
@@ -1004,7 +1006,7 @@
 	 * When get_next_task added messages to the buffer in its last
 	 * iteration, the buffered output is non empty.
 	 */
-	fputs(pp->buffered_output.buf, stderr);
+	strbuf_write(&pp->buffered_output, stderr);
 	strbuf_release(&pp->buffered_output);
 
 	sigchain_pop_common();
@@ -1089,7 +1091,7 @@
 	int i = pp->output_owner;
 	if (pp->children[i].state == GIT_CP_WORKING &&
 	    pp->children[i].err.len) {
-		fputs(pp->children[i].err.buf, stderr);
+		strbuf_write(&pp->children[i].err, stderr);
 		strbuf_reset(&pp->children[i].err);
 	}
 }
@@ -1127,11 +1129,11 @@
 			strbuf_addbuf(&pp->buffered_output, &pp->children[i].err);
 			strbuf_reset(&pp->children[i].err);
 		} else {
-			fputs(pp->children[i].err.buf, stderr);
+			strbuf_write(&pp->children[i].err, stderr);
 			strbuf_reset(&pp->children[i].err);
 
 			/* Output all other finished child processes */
-			fputs(pp->buffered_output.buf, stderr);
+			strbuf_write(&pp->buffered_output, stderr);
 			strbuf_reset(&pp->buffered_output);
 
 			/*
diff --git a/run-command.h b/run-command.h
index 49ba764..11f76b0 100644
--- a/run-command.h
+++ b/run-command.h
@@ -141,7 +141,7 @@
  * return the negative signal number.
  */
 typedef int (*get_next_task_fn)(struct child_process *cp,
-				struct strbuf *err,
+				struct strbuf *out,
 				void *pp_cb,
 				void **pp_task_cb);
 
@@ -150,7 +150,7 @@
  * a new process.
  *
  * You must not write to stdout or stderr in this function. Add your
- * message to the strbuf err instead, which will be printed without
+ * message to the strbuf out instead, which will be printed without
  * messing up the output of the other parallel processes.
  *
  * pp_cb is the callback cookie as passed into run_processes_parallel,
@@ -160,7 +160,7 @@
  * To send a signal to other child processes for abortion, return
  * the negative signal number.
  */
-typedef int (*start_failure_fn)(struct strbuf *err,
+typedef int (*start_failure_fn)(struct strbuf *out,
 				void *pp_cb,
 				void *pp_task_cb);
 
@@ -168,7 +168,7 @@
  * This callback is called on every child process that finished processing.
  *
  * You must not write to stdout or stderr in this function. Add your
- * message to the strbuf err instead, which will be printed without
+ * message to the strbuf out instead, which will be printed without
  * messing up the output of the other parallel processes.
  *
  * pp_cb is the callback cookie as passed into run_processes_parallel,
@@ -179,7 +179,7 @@
  * the negative signal number.
  */
 typedef int (*task_finished_fn)(int result,
-				struct strbuf *err,
+				struct strbuf *out,
 				void *pp_cb,
 				void *pp_task_cb);
 
diff --git a/sequencer.c b/sequencer.c
index e66f2fe..4687ad4 100644
--- a/sequencer.c
+++ b/sequencer.c
@@ -875,8 +875,7 @@
 		return rollback_single_pick();
 	}
 	if (!f)
-		return error(_("cannot open %s: %s"), git_path_head_file(),
-						strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno(_("cannot open %s"), git_path_head_file());
 	if (strbuf_getline_lf(&buf, f)) {
 		error(_("cannot read %s: %s"), git_path_head_file(),
 		      ferror(f) ?  strerror(errno) : _("unexpected end of file"));
diff --git a/server-info.c b/server-info.c
index 5a86e29..75dd677 100644
--- a/server-info.c
+++ b/server-info.c
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@
 
 out:
 	if (ret) {
-		error("unable to update %s: %s", path, strerror(errno));
+		error_errno("unable to update %s", path);
 		if (fp)
 			fclose(fp);
 		else if (fd >= 0)
diff --git a/sha1_file.c b/sha1_file.c
index d0f2aa0..d5e1121 100644
--- a/sha1_file.c
+++ b/sha1_file.c
@@ -301,7 +301,7 @@
 			return -1;
 		}
 	}
-	if (!strcmp_icase(ent->base, normalized_objdir)) {
+	if (!fspathcmp(ent->base, normalized_objdir)) {
 		free(ent);
 		return -1;
 	}
@@ -1107,9 +1107,8 @@
 				PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE,
 				p->pack_fd, win->offset);
 			if (win->base == MAP_FAILED)
-				die("packfile %s cannot be mapped: %s",
-					p->pack_name,
-					strerror(errno));
+				die_errno("packfile %s cannot be mapped",
+					  p->pack_name);
 			if (!win->offset && win->len == p->pack_size
 				&& !p->do_not_close)
 				close_pack_fd(p);
@@ -1279,8 +1278,8 @@
 	dir = opendir(path.buf);
 	if (!dir) {
 		if (errno != ENOENT)
-			error("unable to open object pack directory: %s: %s",
-			      path.buf, strerror(errno));
+			error_errno("unable to open object pack directory: %s",
+				    path.buf);
 		strbuf_release(&path);
 		return;
 	}
@@ -2984,7 +2983,7 @@
 	unlink_or_warn(tmpfile);
 	if (ret) {
 		if (ret != EEXIST) {
-			return error("unable to write sha1 filename %s: %s", filename, strerror(ret));
+			return error_errno("unable to write sha1 filename %s", filename);
 		}
 		/* FIXME!!! Collision check here ? */
 	}
@@ -2998,7 +2997,7 @@
 static int write_buffer(int fd, const void *buf, size_t len)
 {
 	if (write_in_full(fd, buf, len) < 0)
-		return error("file write error (%s)", strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno("file write error");
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -3081,7 +3080,7 @@
 		if (errno == EACCES)
 			return error("insufficient permission for adding an object to repository database %s", get_object_directory());
 		else
-			return error("unable to create temporary file: %s", strerror(errno));
+			return error_errno("unable to create temporary file");
 	}
 
 	/* Set it up */
@@ -3126,8 +3125,7 @@
 		utb.actime = mtime;
 		utb.modtime = mtime;
 		if (utime(tmp_file.buf, &utb) < 0)
-			warning("failed utime() on %s: %s",
-				tmp_file.buf, strerror(errno));
+			warning_errno("failed utime() on %s", tmp_file.buf);
 	}
 
 	return finalize_object_file(tmp_file.buf, filename);
@@ -3360,7 +3358,7 @@
 		if (size == read_in_full(fd, buf, size))
 			ret = index_mem(sha1, buf, size, type, path, flags);
 		else
-			ret = error("short read %s", strerror(errno));
+			ret = error_errno("short read");
 		free(buf);
 	} else {
 		void *buf = xmmap(NULL, size, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, fd, 0);
@@ -3425,18 +3423,14 @@
 	case S_IFREG:
 		fd = open(path, O_RDONLY);
 		if (fd < 0)
-			return error("open(\"%s\"): %s", path,
-				     strerror(errno));
+			return error_errno("open(\"%s\")", path);
 		if (index_fd(sha1, fd, st, OBJ_BLOB, path, flags) < 0)
 			return error("%s: failed to insert into database",
 				     path);
 		break;
 	case S_IFLNK:
-		if (strbuf_readlink(&sb, path, st->st_size)) {
-			char *errstr = strerror(errno);
-			return error("readlink(\"%s\"): %s", path,
-			             errstr);
-		}
+		if (strbuf_readlink(&sb, path, st->st_size))
+			return error_errno("readlink(\"%s\")", path);
 		if (!(flags & HASH_WRITE_OBJECT))
 			hash_sha1_file(sb.buf, sb.len, blob_type, sha1);
 		else if (write_sha1_file(sb.buf, sb.len, blob_type, sha1))
@@ -3492,7 +3486,7 @@
 	if (!dir) {
 		if (errno == ENOENT)
 			return 0;
-		return error("unable to open %s: %s", path->buf, strerror(errno));
+		return error_errno("unable to open %s", path->buf);
 	}
 
 	while ((de = readdir(dir))) {
diff --git a/sha1_name.c b/sha1_name.c
index 776101e..ca7ddd6 100644
--- a/sha1_name.c
+++ b/sha1_name.c
@@ -1215,6 +1215,15 @@
 }
 
 /*
+ * This is like "get_sha1()", but for struct object_id.
+ */
+int get_oid(const char *name, struct object_id *oid)
+{
+	return get_sha1(name, oid->hash);
+}
+
+
+/*
  * Many callers know that the user meant to name a commit-ish by
  * syntactical positions where the object name appears.  Calling this
  * function allows the machinery to disambiguate shorter-than-unique
diff --git a/strbuf.c b/strbuf.c
index 2c08dbb..1ba600b 100644
--- a/strbuf.c
+++ b/strbuf.c
@@ -395,6 +395,12 @@
 	return cnt;
 }
 
+ssize_t strbuf_write(struct strbuf *sb, FILE *f)
+{
+	return sb->len ? fwrite(sb->buf, 1, sb->len, f) : 0;
+}
+
+
 #define STRBUF_MAXLINK (2*PATH_MAX)
 
 int strbuf_readlink(struct strbuf *sb, const char *path, size_t hint)
diff --git a/strbuf.h b/strbuf.h
index f72fd14..7987405 100644
--- a/strbuf.h
+++ b/strbuf.h
@@ -387,6 +387,12 @@
 extern int strbuf_readlink(struct strbuf *sb, const char *path, size_t hint);
 
 /**
+ * Write the whole content of the strbuf to the stream not stopping at
+ * NUL bytes.
+ */
+extern ssize_t strbuf_write(struct strbuf *sb, FILE *stream);
+
+/**
  * Read a line from a FILE *, overwriting the existing contents of
  * the strbuf.  The strbuf_getline*() family of functions share
  * this signature, but have different line termination conventions.
diff --git a/submodule-config.c b/submodule-config.c
index 7f67ec0..debab29 100644
--- a/submodule-config.c
+++ b/submodule-config.c
@@ -59,6 +59,7 @@
 {
 	free((void *) entry->config->path);
 	free((void *) entry->config->name);
+	free((void *) entry->config->update_strategy.command);
 	free(entry->config);
 }
 
@@ -194,6 +195,8 @@
 
 	submodule->path = NULL;
 	submodule->url = NULL;
+	submodule->update_strategy.type = SM_UPDATE_UNSPECIFIED;
+	submodule->update_strategy.command = NULL;
 	submodule->fetch_recurse = RECURSE_SUBMODULES_NONE;
 	submodule->ignore = NULL;
 
@@ -293,7 +296,7 @@
 	if (!strcmp(item.buf, "path")) {
 		if (!value)
 			ret = config_error_nonbool(var);
-		else if (!me->overwrite && submodule->path != NULL)
+		else if (!me->overwrite && submodule->path)
 			warn_multiple_config(me->commit_sha1, submodule->name,
 					"path");
 		else {
@@ -317,7 +320,7 @@
 	} else if (!strcmp(item.buf, "ignore")) {
 		if (!value)
 			ret = config_error_nonbool(var);
-		else if (!me->overwrite && submodule->ignore != NULL)
+		else if (!me->overwrite && submodule->ignore)
 			warn_multiple_config(me->commit_sha1, submodule->name,
 					"ignore");
 		else if (strcmp(value, "untracked") &&
@@ -333,13 +336,23 @@
 	} else if (!strcmp(item.buf, "url")) {
 		if (!value) {
 			ret = config_error_nonbool(var);
-		} else if (!me->overwrite && submodule->url != NULL) {
+		} else if (!me->overwrite && submodule->url) {
 			warn_multiple_config(me->commit_sha1, submodule->name,
 					"url");
 		} else {
 			free((void *) submodule->url);
 			submodule->url = xstrdup(value);
 		}
+	} else if (!strcmp(item.buf, "update")) {
+		if (!value)
+			ret = config_error_nonbool(var);
+		else if (!me->overwrite &&
+			 submodule->update_strategy.type != SM_UPDATE_UNSPECIFIED)
+			warn_multiple_config(me->commit_sha1, submodule->name,
+					     "update");
+		else if (parse_submodule_update_strategy(value,
+			 &submodule->update_strategy) < 0)
+				die(_("invalid value for %s"), var);
 	}
 
 	strbuf_release(&name);
diff --git a/submodule-config.h b/submodule-config.h
index 9bfa65a..e4857f5 100644
--- a/submodule-config.h
+++ b/submodule-config.h
@@ -2,6 +2,7 @@
 #define SUBMODULE_CONFIG_CACHE_H
 
 #include "hashmap.h"
+#include "submodule.h"
 #include "strbuf.h"
 
 /*
@@ -14,6 +15,7 @@
 	const char *url;
 	int fetch_recurse;
 	const char *ignore;
+	struct submodule_update_strategy update_strategy;
 	/* the sha1 blob id of the responsible .gitmodules file */
 	unsigned char gitmodules_sha1[20];
 };
diff --git a/submodule.c b/submodule.c
index 62c4356..4532b11 100644
--- a/submodule.c
+++ b/submodule.c
@@ -13,8 +13,10 @@
 #include "argv-array.h"
 #include "blob.h"
 #include "thread-utils.h"
+#include "quote.h"
 
 static int config_fetch_recurse_submodules = RECURSE_SUBMODULES_ON_DEMAND;
+static int parallel_jobs = 1;
 static struct string_list changed_submodule_paths;
 static int initialized_fetch_ref_tips;
 static struct sha1_array ref_tips_before_fetch;
@@ -169,7 +171,12 @@
 
 int submodule_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
 {
-	if (starts_with(var, "submodule."))
+	if (!strcmp(var, "submodule.fetchjobs")) {
+		parallel_jobs = git_config_int(var, value);
+		if (parallel_jobs < 0)
+			die(_("negative values not allowed for submodule.fetchJobs"));
+		return 0;
+	} else if (starts_with(var, "submodule."))
 		return parse_submodule_config_option(var, value);
 	else if (!strcmp(var, "fetch.recursesubmodules")) {
 		config_fetch_recurse_submodules = parse_fetch_recurse_submodules_arg(var, value);
@@ -210,6 +217,48 @@
 	}
 }
 
+int parse_submodule_update_strategy(const char *value,
+		struct submodule_update_strategy *dst)
+{
+	free((void*)dst->command);
+	dst->command = NULL;
+	if (!strcmp(value, "none"))
+		dst->type = SM_UPDATE_NONE;
+	else if (!strcmp(value, "checkout"))
+		dst->type = SM_UPDATE_CHECKOUT;
+	else if (!strcmp(value, "rebase"))
+		dst->type = SM_UPDATE_REBASE;
+	else if (!strcmp(value, "merge"))
+		dst->type = SM_UPDATE_MERGE;
+	else if (skip_prefix(value, "!", &value)) {
+		dst->type = SM_UPDATE_COMMAND;
+		dst->command = xstrdup(value);
+	} else
+		return -1;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+const char *submodule_strategy_to_string(const struct submodule_update_strategy *s)
+{
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+	switch (s->type) {
+	case SM_UPDATE_CHECKOUT:
+		return "checkout";
+	case SM_UPDATE_MERGE:
+		return "merge";
+	case SM_UPDATE_REBASE:
+		return "rebase";
+	case SM_UPDATE_NONE:
+		return "none";
+	case SM_UPDATE_UNSPECIFIED:
+		return NULL;
+	case SM_UPDATE_COMMAND:
+		strbuf_addf(&sb, "!%s", s->command);
+		return strbuf_detach(&sb, NULL);
+	}
+	return NULL;
+}
+
 void handle_ignore_submodules_arg(struct diff_options *diffopt,
 				  const char *arg)
 {
@@ -366,7 +415,7 @@
 
 		argv[1] = sha1_to_hex(sha1);
 		cp.argv = argv;
-		cp.env = local_repo_env;
+		prepare_submodule_repo_env(&cp.env_array);
 		cp.git_cmd = 1;
 		cp.no_stdin = 1;
 		cp.out = -1;
@@ -453,7 +502,7 @@
 		const char *argv[] = {"push", NULL};
 
 		cp.argv = argv;
-		cp.env = local_repo_env;
+		prepare_submodule_repo_env(&cp.env_array);
 		cp.git_cmd = 1;
 		cp.no_stdin = 1;
 		cp.dir = path;
@@ -499,7 +548,7 @@
 
 		argv[3] = sha1_to_hex(sha1);
 		cp.argv = argv;
-		cp.env = local_repo_env;
+		prepare_submodule_repo_env(&cp.env_array);
 		cp.git_cmd = 1;
 		cp.no_stdin = 1;
 		cp.dir = path;
@@ -682,7 +731,7 @@
 		if (is_directory(git_dir)) {
 			child_process_init(cp);
 			cp->dir = strbuf_detach(&submodule_path, NULL);
-			cp->env = local_repo_env;
+			prepare_submodule_repo_env(&cp->env_array);
 			cp->git_cmd = 1;
 			if (!spf->quiet)
 				strbuf_addf(err, "Fetching submodule %s%s\n",
@@ -750,6 +799,9 @@
 	argv_array_push(&spf.args, "--recurse-submodules-default");
 	/* default value, "--submodule-prefix" and its value are added later */
 
+	if (max_parallel_jobs < 0)
+		max_parallel_jobs = parallel_jobs;
+
 	calculate_changed_submodule_paths();
 	run_processes_parallel(max_parallel_jobs,
 			       get_next_submodule,
@@ -794,7 +846,7 @@
 		argv[2] = "-uno";
 
 	cp.argv = argv;
-	cp.env = local_repo_env;
+	prepare_submodule_repo_env(&cp.env_array);
 	cp.git_cmd = 1;
 	cp.no_stdin = 1;
 	cp.out = -1;
@@ -855,7 +907,7 @@
 
 	/* Now test that all nested submodules use a gitfile too */
 	cp.argv = argv;
-	cp.env = local_repo_env;
+	prepare_submodule_repo_env(&cp.env_array);
 	cp.git_cmd = 1;
 	cp.no_stdin = 1;
 	cp.no_stderr = 1;
@@ -888,7 +940,7 @@
 		return 0;
 
 	cp.argv = argv;
-	cp.env = local_repo_env;
+	prepare_submodule_repo_env(&cp.env_array);
 	cp.git_cmd = 1;
 	cp.no_stdin = 1;
 	cp.out = -1;
@@ -1094,3 +1146,18 @@
 	strbuf_release(&rel_path);
 	free((void *)real_work_tree);
 }
+
+int parallel_submodules(void)
+{
+	return parallel_jobs;
+}
+
+void prepare_submodule_repo_env(struct argv_array *out)
+{
+	const char * const *var;
+
+	for (var = local_repo_env; *var; var++) {
+		if (strcmp(*var, CONFIG_DATA_ENVIRONMENT))
+			argv_array_push(out, *var);
+	}
+}
diff --git a/submodule.h b/submodule.h
index e06eaa5..2af9390 100644
--- a/submodule.h
+++ b/submodule.h
@@ -14,6 +14,21 @@
 	RECURSE_SUBMODULES_ON = 2
 };
 
+enum submodule_update_type {
+	SM_UPDATE_UNSPECIFIED = 0,
+	SM_UPDATE_CHECKOUT,
+	SM_UPDATE_REBASE,
+	SM_UPDATE_MERGE,
+	SM_UPDATE_NONE,
+	SM_UPDATE_COMMAND
+};
+
+struct submodule_update_strategy {
+	enum submodule_update_type type;
+	const char *command;
+};
+#define SUBMODULE_UPDATE_STRATEGY_INIT {SM_UPDATE_UNSPECIFIED, NULL}
+
 int is_staging_gitmodules_ok(void);
 int update_path_in_gitmodules(const char *oldpath, const char *newpath);
 int remove_path_from_gitmodules(const char *path);
@@ -22,6 +37,9 @@
 		const char *path);
 int submodule_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb);
 void gitmodules_config(void);
+int parse_submodule_update_strategy(const char *value,
+		struct submodule_update_strategy *dst);
+const char *submodule_strategy_to_string(const struct submodule_update_strategy *s);
 void handle_ignore_submodules_arg(struct diff_options *diffopt, const char *);
 void show_submodule_summary(FILE *f, const char *path,
 		const char *line_prefix,
@@ -42,5 +60,13 @@
 		struct string_list *needs_pushing);
 int push_unpushed_submodules(unsigned char new_sha1[20], const char *remotes_name);
 void connect_work_tree_and_git_dir(const char *work_tree, const char *git_dir);
+int parallel_submodules(void);
+
+/*
+ * Prepare the "env_array" parameter of a "struct child_process" for executing
+ * a submodule by clearing any repo-specific envirionment variables, but
+ * retaining any config in the environment.
+ */
+void prepare_submodule_repo_env(struct argv_array *out);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/t/helper/.gitignore b/t/helper/.gitignore
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d6e8b36
--- /dev/null
+++ b/t/helper/.gitignore
@@ -0,0 +1,33 @@
+/test-chmtime
+/test-ctype
+/test-config
+/test-date
+/test-delta
+/test-dump-cache-tree
+/test-dump-split-index
+/test-dump-untracked-cache
+/test-fake-ssh
+/test-scrap-cache-tree
+/test-genrandom
+/test-hashmap
+/test-index-version
+/test-line-buffer
+/test-match-trees
+/test-mergesort
+/test-mktemp
+/test-parse-options
+/test-path-utils
+/test-prio-queue
+/test-read-cache
+/test-regex
+/test-revision-walking
+/test-run-command
+/test-sha1
+/test-sha1-array
+/test-sigchain
+/test-string-list
+/test-submodule-config
+/test-subprocess
+/test-svn-fe
+/test-urlmatch-normalization
+/test-wildmatch
diff --git a/test-chmtime.c b/t/helper/test-chmtime.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-chmtime.c
rename to t/helper/test-chmtime.c
diff --git a/test-config.c b/t/helper/test-config.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-config.c
rename to t/helper/test-config.c
diff --git a/test-ctype.c b/t/helper/test-ctype.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-ctype.c
rename to t/helper/test-ctype.c
diff --git a/test-date.c b/t/helper/test-date.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-date.c
rename to t/helper/test-date.c
diff --git a/test-delta.c b/t/helper/test-delta.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-delta.c
rename to t/helper/test-delta.c
diff --git a/test-dump-cache-tree.c b/t/helper/test-dump-cache-tree.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-dump-cache-tree.c
rename to t/helper/test-dump-cache-tree.c
diff --git a/test-dump-split-index.c b/t/helper/test-dump-split-index.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-dump-split-index.c
rename to t/helper/test-dump-split-index.c
diff --git a/test-dump-untracked-cache.c b/t/helper/test-dump-untracked-cache.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-dump-untracked-cache.c
rename to t/helper/test-dump-untracked-cache.c
diff --git a/test-fake-ssh.c b/t/helper/test-fake-ssh.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-fake-ssh.c
rename to t/helper/test-fake-ssh.c
diff --git a/test-genrandom.c b/t/helper/test-genrandom.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-genrandom.c
rename to t/helper/test-genrandom.c
diff --git a/test-hashmap.c b/t/helper/test-hashmap.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-hashmap.c
rename to t/helper/test-hashmap.c
diff --git a/test-index-version.c b/t/helper/test-index-version.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-index-version.c
rename to t/helper/test-index-version.c
diff --git a/test-line-buffer.c b/t/helper/test-line-buffer.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-line-buffer.c
rename to t/helper/test-line-buffer.c
diff --git a/t/helper/test-match-trees.c b/t/helper/test-match-trees.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d446b8e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/t/helper/test-match-trees.c
@@ -0,0 +1,26 @@
+#include "cache.h"
+#include "tree.h"
+
+int main(int ac, char **av)
+{
+	struct object_id hash1, hash2, shifted;
+	struct tree *one, *two;
+
+	setup_git_directory();
+
+	if (get_oid(av[1], &hash1))
+		die("cannot parse %s as an object name", av[1]);
+	if (get_oid(av[2], &hash2))
+		die("cannot parse %s as an object name", av[2]);
+	one = parse_tree_indirect(hash1.hash);
+	if (!one)
+		die("not a tree-ish %s", av[1]);
+	two = parse_tree_indirect(hash2.hash);
+	if (!two)
+		die("not a tree-ish %s", av[2]);
+
+	shift_tree(&one->object.oid, &two->object.oid, &shifted, -1);
+	printf("shifted: %s\n", oid_to_hex(&shifted));
+
+	exit(0);
+}
diff --git a/test-mergesort.c b/t/helper/test-mergesort.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-mergesort.c
rename to t/helper/test-mergesort.c
diff --git a/test-mktemp.c b/t/helper/test-mktemp.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-mktemp.c
rename to t/helper/test-mktemp.c
diff --git a/t/helper/test-parse-options.c b/t/helper/test-parse-options.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8a1235d
--- /dev/null
+++ b/t/helper/test-parse-options.c
@@ -0,0 +1,179 @@
+#include "cache.h"
+#include "parse-options.h"
+#include "string-list.h"
+
+static int boolean = 0;
+static int integer = 0;
+static unsigned long magnitude = 0;
+static unsigned long timestamp;
+static int abbrev = 7;
+static int verbose = -1; /* unspecified */
+static int dry_run = 0, quiet = 0;
+static char *string = NULL;
+static char *file = NULL;
+static int ambiguous;
+static struct string_list list;
+
+static struct {
+	int called;
+	const char *arg;
+	int unset;
+} length_cb;
+
+static int length_callback(const struct option *opt, const char *arg, int unset)
+{
+	length_cb.called = 1;
+	length_cb.arg = arg;
+	length_cb.unset = unset;
+
+	if (unset)
+		return 1; /* do not support unset */
+
+	*(int *)opt->value = strlen(arg);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int number_callback(const struct option *opt, const char *arg, int unset)
+{
+	*(int *)opt->value = strtol(arg, NULL, 10);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int collect_expect(const struct option *opt, const char *arg, int unset)
+{
+	struct string_list *expect;
+	struct string_list_item *item;
+	struct strbuf label = STRBUF_INIT;
+	const char *colon;
+
+	if (!arg || unset)
+		die("malformed --expect option");
+
+	expect = (struct string_list *)opt->value;
+	colon = strchr(arg, ':');
+	if (!colon)
+		die("malformed --expect option, lacking a colon");
+	strbuf_add(&label, arg, colon - arg);
+	item = string_list_insert(expect, strbuf_detach(&label, NULL));
+	if (item->util)
+		die("malformed --expect option, duplicate %s", label.buf);
+	item->util = (void *)arg;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+__attribute__((format (printf,3,4)))
+static void show(struct string_list *expect, int *status, const char *fmt, ...)
+{
+	struct string_list_item *item;
+	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
+	va_list args;
+
+	va_start(args, fmt);
+	strbuf_vaddf(&buf, fmt, args);
+	va_end(args);
+
+	if (!expect->nr)
+		printf("%s\n", buf.buf);
+	else {
+		char *colon = strchr(buf.buf, ':');
+		if (!colon)
+			die("malformed output format, output lacking colon: %s", fmt);
+		*colon = '\0';
+		item = string_list_lookup(expect, buf.buf);
+		*colon = ':';
+		if (!item)
+			; /* not among entries being checked */
+		else {
+			if (strcmp((const char *)item->util, buf.buf)) {
+				printf("-%s\n", (char *)item->util);
+				printf("+%s\n", buf.buf);
+				*status = 1;
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	strbuf_release(&buf);
+}
+
+int main(int argc, char **argv)
+{
+	const char *prefix = "prefix/";
+	const char *usage[] = {
+		"test-parse-options <options>",
+		NULL
+	};
+	struct string_list expect = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
+	struct option options[] = {
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "yes", &boolean, "get a boolean"),
+		OPT_BOOL('D', "no-doubt", &boolean, "begins with 'no-'"),
+		{ OPTION_SET_INT, 'B', "no-fear", &boolean, NULL,
+		  "be brave", PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_NONEG, NULL, 1 },
+		OPT_COUNTUP('b', "boolean", &boolean, "increment by one"),
+		OPT_BIT('4', "or4", &boolean,
+			"bitwise-or boolean with ...0100", 4),
+		OPT_NEGBIT(0, "neg-or4", &boolean, "same as --no-or4", 4),
+		OPT_GROUP(""),
+		OPT_INTEGER('i', "integer", &integer, "get a integer"),
+		OPT_INTEGER('j', NULL, &integer, "get a integer, too"),
+		OPT_MAGNITUDE('m', "magnitude", &magnitude, "get a magnitude"),
+		OPT_SET_INT(0, "set23", &integer, "set integer to 23", 23),
+		OPT_DATE('t', NULL, &timestamp, "get timestamp of <time>"),
+		OPT_CALLBACK('L', "length", &integer, "str",
+			"get length of <str>", length_callback),
+		OPT_FILENAME('F', "file", &file, "set file to <file>"),
+		OPT_GROUP("String options"),
+		OPT_STRING('s', "string", &string, "string", "get a string"),
+		OPT_STRING(0, "string2", &string, "str", "get another string"),
+		OPT_STRING(0, "st", &string, "st", "get another string (pervert ordering)"),
+		OPT_STRING('o', NULL, &string, "str", "get another string"),
+		OPT_NOOP_NOARG(0, "obsolete"),
+		OPT_STRING_LIST(0, "list", &list, "str", "add str to list"),
+		OPT_GROUP("Magic arguments"),
+		OPT_ARGUMENT("quux", "means --quux"),
+		OPT_NUMBER_CALLBACK(&integer, "set integer to NUM",
+			number_callback),
+		{ OPTION_COUNTUP, '+', NULL, &boolean, NULL, "same as -b",
+		  PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_NONEG | PARSE_OPT_NODASH },
+		{ OPTION_COUNTUP, 0, "ambiguous", &ambiguous, NULL,
+		  "positive ambiguity", PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_NONEG },
+		{ OPTION_COUNTUP, 0, "no-ambiguous", &ambiguous, NULL,
+		  "negative ambiguity", PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_NONEG },
+		OPT_GROUP("Standard options"),
+		OPT__ABBREV(&abbrev),
+		OPT__VERBOSE(&verbose, "be verbose"),
+		OPT__DRY_RUN(&dry_run, "dry run"),
+		OPT__QUIET(&quiet, "be quiet"),
+		OPT_CALLBACK(0, "expect", &expect, "string",
+			     "expected output in the variable dump",
+			     collect_expect),
+		OPT_END(),
+	};
+	int i;
+	int ret = 0;
+
+	argc = parse_options(argc, (const char **)argv, prefix, options, usage, 0);
+
+	if (length_cb.called) {
+		const char *arg = length_cb.arg;
+		int unset = length_cb.unset;
+		show(&expect, &ret, "Callback: \"%s\", %d",
+		     (arg ? arg : "not set"), unset);
+	}
+	show(&expect, &ret, "boolean: %d", boolean);
+	show(&expect, &ret, "integer: %d", integer);
+	show(&expect, &ret, "magnitude: %lu", magnitude);
+	show(&expect, &ret, "timestamp: %lu", timestamp);
+	show(&expect, &ret, "string: %s", string ? string : "(not set)");
+	show(&expect, &ret, "abbrev: %d", abbrev);
+	show(&expect, &ret, "verbose: %d", verbose);
+	show(&expect, &ret, "quiet: %d", quiet);
+	show(&expect, &ret, "dry run: %s", dry_run ? "yes" : "no");
+	show(&expect, &ret, "file: %s", file ? file : "(not set)");
+
+	for (i = 0; i < list.nr; i++)
+		show(&expect, &ret, "list: %s", list.items[i].string);
+
+	for (i = 0; i < argc; i++)
+		show(&expect, &ret, "arg %02d: %s", i, argv[i]);
+
+	return ret;
+}
diff --git a/test-path-utils.c b/t/helper/test-path-utils.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-path-utils.c
rename to t/helper/test-path-utils.c
diff --git a/test-prio-queue.c b/t/helper/test-prio-queue.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-prio-queue.c
rename to t/helper/test-prio-queue.c
diff --git a/test-read-cache.c b/t/helper/test-read-cache.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-read-cache.c
rename to t/helper/test-read-cache.c
diff --git a/test-regex.c b/t/helper/test-regex.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-regex.c
rename to t/helper/test-regex.c
diff --git a/test-revision-walking.c b/t/helper/test-revision-walking.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-revision-walking.c
rename to t/helper/test-revision-walking.c
diff --git a/test-run-command.c b/t/helper/test-run-command.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-run-command.c
rename to t/helper/test-run-command.c
diff --git a/test-scrap-cache-tree.c b/t/helper/test-scrap-cache-tree.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-scrap-cache-tree.c
rename to t/helper/test-scrap-cache-tree.c
diff --git a/test-sha1-array.c b/t/helper/test-sha1-array.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-sha1-array.c
rename to t/helper/test-sha1-array.c
diff --git a/test-sha1.c b/t/helper/test-sha1.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-sha1.c
rename to t/helper/test-sha1.c
diff --git a/test-sha1.sh b/t/helper/test-sha1.sh
similarity index 95%
rename from test-sha1.sh
rename to t/helper/test-sha1.sh
index cef4bcc..750b95a 100755
--- a/test-sha1.sh
+++ b/t/helper/test-sha1.sh
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
 #!/bin/sh
 
 dd if=/dev/zero bs=1048576 count=100 2>/dev/null |
-/usr/bin/time ./test-sha1 >/dev/null
+/usr/bin/time t/helper/test-sha1 >/dev/null
 
 while read expect cnt pfx
 do
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
 			test -z "$pfx" || echo "$pfx"
 			dd if=/dev/zero bs=1048576 count=$cnt 2>/dev/null |
 			perl -pe 'y/\000/g/'
-		} | ./test-sha1 $cnt
+		} | ./t/helper/test-sha1 $cnt
 	)
 	if test "$expect" = "$actual"
 	then
diff --git a/test-sigchain.c b/t/helper/test-sigchain.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-sigchain.c
rename to t/helper/test-sigchain.c
diff --git a/test-string-list.c b/t/helper/test-string-list.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-string-list.c
rename to t/helper/test-string-list.c
diff --git a/test-submodule-config.c b/t/helper/test-submodule-config.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-submodule-config.c
rename to t/helper/test-submodule-config.c
diff --git a/test-subprocess.c b/t/helper/test-subprocess.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-subprocess.c
rename to t/helper/test-subprocess.c
diff --git a/test-svn-fe.c b/t/helper/test-svn-fe.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-svn-fe.c
rename to t/helper/test-svn-fe.c
diff --git a/test-urlmatch-normalization.c b/t/helper/test-urlmatch-normalization.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-urlmatch-normalization.c
rename to t/helper/test-urlmatch-normalization.c
diff --git a/test-wildmatch.c b/t/helper/test-wildmatch.c
similarity index 100%
rename from test-wildmatch.c
rename to t/helper/test-wildmatch.c
diff --git a/t/lib-git-p4.sh b/t/lib-git-p4.sh
index 012d40e..54fd5a6 100644
--- a/t/lib-git-p4.sh
+++ b/t/lib-git-p4.sh
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@
 # Older versions of perforce were available compiled natively for
 # cygwin.  Those do not accept native windows paths, so make sure
 # not to convert for them.
-native_path() {
+native_path () {
 	path="$1" &&
 	if test_have_prereq CYGWIN && ! p4 -V | grep -q CYGWIN
 	then
@@ -49,7 +49,7 @@
 # Attention: This function is not safe again against time offset updates
 # at runtime (e.g. via NTP). The 'clock_gettime(CLOCK_MONOTONIC)'
 # function could fix that but it is not in Python until 3.3.
-time_in_seconds() {
+time_in_seconds () {
 	(cd / && "$PYTHON_PATH" -c 'import time; print(int(time.time()))')
 }
 
@@ -75,7 +75,7 @@
 pidfile="$TRASH_DIRECTORY/p4d.pid"
 
 # Sometimes "prove" seems to hang on exit because p4d is still running
-cleanup() {
+cleanup () {
 	if test -f "$pidfile"
 	then
 		kill -9 $(cat "$pidfile") 2>/dev/null && exit 255
@@ -89,7 +89,7 @@
 TMPDIR="$TRASH_DIRECTORY"
 export TMPDIR
 
-start_p4d() {
+start_p4d () {
 	mkdir -p "$db" "$cli" "$git" &&
 	rm -f "$pidfile" &&
 	(
@@ -151,7 +151,7 @@
 	return 0
 }
 
-p4_add_user() {
+p4_add_user () {
 	name=$1 &&
 	p4 user -f -i <<-EOF
 	User: $name
@@ -160,7 +160,16 @@
 	EOF
 }
 
-retry_until_success() {
+p4_add_job () {
+	p4 job -f -i <<-EOF
+	Job: $1
+	Status: open
+	User: dummy
+	Description:
+	EOF
+}
+
+retry_until_success () {
 	timeout=$(($(time_in_seconds) + $RETRY_TIMEOUT))
 	until "$@" 2>/dev/null || test $(time_in_seconds) -gt $timeout
 	do
@@ -168,7 +177,7 @@
 	done
 }
 
-retry_until_fail() {
+retry_until_fail () {
 	timeout=$(($(time_in_seconds) + $RETRY_TIMEOUT))
 	until ! "$@" 2>/dev/null || test $(time_in_seconds) -gt $timeout
 	do
@@ -176,7 +185,7 @@
 	done
 }
 
-kill_p4d() {
+kill_p4d () {
 	pid=$(cat "$pidfile")
 	retry_until_fail kill $pid
 	retry_until_fail kill -9 $pid
@@ -186,13 +195,13 @@
 	retry_until_fail kill -9 $watchdog_pid
 }
 
-cleanup_git() {
+cleanup_git () {
 	retry_until_success rm -r "$git"
 	test_must_fail test -d "$git" &&
 	retry_until_success mkdir "$git"
 }
 
-marshal_dump() {
+marshal_dump () {
 	what=$1 &&
 	line=${2:-1} &&
 	cat >"$TRASH_DIRECTORY/marshal-dump.py" <<-EOF &&
@@ -209,7 +218,7 @@
 #
 # Construct a client with this list of View lines
 #
-client_view() {
+client_view () {
 	(
 		cat <<-EOF &&
 		Client: $P4CLIENT
@@ -223,7 +232,7 @@
 	) | p4 client -i
 }
 
-is_cli_file_writeable() {
+is_cli_file_writeable () {
 	# cygwin version of p4 does not set read-only attr,
 	# will be marked 444 but -w is true
 	file="$1" &&
diff --git a/t/lib-git-svn.sh b/t/lib-git-svn.sh
index 6a50b87..fb88232 100644
--- a/t/lib-git-svn.sh
+++ b/t/lib-git-svn.sh
@@ -1,8 +1,5 @@
 . ./test-lib.sh
 
-remotes_git_svn=remotes/git""-svn
-git_svn_id=git""-svn-id
-
 if test -n "$NO_SVN_TESTS"
 then
 	skip_all='skipping git svn tests, NO_SVN_TESTS defined'
diff --git a/t/lib-gpg.sh b/t/lib-gpg.sh
index db2ef22..ec2aa8f 100755
--- a/t/lib-gpg.sh
+++ b/t/lib-gpg.sh
@@ -1,9 +1,8 @@
 #!/bin/sh
 
 gpg_version=$(gpg --version 2>&1)
-if test $? = 127; then
-	say "You do not seem to have gpg installed"
-else
+if test $? != 127
+then
 	# As said here: http://www.gnupg.org/documentation/faqs.html#q6.19
 	# the gpg version 1.0.6 didn't parse trust packets correctly, so for
 	# that version, creation of signed tags using the generated key fails.
diff --git a/t/lib-httpd/apache.conf b/t/lib-httpd/apache.conf
index 9317ba0..018a83a 100644
--- a/t/lib-httpd/apache.conf
+++ b/t/lib-httpd/apache.conf
@@ -102,6 +102,10 @@
 	SetEnv GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL
 	Header set Set-Cookie name=value
 </LocationMatch>
+<LocationMatch /smart_headers/>
+	SetEnv GIT_EXEC_PATH ${GIT_EXEC_PATH}
+	SetEnv GIT_HTTP_EXPORT_ALL
+</LocationMatch>
 ScriptAliasMatch /smart_*[^/]*/(.*) ${GIT_EXEC_PATH}/git-http-backend/$1
 ScriptAlias /broken_smart/ broken-smart-http.sh/
 ScriptAlias /error/ error.sh/
@@ -128,6 +132,18 @@
 RewriteRule ^/loop-redir/x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-x-(.*) /$1 [R=302]
 RewriteRule ^/loop-redir/(.*)$ /loop-redir/x-$1 [R=302]
 
+# Apache 2.2 does not understand <RequireAll>, so we use RewriteCond.
+# And as RewriteCond does not allow testing for non-matches, we match
+# the desired case first (one has abra, two has cadabra), and let it
+# pass by marking the RewriteRule as [L], "last rule, do not process
+# any other matching RewriteRules after this"), and then have another
+# RewriteRule that matches all other cases and lets them fail via '[F]',
+# "fail the request".
+RewriteCond %{HTTP:x-magic-one} =abra
+RewriteCond %{HTTP:x-magic-two} =cadabra
+RewriteRule ^/smart_headers/.* - [L]
+RewriteRule ^/smart_headers/.* - [F]
+
 <IfDefine SSL>
 LoadModule ssl_module modules/mod_ssl.so
 
diff --git a/t/perf/p3404-rebase-interactive.sh b/t/perf/p3404-rebase-interactive.sh
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..88f47de
--- /dev/null
+++ b/t/perf/p3404-rebase-interactive.sh
@@ -0,0 +1,36 @@
+#!/bin/sh
+
+test_description='Tests rebase -i performance'
+. ./perf-lib.sh
+
+test_perf_default_repo
+
+# This commit merges a sufficiently long topic branch for reasonable
+# performance testing
+branch_merge=ba5312da19c6fdb6c6747d479f58932aae6e900c^{commit}
+export branch_merge
+
+git rev-parse --verify $branch_merge >/dev/null 2>&1 || {
+	skip_all='skipping because $branch_merge was not found'
+	test_done
+}
+
+write_script swap-first-two.sh <<\EOF
+case "$1" in
+*/COMMIT_EDITMSG)
+	mv "$1" "$1".bak &&
+	sed -e '1{h;d}' -e 2G <"$1".bak >"$1"
+	;;
+esac
+EOF
+
+test_expect_success 'setup' '
+	git config core.editor "\"$PWD"/swap-first-two.sh\" &&
+	git checkout -f $branch_merge^2
+'
+
+test_perf 'rebase -i' '
+	git rebase -i $branch_merge^
+'
+
+test_done
diff --git a/t/perf/perf-lib.sh b/t/perf/perf-lib.sh
index 5cf74ed..5ef1744 100644
--- a/t/perf/perf-lib.sh
+++ b/t/perf/perf-lib.sh
@@ -80,23 +80,26 @@
 	error "bug in the test script: not 2 parameters to test-create-repo"
 	repo="$1"
 	source="$2"
-	source_git=$source/$(cd "$source" && git rev-parse --git-dir)
+	source_git="$(git -C "$source" rev-parse --git-dir)"
+	objects_dir="$(git -C "$source" rev-parse --git-path objects)"
 	mkdir -p "$repo/.git"
 	(
-		cd "$repo/.git" &&
-		{ cp -Rl "$source_git/objects" . 2>/dev/null ||
-			cp -R "$source_git/objects" .; } &&
+		{ cp -Rl "$objects_dir" "$repo/.git/" 2>/dev/null ||
+			cp -R "$objects_dir" "$repo/.git/"; } &&
 		for stuff in "$source_git"/*; do
 			case "$stuff" in
-				*/objects|*/hooks|*/config)
+				*/objects|*/hooks|*/config|*/commondir)
 					;;
 				*)
-					cp -R "$stuff" . || exit 1
+					cp -R "$stuff" "$repo/.git/" || exit 1
 					;;
 			esac
 		done &&
-		cd .. &&
-		git init -q &&
+		cd "$repo" &&
+		git init -q && {
+			test_have_prereq SYMLINKS ||
+			git config core.symlinks false
+		} &&
 		mv .git/hooks .git/hooks-disabled 2>/dev/null
 	) || error "failed to copy repository '$source' to '$repo'"
 }
diff --git a/t/t0008-ignores.sh b/t/t0008-ignores.sh
index 89544dd..b425f3a 100755
--- a/t/t0008-ignores.sh
+++ b/t/t0008-ignores.sh
@@ -605,7 +605,7 @@
 	a/b/.gitignore:8:!on*	a/b/one
 	a/b/.gitignore:8:!on*	a/b/one one
 	a/b/.gitignore:8:!on*	a/b/one two
-	a/b/.gitignore:8:!on*	"a/b/one\"three"
+	a/b/.gitignore:8:!on*	"a/b/one\\"three"
 	a/b/.gitignore:9:!two	a/b/two
 	a/.gitignore:1:two*	a/b/twooo
 	$global_excludes:2:!globaltwo	globaltwo
@@ -686,7 +686,7 @@
 	a/b/.gitignore:8:!on*	b/one
 	a/b/.gitignore:8:!on*	b/one one
 	a/b/.gitignore:8:!on*	b/one two
-	a/b/.gitignore:8:!on*	"b/one\"three"
+	a/b/.gitignore:8:!on*	"b/one\\"three"
 	a/b/.gitignore:9:!two	b/two
 	::	b/not-ignored
 	a/.gitignore:1:two*	b/twooo
diff --git a/t/t0027-auto-crlf.sh b/t/t0027-auto-crlf.sh
index f33962b..9372589 100755
--- a/t/t0027-auto-crlf.sh
+++ b/t/t0027-auto-crlf.sh
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@
 
 compare_files () {
 	tr '\015\000' QN <"$1" >"$1".expect &&
-	tr '\015\000' QN <"$2" >"$2".actual &&
+	tr '\015\000' QN <"$2" | tr -d 'Z' >"$2".actual &&
 	test_cmp "$1".expect "$2".actual &&
 	rm "$1".expect "$2".actual
 }
@@ -52,14 +52,17 @@
 create_NNO_files () {
 	for crlf in false true input
 	do
-		for attr in "" auto text -text lf crlf
+		for attr in "" auto text -text
 		do
-			pfx=NNO_${crlf}_attr_${attr} &&
-			cp CRLF_mix_LF ${pfx}_LF.txt &&
-			cp CRLF_mix_LF ${pfx}_CRLF.txt &&
-			cp CRLF_mix_LF ${pfx}_CRLF_mix_LF.txt &&
-			cp CRLF_mix_LF ${pfx}_LF_mix_CR.txt &&
-			cp CRLF_mix_LF ${pfx}_CRLF_nul.txt
+			for aeol in "" lf crlf
+			do
+				pfx=NNO_attr_${attr}_aeol_${aeol}_${crlf}
+				cp CRLF_mix_LF ${pfx}_LF.txt &&
+				cp CRLF_mix_LF ${pfx}_CRLF.txt &&
+				cp CRLF_mix_LF ${pfx}_CRLF_mix_LF.txt &&
+				cp CRLF_mix_LF ${pfx}_LF_mix_CR.txt &&
+				cp CRLF_mix_LF ${pfx}_CRLF_nul.txt
+			done
 		done
 	done
 }
@@ -100,20 +103,22 @@
 }
 
 commit_chk_wrnNNO () {
-	crlf=$1
-	attr=$2
-	lfwarn=$3
-	crlfwarn=$4
-	lfmixcrlf=$5
-	lfmixcr=$6
-	crlfnul=$7
-	pfx=NNO_${crlf}_attr_${attr}
+	attr=$1 ; shift
+	aeol=$1 ; shift
+	crlf=$1 ; shift
+	lfwarn=$1 ; shift
+	crlfwarn=$1 ; shift
+	lfmixcrlf=$1 ; shift
+	lfmixcr=$1 ; shift
+	crlfnul=$1 ; shift
+	pfx=NNO_attr_${attr}_aeol_${aeol}_${crlf}
 	#Commit files on top of existing file
-	create_gitattributes "$attr" &&
+	create_gitattributes "$attr" $aeol &&
 	for f in LF CRLF CRLF_mix_LF LF_mix_CR CRLF_nul
 	do
 		fname=${pfx}_$f.txt &&
 		cp $f $fname &&
+		printf Z >>"$fname" &&
 		git -c core.autocrlf=$crlf add $fname 2>/dev/null &&
 		git -c core.autocrlf=$crlf commit -m "commit_$fname" $fname >"${pfx}_$f.err" 2>&1
 	done
@@ -121,19 +126,19 @@
 	test_expect_success "commit NNO files crlf=$crlf attr=$attr LF" '
 		check_warning "$lfwarn" ${pfx}_LF.err
 	'
-	test_expect_success "commit NNO files crlf=$crlf attr=$attr CRLF" '
+	test_expect_success "commit NNO files attr=$attr aeol=$aeol crlf=$crlf CRLF" '
 		check_warning "$crlfwarn" ${pfx}_CRLF.err
 	'
 
-	test_expect_success "commit NNO files crlf=$crlf attr=$attr CRLF_mix_LF" '
+	test_expect_success "commit NNO files attr=$attr aeol=$aeol crlf=$crlf CRLF_mix_LF" '
 		check_warning "$lfmixcrlf" ${pfx}_CRLF_mix_LF.err
 	'
 
-	test_expect_success "commit NNO files crlf=$crlf attr=$attr LF_mix_cr" '
+	test_expect_success "commit NNO files attr=$attr aeol=$aeol crlf=$crlf LF_mix_cr" '
 		check_warning "$lfmixcr" ${pfx}_LF_mix_CR.err
 	'
 
-	test_expect_success "commit NNO files crlf=$crlf attr=$attr CRLF_nul" '
+	test_expect_success "commit NNO files attr=$attr aeol=$aeol crlf=$crlf CRLF_nul" '
 		check_warning "$crlfnul" ${pfx}_CRLF_nul.err
 	'
 }
@@ -162,6 +167,7 @@
 
 # contruct the attr/ returned by git ls-files --eol
 # Take none (=empty), one or two args
+# convert.c: eol=XX overrides text=auto
 attr_ascii () {
 	case $1,$2 in
 	-text,*)   echo "-text" ;;
@@ -169,8 +175,8 @@
 	text,lf)   echo "text eol=lf" ;;
 	text,crlf) echo "text eol=crlf" ;;
 	auto,)     echo "text=auto" ;;
-	auto,lf)   echo "text=auto eol=lf" ;;
-	auto,crlf) echo "text=auto eol=crlf" ;;
+	auto,lf)   echo "text eol=lf" ;;
+	auto,crlf) echo "text eol=crlf" ;;
 	lf,)       echo "text eol=lf" ;;
 	crlf,)     echo "text eol=crlf" ;;
 	,) echo "" ;;
@@ -195,28 +201,29 @@
 }
 
 check_in_repo_NNO () {
-	crlf=$1
-	attr=$2
-	lfname=$3
-	crlfname=$4
-	lfmixcrlf=$5
-	lfmixcr=$6
-	crlfnul=$7
-	pfx=NNO_${crlf}_attr_${attr}_
-	test_expect_success "compare_files $lfname ${pfx}LF.txt" '
-		compare_files $lfname ${pfx}LF.txt
+	attr=$1 ; shift
+	aeol=$1 ; shift
+	crlf=$1 ; shift
+	lfname=$1 ; shift
+	crlfname=$1 ; shift
+	lfmixcrlf=$1 ; shift
+	lfmixcr=$1 ; shift
+	crlfnul=$1 ; shift
+	pfx=NNO_attr_${attr}_aeol_${aeol}_${crlf}
+	test_expect_success "compare_files $lfname ${pfx}_LF.txt" '
+		compare_files $lfname ${pfx}_LF.txt
 	'
-	test_expect_success "compare_files $crlfname ${pfx}CRLF.txt" '
-		compare_files $crlfname ${pfx}CRLF.txt
+	test_expect_success "compare_files $crlfname ${pfx}_CRLF.txt" '
+		compare_files $crlfname ${pfx}_CRLF.txt
 	'
-	test_expect_success "compare_files $lfmixcrlf ${pfx}CRLF_mix_LF.txt" '
-		compare_files $lfmixcrlf ${pfx}CRLF_mix_LF.txt
+	test_expect_success "compare_files $lfmixcrlf ${pfx}_CRLF_mix_LF.txt" '
+		compare_files $lfmixcrlf ${pfx}_CRLF_mix_LF.txt
 	'
-	test_expect_success "compare_files $lfmixcr ${pfx}LF_mix_CR.txt" '
-		compare_files $lfmixcr ${pfx}LF_mix_CR.txt
+	test_expect_success "compare_files $lfmixcr ${pfx}_LF_mix_CR.txt" '
+		compare_files $lfmixcr ${pfx}_LF_mix_CR.txt
 	'
-	test_expect_success "compare_files $crlfnul ${pfx}CRLF_nul.txt" '
-		compare_files $crlfnul ${pfx}CRLF_nul.txt
+	test_expect_success "compare_files $crlfnul ${pfx}_CRLF_nul.txt" '
+		compare_files $crlfnul ${pfx}_CRLF_nul.txt
 	'
 }
 
@@ -231,7 +238,7 @@
 	lfmixcrlf=$1 ; shift
 	lfmixcr=$1 ; shift
 	crlfnul=$1 ; shift
-	create_gitattributes "$attr" "$ident" &&
+	create_gitattributes "$attr" $ident $aeol &&
 	git config core.autocrlf $crlf &&
 	pfx=eol_${ceol}_crlf_${crlf}_attr_${attr}_ &&
 	for f in LF CRLF LF_mix_CR CRLF_mix_LF LF_nul
@@ -244,7 +251,7 @@
 		fi
 	done
 
-	test_expect_success "ls-files --eol attr=$attr $ident $aeol core.autocrlf=$crlf core.eol=$ceol" '
+	test_expect_success "ls-files --eol attr=$attr $ident aeol=$aeol core.autocrlf=$crlf core.eol=$ceol" '
 		test_when_finished "rm expect actual" &&
 		sort <<-EOF >expect &&
 		i/crlf w/$(stats_ascii $crlfname) attr/$(attr_ascii $attr $aeol) crlf_false_attr__CRLF.txt
@@ -259,19 +266,19 @@
 		sort >actual &&
 		test_cmp expect actual
 	'
-	test_expect_success "checkout $ident $attr $aeol core.autocrlf=$crlf core.eol=$ceol file=LF" "
+	test_expect_success "checkout attr=$attr $ident aeol=$aeol core.autocrlf=$crlf core.eol=$ceol file=LF" "
 		compare_ws_file $pfx $lfname    crlf_false_attr__LF.txt
 	"
-	test_expect_success "checkout $ident $attr $aeol core.autocrlf=$crlf core.eol=$ceol file=CRLF" "
+	test_expect_success "checkout attr=$attr $ident aeol=$aeol core.autocrlf=$crlf core.eol=$ceol file=CRLF" "
 		compare_ws_file $pfx $crlfname  crlf_false_attr__CRLF.txt
 	"
-	test_expect_success "checkout $ident $attr $aeol core.autocrlf=$crlf core.eol=$ceol file=CRLF_mix_LF" "
+	test_expect_success "checkout attr=$attr $ident aeol=$aeol core.autocrlf=$crlf core.eol=$ceol file=CRLF_mix_LF" "
 		compare_ws_file $pfx $lfmixcrlf crlf_false_attr__CRLF_mix_LF.txt
 	"
-	test_expect_success "checkout $ident $attr $aeol core.autocrlf=$crlf core.eol=$ceol file=LF_mix_CR" "
+	test_expect_success "checkout attr=$attr $ident aeol=$aeol core.autocrlf=$crlf core.eol=$ceol file=LF_mix_CR" "
 		compare_ws_file $pfx $lfmixcr   crlf_false_attr__LF_mix_CR.txt
 	"
-	test_expect_success "checkout $ident $attr $aeol core.autocrlf=$crlf core.eol=$ceol file=LF_nul" "
+	test_expect_success "checkout attr=$attr $ident aeol=$aeol core.autocrlf=$crlf core.eol=$ceol file=LF_nul" "
 		compare_ws_file $pfx $crlfnul   crlf_false_attr__LF_nul.txt
 	"
 }
@@ -385,31 +392,31 @@
 	commit_check_warn input "crlf" "LF_CRLF" ""        "LF_CRLF" "LF_CRLF" ""
 '
 
-#                       attr   LF        CRLF      CRLFmixLF 	 LF_mix_CR   CRLFNUL
-commit_chk_wrnNNO false ""     ""        ""        ""        	 ""        	 ""
-commit_chk_wrnNNO true  ""     "LF_CRLF" ""        ""        	 ""        	 ""
-commit_chk_wrnNNO input ""     ""        ""        ""        	 ""        	 ""
+#                 attr                    LF        CRLF      CRLFmixLF   LF_mix_CR   CRLFNUL
+commit_chk_wrnNNO ""      ""      false   ""        ""        ""          ""          ""
+commit_chk_wrnNNO ""      ""      true    LF_CRLF   ""        ""          ""          ""
+commit_chk_wrnNNO ""      ""      input   ""        ""        ""          ""          ""
 
+commit_chk_wrnNNO "auto"  ""      false   "$WILC"   "$WICL"   "$WAMIX"    ""          ""
+commit_chk_wrnNNO "auto"  ""      true    LF_CRLF   ""        LF_CRLF     ""          ""
+commit_chk_wrnNNO "auto"  ""      input   ""        CRLF_LF   CRLF_LF     ""          ""
 
-commit_chk_wrnNNO false "auto" "$WILC"   "$WICL"   "$WAMIX"  	 ""        	 ""
-commit_chk_wrnNNO true  "auto" "LF_CRLF" ""        "LF_CRLF" 	 ""        	 ""
-commit_chk_wrnNNO input "auto" ""        "CRLF_LF" "CRLF_LF" 	 ""        	 ""
+for crlf in true false input
+do
+	commit_chk_wrnNNO -text ""      $crlf   ""        ""        ""          ""          ""
+	commit_chk_wrnNNO -text lf      $crlf   ""        ""        ""          ""          ""
+	commit_chk_wrnNNO -text crlf    $crlf   ""        ""        ""          ""          ""
+	commit_chk_wrnNNO ""    lf      $crlf   ""       CRLF_LF    CRLF_LF      ""         CRLF_LF
+	commit_chk_wrnNNO ""    crlf    $crlf   LF_CRLF   ""        LF_CRLF     LF_CRLF     ""
+	commit_chk_wrnNNO auto  lf    	$crlf   ""       CRLF_LF    CRLF_LF     ""          CRLF_LF
+	commit_chk_wrnNNO auto  crlf  	$crlf   LF_CRLF   ""        LF_CRLF     LF_CRLF     ""
+	commit_chk_wrnNNO text  lf    	$crlf   ""       CRLF_LF    CRLF_LF     ""          CRLF_LF
+	commit_chk_wrnNNO text  crlf  	$crlf   LF_CRLF   ""        LF_CRLF     LF_CRLF     ""
+done
 
-commit_chk_wrnNNO false "text" "$WILC"   "$WICL"   "$WAMIX"  	 "$WILC"   	 "$WICL"
-commit_chk_wrnNNO true  "text" "LF_CRLF" ""        "LF_CRLF" 	 "LF_CRLF" 	 ""
-commit_chk_wrnNNO input "text" ""        "CRLF_LF" "CRLF_LF" 	 ""        	 "CRLF_LF"
-
-commit_chk_wrnNNO false "-text" ""       ""        ""        	 ""        	 ""
-commit_chk_wrnNNO true  "-text" ""       ""        ""        	 ""        	 ""
-commit_chk_wrnNNO input "-text" ""       ""        ""        	 ""        	 ""
-
-commit_chk_wrnNNO false "lf"    ""       "CRLF_LF" "CRLF_LF" 	  ""       	 "CRLF_LF"
-commit_chk_wrnNNO true  "lf"    ""       "CRLF_LF" "CRLF_LF" 	  ""       	 "CRLF_LF"
-commit_chk_wrnNNO input "lf"    ""       "CRLF_LF" "CRLF_LF" 	  ""       	 "CRLF_LF"
-
-commit_chk_wrnNNO false "crlf" "LF_CRLF" ""        "LF_CRLF" 	 "LF_CRLF" 	 ""
-commit_chk_wrnNNO true  "crlf" "LF_CRLF" ""        "LF_CRLF" 	 "LF_CRLF" 	 ""
-commit_chk_wrnNNO input "crlf" "LF_CRLF" ""        "LF_CRLF" 	 "LF_CRLF" 	 ""
+commit_chk_wrnNNO "text"  ""      false   "$WILC"   "$WICL"   "$WAMIX"    "$WILC"     "$WICL"
+commit_chk_wrnNNO "text"  ""      true    LF_CRLF   ""        LF_CRLF     LF_CRLF     ""
+commit_chk_wrnNNO "text"  ""      input   ""        CRLF_LF   CRLF_LF     ""          CRLF_LF
 
 test_expect_success 'create files cleanup' '
 	rm -f *.txt &&
@@ -440,24 +447,20 @@
 	check_files_in_repo input "-text" LF CRLF CRLF_mix_LF LF_mix_CR CRLF_nul
 '
 
-#                       attr    LF        CRLF      CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR 	CRLFNUL
-check_in_repo_NNO false ""      LF        CRLF      CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR 	CRLF_nul
-check_in_repo_NNO true  ""      LF        CRLF      CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR 	CRLF_nul
-check_in_repo_NNO input ""      LF        CRLF      CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR 	CRLF_nul
-
-check_in_repo_NNO false "auto"  LF        LF        LF           LF_mix_CR 	CRLF_nul
-check_in_repo_NNO true  "auto"  LF        LF        LF           LF_mix_CR 	CRLF_nul
-check_in_repo_NNO input "auto"  LF        LF        LF           LF_mix_CR 	CRLF_nul
-
-check_in_repo_NNO false "text"  LF        LF        LF           LF_mix_CR 	LF_nul
-check_in_repo_NNO true  "text"  LF        LF        LF           LF_mix_CR 	LF_nul
-check_in_repo_NNO input "text"  LF        LF        LF           LF_mix_CR 	LF_nul
-
-check_in_repo_NNO false "-text" LF        CRLF      CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR 	CRLF_nul
-check_in_repo_NNO true  "-text" LF        CRLF      CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR 	CRLF_nul
-check_in_repo_NNO input "-text" LF        CRLF      CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR 	CRLF_nul
-
-
+for crlf in true false input
+do
+	#                 attr  aeol           LF  CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR  CRLFNUL
+	check_in_repo_NNO ""    ""     $crlf   LF  CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
+	check_in_repo_NNO -text ""     $crlf   LF  CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
+	check_in_repo_NNO -text lf     $crlf   LF  CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
+	check_in_repo_NNO -text crlf   $crlf   LF  CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
+	check_in_repo_NNO auto  ""     $crlf   LF  LF    LF           LF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
+	check_in_repo_NNO auto  lf     $crlf   LF  LF    LF           LF_mix_CR  LF_nul
+	check_in_repo_NNO auto  crlf   $crlf   LF  LF    LF           LF_mix_CR  LF_nul
+	check_in_repo_NNO text  ""     $crlf   LF  LF    LF           LF_mix_CR  LF_nul
+	check_in_repo_NNO text  lf     $crlf   LF  LF    LF           LF_mix_CR  LF_nul
+	check_in_repo_NNO text  crlf   $crlf   LF  LF    LF           LF_mix_CR  LF_nul
+done
 ################################################################################
 # Check how files in the repo are changed when they are checked out
 # How to read the table below:
@@ -489,89 +492,47 @@
 fi
 export CRLF_MIX_LF_CR MIX NL
 
-checkout_files ""      "" 	 ""    false  ""       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      "" 	 ""    false  crlf     LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      "" 	 ""    false  lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      "" 	 ""    false  native   LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      "" 	 ""    input  ""       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      "" 	 ""    input  lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      "" 	 ""    true   ""       CRLF  CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      "" 	 ""    true   crlf     CRLF  CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      "" 	 ""    true   lf       CRLF  CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      "" 	 ""    true   native   CRLF  CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      ident ""    false  ""       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      ident ""    false  crlf     LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      ident ""    false  lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      ident ""    false  native   LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      ident ""    input  ""       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      ident ""    input  lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      ident ""    true   ""       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      ident ""    true   crlf     LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      ident ""    true   lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files ""      ident ""    true   native   LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  "" 	 ""    false  ""       $NL   CRLF  $MIX_CRLF_LF LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  "" 	 ""    false  crlf     CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  "" 	 ""    false  lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  "" 	 ""    false  native   $NL   CRLF  $MIX_CRLF_LF LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  "" 	 ""    input  ""       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  "" 	 ""    input  lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  "" 	 ""    true   ""       CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  "" 	 ""    true   crlf     CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  "" 	 ""    true   lf       CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  "" 	 ""    true   native   CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  ident ""    false  ""       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  ident ""    false  crlf     LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  ident ""    false  lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  ident ""    false  native   LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  ident ""    input  ""       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  ident ""    input  lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  ident ""    true   ""       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  ident ""    true   crlf     LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  ident ""    true   lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-checkout_files "auto"  ident ""    true   native   LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-
-for id in "" ident;
+# Same handling with and without ident
+for id in "" ident
 do
-	checkout_files "crlf"  "$id" ""    false  ""       CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
-	checkout_files "crlf"  "$id" ""    false  crlf     CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
-	checkout_files "crlf"  "$id" ""    false  lf       CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
-	checkout_files "crlf"  "$id" ""    false  native   CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
-	checkout_files "crlf"  "$id" ""    input  ""       CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
-	checkout_files "crlf"  "$id" ""    input  lf       CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
-	checkout_files "crlf"  "$id" ""    true   ""       CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
-	checkout_files "crlf"  "$id" ""    true   crlf     CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
-	checkout_files "crlf"  "$id" ""    true   lf       CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
-	checkout_files "crlf"  "$id" ""    true   native   CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
-	checkout_files "lf"    "$id" ""    false  ""       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "lf"    "$id" ""    false  crlf     LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "lf"    "$id" ""    false  lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "lf"    "$id" ""    false  native   LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "lf"    "$id" ""    input  ""       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "lf"    "$id" ""    input  lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "lf"    "$id" ""    true   ""       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "lf"    "$id" ""    true   crlf     LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "lf"    "$id" ""    true   lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "lf"    "$id" ""    true   native   LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "text"  "$id" ""    false  ""       $NL   CRLF  $MIX_CRLF_LF $MIX_LF_CR   $LFNUL
-	checkout_files "text"  "$id" ""    false  crlf     CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
-	checkout_files "text"  "$id" ""    false  lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "text"  "$id" ""    false  native   $NL   CRLF  $MIX_CRLF_LF $MIX_LF_CR   $LFNUL
-	checkout_files "text"  "$id" ""    input  ""       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "text"  "$id" ""    input  lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "text"  "$id" ""    true   ""       CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
-	checkout_files "text"  "$id" ""    true   crlf     CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
-	checkout_files "text"  "$id" ""    true   lf       CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
-	checkout_files "text"  "$id" ""    true   native   CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
-	checkout_files "-text" "$id" ""    false  ""       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "-text" "$id" ""    false  crlf     LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "-text" "$id" ""    false  lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "-text" "$id" ""    false  native   LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "-text" "$id" ""    input  ""       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "-text" "$id" ""    input  lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "-text" "$id" ""    true   ""       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "-text" "$id" ""    true   crlf     LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "-text" "$id" ""    true   lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
-	checkout_files "-text" "$id" ""    true   native   LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
+	for ceol in lf crlf native
+	do
+		for crlf in true false input
+		do
+			# -text overrides core.autocrlf and core.eol
+			# text and eol=crlf or eol=lf override core.autocrlf and core.eol
+			checkout_files -text "$id" ""     "$crlf" "$ceol"  LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
+			checkout_files -text "$id" "lf"   "$crlf" "$ceol"  LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
+			checkout_files -text "$id" "crlf" "$crlf" "$ceol"  LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
+			# text
+			checkout_files text  "$id" "lf"   "$crlf" "$ceol"  LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
+			checkout_files text  "$id" "crlf" "$crlf" "$ceol"  CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
+			# currently the same as text, eol=XXX
+			checkout_files auto  "$id" "lf"   "$crlf" "$ceol"  LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
+			checkout_files auto  "$id" "crlf" "$crlf" "$ceol"  CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
+		done
+
+		# core.autocrlf false, different core.eol
+		checkout_files   ""    "$id" ""     false   "$ceol"  LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
+		# core.autocrlf true
+		checkout_files   ""    "$id" ""     true    "$ceol"  CRLF  CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
+		# text: core.autocrlf = true overrides core.eol
+		checkout_files   auto  "$id" ""     true    "$ceol"  CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
+		checkout_files   text  "$id" ""     true    "$ceol"  CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
+		# text: core.autocrlf = input overrides core.eol
+		checkout_files   text  "$id" ""     input   "$ceol"  LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
+		checkout_files   auto  "$id" ""     input   "$ceol"  LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
+		# text=auto + eol=XXX
+	done
+	# text: core.autocrlf=false uses core.eol
+	checkout_files     text  "$id" ""     false   crlf     CRLF  CRLF  CRLF         CRLF_mix_CR  CRLF_nul
+	checkout_files     text  "$id" ""     false   lf       LF    CRLF  CRLF_mix_LF  LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
+	# text: core.autocrlf=false and core.eol unset(or native) uses native eol
+	checkout_files     text  "$id" ""     false   ""       $NL   CRLF  $MIX_CRLF_LF $MIX_LF_CR   $LFNUL
+	checkout_files     text  "$id" ""     false   native   $NL   CRLF  $MIX_CRLF_LF $MIX_LF_CR   $LFNUL
+	# auto: core.autocrlf=false and core.eol unset(or native) uses native eol
+	checkout_files     auto  "$id" ""     false   ""       $NL   CRLF  $MIX_CRLF_LF LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
+	checkout_files     auto  "$id" ""     false   native   $NL   CRLF  $MIX_CRLF_LF LF_mix_CR    LF_nul
 done
 
 # Should be the last test case: remove some files from the worktree
diff --git a/t/t0040-parse-options.sh b/t/t0040-parse-options.sh
index 9be6411..db5f60d 100755
--- a/t/t0040-parse-options.sh
+++ b/t/t0040-parse-options.sh
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@
 
 . ./test-lib.sh
 
-cat > expect << EOF
+cat >expect <<\EOF
 usage: test-parse-options <options>
 
     --yes                 get a boolean
@@ -45,63 +45,24 @@
     -v, --verbose         be verbose
     -n, --dry-run         dry run
     -q, --quiet           be quiet
+    --expect <string>     expected output in the variable dump
 
 EOF
 
 test_expect_success 'test help' '
-	test_must_fail test-parse-options -h > output 2> output.err &&
+	test_must_fail test-parse-options -h >output 2>output.err &&
 	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
 	test_i18ncmp expect output
 '
 
 mv expect expect.err
 
-cat >expect.template <<EOF
-boolean: 0
-integer: 0
-magnitude: 0
-timestamp: 0
-string: (not set)
-abbrev: 7
-verbose: 0
-quiet: no
-dry run: no
-file: (not set)
-EOF
-
-check() {
+check () {
 	what="$1" &&
 	shift &&
 	expect="$1" &&
 	shift &&
-	sed "s/^$what .*/$what $expect/" <expect.template >expect &&
-	test-parse-options $* >output 2>output.err &&
-	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
-	test_cmp expect output
-}
-
-check_i18n() {
-	what="$1" &&
-	shift &&
-	expect="$1" &&
-	shift &&
-	sed "s/^$what .*/$what $expect/" <expect.template >expect &&
-	test-parse-options $* >output 2>output.err &&
-	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
-	test_i18ncmp expect output
-}
-
-check_unknown() {
-	case "$1" in
-	--*)
-		echo error: unknown option \`${1#--}\' >expect ;;
-	-*)
-		echo error: unknown switch \`${1#-}\' >expect ;;
-	esac &&
-	cat expect.err >>expect &&
-	test_must_fail test-parse-options $* >output 2>output.err &&
-	test_must_be_empty output &&
-	test_cmp expect output.err
+	test-parse-options --expect="$what $expect" "$@"
 }
 
 check_unknown_i18n() {
@@ -156,7 +117,7 @@
 	check magnitude: 3221225472 -m 3g
 '
 
-cat > expect << EOF
+cat >expect <<\EOF
 boolean: 2
 integer: 1729
 magnitude: 16384
@@ -164,7 +125,7 @@
 string: 123
 abbrev: 7
 verbose: 2
-quiet: no
+quiet: 0
 dry run: yes
 file: prefix/my.file
 EOF
@@ -176,7 +137,7 @@
 	test_must_be_empty output.err
 '
 
-cat > expect << EOF
+cat >expect <<\EOF
 boolean: 2
 integer: 1729
 magnitude: 16384
@@ -184,7 +145,7 @@
 string: 321
 abbrev: 10
 verbose: 2
-quiet: no
+quiet: 0
 dry run: no
 file: prefix/fi.le
 EOF
@@ -204,15 +165,15 @@
 	test_expect_code 129 test-parse-options --file
 '
 
-cat > expect << EOF
+cat >expect <<\EOF
 boolean: 1
 integer: 13
 magnitude: 0
 timestamp: 0
 string: 123
 abbrev: 7
-verbose: 0
-quiet: no
+verbose: -1
+quiet: 0
 dry run: no
 file: (not set)
 arg 00: a1
@@ -222,32 +183,32 @@
 
 test_expect_success 'intermingled arguments' '
 	test-parse-options a1 --string 123 b1 --boolean -j 13 -- --boolean \
-		> output 2> output.err &&
+		>output 2>output.err &&
 	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
 	test_cmp expect output
 '
 
-cat > expect << EOF
+cat >expect <<\EOF
 boolean: 0
 integer: 2
 magnitude: 0
 timestamp: 0
 string: (not set)
 abbrev: 7
-verbose: 0
-quiet: no
+verbose: -1
+quiet: 0
 dry run: no
 file: (not set)
 EOF
 
 test_expect_success 'unambiguously abbreviated option' '
-	test-parse-options --int 2 --boolean --no-bo > output 2> output.err &&
+	test-parse-options --int 2 --boolean --no-bo >output 2>output.err &&
 	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
 	test_cmp expect output
 '
 
 test_expect_success 'unambiguously abbreviated option with "="' '
-	test-parse-options --int=2 > output 2> output.err &&
+	test-parse-options --int=2 >output 2>output.err &&
 	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
 	test_cmp expect output
 '
@@ -256,74 +217,74 @@
 	test_expect_code 129 test-parse-options --strin 123
 '
 
-cat > expect << EOF
+cat >expect <<\EOF
 boolean: 0
 integer: 0
 magnitude: 0
 timestamp: 0
 string: 123
 abbrev: 7
-verbose: 0
-quiet: no
+verbose: -1
+quiet: 0
 dry run: no
 file: (not set)
 EOF
 
 test_expect_success 'non ambiguous option (after two options it abbreviates)' '
-	test-parse-options --st 123 > output 2> output.err &&
+	test-parse-options --st 123 >output 2>output.err &&
 	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
 	test_cmp expect output
 '
 
-cat > typo.err << EOF
-error: did you mean \`--boolean\` (with two dashes ?)
+cat >typo.err <<\EOF
+error: did you mean `--boolean` (with two dashes ?)
 EOF
 
 test_expect_success 'detect possible typos' '
-	test_must_fail test-parse-options -boolean > output 2> output.err &&
+	test_must_fail test-parse-options -boolean >output 2>output.err &&
 	test_must_be_empty output &&
 	test_cmp typo.err output.err
 '
 
-cat > typo.err << EOF
-error: did you mean \`--ambiguous\` (with two dashes ?)
+cat >typo.err <<\EOF
+error: did you mean `--ambiguous` (with two dashes ?)
 EOF
 
 test_expect_success 'detect possible typos' '
-	test_must_fail test-parse-options -ambiguous > output 2> output.err &&
+	test_must_fail test-parse-options -ambiguous >output 2>output.err &&
 	test_must_be_empty output &&
 	test_cmp typo.err output.err
 '
 
-cat > expect <<EOF
+cat >expect <<\EOF
 boolean: 0
 integer: 0
 magnitude: 0
 timestamp: 0
 string: (not set)
 abbrev: 7
-verbose: 0
-quiet: no
+verbose: -1
+quiet: 0
 dry run: no
 file: (not set)
 arg 00: --quux
 EOF
 
 test_expect_success 'keep some options as arguments' '
-	test-parse-options --quux > output 2> output.err &&
+	test-parse-options --quux >output 2>output.err &&
 	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
-        test_cmp expect output
+	test_cmp expect output
 '
 
-cat > expect <<EOF
+cat >expect <<\EOF
 boolean: 0
 integer: 0
 magnitude: 0
 timestamp: 1
 string: (not set)
 abbrev: 7
-verbose: 0
-quiet: yes
+verbose: -1
+quiet: 1
 dry run: no
 file: (not set)
 arg 00: foo
@@ -331,12 +292,12 @@
 
 test_expect_success 'OPT_DATE() works' '
 	test-parse-options -t "1970-01-01 00:00:01 +0000" \
-		foo -q > output 2> output.err &&
+		foo -q >output 2>output.err &&
 	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
 	test_cmp expect output
 '
 
-cat > expect <<EOF
+cat >expect <<\EOF
 Callback: "four", 0
 boolean: 5
 integer: 4
@@ -344,112 +305,110 @@
 timestamp: 0
 string: (not set)
 abbrev: 7
-verbose: 0
-quiet: no
+verbose: -1
+quiet: 0
 dry run: no
 file: (not set)
 EOF
 
 test_expect_success 'OPT_CALLBACK() and OPT_BIT() work' '
-	test-parse-options --length=four -b -4 > output 2> output.err &&
+	test-parse-options --length=four -b -4 >output 2>output.err &&
 	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
 	test_cmp expect output
 '
 
-cat > expect <<EOF
-Callback: "not set", 1
-EOF
+>expect
 
 test_expect_success 'OPT_CALLBACK() and callback errors work' '
-	test_must_fail test-parse-options --no-length > output 2> output.err &&
+	test_must_fail test-parse-options --no-length >output 2>output.err &&
 	test_i18ncmp expect output &&
 	test_i18ncmp expect.err output.err
 '
 
-cat > expect <<EOF
+cat >expect <<\EOF
 boolean: 1
 integer: 23
 magnitude: 0
 timestamp: 0
 string: (not set)
 abbrev: 7
-verbose: 0
-quiet: no
+verbose: -1
+quiet: 0
 dry run: no
 file: (not set)
 EOF
 
 test_expect_success 'OPT_BIT() and OPT_SET_INT() work' '
-	test-parse-options --set23 -bbbbb --no-or4 > output 2> output.err &&
+	test-parse-options --set23 -bbbbb --no-or4 >output 2>output.err &&
 	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
 	test_cmp expect output
 '
 
 test_expect_success 'OPT_NEGBIT() and OPT_SET_INT() work' '
-	test-parse-options --set23 -bbbbb --neg-or4 > output 2> output.err &&
+	test-parse-options --set23 -bbbbb --neg-or4 >output 2>output.err &&
 	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
 	test_cmp expect output
 '
 
-cat > expect <<EOF
+cat >expect <<\EOF
 boolean: 6
 integer: 0
 magnitude: 0
 timestamp: 0
 string: (not set)
 abbrev: 7
-verbose: 0
-quiet: no
+verbose: -1
+quiet: 0
 dry run: no
 file: (not set)
 EOF
 
 test_expect_success 'OPT_BIT() works' '
-	test-parse-options -bb --or4 > output 2> output.err &&
+	test-parse-options -bb --or4 >output 2>output.err &&
 	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
 	test_cmp expect output
 '
 
 test_expect_success 'OPT_NEGBIT() works' '
-	test-parse-options -bb --no-neg-or4 > output 2> output.err &&
+	test-parse-options -bb --no-neg-or4 >output 2>output.err &&
 	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
 	test_cmp expect output
 '
 
 test_expect_success 'OPT_COUNTUP() with PARSE_OPT_NODASH works' '
-	test-parse-options + + + + + + > output 2> output.err &&
+	test-parse-options + + + + + + >output 2>output.err &&
 	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
 	test_cmp expect output
 '
 
-cat > expect <<EOF
+cat >expect <<\EOF
 boolean: 0
 integer: 12345
 magnitude: 0
 timestamp: 0
 string: (not set)
 abbrev: 7
-verbose: 0
-quiet: no
+verbose: -1
+quiet: 0
 dry run: no
 file: (not set)
 EOF
 
 test_expect_success 'OPT_NUMBER_CALLBACK() works' '
-	test-parse-options -12345 > output 2> output.err &&
+	test-parse-options -12345 >output 2>output.err &&
 	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
 	test_cmp expect output
 '
 
-cat >expect <<EOF
+cat >expect <<\EOF
 boolean: 0
 integer: 0
 magnitude: 0
 timestamp: 0
 string: (not set)
 abbrev: 7
-verbose: 0
-quiet: no
+verbose: -1
+quiet: 0
 dry run: no
 file: (not set)
 EOF
@@ -460,7 +419,7 @@
 	test_cmp expect output
 '
 
-cat >>expect <<'EOF'
+cat >>expect <<\EOF
 list: foo
 list: bar
 list: baz
@@ -476,4 +435,118 @@
 	test_cmp expect output
 '
 
+cat >expect <<\EOF
+boolean: 0
+integer: 0
+magnitude: 0
+timestamp: 0
+string: (not set)
+abbrev: 7
+verbose: -1
+quiet: 3
+dry run: no
+file: (not set)
+EOF
+
+test_expect_success 'multiple quiet levels' '
+	test-parse-options -q -q -q >output 2>output.err &&
+	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
+	test_cmp expect output
+'
+
+cat >expect <<\EOF
+boolean: 0
+integer: 0
+magnitude: 0
+timestamp: 0
+string: (not set)
+abbrev: 7
+verbose: 3
+quiet: 0
+dry run: no
+file: (not set)
+EOF
+
+test_expect_success 'multiple verbose levels' '
+	test-parse-options -v -v -v >output 2>output.err &&
+	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
+	test_cmp expect output
+'
+
+cat >expect <<\EOF
+boolean: 0
+integer: 0
+magnitude: 0
+timestamp: 0
+string: (not set)
+abbrev: 7
+verbose: -1
+quiet: 0
+dry run: no
+file: (not set)
+EOF
+
+test_expect_success '--no-quiet sets --quiet to 0' '
+	test-parse-options --no-quiet >output 2>output.err &&
+	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
+	test_cmp expect output
+'
+
+cat >expect <<\EOF
+boolean: 0
+integer: 0
+magnitude: 0
+timestamp: 0
+string: (not set)
+abbrev: 7
+verbose: -1
+quiet: 0
+dry run: no
+file: (not set)
+EOF
+
+test_expect_success '--no-quiet resets multiple -q to 0' '
+	test-parse-options -q -q -q --no-quiet >output 2>output.err &&
+	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
+	test_cmp expect output
+'
+
+cat >expect <<\EOF
+boolean: 0
+integer: 0
+magnitude: 0
+timestamp: 0
+string: (not set)
+abbrev: 7
+verbose: 0
+quiet: 0
+dry run: no
+file: (not set)
+EOF
+
+test_expect_success '--no-verbose sets verbose to 0' '
+	test-parse-options --no-verbose >output 2>output.err &&
+	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
+	test_cmp expect output
+'
+
+cat >expect <<\EOF
+boolean: 0
+integer: 0
+magnitude: 0
+timestamp: 0
+string: (not set)
+abbrev: 7
+verbose: 0
+quiet: 0
+dry run: no
+file: (not set)
+EOF
+
+test_expect_success '--no-verbose resets multiple verbose to 0' '
+	test-parse-options -v -v -v --no-verbose >output 2>output.err &&
+	test_must_be_empty output.err &&
+	test_cmp expect output
+'
+
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t0060-path-utils.sh b/t/t0060-path-utils.sh
index 8532a02..bf2deee 100755
--- a/t/t0060-path-utils.sh
+++ b/t/t0060-path-utils.sh
@@ -19,6 +19,13 @@
 	"test \"\$(test-path-utils relative_path '$1' '$2')\" = '$expected'"
 }
 
+test_submodule_relative_url() {
+	test_expect_success "test_submodule_relative_url: $1 $2 $3 => $4" "
+		actual=\$(git submodule--helper resolve-relative-url-test '$1' '$2' '$3') &&
+		test \"\$actual\" = '$4'
+	"
+}
+
 test_git_path() {
 	test_expect_success "git-path $1 $2 => $3" "
 		$1 git rev-parse --git-path $2 >actual &&
@@ -298,4 +305,43 @@
 test_git_path GIT_COMMON_DIR=bar packed-refs              bar/packed-refs
 test_git_path GIT_COMMON_DIR=bar shallow                  bar/shallow
 
