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git-ls-files - Show information about files in the index and the working tree
'git ls-files' [-z] [-t] [-v]
[-x <pattern>|--exclude=<pattern>]
[-X <file>|--exclude-from=<file>]
[--error-unmatch] [--with-tree=<tree-ish>]
[--full-name] [--abbrev] [--] [<file>]*
This merges the file listing in the directory cache index with the
actual working directory list, and shows different combinations of the
One or more of the options below may be used to determine the files
Show cached files in the output (default)
Show deleted files in the output
Show modified files in the output
Show other (i.e. untracked) files in the output
Show only ignored files in the output. When showing files in the
index, print only those matched by an exclude pattern. When
showing "other" files, show only those matched by an exclude
Show staged contents' object name, mode bits and stage number in the output.
If a whole directory is classified as "other", show just its
name (with a trailing slash) and not its whole contents.
Do not list empty directories. Has no effect without --directory.
Show unmerged files in the output (forces --stage)
Show files on the filesystem that need to be removed due
to file/directory conflicts for checkout-index to
\0 line termination on output.
-x <pattern>::
Skips files matching pattern.
Note that pattern is a shell wildcard pattern.
-X <file>::
exclude patterns are read from <file>; 1 per line.
read additional exclude patterns that apply only to the
directory and its subdirectories in <file>.
Add the standard git exclusions: .git/info/exclude, .gitignore
in each directory, and the user's global exclusion file.
If any <file> does not appear in the index, treat this as an
error (return 1).
When using --error-unmatch to expand the user supplied
<file> (i.e. path pattern) arguments to paths, pretend
that paths which were removed in the index since the
named <tree-ish> are still present. Using this option
with `-s` or `-u` options does not make any sense.
This feature is semi-deprecated. For scripting purpose,
linkgit:git-status[1] `--porcelain` and
linkgit:git-diff-files[1] `--name-status` are almost always
superior alternatives, and users should look at
linkgit:git-status[1] `--short` or linkgit:git-diff[1]
`--name-status` for more user-friendly alternatives.
This option identifies the file status with the following tags (followed by
a space) at the start of each line:
H:: cached
S:: skip-worktree
M:: unmerged
R:: removed/deleted
C:: modified/changed
K:: to be killed
?:: other
Similar to `-t`, but use lowercase letters for files
that are marked as 'assume unchanged' (see
When run from a subdirectory, the command usually
outputs paths relative to the current directory. This
option forces paths to be output relative to the project
top directory.
Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object
lines, show only a partial prefix.
Non default number of digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.
After each line that describes a file, add more data about its
cache entry. This is intended to show as much information as
possible for manual inspection; the exact format may change at
any time.
Do not interpret any more arguments as options.
Files to show. If no files are given all files which match the other
specified criteria are shown.
'git ls-files' just outputs the filenames unless '--stage' is specified in
which case it outputs:
[<tag> ]<mode> <object> <stage> <file>
'git ls-files --unmerged' and 'git ls-files --stage' can be used to examine
detailed information on unmerged paths.
For an unmerged path, instead of recording a single mode/SHA1 pair,
the index records up to three such pairs; one from tree O in stage
1, A in stage 2, and B in stage 3. This information can be used by
the user (or the porcelain) to see what should eventually be recorded at the
path. (see linkgit:git-read-tree[1] for more information on state)
When `-z` option is not used, TAB, LF, and backslash characters
in pathnames are represented as `\t`, `\n`, and `\\`,
Exclude Patterns
'git ls-files' can use a list of "exclude patterns" when
traversing the directory tree and finding files to show when the
flags --others or --ignored are specified. linkgit:gitignore[5]
specifies the format of exclude patterns.
These exclude patterns come from these places, in order:
1. The command line flag --exclude=<pattern> specifies a
single pattern. Patterns are ordered in the same order
they appear in the command line.
2. The command line flag --exclude-from=<file> specifies a
file containing a list of patterns. Patterns are ordered
in the same order they appear in the file.
3. command line flag --exclude-per-directory=<name> specifies
a name of the file in each directory 'git ls-files'
examines, normally `.gitignore`. Files in deeper
directories take precedence. Patterns are ordered in the
same order they appear in the files.
A pattern specified on the command line with --exclude or read
from the file specified with --exclude-from is relative to the
top of the directory tree. A pattern read from a file specified
by --exclude-per-directory is relative to the directory that the
pattern file appears in.
linkgit:git-read-tree[1], linkgit:gitignore[5]
Written by Linus Torvalds <>
Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano, Josh Triplett, and the git-list <>.
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite