Merge branch 'jt/partial-clone-submodule-1'

Prepare the internals for lazily fetching objects in submodules
from their promisor remotes.

* jt/partial-clone-submodule-1:
  promisor-remote: teach lazy-fetch in any repo
  run-command: refactor subprocess env preparation
  submodule: refrain from filtering GIT_CONFIG_COUNT
  promisor-remote: support per-repository config
  repository: move global r_f_p_c to repo struct
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index 2aae4c9..f5605b7 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -139,6 +139,7 @@
 ASCIIDOC_COMMON = $(ASCIIDOC) $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) $(ASCIIDOC_CONF) \
 		-amanversion=$(GIT_VERSION) \
 		-amanmanual='Git Manual' -amansource='Git'
+ASCIIDOC_DEPS = asciidoc.conf GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS
 TXT_TO_HTML = $(ASCIIDOC_COMMON) -b $(ASCIIDOC_HTML)
 TXT_TO_XML = $(ASCIIDOC_COMMON) -b $(ASCIIDOC_DOCBOOK)
 MANPAGE_XSL = manpage-normal.xsl
@@ -193,6 +194,7 @@
 ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -acompat-mode -atabsize=8
 ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -I. -rasciidoctor-extensions
 ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -alitdd='&\#x2d;&\#x2d;'
+ASCIIDOC_DEPS = asciidoctor-extensions.rb GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS
 DBLATEX_COMMON =
 XMLTO_EXTRA += --skip-validation
 XMLTO_EXTRA += -x manpage.xsl
@@ -294,9 +296,7 @@
 	cmd-list.made $(cmds_txt)
 
 doc.dep : $(docdep_prereqs) $(DOC_DEP_TXT) build-docdep.perl
-	$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
-	$(PERL_PATH) ./build-docdep.perl >$@+ $(QUIET_STDERR) && \
-	mv $@+ $@
+	$(QUIET_GEN)$(PERL_PATH) ./build-docdep.perl >$@ $(QUIET_STDERR)
 
 ifneq ($(MAKECMDGOALS),clean)
 -include doc.dep
@@ -316,8 +316,7 @@
 $(cmds_txt): cmd-list.made
 
 cmd-list.made: cmd-list.perl ../command-list.txt $(MAN1_TXT)
-	$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ && \
-	$(PERL_PATH) ./cmd-list.perl ../command-list.txt $(cmds_txt) $(QUIET_STDERR) && \
+	$(QUIET_GEN)$(PERL_PATH) ./cmd-list.perl ../command-list.txt $(cmds_txt) $(QUIET_STDERR) && \
 	date >$@
 
 mergetools_txt = mergetools-diff.txt mergetools-merge.txt
@@ -325,7 +324,7 @@
 $(mergetools_txt): mergetools-list.made
 
 mergetools-list.made: ../git-mergetool--lib.sh $(wildcard ../mergetools/*)
-	$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ && \
+	$(QUIET_GEN) \
 	$(SHELL_PATH) -c 'MERGE_TOOLS_DIR=../mergetools && \
 		. ../git-mergetool--lib.sh && \
 		show_tool_names can_diff "* " || :' >mergetools-diff.txt && \
@@ -354,32 +353,23 @@
 	$(RM) manpage-base-url.xsl
 	$(RM) GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS
 
-$(MAN_HTML): %.html : %.txt asciidoc.conf asciidoctor-extensions.rb GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS
-	$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
-	$(TXT_TO_HTML) -d manpage -o $@+ $< && \
-	mv $@+ $@
+$(MAN_HTML): %.html : %.txt $(ASCIIDOC_DEPS)
+	$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(TXT_TO_HTML) -d manpage -o $@ $<
 
-$(OBSOLETE_HTML): %.html : %.txto asciidoc.conf asciidoctor-extensions.rb GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS
-	$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
-	$(TXT_TO_HTML) -o $@+ $< && \
-	mv $@+ $@
+$(OBSOLETE_HTML): %.html : %.txto $(ASCIIDOC_DEPS)
+	$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(TXT_TO_HTML) -o $@ $<
 
 manpage-base-url.xsl: manpage-base-url.xsl.in
 	$(QUIET_GEN)sed "s|@@MAN_BASE_URL@@|$(MAN_BASE_URL)|" $< > $@
 
 %.1 %.5 %.7 : %.xml manpage-base-url.xsl $(wildcard manpage*.xsl)
-	$(QUIET_XMLTO)$(RM) $@ && \
-	$(XMLTO) -m $(MANPAGE_XSL) $(XMLTO_EXTRA) man $<
+	$(QUIET_XMLTO)$(XMLTO) -m $(MANPAGE_XSL) $(XMLTO_EXTRA) man $<
 
-%.xml : %.txt asciidoc.conf asciidoctor-extensions.rb GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS
-	$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
-	$(TXT_TO_XML) -d manpage -o $@+ $< && \
-	mv $@+ $@
+%.xml : %.txt $(ASCIIDOC_DEPS)
+	$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(TXT_TO_XML) -d manpage -o $@ $<
 
 user-manual.xml: user-manual.txt user-manual.conf asciidoctor-extensions.rb GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS
-	$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
-	$(TXT_TO_XML) -d book -o $@+ $< && \
-	mv $@+ $@
+	$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(TXT_TO_XML) -d book -o $@ $<
 
 technical/api-index.txt: technical/api-index-skel.txt \
 	technical/api-index.sh $(patsubst %,%.txt,$(API_DOCS))
@@ -400,46 +390,35 @@
 XSLTOPTS += --param generate.consistent.ids 1
 
 user-manual.html: user-manual.xml $(XSLT)
-	$(QUIET_XSLTPROC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
-	xsltproc $(XSLTOPTS) -o $@+ $(XSLT) $< && \
-	mv $@+ $@
+	$(QUIET_XSLTPROC)xsltproc $(XSLTOPTS) -o $@ $(XSLT) $<
 
 git.info: user-manual.texi
 	$(QUIET_MAKEINFO)$(MAKEINFO) --no-split -o $@ user-manual.texi
 
 user-manual.texi: user-manual.xml
-	$(QUIET_DB2TEXI)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
-	$(DOCBOOK2X_TEXI) user-manual.xml --encoding=UTF-8 --to-stdout >$@++ && \
-	$(PERL_PATH) fix-texi.perl <$@++ >$@+ && \
-	rm $@++ && \
-	mv $@+ $@
+	$(QUIET_DB2TEXI)$(DOCBOOK2X_TEXI) user-manual.xml --encoding=UTF-8 --to-stdout >$@+ && \
+	$(PERL_PATH) fix-texi.perl <$@+ >$@ && \
+	$(RM) $@+
 
 user-manual.pdf: user-manual.xml
-	$(QUIET_DBLATEX)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
-	$(DBLATEX) -o $@+ $(DBLATEX_COMMON) $< && \
-	mv $@+ $@
+	$(QUIET_DBLATEX)$(DBLATEX) -o $@ $(DBLATEX_COMMON) $<
 
 gitman.texi: $(MAN_XML) cat-texi.perl texi.xsl
-	$(QUIET_DB2TEXI)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
+	$(QUIET_DB2TEXI) \
 	($(foreach xml,$(sort $(MAN_XML)),xsltproc -o $(xml)+ texi.xsl $(xml) && \
 		$(DOCBOOK2X_TEXI) --encoding=UTF-8 --to-stdout $(xml)+ && \
-		rm $(xml)+ &&) true) > $@++ && \
-	$(PERL_PATH) cat-texi.perl $@ <$@++ >$@+ && \
-	rm $@++ && \
-	mv $@+ $@
+		$(RM) $(xml)+ &&) true) > $@+ && \
+	$(PERL_PATH) cat-texi.perl $@ <$@+ >$@ && \
+	$(RM) $@+
 
 gitman.info: gitman.texi
 	$(QUIET_MAKEINFO)$(MAKEINFO) --no-split --no-validate $*.texi
 
 $(patsubst %.txt,%.texi,$(MAN_TXT)): %.texi : %.xml
-	$(QUIET_DB2TEXI)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
-	$(DOCBOOK2X_TEXI) --to-stdout $*.xml >$@+ && \
-	mv $@+ $@
+	$(QUIET_DB2TEXI)$(DOCBOOK2X_TEXI) --to-stdout $*.xml >$@
 
 howto-index.txt: howto-index.sh $(HOWTO_TXT)
-	$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
-	'$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)' ./howto-index.sh $(sort $(HOWTO_TXT)) >$@+ && \
-	mv $@+ $@
+	$(QUIET_GEN)'$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)' ./howto-index.sh $(sort $(HOWTO_TXT)) >$@
 
 $(patsubst %,%.html,$(ARTICLES)) : %.html : %.txt
 	$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(TXT_TO_HTML) $*.txt
@@ -448,10 +427,9 @@
 
 howto/%.html: ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -a git-relative-html-prefix=../
 $(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(HOWTO_TXT)): %.html : %.txt GIT-ASCIIDOCFLAGS
-	$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
+	$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC) \
 	sed -e '1,/^$$/d' $< | \
-	$(TXT_TO_HTML) - >$@+ && \
-	mv $@+ $@
+	$(TXT_TO_HTML) - >$@
 
 install-webdoc : html
 	'$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)' ./install-webdoc.sh $(WEBDOC_DEST)
@@ -492,4 +470,7 @@
 	$(MAKE) -C po $@
 endif
 
+# Delete the target file on error
+.DELETE_ON_ERROR:
+
 .PHONY: FORCE
diff --git a/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt b/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt
index af0a9da..015cf24 100644
--- a/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt
+++ b/Documentation/MyFirstContribution.txt
@@ -47,7 +47,7 @@
 are present on the list. In order to avoid search indexers, group membership is
 required to view messages; anyone can join and no approval is required.
 
-==== https://webchat.freenode.net/#git-devel[#git-devel] on Freenode
+==== https://web.libera.chat/#git-devel[#git-devel] on Libera Chat
 
 This IRC channel is for conversations between Git contributors. If someone is
 currently online and knows the answer to your question, you can receive help
@@ -827,7 +827,7 @@
 (https://github.com/gitgitgadget/git/pulls?utf8=%E2%9C%93&q=is%3Apr+is%3Aopen+%22%2Fallow%22[Search:
 is:pr is:open "/allow"]), in which case both the author and the person who
 granted the `/allow` can now `/allow` you, or by inquiring on the
-https://webchat.freenode.net/#git-devel[#git-devel] IRC channel on Freenode
+https://web.libera.chat/#git-devel[#git-devel] IRC channel on Libera Chat
 linking your pull request and asking for someone to `/allow` you.
 
 If the CI fails, you can update your changes with `git rebase -i` and push your
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt
index ae05778..ad36c0f 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.0.3.txt
@@ -50,7 +50,7 @@
   if the working tree is currently dirty.
 
 * "git for-each-ref --format=%(subject)" fixed for commits with no
-  no newline in the message body.
+  newline in the message body.
 
 * "git remote" fixed to protect printf from user input.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
index 255e185..2e75299 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.txt
@@ -365,7 +365,7 @@
    (merge 2fbd4f9 mh/maint-lockfile-overflow later to maint).
 
  * Invocations of "git checkout" used internally by "git rebase" were
-   counted as "checkout", and affected later "git checkout -" to the
+   counted as "checkout", and affected later "git checkout -", which took
    the user to an unexpected place.
    (merge 3bed291 rr/rebase-checkout-reflog later to maint).
 
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.29.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.29.0.txt
index 06ba2f8..1f41302 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.29.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.29.0.txt
@@ -184,8 +184,8 @@
    the ref backend in use, as its format is much richer than the
    normal refs, and written directly by "git fetch" as a plain file..
 
- * An unused binary has been discarded, and and a bunch of commands
-   have been turned into into built-in.
+ * An unused binary has been discarded, and a bunch of commands
+   have been turned into built-in.
 
  * A handful of places in in-tree code still relied on being able to
    execute the git subcommands, especially built-ins, in "git-foo"
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.33.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.33.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d1e9276
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.33.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,181 @@
+Git 2.33 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Backward compatibility notes
+----------------------------
+
+ * The "-m" option in "git log -m" that does not specify which format,
+   if any, of diff is desired did not have any visible effect; it now
+   implies some form of diff (by default "--patch") is produced.
+
+   You can disable the diff output with "git log -m --no-patch", but
+   then there probably isn't much point in passing "-m" in the first
+   place ;-).
+
+
+Updates since Git 2.32
+----------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * "git send-email" learned the "--sendmail-cmd" command line option
+   and the "sendemail.sendmailCmd" configuration variable, which is a
+   more sensible approach than the current way of repurposing the
+   "smtp-server" that is meant to name the server to instead name the
+   command to talk to the server.
+
+ * The "-m" option in "git log -m" that does not specify which format,
+   if any, of diff is desired did not have any visible effect; it now
+   implies some form of diff (by default "--patch") is produced.
+
+ * The userdiff pattern for C# learned the token "record".
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * The code to handle the "--format" option in "for-each-ref" and
+   friends made too many string comparisons on %(atom)s used in the
+   format string, which has been corrected by converting them into
+   enum when the format string is parsed.
+
+ * Use the hashfile API in the codepath that writes the index file to
+   reduce code duplication.
+
+ * Repeated rename detections in a sequence of mergy operations have
+   been optimize out.
+
+ * Preliminary clean-up of tests before the main reftable changes
+   hits the codebase.
+
+ * The backend for "diff -G/-S" has been updated to use pcre2 engine
+   when available.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.32
+-----------------
+
+ * We historically rejected a very short string as an author name
+   while accepting a patch e-mail, which has been loosened.
+   (merge 72ee47ceeb ef/mailinfo-short-name later to maint).
+
+ * The parallel checkout codepath did not initialize object ID field
+   used to talk to the worker processes in a futureproof way.
+
+ * Rewrite code that triggers undefined behaviour warning.
+   (merge aafa5df0df jn/size-t-casted-to-off-t-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The description of "fast-forward" in the glossary has been updated.
+   (merge e22f2daed0 ry/clarify-fast-forward-in-glossary later to maint).
+
+ * Recent "git clone" left a temporary directory behind when the
+   transport layer returned an failure.
+   (merge 6aacb7d861 jk/clone-clean-upon-transport-error later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch" over protocol v2 left its side of the socket open after
+   it finished speaking, which unnecessarily wasted the resource on
+   the other side.
+   (merge ae1a7eefff jk/fetch-pack-v2-half-close-early later to maint).
+
+ * The command line completion (in contrib/) learned that "git diff"
+   takes the "--anchored" option.
+   (merge d1e7c2cac9 tb/complete-diff-anchored later to maint).
+
+ * "git-svn" tests assumed that "locale -a", which is used to pick an
+   available UTF-8 locale, is available everywhere.  A knob has been
+   introduced to allow testers to specify a suitable locale to use.
+   (merge 482c962de4 dd/svn-test-wo-locale-a later to maint).
+
+ * Update "git subtree" to work better on Windows.
+   (merge 77f37de39f js/subtree-on-windows-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Remove multimail from contrib/
+   (merge f74d11471f js/no-more-multimail later to maint).
+
+ * Make the codebase MSAN clean.
+   (merge 4dbc55e87d ah/uninitialized-reads-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Work around inefficient glob substitution in older versions of bash
+   by rewriting parts of a test.
+   (merge eb87c6f559 jx/t6020-with-older-bash later to maint).
+
+ * Avoid duplicated work while building reachability bitmaps.
+   (merge aa9ad6fee5 jk/bitmap-tree-optim later to maint).
+
+ * We broke "GIT_SKIP_TESTS=t?000" to skip certain tests in recent
+   update, which got fixed.
+
+ * The side-band demultiplexer that is used to display progress output
+   from the remote end did not clear the line properly when the end of
+   line hits at a packet boundary, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Some test scripts assumed that readlink(1) was universally
+   installed and available, which is not the case.
+   (merge 7c0afdf23c jk/test-without-readlink-1 later to maint).
+
+ * Recent update to completion script (in contrib/) broke those who
+   use the __git_complete helper to define completion to their custom
+   command.
+   (merge cea232194d fw/complete-cmd-idx-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Output from some of our tests were affected by the width of the
+   terminal that they were run in, which has been corrected by
+   exporting a fixed value in the COLUMNS environment.
+   (merge c49a177bec ab/fix-columns-to-80-during-tests later to maint).
+
+ * On Windows, mergetool has been taught to find kdiff3.exe just like
+   it finds winmerge.exe.
+   (merge 47eb4c6890 ms/mergetools-kdiff3-on-windows later to maint).
+
+ * When we cannot figure out how wide the terminal is, we use a
+   fallback value of 80 ourselves (which cannot be avoided), but when
+   we run the pager, we export it in COLUMNS, which forces the pager
+   to use the hardcoded value, even when the pager is perfectly
+   capable to figure it out itself.  Stop exporting COLUMNS when we
+   fall back on the hardcoded default value for our own use.
+   (merge 9b6e2c8b98 js/stop-exporting-bogus-columns later to maint).
+
+ * "git cat-file --batch-all-objects"" misbehaved when "--batch" is in
+   use and did not ask for certain object traits.
+   (merge ee02ac6164 zh/cat-file-batch-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Some code and doc clarification around "git push".
+
+ * The "union" conflict resultion variant misbehaved when used with
+   binary merge driver.
+   (merge 382b601acd jk/union-merge-binary later to maint).
+
+ * Prevent "git p4" from failing to submit changes to binary file.
+   (merge 54662d5958 dc/p4-binary-submit-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git grep --and -e foo" ought to have been diagnosed as an error
+   but instead segfaulted, which has been corrected.
+   (merge fe7fe62d8d rs/grep-parser-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Other code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
+   (merge bfe35a6165 ah/doc-describe later to maint).
+   (merge f302c1e4aa jc/clarify-revision-range later to maint).
+   (merge 3127ff90ea tl/fix-packfile-uri-doc later to maint).
+   (merge a84216c684 jk/doc-color-pager later to maint).
+   (merge 4e0a64a713 ab/trace2-squelch-gcc-warning later to maint).
+   (merge 225f7fa847 ps/rev-list-object-type-filter later to maint).
+   (merge 5317dfeaed dd/honor-users-tar-in-tests later to maint).
+   (merge ace6d8e3d6 tk/partial-clone-repack-doc later to maint).
+   (merge 7ba68e0cf1 js/trace2-discard-event-docfix later to maint).
+   (merge 8603c419d3 fc/doc-default-to-upstream-config later to maint).
+   (merge 1d72b604ef jk/revision-squelch-gcc-warning later to maint).
+   (merge abcb66c614 ar/typofix later to maint).
+   (merge 9853830787 ah/graph-typofix later to maint).
+   (merge aac578492d ab/config-hooks-path-testfix later to maint).
+   (merge 98c7656a18 ar/more-typofix later to maint).
+   (merge 6fb9195f6c jk/doc-max-pack-size later to maint).
+   (merge 4184cbd635 ar/mailinfo-memcmp-to-skip-prefix later to maint).
+   (merge 91d2347033 ar/doc-libera-chat-in-my-first-contrib later to maint).
+   (merge 338abb0f04 ab/cmd-foo-should-return later to maint).
+   (merge 546096a5cb ab/xdiff-bug-cleanup later to maint).
+   (merge b7b793d1e7 ab/progress-cleanup later to maint).
+   (merge d94f9b8e90 ba/object-info later to maint).
+   (merge 52ff891c03 ar/test-code-cleanup later to maint).
+   (merge a0538e5c8b dd/document-log-decorate-default later to maint).
+   (merge ce24797d38 mr/cmake later to maint).
+   (merge 9eb542f2ee ab/pre-auto-gc-hook-test later to maint).
+   (merge 9fffc38583 bk/doc-commit-typofix later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.0.txt
index 27320b6..3845328 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.8.0.txt
@@ -377,7 +377,7 @@
    on that order.
 