+# In the tests below, the distinction between $PWD and $(pwd) is important:
+# on Windows, $PWD is POSIX style (/c/foo), $(pwd) has drive letter (c:/foo).
+
+test_submodule_relative_url "../" "../foo" "../submodule" "../../submodule"
+test_submodule_relative_url "../" "../foo/bar" "../submodule" "../../foo/submodule"
+test_submodule_relative_url "../" "../foo/submodule" "../submodule" "../../foo/submodule"
+test_submodule_relative_url "../" "./foo" "../submodule" "../submodule"
+test_submodule_relative_url "../" "./foo/bar" "../submodule" "../foo/submodule"
+test_submodule_relative_url "../../../" "../foo/bar" "../sub/a/b/c" "../../../../foo/sub/a/b/c"
+test_submodule_relative_url "../" "$PWD/addtest" "../repo" "$(pwd)/repo"
+test_submodule_relative_url "../" "foo/bar" "../submodule" "../foo/submodule"
+test_submodule_relative_url "../" "foo" "../submodule" "../submodule"
+
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "../foo/bar" "../sub/a/b/c" "../foo/sub/a/b/c"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "../foo/bar" "../submodule" "../foo/submodule"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "../foo/submodule" "../submodule" "../foo/submodule"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "../foo" "../submodule" "../submodule"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "./foo/bar" "../submodule" "foo/submodule"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "./foo" "../submodule" "submodule"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "//somewhere else/repo" "../subrepo" "//somewhere else/subrepo"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "$PWD/subsuper_update_r" "../subsubsuper_update_r" "$(pwd)/subsubsuper_update_r"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "$PWD/super_update_r2" "../subsuper_update_r" "$(pwd)/subsuper_update_r"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "$PWD/." "../." "$(pwd)/."
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "$PWD" "./." "$(pwd)/."
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "$PWD/addtest" "../repo" "$(pwd)/repo"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "$PWD" "./å äö" "$(pwd)/å äö"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "$PWD/." "../submodule" "$(pwd)/submodule"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "$PWD/submodule" "../submodule" "$(pwd)/submodule"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "$PWD/home2/../remote" "../bundle1" "$(pwd)/home2/../bundle1"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "$PWD/submodule_update_repo" "./." "$(pwd)/submodule_update_repo/."
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "file:///tmp/repo" "../subrepo" "file:///tmp/subrepo"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "foo/bar" "../submodule" "foo/submodule"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "foo" "../submodule" "submodule"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "helper:://hostname/repo" "../subrepo" "helper:://hostname/subrepo"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "ssh://hostname/repo" "../subrepo" "ssh://hostname/subrepo"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "ssh://hostname:22/repo" "../subrepo" "ssh://hostname:22/subrepo"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "user@host:path/to/repo" "../subrepo" "user@host:path/to/subrepo"
+test_submodule_relative_url "(null)" "user@host:repo" "../subrepo" "user@host:subrepo"
+
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t0300-credentials.sh b/t/t0300-credentials.sh
index d7ef44b..03bd31e 100755
--- a/t/t0300-credentials.sh
+++ b/t/t0300-credentials.sh
@@ -298,4 +298,15 @@
 	test_cmp expect stdout
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'empty helper spec resets helper list' '
+	test_config credential.helper "verbatim file file" &&
+	check fill "" "verbatim cmdline cmdline" <<-\EOF
+	--
+	username=cmdline
+	password=cmdline
+	--
+	verbatim: get
+	EOF
+'
+
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t1300-repo-config.sh b/t/t1300-repo-config.sh
index 3d6f1db..d934a24 100755
--- a/t/t1300-repo-config.sh
+++ b/t/t1300-repo-config.sh
@@ -1087,6 +1087,20 @@
 	test_must_fail git -c "" rev-parse
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'multiple git -c appends config' '
+	test_config alias.x "!git -c x.two=2 config --get-regexp ^x\.*" &&
+	cat >expect <<-\EOF &&
+	x.one 1
+	x.two 2
+	EOF
+	git -c x.one=1 x >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'git -c is not confused by empty environment' '
+	GIT_CONFIG_PARAMETERS="" git -c x.one=1 config --list
+'
+
 test_expect_success 'git config --edit works' '
 	git config -f tmp test.value no &&
 	echo test.value=yes >expect &&
diff --git a/t/t1350-config-hooks-path.sh b/t/t1350-config-hooks-path.sh
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..5e3fb3a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/t/t1350-config-hooks-path.sh
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+#!/bin/sh
+
+test_description='Test the core.hooksPath configuration variable'
+
+. ./test-lib.sh
+
+test_expect_success 'set up a pre-commit hook in core.hooksPath' '
+	mkdir -p .git/custom-hooks .git/hooks &&
+	write_script .git/custom-hooks/pre-commit <<-\EOF &&
+	echo CUSTOM >>actual
+	EOF
+	write_script .git/hooks/pre-commit <<-\EOF
+	echo NORMAL >>actual
+	EOF
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'Check that various forms of specifying core.hooksPath work' '
+	test_commit no_custom_hook &&
+	git config core.hooksPath .git/custom-hooks &&
+	test_commit have_custom_hook &&
+	git config core.hooksPath .git/custom-hooks/ &&
+	test_commit have_custom_hook_trailing_slash &&
+	git config core.hooksPath "$PWD/.git/custom-hooks" &&
+	test_commit have_custom_hook_abs_path &&
+	git config core.hooksPath "$PWD/.git/custom-hooks/" &&
+	test_commit have_custom_hook_abs_path_trailing_slash &&
+	cat >expect <<-\EOF &&
+	NORMAL
+	CUSTOM
+	CUSTOM
+	CUSTOM
+	CUSTOM
+	EOF
+	test_cmp expect actual
+'
+
+test_done
diff --git a/t/t1410-reflog.sh b/t/t1410-reflog.sh
index c623824..9cf91dc 100755
--- a/t/t1410-reflog.sh
+++ b/t/t1410-reflog.sh
@@ -338,4 +338,14 @@
 	test_line_count = 3 actual
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'reflog expire operates on symref not referrent' '
+	git branch -l the_symref &&
+	git branch -l referrent &&
+	git update-ref referrent HEAD &&
+	git symbolic-ref refs/heads/the_symref refs/heads/referrent &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/referrent.lock" &&
+	touch .git/refs/heads/referrent.lock &&
+	git reflog expire --expire=all the_symref
+'
+
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t1430-bad-ref-name.sh b/t/t1430-bad-ref-name.sh
index c465abe..25ddab4 100755
--- a/t/t1430-bad-ref-name.sh
+++ b/t/t1430-bad-ref-name.sh
@@ -42,7 +42,7 @@
 	cp .git/refs/heads/master .git/refs/heads/broken...ref &&
 	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/broken...ref" &&
 	git branch >output 2>error &&
-	grep -e "broken\.\.\.ref" error &&
+	test_i18ngrep -e "ignoring ref with broken name refs/heads/broken\.\.\.ref" error &&
 	! grep -e "broken\.\.\.ref" output
 '
 
@@ -147,35 +147,145 @@
 	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/broken...ref" &&
 	git branch shadow one &&
 	cp .git/refs/heads/master .git/refs/heads/broken...ref &&
-	git symbolic-ref refs/tags/shadow refs/heads/broken...ref &&
-
+	printf "ref: refs/heads/broken...ref\n" >.git/refs/tags/shadow &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/tags/shadow" &&
 	git rev-parse --verify one >expect &&
 	git rev-parse --verify shadow >actual 2>err &&
 	test_cmp expect actual &&
-	test_i18ngrep "ignoring.*refs/tags/shadow" err
+	test_i18ngrep "ignoring dangling symref refs/tags/shadow" err
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'update-ref --no-deref -d can delete reference to broken name' '
-	git symbolic-ref refs/heads/badname refs/heads/broken...ref &&
+test_expect_success 'for-each-ref emits warnings for broken names' '
+	cp .git/refs/heads/master .git/refs/heads/broken...ref &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/broken...ref" &&
+	printf "ref: refs/heads/broken...ref\n" >.git/refs/heads/badname &&
 	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/badname" &&
-	test_path_is_file .git/refs/heads/badname &&
-	git update-ref --no-deref -d refs/heads/badname &&
-	test_path_is_missing .git/refs/heads/badname
+	printf "ref: refs/heads/master\n" >.git/refs/heads/broken...symref &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/broken...symref" &&
+	git for-each-ref >output 2>error &&
+	! grep -e "broken\.\.\.ref" output &&
+	! grep -e "badname" output &&
+	! grep -e "broken\.\.\.symref" output &&
+	test_i18ngrep "ignoring ref with broken name refs/heads/broken\.\.\.ref" error &&
+	test_i18ngrep "ignoring broken ref refs/heads/badname" error &&
+	test_i18ngrep "ignoring ref with broken name refs/heads/broken\.\.\.symref" error
 '
 
 test_expect_success 'update-ref -d can delete broken name' '
 	cp .git/refs/heads/master .git/refs/heads/broken...ref &&
 	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/broken...ref" &&
-	git update-ref -d refs/heads/broken...ref &&
+	git update-ref -d refs/heads/broken...ref >output 2>error &&
+	test_must_be_empty output &&
+	test_must_be_empty error &&
 	git branch >output 2>error &&
 	! grep -e "broken\.\.\.ref" error &&
 	! grep -e "broken\.\.\.ref" output
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'branch -d can delete broken name' '
+	cp .git/refs/heads/master .git/refs/heads/broken...ref &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/broken...ref" &&
+	git branch -d broken...ref >output 2>error &&
+	test_i18ngrep "Deleted branch broken...ref (was broken)" output &&
+	test_must_be_empty error &&
+	git branch >output 2>error &&
+	! grep -e "broken\.\.\.ref" error &&
+	! grep -e "broken\.\.\.ref" output
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'update-ref --no-deref -d can delete symref to broken name' '
+	cp .git/refs/heads/master .git/refs/heads/broken...ref &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/broken...ref" &&
+	printf "ref: refs/heads/broken...ref\n" >.git/refs/heads/badname &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/badname" &&
+	git update-ref --no-deref -d refs/heads/badname >output 2>error &&
+	test_path_is_missing .git/refs/heads/badname &&
+	test_must_be_empty output &&
+	test_must_be_empty error
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'branch -d can delete symref to broken name' '
+	cp .git/refs/heads/master .git/refs/heads/broken...ref &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/broken...ref" &&
+	printf "ref: refs/heads/broken...ref\n" >.git/refs/heads/badname &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/badname" &&
+	git branch -d badname >output 2>error &&
+	test_path_is_missing .git/refs/heads/badname &&
+	test_i18ngrep "Deleted branch badname (was refs/heads/broken\.\.\.ref)" output &&
+	test_must_be_empty error
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'update-ref --no-deref -d can delete dangling symref to broken name' '
+	printf "ref: refs/heads/broken...ref\n" >.git/refs/heads/badname &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/badname" &&
+	git update-ref --no-deref -d refs/heads/badname >output 2>error &&
+	test_path_is_missing .git/refs/heads/badname &&
+	test_must_be_empty output &&
+	test_must_be_empty error
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'branch -d can delete dangling symref to broken name' '
+	printf "ref: refs/heads/broken...ref\n" >.git/refs/heads/badname &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/badname" &&
+	git branch -d badname >output 2>error &&
+	test_path_is_missing .git/refs/heads/badname &&
+	test_i18ngrep "Deleted branch badname (was refs/heads/broken\.\.\.ref)" output &&
+	test_must_be_empty error
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'update-ref -d can delete broken name through symref' '
+	cp .git/refs/heads/master .git/refs/heads/broken...ref &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/broken...ref" &&
+	printf "ref: refs/heads/broken...ref\n" >.git/refs/heads/badname &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/badname" &&
+	git update-ref -d refs/heads/badname >output 2>error &&
+	test_path_is_missing .git/refs/heads/broken...ref &&
+	test_must_be_empty output &&
+	test_must_be_empty error
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'update-ref --no-deref -d can delete symref with broken name' '
+	printf "ref: refs/heads/master\n" >.git/refs/heads/broken...symref &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/broken...symref" &&
+	git update-ref --no-deref -d refs/heads/broken...symref >output 2>error &&
+	test_path_is_missing .git/refs/heads/broken...symref &&
+	test_must_be_empty output &&
+	test_must_be_empty error
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'branch -d can delete symref with broken name' '
+	printf "ref: refs/heads/master\n" >.git/refs/heads/broken...symref &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/broken...symref" &&
+	git branch -d broken...symref >output 2>error &&
+	test_path_is_missing .git/refs/heads/broken...symref &&
+	test_i18ngrep "Deleted branch broken...symref (was refs/heads/master)" output &&
+	test_must_be_empty error
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'update-ref --no-deref -d can delete dangling symref with broken name' '
+	printf "ref: refs/heads/idonotexist\n" >.git/refs/heads/broken...symref &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/broken...symref" &&
+	git update-ref --no-deref -d refs/heads/broken...symref >output 2>error &&
+	test_path_is_missing .git/refs/heads/broken...symref &&
+	test_must_be_empty output &&
+	test_must_be_empty error
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'branch -d can delete dangling symref with broken name' '
+	printf "ref: refs/heads/idonotexist\n" >.git/refs/heads/broken...symref &&
+	test_when_finished "rm -f .git/refs/heads/broken...symref" &&
+	git branch -d broken...symref >output 2>error &&
+	test_path_is_missing .git/refs/heads/broken...symref &&
+	test_i18ngrep "Deleted branch broken...symref (was refs/heads/idonotexist)" output &&
+	test_must_be_empty error
+'
+
 test_expect_success 'update-ref -d cannot delete non-ref in .git dir' '
 	echo precious >.git/my-private-file &&
 	echo precious >expect &&
-	test_must_fail git update-ref -d my-private-file &&
+	test_must_fail git update-ref -d my-private-file >output 2>error &&
+	test_must_be_empty output &&
+	test_i18ngrep -e "cannot lock .*: unable to resolve reference" error &&
 	test_cmp expect .git/my-private-file
 '
 
diff --git a/t/t1500-rev-parse.sh b/t/t1500-rev-parse.sh
index 48ee077..038e24c 100755
--- a/t/t1500-rev-parse.sh
+++ b/t/t1500-rev-parse.sh
@@ -3,85 +3,88 @@
 test_description='test git rev-parse'
 . ./test-lib.sh
 
-test_rev_parse() {
+# usage: [options] label is-bare is-inside-git is-inside-work prefix git-dir
+test_rev_parse () {
+	d=
+	bare=
+	gitdir=
+	while :
+	do
+		case "$1" in
+		-C) d="$2"; shift; shift ;;
+		-b) case "$2" in
+		    [tfu]*) bare="$2"; shift; shift ;;
+		    *) error "test_rev_parse: bogus core.bare value '$2'" ;;
+		    esac ;;
+		-g) gitdir="$2"; shift; shift ;;
+		-*) error "test_rev_parse: unrecognized option '$1'" ;;
+		*) break ;;
+		esac
+	done
+
 	name=$1
 	shift
 
-	test_expect_success "$name: is-bare-repository" \
-	"test '$1' = \"\$(git rev-parse --is-bare-repository)\""
-	shift
-	[ $# -eq 0 ] && return
+	for o in --is-bare-repository \
+		 --is-inside-git-dir \
+		 --is-inside-work-tree \
+		 --show-prefix \
+		 --git-dir
+	do
+		test $# -eq 0 && break
+		expect="$1"
+		test_expect_success "$name: $o" '
+			if test -n "$gitdir"
+			then
+				test_when_finished "unset GIT_DIR" &&
+				GIT_DIR="$gitdir" &&
+				export GIT_DIR
+			fi &&
 
-	test_expect_success "$name: is-inside-git-dir" \
-	"test '$1' = \"\$(git rev-parse --is-inside-git-dir)\""
-	shift
-	[ $# -eq 0 ] && return
+			case "$bare" in
+			t*) test_config ${d:+-C} ${d:+"$d"} core.bare true ;;
+			f*) test_config ${d:+-C} ${d:+"$d"} core.bare false ;;
+			u*) test_unconfig ${d:+-C} ${d:+"$d"} core.bare ;;
+			esac &&
 
-	test_expect_success "$name: is-inside-work-tree" \
-	"test '$1' = \"\$(git rev-parse --is-inside-work-tree)\""
-	shift
-	[ $# -eq 0 ] && return
-
-	test_expect_success "$name: prefix" \
-	"test '$1' = \"\$(git rev-parse --show-prefix)\""
-	shift
-	[ $# -eq 0 ] && return
-
-	test_expect_success "$name: git-dir" \
-	"test '$1' = \"\$(git rev-parse --git-dir)\""
-	shift
-	[ $# -eq 0 ] && return
+			echo "$expect" >expect &&
+			git ${d:+-C} ${d:+"$d"} rev-parse $o >actual &&
+			test_cmp expect actual
+		'
+		shift
+	done
 }
 
-# label is-bare is-inside-git is-inside-work prefix git-dir
-
 ROOT=$(pwd)
 
+test_expect_success 'setup' '
+	mkdir -p sub/dir work &&
+	cp -R .git repo.git
+'
+
 test_rev_parse toplevel false false true '' .git
 
-cd .git || exit 1
-test_rev_parse .git/ false true false '' .
-cd objects || exit 1
-test_rev_parse .git/objects/ false true false '' "$ROOT/.git"
-cd ../.. || exit 1
+test_rev_parse -C .git .git/ false true false '' .
+test_rev_parse -C .git/objects .git/objects/ false true false '' "$ROOT/.git"
 
-mkdir -p sub/dir || exit 1
-cd sub/dir || exit 1
-test_rev_parse subdirectory false false true sub/dir/ "$ROOT/.git"
-cd ../.. || exit 1
+test_rev_parse -C sub/dir subdirectory false false true sub/dir/ "$ROOT/.git"
 
-git config core.bare true
-test_rev_parse 'core.bare = true' true false false
+test_rev_parse -b t 'core.bare = true' true false false
 
-git config --unset core.bare
-test_rev_parse 'core.bare undefined' false false true
+test_rev_parse -b u 'core.bare undefined' false false true
 
-mkdir work || exit 1
-cd work || exit 1
-GIT_DIR=../.git
-GIT_CONFIG="$(pwd)"/../.git/config
-export GIT_DIR GIT_CONFIG
 
-git config core.bare false
-test_rev_parse 'GIT_DIR=../.git, core.bare = false' false false true ''
+test_rev_parse -C work -g ../.git -b f 'GIT_DIR=../.git, core.bare = false' false false true ''
 
-git config core.bare true
-test_rev_parse 'GIT_DIR=../.git, core.bare = true' true false false ''
+test_rev_parse -C work -g ../.git -b t 'GIT_DIR=../.git, core.bare = true' true false false ''
 
-git config --unset core.bare
-test_rev_parse 'GIT_DIR=../.git, core.bare undefined' false false true ''
+test_rev_parse -C work -g ../.git -b u 'GIT_DIR=../.git, core.bare undefined' false false true ''
 
-mv ../.git ../repo.git || exit 1
-GIT_DIR=../repo.git
-GIT_CONFIG="$(pwd)"/../repo.git/config
 
-git config core.bare false
-test_rev_parse 'GIT_DIR=../repo.git, core.bare = false' false false true ''
+test_rev_parse -C work -g ../repo.git -b f 'GIT_DIR=../repo.git, core.bare = false' false false true ''
 
-git config core.bare true
-test_rev_parse 'GIT_DIR=../repo.git, core.bare = true' true false false ''
+test_rev_parse -C work -g ../repo.git -b t 'GIT_DIR=../repo.git, core.bare = true' true false false ''
 
-git config --unset core.bare
-test_rev_parse 'GIT_DIR=../repo.git, core.bare undefined' false false true ''
+test_rev_parse -C work -g ../repo.git -b u 'GIT_DIR=../repo.git, core.bare undefined' false false true ''
 
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t2025-worktree-add.sh b/t/t2025-worktree-add.sh
index cbfa41e..3a22fc5 100755
--- a/t/t2025-worktree-add.sh
+++ b/t/t2025-worktree-add.sh
@@ -4,6 +4,8 @@
 
 . ./test-lib.sh
 
+. "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/lib-rebase.sh
+
 test_expect_success 'setup' '
 	test_commit init
 '
@@ -213,4 +215,73 @@
 	( cd here-clone && git fsck )
 '
 
+test_expect_success '"add" worktree with --no-checkout' '
+	git worktree add --no-checkout -b swamp swamp &&
+	! test -e swamp/init.t &&
+	git -C swamp reset --hard &&
+	test_cmp init.t swamp/init.t
+'
+
+test_expect_success '"add" worktree with --checkout' '
+	git worktree add --checkout -b swmap2 swamp2 &&
+	test_cmp init.t swamp2/init.t
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'put a worktree under rebase' '
+	git worktree add under-rebase &&
+	(
+		cd under-rebase &&
+		set_fake_editor &&
+		FAKE_LINES="edit 1" git rebase -i HEAD^ &&
+		git worktree list | grep "under-rebase.*detached HEAD"
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'add a worktree, checking out a rebased branch' '
+	test_must_fail git worktree add new-rebase under-rebase &&
+	! test -d new-rebase
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'checking out a rebased branch from another worktree' '
+	git worktree add new-place &&
+	test_must_fail git -C new-place checkout under-rebase
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'not allow to delete a branch under rebase' '
+	(
+		cd under-rebase &&
+		test_must_fail git branch -D under-rebase
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'rename a branch under rebase not allowed' '
+	test_must_fail git branch -M under-rebase rebase-with-new-name
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'check out from current worktree branch ok' '
+	(
+		cd under-rebase &&
+		git checkout under-rebase &&
+		git checkout - &&
+		git rebase --abort
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'checkout a branch under bisect' '
+	git worktree add under-bisect &&
+	(
+		cd under-bisect &&
+		git bisect start &&
+		git bisect bad &&
+		git bisect good HEAD~2 &&
+		git worktree list | grep "under-bisect.*detached HEAD" &&
+		test_must_fail git worktree add new-bisect under-bisect &&
+		! test -d new-bisect
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'rename a branch under bisect not allowed' '
+	test_must_fail git branch -M under-bisect bisect-with-new-name
+'
+
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t3033-merge-toplevel.sh b/t/t3033-merge-toplevel.sh
index 46aadc4..d314599 100755
--- a/t/t3033-merge-toplevel.sh
+++ b/t/t3033-merge-toplevel.sh
@@ -19,6 +19,8 @@
 	test_commit three &&
 	git checkout right &&
 	test_commit four &&
+	git checkout --orphan newroot &&
+	test_commit five &&
 	git checkout master
 '
 
@@ -133,4 +135,18 @@
 	test_cmp expect actual
 '
 
+# two-project merge
+test_expect_success 'refuse two-project merge by default' '
+	t3033_reset &&
+	git reset --hard four &&
+	test_must_fail git merge five
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'two-project merge with --allow-unrelated-histories' '
+	t3033_reset &&
+	git reset --hard four &&
+	git merge --allow-unrelated-histories five &&
+	git diff --exit-code five
+'
+
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t3402-rebase-merge.sh b/t/t3402-rebase-merge.sh
index 8f64505..488945e 100755
--- a/t/t3402-rebase-merge.sh
+++ b/t/t3402-rebase-merge.sh
@@ -85,6 +85,15 @@
 	! grep 11 original
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'rebase -Xtheirs from orphan' '
+	git checkout --orphan orphan-conflicting master~2 &&
+	echo "AB $T" >> original &&
+	git commit -morphan-conflicting original &&
+	git rebase -Xtheirs master &&
+	grep AB original &&
+	! grep 11 original
+'
+
 test_expect_success 'merge and rebase should match' '
 	git diff-tree -r test-rebase test-merge >difference &&
 	if test -s difference
diff --git a/t/t3404-rebase-interactive.sh b/t/t3404-rebase-interactive.sh
index d6d65a3..66348f1 100755
--- a/t/t3404-rebase-interactive.sh
+++ b/t/t3404-rebase-interactive.sh
@@ -62,7 +62,7 @@
 
 # "exec" commands are ran with the user shell by default, but this may
 # be non-POSIX. For example, if SHELL=zsh then ">file" doesn't work
-# to create a file. Unseting SHELL avoids such non-portable behavior
+# to create a file. Unsetting SHELL avoids such non-portable behavior
 # in tests. It must be exported for it to take effect where needed.
 SHELL=
 export SHELL
@@ -770,7 +770,6 @@
 	test_cmp expect actual
 '
 
-
 test_expect_success 'prepare for rebase -i --exec' '
 	git checkout master &&
 	git checkout -b execute &&
@@ -779,7 +778,6 @@
 	test_commit three_exec main.txt three_exec
 '
 
-
 test_expect_success 'running "git rebase -i --exec git show HEAD"' '
 	set_fake_editor &&
 	git rebase -i --exec "git show HEAD" HEAD~2 >actual &&
@@ -792,7 +790,6 @@
 	test_cmp expected actual
 '
 
-
 test_expect_success 'running "git rebase --exec git show HEAD -i"' '
 	git reset --hard execute &&
 	set_fake_editor &&
@@ -806,7 +803,6 @@
 	test_cmp expected actual
 '
 
-
 test_expect_success 'running "git rebase -ix git show HEAD"' '
 	git reset --hard execute &&
 	set_fake_editor &&
@@ -834,7 +830,6 @@
 	test_cmp expected actual
 '
 
-
 test_expect_success 'rebase -ix with several instances of --exec' '
 	git reset --hard execute &&
 	set_fake_editor &&
@@ -849,7 +844,6 @@
 	test_cmp expected actual
 '
 
-
 test_expect_success 'rebase -ix with --autosquash' '
 	git reset --hard execute &&
 	git checkout -b autosquash &&
@@ -875,16 +869,15 @@
 	test_cmp expected actual
 '
 
-
-test_expect_success 'rebase --exec without -i shows error message' '
+test_expect_success 'rebase --exec works without -i ' '
 	git reset --hard execute &&
-	set_fake_editor &&
-	test_must_fail git rebase --exec "git show HEAD" HEAD~2 2>actual &&
-	echo "The --exec option must be used with the --interactive option" >expected &&
-	test_i18ncmp expected actual
+	rm -rf exec_output &&
+	EDITOR="echo >invoked_editor" git rebase --exec "echo a line >>exec_output"  HEAD~2 2>actual &&
+	test_i18ngrep  "Successfully rebased and updated" actual &&
+	test_line_count = 2 exec_output &&
+	test_path_is_missing invoked_editor
 '
 
-
 test_expect_success 'rebase -i --exec without <CMD>' '
 	git reset --hard execute &&
 	set_fake_editor &&
diff --git a/t/t3412-rebase-root.sh b/t/t3412-rebase-root.sh
index 0b52105..73a39f2 100755
--- a/t/t3412-rebase-root.sh
+++ b/t/t3412-rebase-root.sh
@@ -133,7 +133,7 @@
 	rm A B C &&
 	test_commit 6 D &&
 	git checkout other &&
-	git merge third
+	git merge --allow-unrelated-histories third
 '
 
 cat > expect-third <<'EOF'
diff --git a/t/t3419-rebase-patch-id.sh b/t/t3419-rebase-patch-id.sh
index 217dd79..49f548c 100755
--- a/t/t3419-rebase-patch-id.sh
+++ b/t/t3419-rebase-patch-id.sh
@@ -73,17 +73,17 @@
 		run git format-patch --stdout --ignore-if-in-upstream master
 	"
 
-	test_expect_success $pr 'detect upstream patch' "
+	test_expect_success $pr 'detect upstream patch' '
 		git checkout -q master &&
 		scramble file &&
 		git add file &&
-		git commit -q -m 'change big file again' &&
+		git commit -q -m "change big file again" &&
 		git checkout -q other^{} &&
 		git rebase master &&
-		test_must_fail test -n \"\$(git rev-list master...HEAD~)\"
-	"
+		test_must_fail test -n "$(git rev-list master...HEAD~)"
+	'
 
-	test_expect_success $pr 'do not drop patch' "
+	test_expect_success $pr 'do not drop patch' '
 		git branch -f squashed master &&
 		git checkout -q -f squashed &&
 		git reset -q --soft HEAD~2 &&
@@ -91,7 +91,7 @@
 		git checkout -q other^{} &&
 		test_must_fail git rebase squashed &&
 		rm -rf .git/rebase-apply
-	"
+	'
 }
 
 do_tests 500
diff --git a/t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh b/t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh
index 9c55cba..68fe200 100755
--- a/t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh
+++ b/t/t3421-rebase-topology-linear.sh
@@ -253,7 +253,7 @@
 	"
 }
 test_run_rebase success ''
-test_run_rebase failure -m
+test_run_rebase success -m
 test_run_rebase success -i
 test_run_rebase success -p
 
@@ -268,7 +268,7 @@
 	"
 }
 test_run_rebase success ''
-test_run_rebase failure -m
+test_run_rebase success -m
 test_run_rebase success -i
 test_run_rebase failure -p
 
diff --git a/t/t3910-mac-os-precompose.sh b/t/t3910-mac-os-precompose.sh
index 8319356..26dd5b7 100755
--- a/t/t3910-mac-os-precompose.sh
+++ b/t/t3910-mac-os-precompose.sh
@@ -49,12 +49,54 @@
 test_expect_success "setup case mac" '
 	git checkout -b mac_os
 '
+# This will test nfd2nfc in git diff
+test_expect_success "git diff f.Adiar" '
+	touch f.$Adiarnfc &&
+	git add f.$Adiarnfc &&
+	echo f.Adiarnfc >f.$Adiarnfc &&
+	git diff f.$Adiarnfd >expect &&
+	git diff f.$Adiarnfc >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual &&
+	git reset HEAD f.Adiarnfc &&
+	rm f.$Adiarnfc expect actual
+'
+# This will test nfd2nfc in git diff-files
+test_expect_success "git diff-files f.Adiar" '
+	touch f.$Adiarnfc &&
+	git add f.$Adiarnfc &&
+	echo f.Adiarnfc >f.$Adiarnfc &&
+	git diff-files f.$Adiarnfd >expect &&
+	git diff-files f.$Adiarnfc >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual &&
+	git reset HEAD f.Adiarnfc &&
+	rm f.$Adiarnfc expect actual
+'
+# This will test nfd2nfc in git diff-index
+test_expect_success "git diff-index f.Adiar" '
+	touch f.$Adiarnfc &&
+	git add f.$Adiarnfc &&
+	echo f.Adiarnfc >f.$Adiarnfc &&
+	git diff-index HEAD f.$Adiarnfd >expect &&
+	git diff-index HEAD f.$Adiarnfc >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual &&
+	git reset HEAD f.Adiarnfc &&
+	rm f.$Adiarnfc expect actual
+'
 # This will test nfd2nfc in readdir()
 test_expect_success "add file Adiarnfc" '
 	echo f.Adiarnfc >f.$Adiarnfc &&
 	git add f.$Adiarnfc &&
 	git commit -m "add f.$Adiarnfc"
 '
+# This will test nfd2nfc in git diff-tree
+test_expect_success "git diff-tree f.Adiar" '
+	echo f.Adiarnfc >>f.$Adiarnfc &&
+	git diff-tree HEAD f.$Adiarnfd >expect &&
+	git diff-tree HEAD f.$Adiarnfc >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual &&
+	git checkout f.$Adiarnfc &&
+	rm expect actual
+'
 # This will test nfd2nfc in git stage()
 test_expect_success "stage file d.Adiarnfd/f.Adiarnfd" '
 	mkdir d.$Adiarnfd &&
diff --git a/t/t4001-diff-rename.sh b/t/t4001-diff-rename.sh
index ed90c6c..0d1fa45 100755
--- a/t/t4001-diff-rename.sh
+++ b/t/t4001-diff-rename.sh
@@ -9,21 +9,84 @@
 . ./test-lib.sh
 . "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/diff-lib.sh
 
-echo >path0 'Line 1
-Line 2
-Line 3
-Line 4
-Line 5
-Line 6
-Line 7
-Line 8
-Line 9
-Line 10
-line 11
-Line 12
-Line 13
-Line 14
-Line 15
+test_expect_success 'setup' '
+	cat >path0 <<-\EOF &&
+	Line 1
+	Line 2
+	Line 3
+	Line 4
+	Line 5
+	Line 6
+	Line 7
+	Line 8
+	Line 9
+	Line 10
+	line 11
+	Line 12
+	Line 13
+	Line 14
+	Line 15
+	EOF
+	cat >expected <<-\EOF &&
+	diff --git a/path0 b/path1
+	rename from path0
+	rename to path1
+	--- a/path0
+	+++ b/path1
+	@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ Line 7
+	 Line 8
+	 Line 9
+	 Line 10
+	-line 11
+	+Line 11
+	 Line 12
+	 Line 13
+	 Line 14
+	EOF
+	cat >no-rename <<-\EOF
+	diff --git a/path0 b/path0
+	deleted file mode 100644
+	index fdbec44..0000000
+	--- a/path0
+	+++ /dev/null
+	@@ -1,15 +0,0 @@
+	-Line 1
+	-Line 2
+	-Line 3
+	-Line 4
+	-Line 5
+	-Line 6
+	-Line 7
+	-Line 8
+	-Line 9
+	-Line 10
+	-line 11
+	-Line 12
+	-Line 13
+	-Line 14
+	-Line 15
+	diff --git a/path1 b/path1
+	new file mode 100644
+	index 0000000..752c50e
+	--- /dev/null
+	+++ b/path1
+	@@ -0,0 +1,15 @@
+	+Line 1
+	+Line 2
+	+Line 3
+	+Line 4
+	+Line 5
+	+Line 6
+	+Line 7
+	+Line 8
+	+Line 9
+	+Line 10
+	+Line 11
+	+Line 12
+	+Line 13
+	+Line 14
+	+Line 15
+	EOF
 '
 
 test_expect_success \
@@ -43,27 +106,27 @@
 test_expect_success \
     'git diff-index -p -M after rename and editing.' \
     'git diff-index -p -M $tree >current'
-cat >expected <<\EOF
-diff --git a/path0 b/path1
-rename from path0
-rename to path1
---- a/path0
-+++ b/path1
-@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@ Line 7
- Line 8
- Line 9
- Line 10
--line 11
-+Line 11
- Line 12
- Line 13
- Line 14
-EOF
+
 
 test_expect_success \
     'validate the output.' \
     'compare_diff_patch current expected'
 
+test_expect_success 'test diff.renames=true' '
+	git -c diff.renames=true diff --cached $tree >current &&
+	compare_diff_patch current expected
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'test diff.renames=false' '
+	git -c diff.renames=false diff --cached $tree >current &&
+	compare_diff_patch current no-rename
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'test diff.renames unset' '
+	git diff --cached $tree >current &&
+	compare_diff_patch current expected
+'
+
 test_expect_success 'favour same basenames over different ones' '
 	cp path1 another-path &&
 	git add another-path &&
diff --git a/t/t4013-diff-various.sh b/t/t4013-diff-various.sh
index 6ec6072..94ef500 100755
--- a/t/t4013-diff-various.sh
+++ b/t/t4013-diff-various.sh
@@ -90,6 +90,8 @@
 	git commit -m "Rearranged lines in dir/sub" &&
 	git checkout master &&
 
+	git config diff.renames false &&
+
 	git show-branch
 '
 
diff --git a/t/t4014-format-patch.sh b/t/t4014-format-patch.sh
index 3b99434..8049cad 100755
--- a/t/t4014-format-patch.sh
+++ b/t/t4014-format-patch.sh
@@ -549,7 +549,7 @@
 
 	git mv file foo &&
 	git commit -m foo &&
-	git format-patch --cover-letter -1 &&
+	git format-patch --no-renames --cover-letter -1 &&
 	check_patch 0000-cover-letter.patch &&
 	! grep "file => foo .* 0 *\$" 0000-cover-letter.patch &&
 	git format-patch --cover-letter -1 -M &&
@@ -703,7 +703,7 @@
 
 test_expect_success 'format-patch --numstat should produce a patch' '
 	git format-patch --numstat --stdout master..side > output &&
-	test 6 = $(grep "^diff --git a/" output | wc -l)'
+	test 5 = $(grep "^diff --git a/" output | wc -l)'
 
 test_expect_success 'format-patch -- <path>' '
 	git format-patch master..side -- file 2>error &&
@@ -1460,4 +1460,109 @@
 	test_path_is_dir patchset
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'format-patch --base' '
+	git checkout side &&
+	git format-patch --stdout --base=HEAD~3 -1 >patch &&
+	grep "^base-commit:" patch >actual &&
+	grep "^prerequisite-patch-id:" patch >>actual &&
+	echo "base-commit: $(git rev-parse HEAD~3)" >expected &&
+	echo "prerequisite-patch-id: $(git show --patch HEAD~2 | git patch-id --stable | awk "{print \$1}")" >>expected &&
+	echo "prerequisite-patch-id: $(git show --patch HEAD~1 | git patch-id --stable | awk "{print \$1}")" >>expected &&
+	test_cmp expected actual
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'format-patch --base errors out when base commit is in revision list' '
+	test_must_fail git format-patch --base=HEAD -2 &&
+	test_must_fail git format-patch --base=HEAD~1 -2 &&
+	git format-patch --stdout --base=HEAD~2 -2 >patch &&
+	grep "^base-commit:" patch >actual &&
+	echo "base-commit: $(git rev-parse HEAD~2)" >expected &&
+	test_cmp expected actual
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'format-patch --base errors out when base commit is not ancestor of revision list' '
+	# For history as below:
+	#
+	#    ---Q---P---Z---Y---*---X
+	#	 \             /
+	#	  ------------W
+	#
+	# If "format-patch Z..X" is given, P and Z can not be specified as the base commit
+	git checkout -b topic1 master &&
+	git rev-parse HEAD >commit-id-base &&
+	test_commit P &&
+	git rev-parse HEAD >commit-id-P &&
+	test_commit Z &&
+	git rev-parse HEAD >commit-id-Z &&
+	test_commit Y &&
+	git checkout -b topic2 master &&
+	test_commit W &&
+	git merge topic1 &&
+	test_commit X &&
+	test_must_fail git format-patch --base=$(cat commit-id-P) -3 &&
+	test_must_fail git format-patch --base=$(cat commit-id-Z) -3 &&
+	git format-patch --stdout --base=$(cat commit-id-base) -3 >patch &&
+	grep "^base-commit:" patch >actual &&
+	echo "base-commit: $(cat commit-id-base)" >expected &&
+	test_cmp expected actual
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'format-patch --base=auto' '
+	git checkout -b upstream master &&
+	git checkout -b local upstream &&
+	git branch --set-upstream-to=upstream &&
+	test_commit N1 &&
+	test_commit N2 &&
+	git format-patch --stdout --base=auto -2 >patch &&
+	grep "^base-commit:" patch >actual &&
+	echo "base-commit: $(git rev-parse upstream)" >expected &&
+	test_cmp expected actual
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'format-patch errors out when history involves criss-cross' '
+	# setup criss-cross history
+	#
+	#   B---M1---D
+	#  / \ /
+	# A   X
+	#  \ / \
+	#   C---M2---E
+	#
+	git checkout master &&
+	test_commit A &&
+	git checkout -b xb master &&
+	test_commit B &&
+	git checkout -b xc master &&
+	test_commit C &&
+	git checkout -b xbc xb -- &&
+	git merge xc &&
+	git checkout -b xcb xc -- &&
+	git branch --set-upstream-to=xbc &&
+	git merge xb &&
+	git checkout xbc &&
+	test_commit D &&
+	git checkout xcb &&
+	test_commit E &&
+	test_must_fail 	git format-patch --base=auto -1
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'format-patch format.useAutoBaseoption' '
+	test_when_finished "git config --unset format.useAutoBase" &&
+	git checkout local &&
+	git config format.useAutoBase true &&
+	git format-patch --stdout -1 >patch &&
+	grep "^base-commit:" patch >actual &&
+	echo "base-commit: $(git rev-parse upstream)" >expected &&
+	test_cmp expected actual
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'format-patch --base overrides format.useAutoBase' '
+	test_when_finished "git config --unset format.useAutoBase" &&
+	git config format.useAutoBase true &&
+	git format-patch --stdout --base=HEAD~1 -1 >patch &&
+	grep "^base-commit:" patch >actual &&
+	echo "base-commit: $(git rev-parse HEAD~1)" >expected &&
+	test_cmp expected actual
+'
+
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t4047-diff-dirstat.sh b/t/t4047-diff-dirstat.sh
index 3b8b792..447a8ff 100755
--- a/t/t4047-diff-dirstat.sh
+++ b/t/t4047-diff-dirstat.sh
@@ -248,7 +248,8 @@
 	git rm -r src/move/unchanged &&
 	git rm -r src/move/changed &&
 	git rm -r src/move/rearranged &&
-	git commit -m "changes"
+	git commit -m "changes" &&
+	git config diff.renames false
 '
 
 cat <<EOF >expect_diff_stat
diff --git a/t/t4200-rerere.sh b/t/t4200-rerere.sh
index ed9c91e..1a080e7 100755
--- a/t/t4200-rerere.sh
+++ b/t/t4200-rerere.sh
@@ -184,12 +184,27 @@
 '
 
 test_expect_success 'rerere clear' '
-	rm $rr/postimage &&
+	mv $rr/postimage .git/post-saved &&
 	echo "$sha1	a1" | perl -pe "y/\012/\000/" >.git/MERGE_RR &&
 	git rerere clear &&
 	! test -d $rr
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'leftover directory' '
+	git reset --hard &&
+	mkdir -p $rr &&
+	test_must_fail git merge first &&
+	test -f $rr/preimage
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'missing preimage' '
+	git reset --hard &&
+	mkdir -p $rr &&
+	cp .git/post-saved $rr/postimage &&
+	test_must_fail git merge first &&
+	test -f $rr/preimage
+'
+
 test_expect_success 'set up for garbage collection tests' '
 	mkdir -p $rr &&
 	echo Hello >$rr/preimage &&
@@ -391,4 +406,157 @@
 	test_i18ngrep [Uu]sage help
 '
 
+concat_insert () {
+	last=$1
+	shift
+	cat early && printf "%s\n" "$@" && cat late "$last"
+}
+
+count_pre_post () {
+	find .git/rr-cache/ -type f -name "preimage*" >actual &&
+	test_line_count = "$1" actual &&
+	find .git/rr-cache/ -type f -name "postimage*" >actual &&
+	test_line_count = "$2" actual
+}
+
+test_expect_success 'rerere gc' '
+	find .git/rr-cache -type f >original &&
+	xargs test-chmtime -172800 <original &&
+
+	git -c gc.rerereresolved=5 -c gc.rerereunresolved=5 rerere gc &&
+	find .git/rr-cache -type f >actual &&
+	test_cmp original actual &&
+
+	git -c gc.rerereresolved=5 -c gc.rerereunresolved=0 rerere gc &&
+	find .git/rr-cache -type f >actual &&
+	test_cmp original actual &&
+
+	git -c gc.rerereresolved=0 -c gc.rerereunresolved=0 rerere gc &&
+	find .git/rr-cache -type f >actual &&
+	>expect &&
+	test_cmp expect actual
+'
+
+merge_conflict_resolve () {
+	git reset --hard &&
+	test_must_fail git merge six.1 &&
+	# Resolution is to replace 7 with 6.1 and 6.2 (i.e. take both)
+	concat_insert short 6.1 6.2 >file1 &&
+	concat_insert long 6.1 6.2 >file2
+}
+
+test_expect_success 'multiple identical conflicts' '
+	git reset --hard &&
+
+	test_seq 1 6 >early &&
+	>late &&
+	test_seq 11 15 >short &&
+	test_seq 111 120 >long &&
+	concat_insert short >file1 &&
+	concat_insert long >file2 &&
+	git add file1 file2 &&
+	git commit -m base &&
+	git tag base &&
+	git checkout -b six.1 &&
+	concat_insert short 6.1 >file1 &&
+	concat_insert long 6.1 >file2 &&
+	git add file1 file2 &&
+	git commit -m 6.1 &&
+	git checkout -b six.2 HEAD^ &&
+	concat_insert short 6.2 >file1 &&
+	concat_insert long 6.2 >file2 &&
+	git add file1 file2 &&
+	git commit -m 6.2 &&
+
+	# At this point, six.1 and six.2
+	# - derive from common ancestor that has two files
+	#   1...6 7 11..15 (file1) and 1...6 7 111..120 (file2)
+	# - six.1 replaces these 7s with 6.1
+	# - six.2 replaces these 7s with 6.2
+
+	merge_conflict_resolve &&
+
+	# Check that rerere knows that file1 and file2 have conflicts
+
+	printf "%s\n" file1 file2 >expect &&
+	git ls-files -u | sed -e "s/^.*	//" | sort -u >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual &&
+
+	git rerere status | sort >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual &&
+
+	git rerere remaining >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual &&
+
+	count_pre_post 2 0 &&
+
+	# Pretend that the conflicts were made quite some time ago
+	find .git/rr-cache/ -type f | xargs test-chmtime -172800 &&
+
+	# Unresolved entries have not expired yet
+	git -c gc.rerereresolved=5 -c gc.rerereunresolved=5 rerere gc &&
+	count_pre_post 2 0 &&
+
+	# Unresolved entries have expired
+	git -c gc.rerereresolved=5 -c gc.rerereunresolved=1 rerere gc &&
+	count_pre_post 0 0 &&
+
+	# Recreate the conflicted state
+	merge_conflict_resolve &&
+	count_pre_post 2 0 &&
+
+	# Clear it
+	git rerere clear &&
+	count_pre_post 0 0 &&
+
+	# Recreate the conflicted state
+	merge_conflict_resolve &&
+	count_pre_post 2 0 &&
+
+	# We resolved file1 and file2
+	git rerere &&
+	>expect &&
+	git rerere remaining >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual &&
+
+	# We must have recorded both of them
+	count_pre_post 2 2 &&
+
+	# Now we should be able to resolve them both
+	git reset --hard &&
+	test_must_fail git merge six.1 &&
+	git rerere &&
+
+	>expect &&
+	git rerere remaining >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual &&
+
+	concat_insert short 6.1 6.2 >file1.expect &&
+	concat_insert long 6.1 6.2 >file2.expect &&
+	test_cmp file1.expect file1 &&
+	test_cmp file2.expect file2 &&
+
+	# Forget resolution for file2
+	git rerere forget file2 &&
+	echo file2 >expect &&
+	git rerere status >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual &&
+	count_pre_post 2 1 &&
+
+	# file2 already has correct resolution, so record it again
+	git rerere &&
+
+	# Pretend that the resolutions are old again
+	find .git/rr-cache/ -type f | xargs test-chmtime -172800 &&
+
+	# Resolved entries have not expired yet
+	git -c gc.rerereresolved=5 -c gc.rerereunresolved=5 rerere gc &&
+
+	count_pre_post 2 2 &&
+
+	# Resolved entries have expired
+	git -c gc.rerereresolved=1 -c gc.rerereunresolved=5 rerere gc &&
+	count_pre_post 0 0
+'
+
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t4201-shortlog.sh b/t/t4201-shortlog.sh
index f5e6367..a977365 100755
--- a/t/t4201-shortlog.sh
+++ b/t/t4201-shortlog.sh
@@ -115,7 +115,7 @@
 '
 
 test_expect_success !MINGW 'shortlog from non-git directory' '
-	git log HEAD >log &&
+	git log --no-expand-tabs HEAD >log &&
 	GIT_DIR=non-existing git shortlog -w <log >out &&
 	test_cmp expect out
 '
diff --git a/t/t4202-log.sh b/t/t4202-log.sh
index cb82eb7..128ba93 100755
--- a/t/t4202-log.sh
+++ b/t/t4202-log.sh
@@ -101,8 +101,8 @@
 
 test_expect_success 'diff-filter=A' '
 
-	git log --pretty="format:%s" --diff-filter=A HEAD > actual &&
-	git log --pretty="format:%s" --diff-filter A HEAD > actual-separate &&
+	git log --no-renames --pretty="format:%s" --diff-filter=A HEAD > actual &&
+	git log --no-renames --pretty="format:%s" --diff-filter A HEAD > actual-separate &&
 	printf "fifth\nfourth\nthird\ninitial" > expect &&
 	test_cmp expect actual &&
 	test_cmp expect actual-separate
@@ -119,7 +119,7 @@
 
 test_expect_success 'diff-filter=D' '
 
-	actual=$(git log --pretty="format:%s" --diff-filter=D HEAD) &&
+	actual=$(git log --no-renames --pretty="format:%s" --diff-filter=D HEAD) &&
 	expect=$(echo sixth ; echo third) &&
 	verbose test "$actual" = "$expect"
 
@@ -848,7 +848,7 @@
 }
 
 test_expect_success 'log --graph with diff and stats' '
-	git log --graph --pretty=short --stat -p >actual &&
+	git log --no-renames --graph --pretty=short --stat -p >actual &&
 	sanitize_output >actual.sanitized <actual &&
 	test_i18ncmp expect actual.sanitized
 '
diff --git a/t/t4204-patch-id.sh b/t/t4204-patch-id.sh
index baa9d3c..84a8096 100755
--- a/t/t4204-patch-id.sh
+++ b/t/t4204-patch-id.sh
@@ -30,11 +30,11 @@
 
 #calculate patch id. Make sure output is not empty.
 calc_patch_id () {
-	name="$1"
+	patch_name="$1"
 	shift
 	git patch-id "$@" |
-	sed "s/ .*//" >patch-id_"$name" &&
-	test_line_count -gt 0 patch-id_"$name"
+	sed "s/ .*//" >patch-id_"$patch_name" &&
+	test_line_count -gt 0 patch-id_"$patch_name"
 }
 
 get_top_diff () {
diff --git a/t/t4213-log-tabexpand.sh b/t/t4213-log-tabexpand.sh
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..e01a8f6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/t/t4213-log-tabexpand.sh
@@ -0,0 +1,105 @@
+#!/bin/sh
+
+test_description='log/show --expand-tabs'
+
+. ./test-lib.sh
+
+HT="	"
+title='tab indent at the beginning of the title line'
+body='tab indent on a line in the body'
+
+# usage: count_expand $indent $numSP $numHT @format_args
+count_expand ()
+{
+	expect=
+	count=$(( $1 + $2 )) ;# expected spaces
+	while test $count -gt 0
+	do
+		expect="$expect "
+		count=$(( $count - 1 ))
+	done
+	shift 2
+	count=$1 ;# expected tabs
+	while test $count -gt 0
+	do
+		expect="$expect$HT"
+		count=$(( $count - 1 ))
+	done
+	shift
+
+	# The remainder of the command line is "git show -s" options
+	case " $* " in
+	*' --pretty=short '*)
+		line=$title ;;
+	*)
+		line=$body ;;
+	esac
+
+	# Prefix the output with the command line arguments, and
+	# replace SP with a dot both in the expecte and actual output
+	# so that test_cmp would show the differene together with the
+	# breakage in a way easier to consume by the debugging user.
+	{
+		echo "git show -s $*"
+		echo "$expect$line"
+	} | sed -e 's/ /./g' >expect
+
+	{
+		echo "git show -s $*"
+		git show -s "$@" |
+		sed -n -e "/$line\$/p"
+	} | sed -e 's/ /./g' >actual
+
+	test_cmp expect actual
+}
+
+test_expand ()
+{
+	fmt=$1
+	case "$fmt" in
+	*=raw | *=short | *=email)
+		default="0 1" ;;
+	*)
+		default="8 0" ;;
+	esac
+	case "$fmt" in
+	*=email)
+		in=0 ;;
+	*)
+		in=4 ;;
+	esac
+	test_expect_success "expand/no-expand${fmt:+ for $fmt}" '
+		count_expand $in $default $fmt &&
+		count_expand $in 8 0 $fmt --expand-tabs &&
+		count_expand $in 8 0 --expand-tabs $fmt &&
+		count_expand $in 8 0 $fmt --expand-tabs=8 &&
+		count_expand $in 8 0 --expand-tabs=8 $fmt &&
+		count_expand $in 0 1 $fmt --no-expand-tabs &&
+		count_expand $in 0 1 --no-expand-tabs $fmt &&
+		count_expand $in 0 1 $fmt --expand-tabs=0 &&
+		count_expand $in 0 1 --expand-tabs=0 $fmt &&
+		count_expand $in 4 0 $fmt --expand-tabs=4 &&
+		count_expand $in 4 0 --expand-tabs=4 $fmt
+	'
+}
+
+test_expect_success 'setup' '
+	test_tick &&
+	sed -e "s/Q/$HT/g" <<-EOF >msg &&
+	Q$title
+
+	Q$body
+	EOF
+	git commit --allow-empty -F msg
+'
+
+test_expand ""
+test_expand --pretty
+test_expand --pretty=short
+test_expand --pretty=medium
+test_expand --pretty=full
+test_expand --pretty=fuller
+test_expand --pretty=raw
+test_expand --pretty=email
+
+test_done
diff --git a/t/t5500-fetch-pack.sh b/t/t5500-fetch-pack.sh
index 9b9bec4..91a69fc 100755
--- a/t/t5500-fetch-pack.sh
+++ b/t/t5500-fetch-pack.sh
@@ -259,7 +259,8 @@
 test_expect_success 'pull in shallow repo with missing merge base' '
 	(
 		cd shallow &&
-		test_must_fail git pull --depth 4 .. A
+		git fetch --depth 4 .. A
+		test_must_fail git merge --allow-unrelated-histories FETCH_HEAD
 	)
 '
 
@@ -279,9 +280,10 @@
 test_expect_success 'clone shallow object count' '
 	(
 		cd shallow &&
+		git prune &&
 		git count-objects -v
 	) > count.shallow &&
-	grep "^count: 55" count.shallow
+	grep "^count: 54" count.shallow
 '
 
 test_expect_success 'fetch --no-shallow on full repo' '
diff --git a/t/t5520-pull.sh b/t/t5520-pull.sh
index c952d5e..739c089 100755
--- a/t/t5520-pull.sh
+++ b/t/t5520-pull.sh
@@ -9,6 +9,24 @@
 	mv "$2.x" "$2"
 }
 
+test_pull_autostash () {
+	git reset --hard before-rebase &&
+	echo dirty >new_file &&
+	git add new_file &&
+	git pull "$@" . copy &&
+	test_cmp_rev HEAD^ copy &&
+	test "$(cat new_file)" = dirty &&
+	test "$(cat file)" = "modified again"
+}
+
+test_pull_autostash_fail () {
+	git reset --hard before-rebase &&
+	echo dirty >new_file &&
+	git add new_file &&
+	test_must_fail git pull "$@" . copy 2>err &&
+	test_i18ngrep "uncommitted changes." err
+}
+
 test_expect_success setup '
 	echo file >file &&
 	git add file &&
@@ -247,15 +265,47 @@
 
 test_expect_success 'pull --rebase succeeds with dirty working directory and rebase.autostash set' '
 	test_config rebase.autostash true &&
-	git reset --hard before-rebase &&
-	echo dirty >new_file &&
-	git add new_file &&
-	git pull --rebase . copy &&
-	test_cmp_rev HEAD^ copy &&
-	test "$(cat new_file)" = dirty &&
-	test "$(cat file)" = "modified again"
+	test_pull_autostash --rebase
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'pull --rebase --autostash & rebase.autostash=true' '
+	test_config rebase.autostash true &&
+	test_pull_autostash --rebase --autostash
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'pull --rebase --autostash & rebase.autostash=false' '
+	test_config rebase.autostash false &&
+	test_pull_autostash --rebase --autostash
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'pull --rebase --autostash & rebase.autostash unset' '
+	test_unconfig rebase.autostash &&
+	test_pull_autostash --rebase --autostash
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'pull --rebase --no-autostash & rebase.autostash=true' '
+	test_config rebase.autostash true &&
+	test_pull_autostash_fail --rebase --no-autostash
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'pull --rebase --no-autostash & rebase.autostash=false' '
+	test_config rebase.autostash false &&
+	test_pull_autostash_fail --rebase --no-autostash
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'pull --rebase --no-autostash & rebase.autostash unset' '
+	test_unconfig rebase.autostash &&
+	test_pull_autostash_fail --rebase --no-autostash
+'
+
+for i in --autostash --no-autostash
+do
+	test_expect_success "pull $i (without --rebase) is illegal" '
+		test_must_fail git pull $i . copy 2>err &&
+		test_i18ngrep "only valid with --rebase" err
+	'
+done
+
 test_expect_success 'pull.rebase' '
 	git reset --hard before-rebase &&
 	test_config pull.rebase true &&
@@ -264,6 +314,16 @@
 	test new = "$(git show HEAD:file2)"
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'pull --autostash & pull.rebase=true' '
+	test_config pull.rebase true &&
+	test_pull_autostash --autostash
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'pull --no-autostash & pull.rebase=true' '
+	test_config pull.rebase true &&
+	test_pull_autostash_fail --no-autostash
+'
+
 test_expect_success 'branch.to-rebase.rebase' '
 	git reset --hard before-rebase &&
 	test_config branch.to-rebase.rebase true &&
diff --git a/t/t5521-pull-options.sh b/t/t5521-pull-options.sh
index 18372ca..ded8f98 100755
--- a/t/t5521-pull-options.sh
+++ b/t/t5521-pull-options.sh
@@ -144,4 +144,25 @@
 	)
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'git pull --allow-unrelated-histories' '
+	test_when_finished "rm -fr src dst" &&
+	git init src &&
+	(
+		cd src &&
+		test_commit one &&
+		test_commit two
+	) &&
+	git clone src dst &&
+	(
+		cd src &&
+		git checkout --orphan side HEAD^ &&
+		test_commit three
+	) &&
+	(
+		cd dst &&
+		test_must_fail git pull ../src side &&
+		git pull --allow-unrelated-histories ../src side
+	)
+'
+
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t5526-fetch-submodules.sh b/t/t5526-fetch-submodules.sh
index 1241146..954d0e4 100755
--- a/t/t5526-fetch-submodules.sh
+++ b/t/t5526-fetch-submodules.sh
@@ -471,4 +471,18 @@
 	test_i18ncmp expect.err actual.err
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'fetching submodules respects parallel settings' '
+	git config fetch.recurseSubmodules true &&
+	(
+		cd downstream &&
+		GIT_TRACE=$(pwd)/trace.out git fetch --jobs 7 &&
+		grep "7 tasks" trace.out &&
+		git config submodule.fetchJobs 8 &&
+		GIT_TRACE=$(pwd)/trace.out git fetch &&
+		grep "8 tasks" trace.out &&
+		GIT_TRACE=$(pwd)/trace.out git fetch --jobs 9 &&
+		grep "9 tasks" trace.out
+	)
+'
+
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t5550-http-fetch-dumb.sh b/t/t5550-http-fetch-dumb.sh
index 6414635..3484b6f 100755
--- a/t/t5550-http-fetch-dumb.sh
+++ b/t/t5550-http-fetch-dumb.sh
@@ -91,6 +91,55 @@
 	expect_askpass pass user@host
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'set up repo with http submodules' '
+	git init super &&
+	set_askpass user@host pass@host &&
+	(
+		cd super &&
+		git submodule add "$HTTPD_URL/auth/dumb/repo.git" sub &&
+		git commit -m "add submodule"
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'cmdline credential config passes to submodule via clone' '
+	set_askpass wrong pass@host &&
+	test_must_fail git clone --recursive super super-clone &&
+	rm -rf super-clone &&
+
+	set_askpass wrong pass@host &&
+	git -c "credential.$HTTPD_URL.username=user@host" \
+		clone --recursive super super-clone &&
+	expect_askpass pass user@host
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'cmdline credential config passes submodule via fetch' '
+	set_askpass wrong pass@host &&
+	test_must_fail git -C super-clone fetch --recurse-submodules &&
+
+	set_askpass wrong pass@host &&
+	git -C super-clone \
+	    -c "credential.$HTTPD_URL.username=user@host" \
+	    fetch --recurse-submodules &&
+	expect_askpass pass user@host
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'cmdline credential config passes submodule update' '
+	# advance the submodule HEAD so that a fetch is required
+	git commit --allow-empty -m foo &&
+	git push "$HTTPD_DOCUMENT_ROOT_PATH/auth/dumb/repo.git" HEAD &&
+	sha1=$(git rev-parse HEAD) &&
+	git -C super-clone update-index --cacheinfo 160000,$sha1,sub &&
+
+	set_askpass wrong pass@host &&
+	test_must_fail git -C super-clone submodule update &&
+
+	set_askpass wrong pass@host &&
+	git -C super-clone \
+	    -c "credential.$HTTPD_URL.username=user@host" \
+	    submodule update &&
+	expect_askpass pass user@host
+'
+
 test_expect_success 'fetch changes via http' '
 	echo content >>file &&
 	git commit -a -m two &&
diff --git a/t/t5551-http-fetch-smart.sh b/t/t5551-http-fetch-smart.sh
index 58207d8..2f375eb 100755
--- a/t/t5551-http-fetch-smart.sh
+++ b/t/t5551-http-fetch-smart.sh
@@ -282,5 +282,22 @@
 	test_line_count = 100000 tags
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'custom http headers' '
+	test_must_fail git -c http.extraheader="x-magic-two: cadabra" \
+		fetch "$HTTPD_URL/smart_headers/repo.git" &&
+	git -c http.extraheader="x-magic-one: abra" \
+	    -c http.extraheader="x-magic-two: cadabra" \
+	    fetch "$HTTPD_URL/smart_headers/repo.git" &&
+	git update-index --add --cacheinfo 160000,$(git rev-parse HEAD),sub &&
+	git config -f .gitmodules submodule.sub.path sub &&
+	git config -f .gitmodules submodule.sub.url \
+		"$HTTPD_URL/smart_headers/repo.git" &&
+	git submodule init sub &&
+	test_must_fail git submodule update sub &&
+	git -c http.extraheader="x-magic-one: abra" \
+	    -c http.extraheader="x-magic-two: cadabra" \
+		submodule update sub
+'
+
 stop_httpd
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t5601-clone.sh b/t/t5601-clone.sh
index 1789d0b..a433394 100755
--- a/t/t5601-clone.sh
+++ b/t/t5601-clone.sh
@@ -308,7 +308,7 @@
 