  * "git show 'HEAD:Foo[BAR]Baz'" did not interpret the argument as a
-   rev, i.e. the object named by the the pathname with wildcard
+   rev, i.e. the object named by the pathname with wildcard
    characters in a tree object.
    (merge aac4fac nd/dwim-wildcards-as-pathspecs later to maint).
 
diff --git a/Documentation/config/blame.txt b/Documentation/config/blame.txt
index 9468e85..4d047c1 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/blame.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/blame.txt
@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@
 	file names will reset the list of ignored revisions.  This option will
 	be handled before the command line option `--ignore-revs-file`.
 
-blame.markUnblamables::
+blame.markUnblamableLines::
 	Mark lines that were changed by an ignored revision that we could not
 	attribute to another commit with a '*' in the output of
 	linkgit:git-blame[1].
diff --git a/Documentation/config/color.txt b/Documentation/config/color.txt
index d5daacb..e05d520 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/color.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/color.txt
@@ -127,8 +127,9 @@
 	interactive commands.
 
 color.pager::
-	A boolean to enable/disable colored output when the pager is in
-	use (default is true).
+	A boolean to specify whether `auto` color modes should colorize
+	output going to the pager. Defaults to true; set this to false
+	if your pager does not understand ANSI color codes.
 
 color.push::
 	A boolean to enable/disable color in push errors. May be set to
diff --git a/Documentation/config/fetch.txt b/Documentation/config/fetch.txt
index 6af6f5e..63748c0 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/fetch.txt
@@ -69,7 +69,8 @@
 	setting defaults to "skipping".
 	Unknown values will cause 'git fetch' to error out.
 +
-See also the `--negotiation-tip` option for linkgit:git-fetch[1].
+See also the `--negotiate-only` and `--negotiation-tip` options to
+linkgit:git-fetch[1].
 
 fetch.showForcedUpdates::
 	Set to false to enable `--no-show-forced-updates` in
diff --git a/Documentation/config/merge.txt b/Documentation/config/merge.txt
index cb2ed58..6b66c83 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/merge.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@
 	branches at the remote named by `branch.<current branch>.remote`
 	are consulted, and then they are mapped via `remote.<remote>.fetch`
 	to their corresponding remote-tracking branches, and the tips of
-	these tracking branches are merged.
+	these tracking branches are merged. Defaults to true.
 
 merge.ff::
 	By default, Git does not create an extra merge commit when merging
diff --git a/Documentation/config/pack.txt b/Documentation/config/pack.txt
index c0844d8..763f7af 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/pack.txt
@@ -99,12 +99,23 @@
 	packing to a file when repacking, i.e. the git:// protocol
 	is unaffected.  It can be overridden by the `--max-pack-size`
 	option of linkgit:git-repack[1].  Reaching this limit results
-	in the creation of multiple packfiles; which in turn prevents
-	bitmaps from being created.
-	The minimum size allowed is limited to 1 MiB.
-	The default is unlimited.
-	Common unit suffixes of 'k', 'm', or 'g' are
-	supported.
+	in the creation of multiple packfiles.
++
+Note that this option is rarely useful, and may result in a larger total
+on-disk size (because Git will not store deltas between packs), as well
+as worse runtime performance (object lookup within multiple packs is
+slower than a single pack, and optimizations like reachability bitmaps
+cannot cope with multiple packs).
++
+If you need to actively run Git using smaller packfiles (e.g., because your
+filesystem does not support large files), this option may help. But if
+your goal is to transmit a packfile over a medium that supports limited
+sizes (e.g., removable media that cannot store the whole repository),
+you are likely better off creating a single large packfile and splitting
+it using a generic multi-volume archive tool (e.g., Unix `split`).
++
+The minimum size allowed is limited to 1 MiB. The default is unlimited.
+Common unit suffixes of 'k', 'm', or 'g' are supported.
 
 pack.useBitmaps::
 	When true, git will use pack bitmaps (if available) when packing
diff --git a/Documentation/config/push.txt b/Documentation/config/push.txt
index f2667b2..6320336 100644
--- a/Documentation/config/push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config/push.txt
@@ -24,15 +24,14 @@
 
 * `tracking` - This is a deprecated synonym for `upstream`.
 