 setup_ssh_wrapper () {
 	test_expect_success 'setup ssh wrapper' '
-		cp "$GIT_BUILD_DIR/test-fake-ssh$X" \
+		cp "$GIT_BUILD_DIR/t/helper/test-fake-ssh$X" \
 			"$TRASH_DIRECTORY/ssh-wrapper$X" &&
 		GIT_SSH="$TRASH_DIRECTORY/ssh-wrapper$X" &&
 		export GIT_SSH &&
diff --git a/t/t5614-clone-submodules.sh b/t/t5614-clone-submodules.sh
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..62044c5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/t/t5614-clone-submodules.sh
@@ -0,0 +1,85 @@
+#!/bin/sh
+
+test_description='Test shallow cloning of repos with submodules'
+
+. ./test-lib.sh
+
+pwd=$(pwd)
+
+test_expect_success 'setup' '
+	git checkout -b master &&
+	test_commit commit1 &&
+	test_commit commit2 &&
+	mkdir sub &&
+	(
+		cd sub &&
+		git init &&
+		test_commit subcommit1 &&
+		test_commit subcommit2 &&
+		test_commit subcommit3
+	) &&
+	git submodule add "file://$pwd/sub" sub &&
+	git commit -m "add submodule"
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'nonshallow clone implies nonshallow submodule' '
+	test_when_finished "rm -rf super_clone" &&
+	git clone --recurse-submodules "file://$pwd/." super_clone &&
+	(
+		cd super_clone &&
+		git log --oneline >lines &&
+		test_line_count = 3 lines
+	) &&
+	(
+		cd super_clone/sub &&
+		git log --oneline >lines &&
+		test_line_count = 3 lines
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'shallow clone implies shallow submodule' '
+	test_when_finished "rm -rf super_clone" &&
+	git clone --recurse-submodules --depth 2 "file://$pwd/." super_clone &&
+	(
+		cd super_clone &&
+		git log --oneline >lines &&
+		test_line_count = 2 lines
+	) &&
+	(
+		cd super_clone/sub &&
+		git log --oneline >lines &&
+		test_line_count = 1 lines
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'shallow clone with non shallow submodule' '
+	test_when_finished "rm -rf super_clone" &&
+	git clone --recurse-submodules --depth 2 --no-shallow-submodules "file://$pwd/." super_clone &&
+	(
+		cd super_clone &&
+		git log --oneline >lines &&
+		test_line_count = 2 lines
+	) &&
+	(
+		cd super_clone/sub &&
+		git log --oneline >lines &&
+		test_line_count = 3 lines
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'non shallow clone with shallow submodule' '
+	test_when_finished "rm -rf super_clone" &&
+	git clone --recurse-submodules --no-local --shallow-submodules "file://$pwd/." super_clone &&
+	(
+		cd super_clone &&
+		git log --oneline >lines &&
+		test_line_count = 3 lines
+	) &&
+	(
+		cd super_clone/sub &&
+		git log --oneline >lines &&
+		test_line_count = 1 lines
+	)
+'
+
+test_done
diff --git a/t/t6009-rev-list-parent.sh b/t/t6009-rev-list-parent.sh
index 66cda17..20e3e25 100755
--- a/t/t6009-rev-list-parent.sh
+++ b/t/t6009-rev-list-parent.sh
@@ -47,7 +47,9 @@
 	git checkout -b yetanotherbranch four &&
 	test_commit eight &&
 	git checkout master &&
-	test_merge normalmerge newroot &&
+	test_tick &&
+	git merge --allow-unrelated-histories -m normalmerge newroot &&
+	git tag normalmerge &&
 	test_tick &&
 	git merge -m tripus sidebranch anotherbranch &&
 	git tag tripus &&
diff --git a/t/t6010-merge-base.sh b/t/t6010-merge-base.sh
index 39b3238..e0c5f44 100755
--- a/t/t6010-merge-base.sh
+++ b/t/t6010-merge-base.sh
@@ -215,11 +215,13 @@
 	git reset --hard E &&
 	test_commit CC2 &&
 	test_tick &&
-	git merge -s ours CC1 &&
+	# E is a root commit unrelated to MMR root on which CC1 is based
+	git merge -s ours --allow-unrelated-histories CC1 &&
 	test_commit CC-o &&
 	test_commit CCB &&
 	git reset --hard CC1 &&
-	git merge -s ours CC2 &&
+	# E is a root commit unrelated to MMR root on which CC1 is based
+	git merge -s ours --allow-unrelated-histories CC2 &&
 	test_commit CCA &&
 
 	git rev-parse CC1 CC2 >expected &&
diff --git a/t/t6012-rev-list-simplify.sh b/t/t6012-rev-list-simplify.sh
index b89cd6b..2a0fbb8 100755
--- a/t/t6012-rev-list-simplify.sh
+++ b/t/t6012-rev-list-simplify.sh
@@ -71,7 +71,7 @@
 	note J &&
 
 	git checkout master &&
-	test_tick && git merge -m "Coolest" unrelated &&
+	test_tick && git merge --allow-unrelated-histories -m "Coolest" unrelated &&
 	note K &&
 
 	echo "Immaterial" >elif &&
diff --git a/t/t6024-recursive-merge.sh b/t/t6024-recursive-merge.sh
index 755d30c..3f59e58 100755
--- a/t/t6024-recursive-merge.sh
+++ b/t/t6024-recursive-merge.sh
@@ -76,7 +76,7 @@
 
 git ls-files --stage > out
 cat > expect << EOF
-100644 439cc46de773d8a83c77799b7cc9191c128bfcff 1	a1
+100644 ec3fe2a791706733f2d8fa7ad45d9a9672031f5e 1	a1
 100644 cf84443e49e1b366fac938711ddf4be2d4d1d9e9 2	a1
 100644 fd7923529855d0b274795ae3349c5e0438333979 3	a1
 EOF
diff --git a/t/t6026-merge-attr.sh b/t/t6026-merge-attr.sh
index 04c0509..ef0cbce 100755
--- a/t/t6026-merge-attr.sh
+++ b/t/t6026-merge-attr.sh
@@ -176,7 +176,8 @@
 	test_tick &&
 	(
 		cd repo1 &&
-		git pull ../repo2 master
+		git fetch ../repo2 master &&
+		git merge --allow-unrelated-histories FETCH_HEAD
 	)
 '
 
diff --git a/t/t6029-merge-subtree.sh b/t/t6029-merge-subtree.sh
index 73fc240..3e69245 100755
--- a/t/t6029-merge-subtree.sh
+++ b/t/t6029-merge-subtree.sh
@@ -49,7 +49,7 @@
 
 test_expect_success 'initial merge' '
 	git remote add -f gui ../git-gui &&
-	git merge -s ours --no-commit gui/master &&
+	git merge -s ours --no-commit --allow-unrelated-histories gui/master &&
 	git read-tree --prefix=git-gui/ -u gui/master &&
 	git commit -m "Merge git-gui as our subdirectory" &&
 	git checkout -b work &&
diff --git a/t/t6036-recursive-corner-cases.sh b/t/t6036-recursive-corner-cases.sh
index 9d6621c..18aa88b 100755
--- a/t/t6036-recursive-corner-cases.sh
+++ b/t/t6036-recursive-corner-cases.sh
@@ -212,7 +212,8 @@
 		-L "" \
 		-L "Temporary merge branch 1" \
 		merged empty merge-me &&
-	test $(git rev-parse :1:new_a) = $(git hash-object merged)
+	sed -e "s/^\([<=>]\)/\1\1\1/" merged >merged-internal &&
+	test $(git rev-parse :1:new_a) = $(git hash-object merged-internal)
 '
 
 #
@@ -299,89 +300,6 @@
 '
 
 #
-# criss-cross + modify/modify with very contrived file contents:
-#
-#      B   D
-#      o---o
-#     / \ / \
-#  A o   X   ? F
-#     \ / \ /
-#      o---o
-#      C   E
-#
-#   Commit A: file with contents 'A\n'
-#   Commit B: file with contents 'B\n'
-#   Commit C: file with contents 'C\n'
-#   Commit D: file with contents 'D\n'
-#   Commit E: file with contents:
-#      <<<<<<< Temporary merge branch 1
-#      C
-#      =======
-#      B
-#      >>>>>>> Temporary merge branch 2
-#
-# Now, when we merge commits D & E, does git detect the conflict?
-
-test_expect_success 'setup differently handled merges of content conflict' '
-	git clean -fdqx &&
-	rm -rf .git &&
-	git init &&
-
-	echo A >file &&
-	git add file &&
-	test_tick &&
-	git commit -m A &&
-
-	git branch B &&
-	git checkout -b C &&
-	echo C >file &&
-	git add file &&
-	test_tick &&
-	git commit -m C &&
-
-	git checkout B &&
-	echo B >file &&
-	git add file &&
-	test_tick &&
-	git commit -m B &&
-
-	git checkout B^0 &&
-	test_must_fail git merge C &&
-	echo D >file &&
-	git add file &&
-	test_tick &&
-	git commit -m D &&
-	git tag D &&
-
-	git checkout C^0 &&
-	test_must_fail git merge B &&
-	cat <<EOF >file &&
-<<<<<<< Temporary merge branch 1
-C
-=======
-B
->>>>>>> Temporary merge branch 2
-EOF
-	git add file &&
-	test_tick &&
-	git commit -m E &&
-	git tag E
-'
-
-test_expect_failure 'git detects conflict w/ criss-cross+contrived resolution' '
-	git checkout D^0 &&
-
-	test_must_fail git merge -s recursive E^0 &&
-
-	test 3 -eq $(git ls-files -s | wc -l) &&
-	test 3 -eq $(git ls-files -u | wc -l) &&
-	test 0 -eq $(git ls-files -o | wc -l) &&
-
-	test $(git rev-parse :2:file) = $(git rev-parse D:file) &&
-	test $(git rev-parse :3:file) = $(git rev-parse E:file)
-'
-
-#
 # criss-cross + d/f conflict via add/add:
 #   Commit A: Neither file 'a' nor directory 'a/' exists.
 #   Commit B: Introduce 'a'
diff --git a/t/t6044-merge-unrelated-index-changes.sh b/t/t6044-merge-unrelated-index-changes.sh
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..0102348
--- /dev/null
+++ b/t/t6044-merge-unrelated-index-changes.sh
@@ -0,0 +1,153 @@
+#!/bin/sh
+
+test_description="merges with unrelated index changes"
+
+. ./test-lib.sh
+
+# Testcase for some simple merges
+#   A
+#   o-----o B
+#    \
+#     \---o C
+#      \
+#       \-o D
+#        \
+#         o E
+#   Commit A: some file a
+#   Commit B: adds file b, modifies end of a
+#   Commit C: adds file c
+#   Commit D: adds file d, modifies beginning of a
+#   Commit E: renames a->subdir/a, adds subdir/e
+
+test_expect_success 'setup trivial merges' '
+	test_seq 1 10 >a &&
+	git add a &&
+	test_tick && git commit -m A &&
+
+	git branch A &&
+	git branch B &&
+	git branch C &&
+	git branch D &&
+	git branch E &&
+
+	git checkout B &&
+	echo b >b &&
+	echo 11 >>a &&
+	git add a b &&
+	test_tick && git commit -m B &&
+
+	git checkout C &&
+	echo c >c &&
+	git add c &&
+	test_tick && git commit -m C &&
+
+	git checkout D &&
+	test_seq 2 10 >a &&
+	echo d >d &&
+	git add a d &&
+	test_tick && git commit -m D &&
+
+	git checkout E &&
+	mkdir subdir &&
+	git mv a subdir/a &&
+	echo e >subdir/e &&
+	git add subdir &&
+	test_tick && git commit -m E
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'ff update' '
+	git reset --hard &&
+	git checkout A^0 &&
+
+	touch random_file && git add random_file &&
+
+	git merge E^0 &&
+
+	test_must_fail git rev-parse HEAD:random_file &&
+	test "$(git diff --name-only --cached E)" = "random_file"
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'ff update, important file modified' '
+	git reset --hard &&
+	git checkout A^0 &&
+
+	mkdir subdir &&
+	touch subdir/e &&
+	git add subdir/e &&
+
+	test_must_fail git merge E^0
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'resolve, trivial' '
+	git reset --hard &&
+	git checkout B^0 &&
+
+	touch random_file && git add random_file &&
+
+	test_must_fail git merge -s resolve C^0
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'resolve, non-trivial' '
+	git reset --hard &&
+	git checkout B^0 &&
+
+	touch random_file && git add random_file &&
+
+	test_must_fail git merge -s resolve D^0
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'recursive' '
+	git reset --hard &&
+	git checkout B^0 &&
+
+	touch random_file && git add random_file &&
+
+	test_must_fail git merge -s recursive C^0
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'octopus, unrelated file touched' '
+	git reset --hard &&
+	git checkout B^0 &&
+
+	touch random_file && git add random_file &&
+
+	test_must_fail git merge C^0 D^0
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'octopus, related file removed' '
+	git reset --hard &&
+	git checkout B^0 &&
+
+	git rm b &&
+
+	test_must_fail git merge C^0 D^0
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'octopus, related file modified' '
+	git reset --hard &&
+	git checkout B^0 &&
+
+	echo 12 >>a && git add a &&
+
+	test_must_fail git merge C^0 D^0
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'ours' '
+	git reset --hard &&
+	git checkout B^0 &&
+
+	touch random_file && git add random_file &&
+
+	test_must_fail git merge -s ours C^0
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'subtree' '
+	git reset --hard &&
+	git checkout B^0 &&
+
+	touch random_file && git add random_file &&
+
+	test_must_fail git merge -s subtree E^0
+'
+
+test_done
diff --git a/t/t6101-rev-parse-parents.sh b/t/t6101-rev-parse-parents.sh
index 10b1452..1c6952d 100755
--- a/t/t6101-rev-parse-parents.sh
+++ b/t/t6101-rev-parse-parents.sh
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@
 	git checkout --orphan tmp &&
 	test_commit start2 &&
 	git checkout master &&
-	git merge -m next start2 &&
+	git merge -m next --allow-unrelated-histories start2 &&
 	test_commit final &&
 
 	test_seq 40 |
diff --git a/t/t6302-for-each-ref-filter.sh b/t/t6302-for-each-ref-filter.sh
index bcf472b..d0ab09f 100755
--- a/t/t6302-for-each-ref-filter.sh
+++ b/t/t6302-for-each-ref-filter.sh
@@ -5,20 +5,27 @@
 . ./test-lib.sh
 . "$TEST_DIRECTORY"/lib-gpg.sh
 
-if ! test_have_prereq GPG
-then
-	skip_all="skipping for-each-ref tests, GPG not available"
-	test_done
-fi
-
 test_expect_success 'setup some history and refs' '
 	test_commit one &&
 	test_commit two &&
 	test_commit three &&
 	git checkout -b side &&
 	test_commit four &&
-	git tag -s -m "A signed tag message" signed-tag &&
-	git tag -s -m "Annonated doubly" double-tag signed-tag &&
+	git tag -m "An annotated tag" annotated-tag &&
+	git tag -m "Annonated doubly" doubly-annotated-tag annotated-tag &&
+
+	# Note that these "signed" tags might not actually be signed.
+	# Tests which care about the distinction should be marked
+	# with the GPG prereq.
+	if test_have_prereq GPG
+	then
+		sign=-s
+	else
+		sign=
+	fi &&
+	git tag $sign -m "A signed tag" signed-tag &&
+	git tag $sign -m "Signed doubly" doubly-signed-tag signed-tag &&
+
 	git checkout master &&
 	git update-ref refs/odd/spot master
 '
@@ -36,6 +43,7 @@
 test_expect_success 'check signed tags with --points-at' '
 	sed -e "s/Z$//" >expect <<-\EOF &&
 	refs/heads/side Z
+	refs/tags/annotated-tag four
 	refs/tags/four Z
 	refs/tags/signed-tag four
 	EOF
@@ -58,7 +66,9 @@
 test_expect_success 'filtering with --no-merged' '
 	cat >expect <<-\EOF &&
 	refs/heads/side
-	refs/tags/double-tag
+	refs/tags/annotated-tag
+	refs/tags/doubly-annotated-tag
+	refs/tags/doubly-signed-tag
 	refs/tags/four
 	refs/tags/signed-tag
 	EOF
@@ -71,7 +81,9 @@
 	refs/heads/master
 	refs/heads/side
 	refs/odd/spot
-	refs/tags/double-tag
+	refs/tags/annotated-tag
+	refs/tags/doubly-annotated-tag
+	refs/tags/doubly-signed-tag
 	refs/tags/four
 	refs/tags/signed-tag
 	refs/tags/three
@@ -90,7 +102,9 @@
 	refname is refs/heads/master  |refs/heads/master
 	refname is refs/heads/side    |refs/heads/side
 	refname is refs/odd/spot      |refs/odd/spot
-	refname is refs/tags/double-tag|refs/tags/double-tag
+	refname is refs/tags/annotated-tag|refs/tags/annotated-tag
+	refname is refs/tags/doubly-annotated-tag|refs/tags/doubly-annotated-tag
+	refname is refs/tags/doubly-signed-tag|refs/tags/doubly-signed-tag
 	refname is refs/tags/four     |refs/tags/four
 	refname is refs/tags/one      |refs/tags/one
 	refname is refs/tags/signed-tag|refs/tags/signed-tag
@@ -106,7 +120,9 @@
 	| refname is refs/heads/master |refs/heads/master
 	|  refname is refs/heads/side  |refs/heads/side
 	|   refname is refs/odd/spot   |refs/odd/spot
-	|refname is refs/tags/double-tag|refs/tags/double-tag
+	|refname is refs/tags/annotated-tag|refs/tags/annotated-tag
+	|refname is refs/tags/doubly-annotated-tag|refs/tags/doubly-annotated-tag
+	|refname is refs/tags/doubly-signed-tag|refs/tags/doubly-signed-tag
 	|  refname is refs/tags/four   |refs/tags/four
 	|   refname is refs/tags/one   |refs/tags/one
 	|refname is refs/tags/signed-tag|refs/tags/signed-tag
@@ -122,7 +138,9 @@
 	|  refname is refs/heads/master|refs/heads/master
 	|    refname is refs/heads/side|refs/heads/side
 	|      refname is refs/odd/spot|refs/odd/spot
-	|refname is refs/tags/double-tag|refs/tags/double-tag
+	|refname is refs/tags/annotated-tag|refs/tags/annotated-tag
+	|refname is refs/tags/doubly-annotated-tag|refs/tags/doubly-annotated-tag
+	|refname is refs/tags/doubly-signed-tag|refs/tags/doubly-signed-tag
 	|     refname is refs/tags/four|refs/tags/four
 	|      refname is refs/tags/one|refs/tags/one
 	|refname is refs/tags/signed-tag|refs/tags/signed-tag
@@ -137,7 +155,9 @@
 |       refname is refs/heads/master       |refs/heads/master
 |        refname is refs/heads/side        |refs/heads/side
 |         refname is refs/odd/spot         |refs/odd/spot
-|     refname is refs/tags/double-tag      |refs/tags/double-tag
+|    refname is refs/tags/annotated-tag    |refs/tags/annotated-tag
+|refname is refs/tags/doubly-annotated-tag |refs/tags/doubly-annotated-tag
+|  refname is refs/tags/doubly-signed-tag  |refs/tags/doubly-signed-tag
 |        refname is refs/tags/four         |refs/tags/four
 |         refname is refs/tags/one         |refs/tags/one
 |     refname is refs/tags/signed-tag      |refs/tags/signed-tag
@@ -182,7 +202,9 @@
 	|'      '\''master| A U Thor'\''      '|
 	|'       '\''side| A U Thor'\''       '|
 	|'     '\''odd/spot| A U Thor'\''     '|
-	|'        '\''double-tag| '\''        '|
+	|'      '\''annotated-tag| '\''       '|
+	|'   '\''doubly-annotated-tag| '\''   '|
+	|'    '\''doubly-signed-tag| '\''     '|
 	|'       '\''four| A U Thor'\''       '|
 	|'       '\''one| A U Thor'\''        '|
 	|'        '\''signed-tag| '\''        '|
@@ -198,7 +220,9 @@
 	|'         master               '|
 	|'           side               '|
 	|'       odd/spot               '|
-	|'     double-tag               '|
+	|'  annotated-tag               '|
+	|'doubly-annotated-tag          '|
+	|'doubly-signed-tag             '|
 	|'           four               '|
 	|'            one               '|
 	|'     signed-tag               '|
@@ -214,10 +238,12 @@
 	master |three
 	side |four
 	odd/spot |three
-	double-tag |Annonated doubly
+	annotated-tag |An annotated tag
+	doubly-annotated-tag |Annonated doubly
+	doubly-signed-tag |Signed doubly
 	four |four
 	one |one
-	signed-tag |A signed tag message
+	signed-tag |A signed tag
 	three |three
 	two |two
 	EOF
@@ -230,7 +256,9 @@
 	master |
 	side |
 	odd/spot |
-	double-tag |
+	annotated-tag |
+	doubly-annotated-tag |
+	doubly-signed-tag |
 	four |
 	one |
 	signed-tag |
@@ -246,10 +274,12 @@
 	master |three
 	side |four
 	odd/spot |three
-	double-tag |Annonated doubly
+	annotated-tag |An annotated tag
+	doubly-annotated-tag |Annonated doubly
+	doubly-signed-tag |Signed doubly
 	four |four
 	one |one
-	signed-tag |A signed tag message
+	signed-tag |A signed tag
 	three |three
 	two |two
 	EOF
diff --git a/t/t7004-tag.sh b/t/t7004-tag.sh
index cf3469b..f9b7d79 100755
--- a/t/t7004-tag.sh
+++ b/t/t7004-tag.sh
@@ -775,6 +775,47 @@
 	test_cmp expect actual
 '
 
+get_tag_header forcesignannotated-implied-sign $commit commit $time >expect
+echo "A message" >>expect
+echo '-----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----' >>expect
+test_expect_success GPG \
+	'git tag -s implied if configured with tag.forcesignannotated' \
+	'test_config tag.forcesignannotated true &&
+	git tag -m "A message" forcesignannotated-implied-sign &&
+	get_tag_msg forcesignannotated-implied-sign >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual
+'
+
+test_expect_success GPG \
+	'lightweight with no message when configured with tag.forcesignannotated' \
+	'test_config tag.forcesignannotated true &&
+	git tag forcesignannotated-lightweight &&
+	tag_exists forcesignannotated-lightweight &&
+	test_must_fail git tag -v forcesignannotated-no-message
+'
+
+get_tag_header forcesignannotated-annotate $commit commit $time >expect
+echo "A message" >>expect
+test_expect_success GPG \
+	'git tag -a disable configured tag.forcesignannotated' \
+	'test_config tag.forcesignannotated true &&
+	git tag -a -m "A message" forcesignannotated-annotate &&
+	get_tag_msg forcesignannotated-annotate >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual &&
+	test_must_fail git tag -v forcesignannotated-annotate
+'
+
+get_tag_header forcesignannotated-disabled $commit commit $time >expect
+echo "A message" >>expect
+echo '-----BEGIN PGP SIGNATURE-----' >>expect
+test_expect_success GPG \
+	'git tag --sign enable GPG sign' \
+	'test_config tag.forcesignannotated false &&
+	git tag --sign -m "A message" forcesignannotated-disabled &&
+	get_tag_msg forcesignannotated-disabled >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual
+'
+
 test_expect_success GPG \
 	'trying to create a signed tag with non-existing -F file should fail' '
 	! test -f nonexistingfile &&
diff --git a/t/t7030-verify-tag.sh b/t/t7030-verify-tag.sh
index 4608e71..07079a4 100755
--- a/t/t7030-verify-tag.sh
+++ b/t/t7030-verify-tag.sh
@@ -112,4 +112,17 @@
 	)
 '
 
+test_expect_success GPG 'verify multiple tags' '
+	tags="fourth-signed sixth-signed seventh-signed" &&
+	for i in $tags
+	do
+		git verify-tag -v --raw $i || return 1
+	done >expect.stdout 2>expect.stderr.1 &&
+	grep "^.GNUPG:." <expect.stderr.1 >expect.stderr &&
+	git verify-tag -v --raw $tags >actual.stdout 2>actual.stderr.1 &&
+	grep "^.GNUPG:." <actual.stderr.1 >actual.stderr &&
+	test_cmp expect.stdout actual.stdout &&
+	test_cmp expect.stderr actual.stderr
+'
+
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t7400-submodule-basic.sh b/t/t7400-submodule-basic.sh
index 75db023..3570f7b 100755
--- a/t/t7400-submodule-basic.sh
+++ b/t/t7400-submodule-basic.sh
@@ -22,6 +22,22 @@
 	git branch initial
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'submodule init aborts on missing .gitmodules file' '
+	test_when_finished "git update-index --remove sub" &&
+	git update-index --add --cacheinfo 160000,$(git rev-parse HEAD),sub &&
+	# missing the .gitmodules file here
+	test_must_fail git submodule init 2>actual &&
+	test_i18ngrep "No url found for submodule path" actual
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'submodule update aborts on missing .gitmodules file' '
+	test_when_finished "git update-index --remove sub" &&
+	git update-index --add --cacheinfo 160000,$(git rev-parse HEAD),sub &&
+	# missing the .gitmodules file here
+	git submodule update sub 2>actual &&
+	test_i18ngrep "Submodule path .sub. not initialized" actual
+'
+
 test_expect_success 'configuration parsing' '
 	test_when_finished "rm -f .gitmodules" &&
 	cat >.gitmodules <<-\EOF &&
@@ -466,7 +482,7 @@
 	git config --remove-section submodule.example &&
 	test_must_fail git config submodule.example.url &&
 
-	git submodule update init > update.out &&
+	git submodule update init 2> update.out &&
 	cat update.out &&
 	test_i18ngrep "not initialized" update.out &&
 	test_must_fail git rev-parse --resolve-git-dir init/.git &&
@@ -484,7 +500,7 @@
 	mkdir -p sub &&
 	(
 		cd sub &&
-		git submodule update ../init >update.out &&
+		git submodule update ../init 2>update.out &&
 		cat update.out &&
 		test_i18ngrep "not initialized" update.out &&
 		test_must_fail git rev-parse --resolve-git-dir ../init/.git &&
@@ -902,7 +918,7 @@
 		git init &&
 		>file &&
 		git add file &&
-		git commit -m "repo should not be empty"
+		git commit -m "repo should not be empty" &&
 		git submodule deinit . &&
 		git submodule deinit --all
 	)
diff --git a/t/t7406-submodule-update.sh b/t/t7406-submodule-update.sh
index e5af4b4..5f27879 100755
--- a/t/t7406-submodule-update.sh
+++ b/t/t7406-submodule-update.sh
@@ -108,24 +108,36 @@
 
 cat <<EOF >expect
 Submodule path '../super': checked out '$supersha1'
-Submodule 'merging' ($pwd/merging) registered for path '../super/merging'
-Submodule 'none' ($pwd/none) registered for path '../super/none'
-Submodule 'rebasing' ($pwd/rebasing) registered for path '../super/rebasing'
-Submodule 'submodule' ($pwd/submodule) registered for path '../super/submodule'
 Submodule path '../super/merging': checked out '$mergingsha1'
 Submodule path '../super/none': checked out '$nonesha1'
 Submodule path '../super/rebasing': checked out '$rebasingsha1'
 Submodule path '../super/submodule': checked out '$submodulesha1'
 EOF
 