-* `simple` - in centralized workflow, work like `upstream` with an
-  added safety to refuse to push if the upstream branch's name is
-  different from the local one.
+* `simple` - pushes the current branch with the same name on the remote.
 +
-When pushing to a remote that is different from the remote you normally
-pull from, work as `current`.  This is the safest option and is suited
-for beginners.
+If you are working on a centralized workflow (pushing to the same repository you
+pull from, which is typically `origin`), then you need to configure an upstream
+branch with the same name.
 +
-This mode has become the default in Git 2.0.
+This mode is the default since Git 2.0, and is the safest option suited for
+beginners.
 
 * `matching` - push all branches having the same name on both ends.
   This makes the repository you are pushing to remember the set of
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index 530d115..32e6dee 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -49,10 +49,9 @@
 --diff-merges=m:::
 -m:::
 	This option makes diff output for merge commits to be shown in
-	the default format. `-m` will produce the output only if `-p`
-	is given as well. The default format could be changed using
+	the default format. The default format could be changed using
 	`log.diffMerges` configuration parameter, which default value
-	is `separate`.
+	is `separate`. `-m` implies `-p`.
 +
 --diff-merges=first-parent:::
 --diff-merges=1:::
@@ -62,7 +61,8 @@
 --diff-merges=separate:::
 	This makes merge commits show the full diff with respect to
 	each of the parents. Separate log entry and diff is generated
-	for each parent.
+	for each parent. This is the format that `-m` produced
+	historically.
 +
 --diff-merges=combined:::
 --diff-merges=c:::
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index 9e7b4e1..e967ff1 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -62,8 +62,17 @@
 abbreviated) SHA-1 of a commit. Specifying a glob is equivalent to specifying
 this option multiple times, one for each matching ref name.
 +
-See also the `fetch.negotiationAlgorithm` configuration variable
-documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
+See also the `fetch.negotiationAlgorithm` and `push.negotiate`
+configuration variables documented in linkgit:git-config[1], and the
+`--negotiate-only` option below.
+
+--negotiate-only::
+	Do not fetch anything from the server, and instead print the
+	ancestors of the provided `--negotiation-tip=*` arguments,
+	which we have in common with the server.
++
+Internally this is used to implement the `push.negotiate` option, see
+linkgit:git-config[1].
 
 --dry-run::
 	Show what would be done, without making any changes.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 340c5fb..95fec5f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -72,7 +72,7 @@
 
 -p::
 --patch::
-	Use the interactive patch selection interface to chose
+	Use the interactive patch selection interface to choose
 	which changes to commit. See linkgit:git-add[1] for
 	details.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-describe.txt b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
index a88f6ae..c6a79c2 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-describe.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
@@ -63,9 +63,10 @@
 	Automatically implies --tags.
 
 --abbrev=<n>::
-	Instead of using the default 7 hexadecimal digits as the
-	abbreviated object name, use <n> digits, or as many digits
-	as needed to form a unique object name.  An <n> of 0
+	Instead of using the default number of hexadecimal digits (which
+	will vary according to the number of objects in the repository with
+	a default of 7) of the abbreviated object name, use <n> digits, or
+	as many digits as needed to form a unique object name. An <n> of 0
 	will suppress long format, only showing the closest tag.
 
 --candidates=<n>::
@@ -139,8 +140,11 @@
 
 The number of additional commits is the number
 of commits which would be displayed by "git log v1.0.4..parent".
-The hash suffix is "-g" + unambiguous abbreviation for the tip commit
-of parent (which was `2414721b194453f058079d897d13c4e377f92dc6`).
+The hash suffix is "-g" + an unambigous abbreviation for the tip commit
+of parent (which was `2414721b194453f058079d897d13c4e377f92dc6`). The
+length of the abbreviation scales as the repository grows, using the
+approximate number of objects in the repository and a bit of math
+around the birthday paradox, and defaults to a minimum of 7.
 The "g" prefix stands for "git" and is used to allow describing the version of
 a software depending on the SCM the software is managed with. This is useful
 in an environment where people may use different SCMs.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
index 1bbf865..0498e7b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -39,7 +39,9 @@
 	full ref name (including prefix) will be printed. If 'auto' is
 	specified, then if the output is going to a terminal, the ref names
 	are shown as if 'short' were given, otherwise no ref names are
-	shown. The default option is 'short'.
+	shown. The option `--decorate` is short-hand for `--decorate=short`.
+	Default to configuration value of `log.decorate` if configured,
+	otherwise, `auto`.
 
 --decorate-refs=<pattern>::
 --decorate-refs-exclude=<pattern>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
index 25d9fbe..dbfd1f9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-objects.txt
@@ -128,10 +128,10 @@
 	into multiple independent packfiles, each not larger than the
 	given size. The size can be suffixed with
 	"k", "m", or "g". The minimum size allowed is limited to 1 MiB.
-	This option
-	prevents the creation of a bitmap index.
 	The default is unlimited, unless the config variable
-	`pack.packSizeLimit` is set.
+	`pack.packSizeLimit` is set. Note that this option may result in
+	a larger and slower repository; see the discussion in
+	`pack.packSizeLimit`.
 
 --honor-pack-keep::
 	This flag causes an object already in a local pack that
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repack.txt b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
index ef310f3..24c00c9 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-repack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
@@ -121,7 +121,9 @@
 	If specified, multiple packfiles may be created, which also
 	prevents the creation of a bitmap index.
 	The default is unlimited, unless the config variable
-	`pack.packSizeLimit` is set.
+	`pack.packSizeLimit` is set. Note that this option may result in
+	a larger and slower repository; see the discussion in
+	`pack.packSizeLimit`.
 
 -b::
 --write-bitmap-index::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index 93708ae..3db4eab 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -167,6 +167,14 @@
 	`sendemail.envelopeSender` configuration variable; if that is
 	unspecified, choosing the envelope sender is left to your MTA.
 
+--sendmail-cmd=<command>::
+	Specify a command to run to send the email. The command should
+	be sendmail-like; specifically, it must support the `-i` option.
+	The command will be executed in the shell if necessary.  Default
+	is the value of `sendemail.sendmailcmd`.  If unspecified, and if
+	--smtp-server is also unspecified, git-send-email will search
+	for `sendmail` in `/usr/sbin`, `/usr/lib` and $PATH.
+
 --smtp-encryption=<encryption>::
 	Specify the encryption to use, either 'ssl' or 'tls'.  Any other
 	value reverts to plain SMTP.  Default is the value of
@@ -211,13 +219,16 @@
 
 --smtp-server=<host>::
 	If set, specifies the outgoing SMTP server to use (e.g.
-	`smtp.example.com` or a raw IP address).  Alternatively it can
-	specify a full pathname of a sendmail-like program instead;
-	the program must support the `-i` option.  Default value can
-	be specified by the `sendemail.smtpServer` configuration
-	option; the built-in default is to search for `sendmail` in
-	`/usr/sbin`, `/usr/lib` and $PATH if such program is
-	available, falling back to `localhost` otherwise.
+	`smtp.example.com` or a raw IP address).  If unspecified, and if
+	`--sendmail-cmd` is also unspecified, the default is to search
+	for `sendmail` in `/usr/sbin`, `/usr/lib` and $PATH if such a
+	program is available, falling back to `localhost` otherwise.
++
+For backward compatibility, this option can also specify a full pathname
+of a sendmail-like program instead; the program must support the `-i`
+option.  This method does not support passing arguments or using plain
+command names.  For those use cases, consider using `--sendmail-cmd`
+instead.
 
 --smtp-server-port=<port>::
 	Specifies a port different from the default port (SMTP
diff --git a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
index f1bb1fa..66e67e6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
@@ -387,7 +387,7 @@
 ------------
 $ git worktree list
 /path/to/linked-worktree    abcd1234 [master]
-/path/to/locked-worktreee   acbd5678 (brancha) locked
+/path/to/locked-worktree    acbd5678 (brancha) locked
 /path/to/prunable-worktree  5678abc  (detached HEAD) prunable
 ------------
 
diff --git a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
index 67c7a50..c077971 100644
--- a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
+++ b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
@@ -146,8 +146,8 @@
 	<<def_revision,revision>> and you are "merging" another
 	<<def_branch,branch>>'s changes that happen to be a descendant of what
 	you have. In such a case, you do not make a new <<def_merge,merge>>
-	<<def_commit,commit>> but instead just update to his
-	revision. This will happen frequently on a
+	<<def_commit,commit>> but instead just update your branch to point at the same
+	revision as the branch you are merging. This will happen frequently on a
 	<<def_remote_tracking_branch,remote-tracking branch>> of a remote
 	<<def_repository,repository>>.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/revisions.txt b/Documentation/revisions.txt
index d9169c0..f5f17b6 100644
--- a/Documentation/revisions.txt
+++ b/Documentation/revisions.txt
@@ -260,6 +260,9 @@
 A commit's reachable set is the commit itself and the commits in
 its ancestry chain.
 
+There are several notations to specify a set of connected commits
+(called a "revision range"), illustrated below.
+
 
 Commit Exclusions
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -294,6 +297,26 @@
 I forked from them?"  Note that '..' would mean 'HEAD..HEAD' which is an
 empty range that is both reachable and unreachable from HEAD.
 