+cat <<EOF >expect2
+Submodule 'merging' ($pwd/merging) registered for path '../super/merging'
+Submodule 'none' ($pwd/none) registered for path '../super/none'
+Submodule 'rebasing' ($pwd/rebasing) registered for path '../super/rebasing'
+Submodule 'submodule' ($pwd/submodule) registered for path '../super/submodule'
+Cloning into '$pwd/recursivesuper/super/merging'...
+done.
+Cloning into '$pwd/recursivesuper/super/none'...
+done.
+Cloning into '$pwd/recursivesuper/super/rebasing'...
+done.
+Cloning into '$pwd/recursivesuper/super/submodule'...
+done.
+EOF
+
 test_expect_success 'submodule update --init --recursive from subdirectory' '
 	git -C recursivesuper/super reset --hard HEAD^ &&
 	(cd recursivesuper &&
 	 mkdir tmp &&
 	 cd tmp &&
-	 git submodule update --init --recursive ../super >../../actual
+	 git submodule update --init --recursive ../super >../../actual 2>../../actual2
 	) &&
-	test_cmp expect actual
+	test_cmp expect actual &&
+	test_cmp expect2 actual2
 '
 
 apos="'";
@@ -850,4 +862,31 @@
 	 test_i18ngrep "Submodule path .deeper/submodule/subsubmodule.: checked out" actual
 	)
 '
+
+test_expect_success 'submodule update can be run in parallel' '
+	(cd super2 &&
+	 GIT_TRACE=$(pwd)/trace.out git submodule update --jobs 7 &&
+	 grep "7 tasks" trace.out &&
+	 git config submodule.fetchJobs 8 &&
+	 GIT_TRACE=$(pwd)/trace.out git submodule update &&
+	 grep "8 tasks" trace.out &&
+	 GIT_TRACE=$(pwd)/trace.out git submodule update --jobs 9 &&
+	 grep "9 tasks" trace.out
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'git clone passes the parallel jobs config on to submodules' '
+	test_when_finished "rm -rf super4" &&
+	GIT_TRACE=$(pwd)/trace.out git clone --recurse-submodules --jobs 7 . super4 &&
+	grep "7 tasks" trace.out &&
+	rm -rf super4 &&
+	git config --global submodule.fetchJobs 8 &&
+	GIT_TRACE=$(pwd)/trace.out git clone --recurse-submodules . super4 &&
+	grep "8 tasks" trace.out &&
+	rm -rf super4 &&
+	GIT_TRACE=$(pwd)/trace.out git clone --recurse-submodules --jobs 9 . super4 &&
+	grep "9 tasks" trace.out &&
+	rm -rf super4
+'
+
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t7501-commit.sh b/t/t7501-commit.sh
index 900f7de..d84897a 100755
--- a/t/t7501-commit.sh
+++ b/t/t7501-commit.sh
@@ -607,4 +607,24 @@
 	test_cmp expected actual
 '
 
+test_expect_success '--dry-run with conflicts fixed from a merge' '
+	# setup two branches with conflicting information
+	# in the same file, resolve the conflict,
+	# call commit with --dry-run
+	echo "Initial contents, unimportant" >test-file &&
+	git add test-file &&
+	git commit -m "Initial commit" &&
+	echo "commit-1-state" >test-file &&
+	git commit -m "commit 1" -i test-file &&
+	git tag commit-1 &&
+	git checkout -b branch-2 HEAD^1 &&
+	echo "commit-2-state" >test-file &&
+	git commit -m "commit 2" -i test-file &&
+	! $(git merge --no-commit commit-1) &&
+	echo "commit-2-state" >test-file &&
+	git add test-file &&
+	git commit --dry-run &&
+	git commit -m "conflicts fixed from merge."
+'
+
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t7507-commit-verbose.sh b/t/t7507-commit-verbose.sh
index 2ddf28c..ed2653d 100755
--- a/t/t7507-commit-verbose.sh
+++ b/t/t7507-commit-verbose.sh
@@ -3,11 +3,10 @@
 test_description='verbose commit template'
 . ./test-lib.sh
 
-cat >check-for-diff <<EOF
-#!$SHELL_PATH
-exec grep '^diff --git' "\$1"
+write_script "check-for-diff" <<\EOF &&
+grep '^diff --git' "$1" >out
+exit 0
 EOF
-chmod +x check-for-diff
 test_set_editor "$PWD/check-for-diff"
 
 cat >message <<'EOF'
@@ -23,7 +22,8 @@
 '
 
 test_expect_success 'initial commit shows verbose diff' '
-	git commit --amend -v
+	git commit --amend -v &&
+	test_line_count = 1 out
 '
 
 test_expect_success 'second commit' '
@@ -39,13 +39,15 @@
 
 test_expect_success 'verbose diff is stripped out' '
 	git commit --amend -v &&
-	check_message message
+	check_message message &&
+	test_line_count = 1 out
 '
 
 test_expect_success 'verbose diff is stripped out (mnemonicprefix)' '
 	git config diff.mnemonicprefix true &&
 	git commit --amend -v &&
-	check_message message
+	check_message message &&
+	test_line_count = 1 out
 '
 
 cat >diff <<'EOF'
@@ -96,4 +98,60 @@
 	test_i18ngrep "Aborting commit due to empty commit message." err
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'status does not verbose without --verbose' '
+	git status >actual &&
+	! grep "^diff --git" actual
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'setup -v -v' '
+	echo dirty >file
+'
+
+for i in true 1
+do
+	test_expect_success "commit.verbose=$i and --verbose omitted" "
+		git -c commit.verbose=$i commit --amend &&
+		test_line_count = 1 out
+	"
+done
+
+for i in false -2 -1 0
+do
+	test_expect_success "commit.verbose=$i and --verbose omitted" "
+		git -c commit.verbose=$i commit --amend &&
+		test_line_count = 0 out
+	"
+done
+
+for i in 2 3
+do
+	test_expect_success "commit.verbose=$i and --verbose omitted" "
+		git -c commit.verbose=$i commit --amend &&
+		test_line_count = 2 out
+	"
+done
+
+for i in true false -2 -1 0 1 2 3
+do
+	test_expect_success "commit.verbose=$i and --verbose" "
+		git -c commit.verbose=$i commit --amend --verbose &&
+		test_line_count = 1 out
+	"
+
+	test_expect_success "commit.verbose=$i and --no-verbose" "
+		git -c commit.verbose=$i commit --amend --no-verbose &&
+		test_line_count = 0 out
+	"
+
+	test_expect_success "commit.verbose=$i and -v -v" "
+		git -c commit.verbose=$i commit --amend -v -v &&
+		test_line_count = 2 out
+	"
+done
+
+test_expect_success "status ignores commit.verbose=true" '
+	git -c commit.verbose=true status >actual &&
+	! grep "^diff --git actual"
+'
+
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t7510-signed-commit.sh b/t/t7510-signed-commit.sh
index 18e5cf0..4177a86 100755
--- a/t/t7510-signed-commit.sh
+++ b/t/t7510-signed-commit.sh
@@ -45,12 +45,18 @@
 	git tag seventh-signed &&
 
 	echo 8 >file && test_tick && git commit -a -m eighth -SB7227189 &&
-	git tag eighth-signed-alt
+	git tag eighth-signed-alt &&
+
+	# commit.gpgsign is still on but this must not be signed
+	git tag ninth-unsigned $(echo 9 | git commit-tree HEAD^{tree}) &&
+	# explicit -S of course must sign.
+	git tag tenth-signed $(echo 9 | git commit-tree -S HEAD^{tree})
 '
 
 test_expect_success GPG 'verify and show signatures' '
 	(
-		for commit in initial second merge fourth-signed fifth-signed sixth-signed seventh-signed
+		for commit in initial second merge fourth-signed \
+			fifth-signed sixth-signed seventh-signed tenth-signed
 		do
 			git verify-commit $commit &&
 			git show --pretty=short --show-signature $commit >actual &&
@@ -60,7 +66,8 @@
 		done
 	) &&
 	(
-		for commit in merge^2 fourth-unsigned sixth-unsigned seventh-unsigned
+		for commit in merge^2 fourth-unsigned sixth-unsigned \
+			seventh-unsigned ninth-unsigned
 		do
 			test_must_fail git verify-commit $commit &&
 			git show --pretty=short --show-signature $commit >actual &&
diff --git a/t/t7605-merge-resolve.sh b/t/t7605-merge-resolve.sh
index 0cb9d11..5d56c38 100755
--- a/t/t7605-merge-resolve.sh
+++ b/t/t7605-merge-resolve.sh
@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@
 	git tag c3
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'merge c1 to c2' '
+merge_c1_to_c2_cmds='
 	git reset --hard c1 &&
 	git merge -s resolve c2 &&
 	test "$(git rev-parse c1)" != "$(git rev-parse HEAD)" &&
@@ -41,6 +41,10 @@
 	test 3 = $(git ls-files | wc -l)
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'merge c1 to c2'        "$merge_c1_to_c2_cmds"
+
+test_expect_success 'merge c1 to c2, again' "$merge_c1_to_c2_cmds"
+
 test_expect_success 'merge c2 to c3 (fails)' '
 	git reset --hard c2 &&
 	test_must_fail git merge -s resolve c3
diff --git a/t/t7800-difftool.sh b/t/t7800-difftool.sh
index ff7a9e9..7ce4cd7 100755
--- a/t/t7800-difftool.sh
+++ b/t/t7800-difftool.sh
@@ -419,6 +419,29 @@
 	grep file2 output
 '
 
+run_dir_diff_test 'difftool --dir-diff with unmerged files' '
+	test_when_finished git reset --hard &&
+	test_config difftool.echo.cmd "echo ok" &&
+	git checkout -B conflict-a &&
+	git checkout -B conflict-b &&
+	git checkout conflict-a &&
+	echo a >>file &&
+	git add file &&
+	git commit -m conflict-a &&
+	git checkout conflict-b &&
+	echo b >>file &&
+	git add file &&
+	git commit -m conflict-b &&
+	git checkout master &&
+	git merge conflict-a &&
+	test_must_fail git merge conflict-b &&
+	cat >expect <<-EOF &&
+		ok
+	EOF
+	git difftool --dir-diff $symlinks -t echo >actual &&
+	test_cmp expect actual
+'
+
 write_script .git/CHECK_SYMLINKS <<\EOF
 for f in file file2 sub/sub
 do
diff --git a/t/t9100-git-svn-basic.sh b/t/t9100-git-svn-basic.sh
index 22d8367..28082b1 100755
--- a/t/t9100-git-svn-basic.sh
+++ b/t/t9100-git-svn-basic.sh
@@ -45,13 +45,13 @@
 
 name='try a deep --rmdir with a commit'
 test_expect_success "$name" '
-	git checkout -f -b mybranch ${remotes_git_svn} &&
+	git checkout -f -b mybranch remotes/git-svn &&
 	mv dir/a/b/c/d/e/file dir/file &&
 	cp dir/file file &&
 	git update-index --add --remove dir/a/b/c/d/e/file dir/file file &&
 	git commit -m "$name" &&
 	git svn set-tree --find-copies-harder --rmdir \
-		${remotes_git_svn}..mybranch &&
+		remotes/git-svn..mybranch &&
 	svn_cmd up "$SVN_TREE" &&
 	test -d "$SVN_TREE"/dir && test ! -d "$SVN_TREE"/dir/a'
 
@@ -65,14 +65,14 @@
 	git update-index --add dir/file/file &&
 	git commit -m '$name' &&
 	test_must_fail git svn set-tree --find-copies-harder --rmdir \
-		${remotes_git_svn}..mybranch
+		remotes/git-svn..mybranch
 "
 
 
 name='detect node change from directory to file #1'
 test_expect_success "$name" '
 	rm -rf dir "$GIT_DIR"/index &&
-	git checkout -f -b mybranch2 ${remotes_git_svn} &&
+	git checkout -f -b mybranch2 remotes/git-svn &&
 	mv bar/zzz zzz &&
 	rm -rf bar &&
 	mv zzz bar &&
@@ -80,14 +80,14 @@
 	git update-index --add -- bar &&
 	git commit -m "$name" &&
 	test_must_fail git svn set-tree --find-copies-harder --rmdir \
-		${remotes_git_svn}..mybranch2
+		remotes/git-svn..mybranch2
 '
 
 
 name='detect node change from file to directory #2'
 test_expect_success "$name" '
 	rm -f "$GIT_DIR"/index &&
-	git checkout -f -b mybranch3 ${remotes_git_svn} &&
+	git checkout -f -b mybranch3 remotes/git-svn &&
 	rm bar/zzz &&
 	git update-index --remove bar/zzz &&
 	mkdir bar/zzz &&
@@ -95,7 +95,7 @@
 	git update-index --add bar/zzz/yyy &&
 	git commit -m "$name" &&
 	git svn set-tree --find-copies-harder --rmdir \
-		${remotes_git_svn}..mybranch3 &&
+		remotes/git-svn..mybranch3 &&
 	svn_cmd up "$SVN_TREE" &&
 	test -d "$SVN_TREE"/bar/zzz &&
 	test -e "$SVN_TREE"/bar/zzz/yyy
@@ -104,7 +104,7 @@
 name='detect node change from directory to file #2'
 test_expect_success "$name" '
 	rm -f "$GIT_DIR"/index &&
-	git checkout -f -b mybranch4 ${remotes_git_svn} &&
+	git checkout -f -b mybranch4 remotes/git-svn &&
 	rm -rf dir &&
 	git update-index --remove -- dir/file &&
 	touch dir &&
@@ -112,19 +112,19 @@
 	git update-index --add -- dir &&
 	git commit -m "$name" &&
 	test_must_fail git svn set-tree --find-copies-harder --rmdir \
-		${remotes_git_svn}..mybranch4
+		remotes/git-svn..mybranch4
 '
 
 
 name='remove executable bit from a file'
 test_expect_success POSIXPERM "$name" '
 	rm -f "$GIT_DIR"/index &&
-	git checkout -f -b mybranch5 ${remotes_git_svn} &&
+	git checkout -f -b mybranch5 remotes/git-svn &&
 	chmod -x exec.sh &&
 	git update-index exec.sh &&
 	git commit -m "$name" &&
 	git svn set-tree --find-copies-harder --rmdir \
-		${remotes_git_svn}..mybranch5 &&
+		remotes/git-svn..mybranch5 &&
 	svn_cmd up "$SVN_TREE" &&
 	test ! -x "$SVN_TREE"/exec.sh'
 
@@ -135,7 +135,7 @@
 	git update-index exec.sh &&
 	git commit -m "$name" &&
 	git svn set-tree --find-copies-harder --rmdir \
-		${remotes_git_svn}..mybranch5 &&
+		remotes/git-svn..mybranch5 &&
 	svn_cmd up "$SVN_TREE" &&
 	test -x "$SVN_TREE"/exec.sh'
 
@@ -147,7 +147,7 @@
 	git update-index exec.sh &&
 	git commit -m "$name" &&
 	git svn set-tree --find-copies-harder --rmdir \
-		${remotes_git_svn}..mybranch5 &&
+		remotes/git-svn..mybranch5 &&
 	svn_cmd up "$SVN_TREE" &&
 	test -h "$SVN_TREE"/exec.sh'
 
@@ -159,7 +159,7 @@
 	git update-index --add file exec-2.sh &&
 	git commit -m "$name" &&
 	git svn set-tree --find-copies-harder --rmdir \
-		${remotes_git_svn}..mybranch5 &&
+		remotes/git-svn..mybranch5 &&
 	svn_cmd up "$SVN_TREE" &&
 	test -x "$SVN_TREE"/file &&
 	test -h "$SVN_TREE"/exec-2.sh'
@@ -172,7 +172,7 @@
 	git update-index exec-2.sh &&
 	git commit -m "$name" &&
 	git svn set-tree --find-copies-harder --rmdir \
-		${remotes_git_svn}..mybranch5 &&
+		remotes/git-svn..mybranch5 &&
 	svn_cmd up "$SVN_TREE" &&
 	test -f "$SVN_TREE"/exec-2.sh &&
 	test ! -h "$SVN_TREE"/exec-2.sh &&
@@ -194,7 +194,7 @@
 export GIT_SVN_ID
 test_expect_success "$name" \
     'git svn init "$svnrepo" && git svn fetch &&
-     git rev-list --pretty=raw ${remotes_git_svn} | grep ^tree | uniq > a &&
+     git rev-list --pretty=raw remotes/git-svn | grep ^tree | uniq > a &&
      git rev-list --pretty=raw remotes/alt | grep ^tree | uniq > b &&
      test_cmp a b'
 
@@ -217,17 +217,17 @@
 
 test_expect_success POSIXPERM,SYMLINKS "$name" "test_cmp a expected"
 
-test_expect_success 'exit if remote refs are ambigious' "
+test_expect_success 'exit if remote refs are ambigious' '
         git config --add svn-remote.svn.fetch \
-                              bar:refs/${remotes_git_svn} &&
+		bar:refs/remotes/git-svn &&
 	test_must_fail git svn migrate
-"
+'
 
 test_expect_success 'exit if init-ing a would clobber a URL' '
         svnadmin create "${PWD}/svnrepo2" &&
         svn mkdir -m "mkdir bar" "${svnrepo}2/bar" &&
         git config --unset svn-remote.svn.fetch \
-                                "^bar:refs/${remotes_git_svn}$" &&
+		"^bar:refs/remotes/git-svn$" &&
 	test_must_fail git svn init "${svnrepo}2/bar"
         '
 
@@ -237,7 +237,7 @@
         git config --get svn-remote.svn.fetch \
                               "^bar:refs/remotes/bar$" &&
         git config --get svn-remote.svn.fetch \
-                              "^:refs/${remotes_git_svn}$"
+			      "^:refs/remotes/git-svn$"
         '
 
 test_expect_success 'dcommit $rev does not clobber current branch' '
@@ -259,26 +259,26 @@
 	git branch -D my-bar
 	'
 
-test_expect_success 'able to dcommit to a subdirectory' "
+test_expect_success 'able to dcommit to a subdirectory' '
 	git svn fetch -i bar &&
 	git checkout -b my-bar refs/remotes/bar &&
 	echo abc > d &&
 	git update-index --add d &&
-	git commit -m '/bar/d should be in the log' &&
+	git commit -m "/bar/d should be in the log" &&
 	git svn dcommit -i bar &&
-	test -z \"\$(git diff refs/heads/my-bar refs/remotes/bar)\" &&
+	test -z "$(git diff refs/heads/my-bar refs/remotes/bar)" &&
 	mkdir newdir &&
 	echo new > newdir/dir &&
 	git update-index --add newdir/dir &&
-	git commit -m 'add a new directory' &&
+	git commit -m "add a new directory" &&
 	git svn dcommit -i bar &&
-	test -z \"\$(git diff refs/heads/my-bar refs/remotes/bar)\" &&
+	test -z "$(git diff refs/heads/my-bar refs/remotes/bar)" &&
 	echo foo >> newdir/dir &&
 	git update-index newdir/dir &&
-	git commit -m 'modify a file in new directory' &&
+	git commit -m "modify a file in new directory" &&
 	git svn dcommit -i bar &&
-	test -z \"\$(git diff refs/heads/my-bar refs/remotes/bar)\"
-	"
+	test -z "$(git diff refs/heads/my-bar refs/remotes/bar)"
+'
 
 test_expect_success 'dcommit should not fail with a touched file' '
 	test_commit "commit-new-file-foo2" foo2 &&
@@ -291,13 +291,13 @@
 	git svn rebase
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'able to set-tree to a subdirectory' "
+test_expect_success 'able to set-tree to a subdirectory' '
 	echo cba > d &&
 	git update-index d &&
-	git commit -m 'update /bar/d' &&
+	git commit -m "update /bar/d" &&
 	git svn set-tree -i bar HEAD &&
-	test -z \"\$(git diff refs/heads/my-bar refs/remotes/bar)\"
-	"
+	test -z "$(git diff refs/heads/my-bar refs/remotes/bar)"
+'
 
 test_expect_success 'git-svn works in a bare repository' '
 	mkdir bare-repo &&
diff --git a/t/t9101-git-svn-props.sh b/t/t9101-git-svn-props.sh
index e8173d5..07bfb63 100755
--- a/t/t9101-git-svn-props.sh
+++ b/t/t9101-git-svn-props.sh
@@ -73,11 +73,11 @@
 
 name='test svn:keywords ignoring'
 test_expect_success "$name" \
-	'git checkout -b mybranch ${remotes_git_svn} &&
+	'git checkout -b mybranch remotes/git-svn &&
 	echo Hi again >> kw.c &&
 	git commit -a -m "test keywords ignoring" &&
-	git svn set-tree ${remotes_git_svn}..mybranch &&
-	git pull . ${remotes_git_svn}'
+	git svn set-tree remotes/git-svn..mybranch &&
+	git pull . remotes/git-svn'
 
 expect='/* $Id$ */'
 got="$(sed -ne 2p kw.c)"
@@ -95,7 +95,7 @@
 
 test_expect_success 'fetch and pull latest from svn and checkout a new wc' \
 	'git svn fetch &&
-	 git pull . ${remotes_git_svn} &&
+	 git pull . remotes/git-svn &&
 	 svn_cmd co "$svnrepo" new_wc'
 
 for i in crlf ne_crlf lf ne_lf cr ne_cr empty_cr empty_lf empty empty_crlf
@@ -117,7 +117,7 @@
 	 svn_cmd commit -m "propset CRLF on cr files"'
 cd ..
 test_expect_success 'fetch and pull latest from svn' \
-	'git svn fetch && git pull . ${remotes_git_svn}'
+	'git svn fetch && git pull . remotes/git-svn'
 
 b_cr="$(git hash-object cr)"
 b_ne_cr="$(git hash-object ne_cr)"
@@ -168,7 +168,7 @@
 EOF
 
 test_expect_success 'test create-ignore' "
-	git svn fetch && git pull . ${remotes_git_svn} &&
+	git svn fetch && git pull . remotes/git-svn &&
 	git svn create-ignore &&
 	cmp ./.gitignore create-ignore.expect &&
 	cmp ./deeply/.gitignore create-ignore.expect &&
diff --git a/t/t9102-git-svn-deep-rmdir.sh b/t/t9102-git-svn-deep-rmdir.sh
index eb70f48..66cd511 100755
--- a/t/t9102-git-svn-deep-rmdir.sh
+++ b/t/t9102-git-svn-deep-rmdir.sh
@@ -17,7 +17,7 @@
 test_expect_success 'mirror via git svn' '
 	git svn init "$svnrepo" &&
 	git svn fetch &&
-	git checkout -f -b test-rmdir ${remotes_git_svn}
+	git checkout -f -b test-rmdir remotes/git-svn
 	'
 
 test_expect_success 'Try a commit on rmdir' '
diff --git a/t/t9103-git-svn-tracked-directory-removed.sh b/t/t9103-git-svn-tracked-directory-removed.sh
index 3413164..b282713 100755
--- a/t/t9103-git-svn-tracked-directory-removed.sh
+++ b/t/t9103-git-svn-tracked-directory-removed.sh
@@ -23,17 +23,19 @@
 
 test_expect_success 'clone repo with git' '
 	git svn clone -s "$svnrepo" x &&
-	test -f x/FOLLOWME &&
-	test ! -f x/README
+	test_path_is_file x/FOLLOWME &&
+	test_path_is_missing x/README
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'make sure r2 still has old file' "
-	cd x &&
-		test -n \"\$(git svn find-rev r1)\" &&
-		git reset --hard \$(git svn find-rev r1) &&
-		test -f README &&
-		test ! -f FOLLOWME &&
-		test x\$(git svn find-rev r2) = x
-"
+test_expect_success 'make sure r2 still has old file' '
+	(
+		cd x &&
+		test -n "$(git svn find-rev r1)" &&
+		git reset --hard "$(git svn find-rev r1)" &&
+		test_path_is_file README &&
+		test_path_is_missing FOLLOWME &&
+		test -z "$(git svn find-rev r2)"
+	)
+'
 
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t9106-git-svn-commit-diff-clobber.sh b/t/t9106-git-svn-commit-diff-clobber.sh
index f6d7ac7..dbe8dea 100755
--- a/t/t9106-git-svn-commit-diff-clobber.sh
+++ b/t/t9106-git-svn-commit-diff-clobber.sh
@@ -44,7 +44,7 @@
 test_expect_success 'dcommit fails to commit because of conflict' '
 	git svn init "$svnrepo" &&
 	git svn fetch &&
-	git reset --hard refs/${remotes_git_svn} &&
+	git reset --hard refs/remotes/git-svn &&
 	svn_cmd co "$svnrepo" t.svn &&
 	(
 		cd t.svn &&
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@
 	'
 
 test_expect_success 'dcommit does the svn equivalent of an index merge' "
-	git reset --hard refs/${remotes_git_svn} &&
+	git reset --hard refs/remotes/git-svn &&
 	echo 'index merge' > file2 &&
 	git update-index --add file2 &&
 	git commit -a -m 'index merge' &&
@@ -81,7 +81,7 @@
 	'
 
 test_expect_success 'multiple dcommit from git svn will not clobber svn' "
-	git reset --hard refs/${remotes_git_svn} &&
+	git reset --hard refs/remotes/git-svn &&
 	echo new file >> new-file &&
 	git update-index --add new-file &&
 	git commit -a -m 'new file' &&
diff --git a/t/t9107-git-svn-migrate.sh b/t/t9107-git-svn-migrate.sh
index 9060198..9f3ef8f 100755
--- a/t/t9107-git-svn-migrate.sh
+++ b/t/t9107-git-svn-migrate.sh
@@ -19,13 +19,14 @@
 	git svn init "$svnrepo" &&
 	git svn fetch &&
 	rm -rf "$GIT_DIR"/svn &&
-	git update-ref refs/heads/git-svn-HEAD refs/${remotes_git_svn} &&
-	git update-ref refs/heads/svn-HEAD refs/${remotes_git_svn} &&
-	git update-ref -d refs/${remotes_git_svn} refs/${remotes_git_svn}
+	git update-ref refs/heads/git-svn-HEAD refs/remotes/git-svn &&
+	git update-ref refs/heads/svn-HEAD refs/remotes/git-svn &&
+	git update-ref -d refs/remotes/git-svn refs/remotes/git-svn
 	'
 
-head=$(git rev-parse --verify refs/heads/git-svn-HEAD^0)
-test_expect_success 'git-svn-HEAD is a real HEAD' "test -n '$head'"
+test_expect_success 'git-svn-HEAD is a real HEAD' '
+	git rev-parse --verify refs/heads/git-svn-HEAD^0
+'
 
 svnrepo_escaped=$(echo $svnrepo | sed 's/ /%20/')
 
@@ -35,11 +36,11 @@
 	echo "$svnrepo" > "$GIT_DIR"/svn/info/url &&
 	git svn migrate &&
 	! test -d "$GIT_DIR"/git-svn &&
-	git rev-parse --verify refs/${remotes_git_svn}^0 &&
+	git rev-parse --verify refs/remotes/git-svn^0 &&
 	git rev-parse --verify refs/remotes/svn^0 &&
 	test "$(git config --get svn-remote.svn.url)" = "$svnrepo_escaped" &&
 	test $(git config --get svn-remote.svn.fetch) = \
-             ":refs/${remotes_git_svn}"
+		":refs/remotes/git-svn"
 	'
 
 test_expect_success 'initialize a multi-repository repo' '
@@ -56,9 +57,11 @@
 	                        "^tags/\*:refs/remotes/origin/tags/\*$" &&
 	git config --add svn-remote.svn.fetch "branches/a:refs/remotes/origin/a" &&
 	git config --add svn-remote.svn.fetch "branches/b:refs/remotes/origin/b" &&
-	for i in tags/0.1 tags/0.2 tags/0.3; do
+	for i in tags/0.1 tags/0.2 tags/0.3
+	do
 		git config --add svn-remote.svn.fetch \
-		                 $i:refs/remotes/origin/$i || exit 1; done &&
+			$i:refs/remotes/origin/$i || return 1
+	done &&
 	git config --get-all svn-remote.svn.fetch > fetch.out &&
 	grep "^trunk:refs/remotes/origin/trunk$" fetch.out &&
 	grep "^branches/a:refs/remotes/origin/a$" fetch.out &&
@@ -66,34 +69,42 @@
 	grep "^tags/0\.1:refs/remotes/origin/tags/0\.1$" fetch.out &&
 	grep "^tags/0\.2:refs/remotes/origin/tags/0\.2$" fetch.out &&
 	grep "^tags/0\.3:refs/remotes/origin/tags/0\.3$" fetch.out &&
-	grep "^:refs/${remotes_git_svn}" fetch.out
+	grep "^:refs/remotes/git-svn" fetch.out
 	'
 
 # refs should all be different, but the trees should all be the same:
-test_expect_success 'multi-fetch works on partial urls + paths' "
+test_expect_success 'multi-fetch works on partial urls + paths' '
+	refs="trunk a b tags/0.1 tags/0.2 tags/0.3" &&
 	git svn multi-fetch &&
-	for i in trunk a b tags/0.1 tags/0.2 tags/0.3; do
-		git rev-parse --verify refs/remotes/origin/\$i^0 >> refs.out || exit 1;
-	    done &&
-	test -z \"\$(sort < refs.out | uniq -d)\" &&
-	for i in trunk a b tags/0.1 tags/0.2 tags/0.3; do
-	  for j in trunk a b tags/0.1 tags/0.2 tags/0.3; do
-		if test \$j != \$i; then continue; fi
-	    test -z \"\$(git diff refs/remotes/origin/\$i \
-				 refs/remotes/origin/\$j)\" ||exit 1; done; done
-	"
+	for i in $refs
+	do
+		git rev-parse --verify refs/remotes/origin/$i^0 || return 1;
+	done >refs.out &&
+	test -z "$(sort <refs.out | uniq -d)" &&
+	for i in $refs
+	do
+		for j in $refs
+		do
+			git diff --exit-code refs/remotes/origin/$i \
+					     refs/remotes/origin/$j ||
+				return 1
+		done
+	done
+'
 
 test_expect_success 'migrate --minimize on old inited layout' '
 	git config --unset-all svn-remote.svn.fetch &&
 	git config --unset-all svn-remote.svn.url &&
 	rm -rf "$GIT_DIR"/svn &&
-	for i in $(cat fetch.out); do
+	for i in $(cat fetch.out)
+	do
 		path=$(expr $i : "\([^:]*\):.*$")
 		ref=$(expr $i : "[^:]*:\(refs/remotes/.*\)$")
 		if test -z "$ref"; then continue; fi
 		if test -n "$path"; then path="/$path"; fi
-		( mkdir -p "$GIT_DIR"/svn/$ref/info/ &&
-		echo "$svnrepo"$path > "$GIT_DIR"/svn/$ref/info/url ) || exit 1;
+		mkdir -p "$GIT_DIR"/svn/$ref/info/ &&
+		echo "$svnrepo"$path >"$GIT_DIR"/svn/$ref/info/url ||
+		return 1
 	done &&
 	git svn migrate --minimize &&
 	test -z "$(git config -l | grep "^svn-remote\.git-svn\.")" &&
@@ -104,7 +115,7 @@
 	grep "^tags/0\.1:refs/remotes/origin/tags/0\.1$" fetch.out &&
 	grep "^tags/0\.2:refs/remotes/origin/tags/0\.2$" fetch.out &&
 	grep "^tags/0\.3:refs/remotes/origin/tags/0\.3$" fetch.out &&
-	grep "^:refs/${remotes_git_svn}" fetch.out
+	grep "^:refs/remotes/git-svn" fetch.out
 	'
 
 test_expect_success  ".rev_db auto-converted to .rev_map.UUID" '
diff --git a/t/t9110-git-svn-use-svm-props.sh b/t/t9110-git-svn-use-svm-props.sh
index 29fbdfd..dde0a3c 100755
--- a/t/t9110-git-svn-use-svm-props.sh
+++ b/t/t9110-git-svn-use-svm-props.sh
@@ -22,31 +22,31 @@
 bar_url=http://mayonaise/svnrepo/bar
 test_expect_success 'verify metadata for /bar' "
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/bar | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $bar_url@12 $uuid$' &&
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $bar_url@12 $uuid$' &&
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/bar~1 | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $bar_url@11 $uuid$' &&
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $bar_url@11 $uuid$' &&
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/bar~2 | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $bar_url@10 $uuid$' &&
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $bar_url@10 $uuid$' &&
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/bar~3 | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $bar_url@9 $uuid$' &&
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $bar_url@9 $uuid$' &&
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/bar~4 | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $bar_url@6 $uuid$' &&
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $bar_url@6 $uuid$' &&
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/bar~5 | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $bar_url@1 $uuid$'
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $bar_url@1 $uuid$'
 	"
 
 e_url=http://mayonaise/svnrepo/dir/a/b/c/d/e
 test_expect_success 'verify metadata for /dir/a/b/c/d/e' "
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/e | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $e_url@1 $uuid$'
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $e_url@1 $uuid$'
 	"
 
 dir_url=http://mayonaise/svnrepo/dir
 test_expect_success 'verify metadata for /dir' "
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/dir | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $dir_url@2 $uuid$' &&
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $dir_url@2 $uuid$' &&
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/dir~1 | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $dir_url@1 $uuid$'
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $dir_url@1 $uuid$'
 	"
 
 test_expect_success 'find commit based on SVN revision number' "
diff --git a/t/t9111-git-svn-use-svnsync-props.sh b/t/t9111-git-svn-use-svnsync-props.sh
index bd081c2..22b6e5e 100755
--- a/t/t9111-git-svn-use-svnsync-props.sh
+++ b/t/t9111-git-svn-use-svnsync-props.sh
@@ -21,31 +21,31 @@
 bar_url=http://mayonaise/svnrepo/bar
 test_expect_success 'verify metadata for /bar' "
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/bar | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $bar_url@12 $uuid$' &&
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $bar_url@12 $uuid$' &&
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/bar~1 | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $bar_url@11 $uuid$' &&
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $bar_url@11 $uuid$' &&
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/bar~2 | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $bar_url@10 $uuid$' &&
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $bar_url@10 $uuid$' &&
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/bar~3 | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $bar_url@9 $uuid$' &&
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $bar_url@9 $uuid$' &&
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/bar~4 | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $bar_url@6 $uuid$' &&
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $bar_url@6 $uuid$' &&
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/bar~5 | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $bar_url@1 $uuid$'
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $bar_url@1 $uuid$'
 	"
 
 e_url=http://mayonaise/svnrepo/dir/a/b/c/d/e
 test_expect_success 'verify metadata for /dir/a/b/c/d/e' "
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/e | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $e_url@1 $uuid$'
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $e_url@1 $uuid$'
 	"
 
 dir_url=http://mayonaise/svnrepo/dir
 test_expect_success 'verify metadata for /dir' "
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/dir | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $dir_url@2 $uuid$' &&
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $dir_url@2 $uuid$' &&
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/dir~1 | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: $dir_url@1 $uuid$'
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: $dir_url@1 $uuid$'
 	"
 
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t9120-git-svn-clone-with-percent-escapes.sh b/t/t9120-git-svn-clone-with-percent-escapes.sh
index 1c84ce1..59465b1 100755
--- a/t/t9120-git-svn-clone-with-percent-escapes.sh
+++ b/t/t9120-git-svn-clone-with-percent-escapes.sh
@@ -22,7 +22,7 @@
 	git svn clone "$svnrepo/pr%20ject" clone &&
 	(
 		cd clone &&
-		git rev-parse refs/${remotes_git_svn}
+		git rev-parse refs/remotes/git-svn
 	)
 '
 
@@ -42,7 +42,7 @@
 	git svn clone --minimize-url "$svnrepo/pr%20ject/trunk" minimize &&
 	(
 		cd minimize &&
-		git rev-parse refs/${remotes_git_svn}
+		git rev-parse refs/remotes/git-svn
 	)
 '
 
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@
 	git svn clone "$svnrepo/pr%20ject/trunk" trunk &&
 	(
 		cd trunk &&
-		git rev-parse refs/${remotes_git_svn}
+		git rev-parse refs/remotes/git-svn
 	)
 '
 
diff --git a/t/t9123-git-svn-rebuild-with-rewriteroot.sh b/t/t9123-git-svn-rebuild-with-rewriteroot.sh
index fd81847..ead4045 100755
--- a/t/t9123-git-svn-rebuild-with-rewriteroot.sh
+++ b/t/t9123-git-svn-rebuild-with-rewriteroot.sh
@@ -17,7 +17,7 @@
 test_expect_success 'init, fetch and checkout repository' '
 	git svn init --rewrite-root=http://invalid.invalid/ "$svnrepo" &&
 	git svn fetch &&
-	git checkout -b mybranch ${remotes_git_svn}
+	git checkout -b mybranch remotes/git-svn
 	'
 
 test_expect_success 'remove rev_map' '
diff --git a/t/t9153-git-svn-rewrite-uuid.sh b/t/t9153-git-svn-rewrite-uuid.sh
index 88a2cfa..372ef15 100755
--- a/t/t9153-git-svn-rewrite-uuid.sh
+++ b/t/t9153-git-svn-rewrite-uuid.sh
@@ -17,9 +17,9 @@
 
 test_expect_success 'verify uuid' "
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/git-svn~0 | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: .*@2 $uuid$' &&
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: .*@2 $uuid$' &&
 	git cat-file commit refs/remotes/git-svn~1 | \
-	   grep '^${git_svn_id}: .*@1 $uuid$'
+	   grep '^git-svn-id: .*@1 $uuid$'
 	"
 
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t9300-fast-import.sh b/t/t9300-fast-import.sh
index 25bb60b..4bca35c 100755
--- a/t/t9300-fast-import.sh
+++ b/t/t9300-fast-import.sh
@@ -2650,6 +2650,21 @@
 	git fast-import <input
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'R: corrupt lines do not mess marks file' '
+	rm -f io.marks &&
+	blob=$(echo hi | git hash-object --stdin) &&
+	cat >expect <<-EOF &&
+	:3 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000
+	:1 $blob
+	:2 $blob
+	EOF
+	cp expect io.marks &&
+	test_must_fail git fast-import --import-marks=io.marks --export-marks=io.marks <<-\EOF &&
+
+	EOF
+	test_cmp expect io.marks
+'
+
 ##
 ## R: very large blobs
 ##
diff --git a/t/t9400-git-cvsserver-server.sh b/t/t9400-git-cvsserver-server.sh
index d708cbf..432c61d 100755
--- a/t/t9400-git-cvsserver-server.sh
+++ b/t/t9400-git-cvsserver-server.sh
@@ -45,7 +45,8 @@
   touch secondrootfile &&
   git add secondrootfile &&
   git commit -m "second root") &&
-  git pull secondroot master &&
+  git fetch secondroot master &&
+  git merge --allow-unrelated-histories FETCH_HEAD &&
   git clone -q --bare "$WORKDIR/.git" "$SERVERDIR" >/dev/null 2>&1 &&
   GIT_DIR="$SERVERDIR" git config --bool gitcvs.enabled true &&
   GIT_DIR="$SERVERDIR" git config gitcvs.logfile "$SERVERDIR/gitcvs.log" &&
diff --git a/t/t9826-git-p4-keep-empty-commits.sh b/t/t9826-git-p4-keep-empty-commits.sh
index be12960..fa8b9da 100755
--- a/t/t9826-git-p4-keep-empty-commits.sh
+++ b/t/t9826-git-p4-keep-empty-commits.sh
@@ -47,23 +47,23 @@
 		git init . &&
 		git p4 clone --use-client-spec --destination="$git" //depot@all &&
 		cat >expect <<-\EOF &&
-Remove file 4
-[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 6]
+		Remove file 4
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 6]
 
-Remove file 3
-[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 5]
+		Remove file 3
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 5]
 
-Add file 4
-[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 4]
+		Add file 4
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 4]
 
-Add file 3
-[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 3]
+		Add file 3
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 3]
 
-Add file 2
-[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 2]
+		Add file 2
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 2]
 
-Add file 1
-[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 1]
+		Add file 1
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 1]
 
 		EOF
 		git log --format=%B >actual &&
@@ -80,23 +80,23 @@
 		git config git-p4.keepEmptyCommits true &&
 		git p4 clone --use-client-spec --destination="$git" //depot@all &&
 		cat >expect <<-\EOF &&
-Remove file 4
-[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 6]
+		Remove file 4
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 6]
 
-Remove file 3
-[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 5]
+		Remove file 3
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 5]
 
-Add file 4
-[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 4]
+		Add file 4
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 4]
 
-Add file 3
-[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 3]
+		Add file 3
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 3]
 
-Add file 2
-[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 2]
+		Add file 2
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 2]
 
-Add file 1
-[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 1]
+		Add file 1
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 1]
 
 		EOF
 		git log --format=%B >actual &&
@@ -112,14 +112,14 @@
 		git init . &&
 		git p4 clone --use-client-spec --destination="$git" --verbose //depot@all &&
 		cat >expect <<-\EOF &&
-Remove file 3
-[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 5]
+		Remove file 3
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 5]
 
-Add file 3
-[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 3]
+		Add file 3
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 3]
 
-Add file 1
-[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 1]
+		Add file 1
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 1]
 
 		EOF
 		git log --format=%B >actual &&
diff --git a/t/t9828-git-p4-map-user.sh b/t/t9828-git-p4-map-user.sh
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..e20395c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/t/t9828-git-p4-map-user.sh
@@ -0,0 +1,61 @@
+#!/bin/sh
+
+test_description='Clone repositories and map users'
+
+. ./lib-git-p4.sh
+
+test_expect_success 'start p4d' '
+	start_p4d
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'Create a repo with different users' '
+	client_view "//depot/... //client/..." &&
+	(
+		cd "$cli" &&
+
+		>author.txt &&
+		p4 add author.txt &&
+		p4 submit -d "Add file author\\n" &&
+
+		P4USER=mmax &&
+		>max.txt &&
+		p4 add max.txt &&
+		p4 submit -d "Add file max" &&
+
+		P4USER=eri &&
+		>moritz.txt &&
+		p4 add moritz.txt &&
+		p4 submit -d "Add file moritz" &&
+
+		P4USER=no &&
+		>nobody.txt &&
+		p4 add nobody.txt &&
+		p4 submit -d "Add file nobody"
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'Clone repo root path with all history' '
+	client_view "//depot/... //client/..." &&
+	test_when_finished cleanup_git &&
+	(
+		cd "$git" &&
+		git init . &&
+		git config --add git-p4.mapUser "mmax = Max Musterman   <max@example.com> "  &&
+		git config --add git-p4.mapUser "  eri=Erika Musterman <erika@example.com>" &&
+		git p4 clone --use-client-spec --destination="$git" //depot@all &&
+		cat >expect <<-\EOF &&
+			no <no@client>
+			Erika Musterman <erika@example.com>
+			Max Musterman <max@example.com>
+			Dr. author <author@example.com>
+		EOF
+		git log --format="%an <%ae>" >actual &&
+		test_cmp expect actual
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'kill p4d' '
+	kill_p4d
+'
+
+test_done
diff --git a/t/t9829-git-p4-jobs.sh b/t/t9829-git-p4-jobs.sh
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..971aeee
--- /dev/null
+++ b/t/t9829-git-p4-jobs.sh
@@ -0,0 +1,99 @@
+#!/bin/sh
+
+test_description='git p4 retrieve job info'
+
+. ./lib-git-p4.sh
+
+test_expect_success 'start p4d' '
+	start_p4d
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'add p4 jobs' '
+	(
+		p4_add_job TESTJOB-A &&
+		p4_add_job TESTJOB-B
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'add p4 files' '
+	client_view "//depot/... //client/..." &&
+	(
+		cd "$cli" &&
+		>file1 &&
+		p4 add file1 &&
+		p4 submit -d "Add file 1"
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'check log message of changelist with no jobs' '
+	client_view "//depot/... //client/..." &&
+	test_when_finished cleanup_git &&
+	(
+		cd "$git" &&
+		git init . &&
+		git p4 clone --use-client-spec --destination="$git" //depot@all &&
+		cat >expect <<-\EOF &&
+		Add file 1
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 1]
+
+		EOF
+		git log --format=%B >actual &&
+		test_cmp expect actual
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'add TESTJOB-A to change 1' '
+	(
+		cd "$cli" &&
+		p4 fix -c 1 TESTJOB-A
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'check log message of changelist with one job' '
+	client_view "//depot/... //client/..." &&
+	test_when_finished cleanup_git &&
+	(
+		cd "$git" &&
+		git init . &&
+		git p4 clone --use-client-spec --destination="$git" //depot@all &&
+		cat >expect <<-\EOF &&
+		Add file 1
+		Jobs: TESTJOB-A
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 1]
+
+		EOF
+		git log --format=%B >actual &&
+		test_cmp expect actual
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'add TESTJOB-B to change 1' '
+	(
+		cd "$cli" &&
+		p4 fix -c 1 TESTJOB-B
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'check log message of changelist with more jobs' '
+	client_view "//depot/... //client/..." &&
+	test_when_finished cleanup_git &&
+	(
+		cd "$git" &&
+		git init . &&
+		git p4 clone --use-client-spec --destination="$git" //depot@all &&
+		cat >expect <<-\EOF &&
+		Add file 1
+		Jobs: TESTJOB-A TESTJOB-B
+		[git-p4: depot-paths = "//depot/": change = 1]
+
+		EOF
+		git log --format=%B >actual &&
+		test_cmp expect actual
+	)
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'kill p4d' '
+	kill_p4d
+'
+
+test_done
diff --git a/t/test-lib.sh b/t/test-lib.sh
index 39c70f0..0055ebb 100644
--- a/t/test-lib.sh
+++ b/t/test-lib.sh
@@ -867,10 +867,10 @@
 	error "You haven't built things yet, have you?"
 }
 
-if ! test -x "$GIT_BUILD_DIR"/test-chmtime
+if ! test -x "$GIT_BUILD_DIR"/t/helper/test-chmtime
 then
 	echo >&2 'You need to build test-chmtime:'
-	echo >&2 'Run "make test-chmtime" in the source (toplevel) directory'
+	echo >&2 'Run "make t/helper/test-chmtime" in the source (toplevel) directory'
 	exit 1
 fi
 
diff --git a/tag.c b/tag.c
index d72f742..d1dcd18 100644
--- a/tag.c
+++ b/tag.c
@@ -6,6 +6,59 @@
 
 const char *tag_type = "tag";
 
+static int run_gpg_verify(const char *buf, unsigned long size, unsigned flags)
+{
+	struct signature_check sigc;
+	size_t payload_size;
+	int ret;
+
+	memset(&sigc, 0, sizeof(sigc));
+
+	payload_size = parse_signature(buf, size);
+
+	if (size == payload_size) {
+		if (flags & GPG_VERIFY_VERBOSE)
+			write_in_full(1, buf, payload_size);
+		return error("no signature found");
+	}
+
+	ret = check_signature(buf, payload_size, buf + payload_size,
+				size - payload_size, &sigc);
+	print_signature_buffer(&sigc, flags);
+
+	signature_check_clear(&sigc);
+	return ret;
+}
+
+int gpg_verify_tag(const unsigned char *sha1, const char *name_to_report,
+		unsigned flags)
+{
+	enum object_type type;
+	char *buf;
+	unsigned long size;
+	int ret;
+
+	type = sha1_object_info(sha1, NULL);
+	if (type != OBJ_TAG)
+		return error("%s: cannot verify a non-tag object of type %s.",
+				name_to_report ?
+				name_to_report :
+				find_unique_abbrev(sha1, DEFAULT_ABBREV),
+				typename(type));
+
+	buf = read_sha1_file(sha1, &type, &size);
+	if (!buf)
+		return error("%s: unable to read file.",
+				name_to_report ?
+				name_to_report :
+				find_unique_abbrev(sha1, DEFAULT_ABBREV));
+
+	ret = run_gpg_verify(buf, size, flags);
+
+	free(buf);
+	return ret;
+}
+
 struct object *deref_tag(struct object *o, const char *warn, int warnlen)
 {
 	while (o && o->type == OBJ_TAG)
diff --git a/tag.h b/tag.h
index f4580ae..a5721b6 100644
--- a/tag.h
+++ b/tag.h
@@ -17,5 +17,7 @@
 extern int parse_tag(struct tag *item);
 extern struct object *deref_tag(struct object *, const char *, int);
 extern struct object *deref_tag_noverify(struct object *);
+extern int gpg_verify_tag(const unsigned char *sha1,
+		const char *name_to_report, unsigned flags);
 
 #endif /* TAG_H */
diff --git a/test-match-trees.c b/test-match-trees.c
deleted file mode 100644
index 4dad709..0000000
--- a/test-match-trees.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,26 +0,0 @@
-#include "cache.h"
-#include "tree.h"
-
-int main(int ac, char **av)
-{
-	unsigned char hash1[20], hash2[20], shifted[20];
-	struct tree *one, *two;
-
-	setup_git_directory();
-
-	if (get_sha1(av[1], hash1))
-		die("cannot parse %s as an object name", av[1]);
-	if (get_sha1(av[2], hash2))
-		die("cannot parse %s as an object name", av[2]);
-	one = parse_tree_indirect(hash1);
-	if (!one)
-		die("not a tree-ish %s", av[1]);
-	two = parse_tree_indirect(hash2);
-	if (!two)
-		die("not a tree-ish %s", av[2]);
-
-	shift_tree(one->object.oid.hash, two->object.oid.hash, shifted, -1);
-	printf("shifted: %s\n", sha1_to_hex(shifted));
-
-	exit(0);
-}
diff --git a/test-parse-options.c b/test-parse-options.c
deleted file mode 100644
index 2c8c8f1..0000000
--- a/test-parse-options.c
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,104 +0,0 @@
-#include "cache.h"
-#include "parse-options.h"
-#include "string-list.h"
-
-static int boolean = 0;
-static int integer = 0;
-static unsigned long magnitude = 0;
-static unsigned long timestamp;
-static int abbrev = 7;
-static int verbose = 0, dry_run = 0, quiet = 0;
-static char *string = NULL;
-static char *file = NULL;
-static int ambiguous;
-static struct string_list list;
-
-static int length_callback(const struct option *opt, const char *arg, int unset)
-{
-	printf("Callback: \"%s\", %d\n",
-		(arg ? arg : "not set"), unset);
-	if (unset)
-		return 1; /* do not support unset */
-
-	*(int *)opt->value = strlen(arg);
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static int number_callback(const struct option *opt, const char *arg, int unset)
-{
-	*(int *)opt->value = strtol(arg, NULL, 10);
-	return 0;
-}
-
-int main(int argc, char **argv)
-{
-	const char *prefix = "prefix/";
-	const char *usage[] = {
-		"test-parse-options <options>",
-		NULL
-	};
-	struct option options[] = {
-		OPT_BOOL(0, "yes", &boolean, "get a boolean"),
-		OPT_BOOL('D', "no-doubt", &boolean, "begins with 'no-'"),
-		{ OPTION_SET_INT, 'B', "no-fear", &boolean, NULL,
-		  "be brave", PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_NONEG, NULL, 1 },
-		OPT_COUNTUP('b', "boolean", &boolean, "increment by one"),
-		OPT_BIT('4', "or4", &boolean,
-			"bitwise-or boolean with ...0100", 4),
-		OPT_NEGBIT(0, "neg-or4", &boolean, "same as --no-or4", 4),
-		OPT_GROUP(""),
-		OPT_INTEGER('i', "integer", &integer, "get a integer"),
-		OPT_INTEGER('j', NULL, &integer, "get a integer, too"),
-		OPT_MAGNITUDE('m', "magnitude", &magnitude, "get a magnitude"),
-		OPT_SET_INT(0, "set23", &integer, "set integer to 23", 23),
-		OPT_DATE('t', NULL, &timestamp, "get timestamp of <time>"),
-		OPT_CALLBACK('L', "length", &integer, "str",
-			"get length of <str>", length_callback),
-		OPT_FILENAME('F', "file", &file, "set file to <file>"),
-		OPT_GROUP("String options"),
-		OPT_STRING('s', "string", &string, "string", "get a string"),
-		OPT_STRING(0, "string2", &string, "str", "get another string"),
-		OPT_STRING(0, "st", &string, "st", "get another string (pervert ordering)"),
-		OPT_STRING('o', NULL, &string, "str", "get another string"),
-		OPT_NOOP_NOARG(0, "obsolete"),
-		OPT_STRING_LIST(0, "list", &list, "str", "add str to list"),
-		OPT_GROUP("Magic arguments"),
-		OPT_ARGUMENT("quux", "means --quux"),
-		OPT_NUMBER_CALLBACK(&integer, "set integer to NUM",
-			number_callback),
-		{ OPTION_COUNTUP, '+', NULL, &boolean, NULL, "same as -b",
-		  PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_NONEG | PARSE_OPT_NODASH },
-		{ OPTION_COUNTUP, 0, "ambiguous", &ambiguous, NULL,
-		  "positive ambiguity", PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_NONEG },
-		{ OPTION_COUNTUP, 0, "no-ambiguous", &ambiguous, NULL,
-		  "negative ambiguity", PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_NONEG },
-		OPT_GROUP("Standard options"),
-		OPT__ABBREV(&abbrev),
-		OPT__VERBOSE(&verbose, "be verbose"),
-		OPT__DRY_RUN(&dry_run, "dry run"),
-		OPT__QUIET(&quiet, "be quiet"),
-		OPT_END(),
-	};
-	int i;
-
-	argc = parse_options(argc, (const char **)argv, prefix, options, usage, 0);
-
-	printf("boolean: %d\n", boolean);
-	printf("integer: %d\n", integer);
-	printf("magnitude: %lu\n", magnitude);
-	printf("timestamp: %lu\n", timestamp);
-	printf("string: %s\n", string ? string : "(not set)");
-	printf("abbrev: %d\n", abbrev);
-	printf("verbose: %d\n", verbose);
-	printf("quiet: %s\n", quiet ? "yes" : "no");
-	printf("dry run: %s\n", dry_run ? "yes" : "no");
-	printf("file: %s\n", file ? file : "(not set)");
-
-	for (i = 0; i < list.nr; i++)
-		printf("list: %s\n", list.items[i].string);
-
-	for (i = 0; i < argc; i++)
-		printf("arg %02d: %s\n", i, argv[i]);
-
-	return 0;
-}
diff --git a/transport-helper.c b/transport-helper.c
index 13b7a57..bd666b2 100644
--- a/transport-helper.c
+++ b/transport-helper.c
@@ -1166,7 +1166,7 @@
 	bytes = read(t->src, t->buf + t->bufuse, BUFFERSIZE - t->bufuse);
 	if (bytes < 0 && errno != EWOULDBLOCK && errno != EAGAIN &&
 		errno != EINTR) {
-		error("read(%s) failed: %s", t->src_name, strerror(errno));
+		error_errno("read(%s) failed", t->src_name);
 		return -1;
 	} else if (bytes == 0) {
 		transfer_debug("%s EOF (with %i bytes in buffer)",
@@ -1193,7 +1193,7 @@
 	transfer_debug("%s is writable", t->dest_name);
 	bytes = xwrite(t->dest, t->buf, t->bufuse);
 	if (bytes < 0 && errno != EWOULDBLOCK) {
-		error("write(%s) failed: %s", t->dest_name, strerror(errno));
+		error_errno("write(%s) failed", t->dest_name);
 		return -1;
 	} else if (bytes > 0) {
 		t->bufuse -= bytes;
@@ -1306,7 +1306,7 @@
 {
 	int tret;
 	if (waitpid(pid, &tret, 0) < 0) {
-		error("%s process failed to wait: %s", name, strerror(errno));
+		error_errno("%s process failed to wait", name);
 		return 1;
 	}
 	if (!WIFEXITED(tret) || WEXITSTATUS(tret)) {
diff --git a/tree-diff.c b/tree-diff.c
index 4dda9a1..ff4e0d3 100644
--- a/tree-diff.c
+++ b/tree-diff.c
@@ -183,7 +183,7 @@
 
 	if (t) {
 		/* path present in resulting tree */
-		sha1 = tree_entry_extract(t, &path, &mode);
+		sha1 = tree_entry_extract(t, &path, &mode)->hash;
 		pathlen = tree_entry_len(&t->entry);
 		isdir = S_ISDIR(mode);
 	} else {
@@ -229,7 +229,7 @@
 						DIFF_STATUS_ADDED;
 
 			if (tpi_valid) {
-				sha1_i = tp[i].entry.sha1;
+				sha1_i = tp[i].entry.oid->hash;
 				mode_i = tp[i].entry.mode;
 			}
 			else {
@@ -270,7 +270,7 @@
 			/* same rule as in emitthis */
 			int tpi_valid = tp && !(tp[i].entry.mode & S_IFXMIN_NEQ);
 
-			parents_sha1[i] = tpi_valid ? tp[i].entry.sha1
+			parents_sha1[i] = tpi_valid ? tp[i].entry.oid->hash
 						    : NULL;
 		}
 
@@ -482,7 +482,7 @@
 						continue;
 
 					/* diff(t,pi) != ø */
-					if (hashcmp(t.entry.sha1, tp[i].entry.sha1) ||
+					if (oidcmp(t.entry.oid, tp[i].entry.oid) ||
 					    (t.entry.mode != tp[i].entry.mode))
 						continue;
 
diff --git a/tree-walk.c b/tree-walk.c
index cd4bb2c..ce27842 100644
--- a/tree-walk.c
+++ b/tree-walk.c
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@
 	/* Initialize the descriptor entry */
 	desc->entry.path = path;
 	desc->entry.mode = canon_mode(mode);
-	desc->entry.sha1 = (const unsigned char *)(path + len);
+	desc->entry.oid  = (const struct object_id *)(path + len);
 }
 
 void init_tree_desc(struct tree_desc *desc, const void *buffer, unsigned long size)
@@ -76,7 +76,7 @@
 void update_tree_entry(struct tree_desc *desc)
 {
 	const void *buf = desc->buffer;
-	const unsigned char *end = desc->entry.sha1 + 20;
+	const unsigned char *end = desc->entry.oid->hash + 20;
 	unsigned long size = desc->size;
 	unsigned long len = end - (const unsigned char *)buf;
 
@@ -110,7 +110,7 @@
 		pathlen--;
 	info->pathlen = pathlen ? pathlen + 1 : 0;
 	info->name.path = base;
-	info->name.sha1 = (void *)(base + pathlen + 1);
+	info->name.oid = (void *)(base + pathlen + 1);
 	if (pathlen)
 		info->prev = &dummy;
 }
@@ -433,10 +433,10 @@
 	int namelen = strlen(name);
 	while (t->size) {
 		const char *entry;
-		const unsigned char *sha1;
+		const struct object_id *oid;
 		int entrylen, cmp;
 
-		sha1 = tree_entry_extract(t, &entry, mode);
+		oid = tree_entry_extract(t, &entry, mode);
 		entrylen = tree_entry_len(&t->entry);
 		update_tree_entry(t);
 		if (entrylen > namelen)
@@ -447,7 +447,7 @@
 		if (cmp < 0)
 			break;
 		if (entrylen == namelen) {
-			hashcpy(result, sha1);
+			hashcpy(result, oid->hash);
 			return 0;
 		}
 		if (name[entrylen] != '/')
@@ -455,10 +455,10 @@
 		if (!S_ISDIR(*mode))
 			break;
 		if (++entrylen == namelen) {
-			hashcpy(result, sha1);
+			hashcpy(result, oid->hash);
 			return 0;
 		}
-		return get_tree_entry(sha1, name + entrylen, result, mode);
+		return get_tree_entry(oid->hash, name + entrylen, result, mode);
 	}
 	return -1;
 }
diff --git a/tree-walk.h b/tree-walk.h
index 174eb61..97a7d69 100644
--- a/tree-walk.h
+++ b/tree-walk.h