+Commands that are specifically designed to take two distinct ranges
+(e.g. "git range-diff R1 R2" to compare two ranges) do exist, but
+they are exceptions.  Unless otherwise noted, all "git" commands
+that operate on a set of commits work on a single revision range.
+In other words, writing two "two-dot range notation" next to each
+other, e.g.
+
+    $ git log A..B C..D
+
+does *not* specify two revision ranges for most commands.  Instead
+it will name a single connected set of commits, i.e. those that are
+reachable from either B or D but are reachable from neither A or C.
+In a linear history like this:
+
+    ---A---B---o---o---C---D
+
+because A and B are reachable from C, the revision range specified
+by these two dotted ranges is a single commit D.
+
+
 Other <rev>{caret} Parent Shorthand Notations
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 Three other shorthands exist, particularly useful for merge commits,
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-trace2.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-trace2.txt
index 3f52f98..037a91c 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-trace2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-trace2.txt
@@ -396,14 +396,14 @@
 }
 ------------
 
-`"discard"`::
+`"too_many_files"`::
 	This event is written to the git-trace2-discard sentinel file if there
 	are too many files in the target trace directory (see the
 	trace2.maxFiles config option).
 +
 ------------
 {
-	"event":"discard",
+	"event":"too_many_files",
 	...
 }
 ------------
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt b/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
index 7c1630b..260224b 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
@@ -599,7 +599,7 @@
     convert any object names written to output to SHA-1, but store
     objects using SHA-256.  This allows users to test the code with no
     visible behavior change except for performance.  This allows
-    allows running even tests that assume the SHA-1 hash function, to
+    running even tests that assume the SHA-1 hash function, to
     sanity-check the behavior of the new mode.
 
  2. ("early transition") Allow both SHA-1 and SHA-256 object names in
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/packfile-uri.txt b/Documentation/technical/packfile-uri.txt
index f7eabc6..1eb525f 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/packfile-uri.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/packfile-uri.txt
@@ -35,13 +35,14 @@
 at least so that we can test the client.
 
 This is the implementation: a feature, marked experimental, that allows the
-server to be configured by one or more `uploadpack.blobPackfileUri=<sha1>
-<uri>` entries. Whenever the list of objects to be sent is assembled, all such
-blobs are excluded, replaced with URIs. As noted in "Future work" below, the
-server can evolve in the future to support excluding other objects (or other
-implementations of servers could be made that support excluding other objects)
-without needing a protocol change, so clients should not expect that packfiles
-downloaded in this way only contain single blobs.
+server to be configured by one or more `uploadpack.blobPackfileUri=
+<object-hash> <pack-hash> <uri>` entries. Whenever the list of objects to be
+sent is assembled, all such blobs are excluded, replaced with URIs. As noted
+in "Future work" below, the server can evolve in the future to support
+excluding other objects (or other implementations of servers could be made
+that support excluding other objects) without needing a protocol change, so
+clients should not expect that packfiles downloaded in this way only contain
+single blobs.
 
 Client design
 -------------
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt b/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt
index 0780d30..a0dd7c6 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt
@@ -242,8 +242,7 @@
   repository and can satisfy all such requests.
 
 - Repack essentially treats promisor and non-promisor packfiles as 2
-  distinct partitions and does not mix them.  Repack currently only works
-  on non-promisor packfiles and loose objects.
+  distinct partitions and does not mix them.
 
 - Dynamic object fetching invokes fetch-pack once *for each item*
   because most algorithms stumble upon a missing object and need to have
@@ -273,9 +272,6 @@
 The user might want to work in a triangular work flow with multiple
 promisor remotes that each have an incomplete view of the repository.
 
-- Allow repack to work on promisor packfiles (while keeping them distinct
-  from non-promisor packfiles).
-
 - Allow non-pathname-based filters to make use of packfile bitmaps (when
   present).  This was just an omission during the initial implementation.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt b/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
index a1e3136..1040d85 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
@@ -540,7 +540,7 @@
 	Indicates to the server an object which the client wants to obtain
 	information for.
 
-The response of `object-info` is a list of the the requested object ids
+The response of `object-info` is a list of the requested object ids
 and associated requested information, each separated by a single space.
 
 	output = info flush-pkt
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/remembering-renames.txt b/Documentation/technical/remembering-renames.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..2fd5cc8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/remembering-renames.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,671 @@
+Rebases and cherry-picks involve a sequence of merges whose results are
+recorded as new single-parent commits.  The first parent side of those
+merges represent the "upstream" side, and often include a far larger set of
+changes than the second parent side.  Traditionally, the renames on the
+first-parent side of that sequence of merges were repeatedly re-detected
+for every merge.  This file explains why it is safe and effective during
+rebases and cherry-picks to remember renames on the upstream side of
+history as an optimization, assuming all merges are automatic and clean
+(i.e. no conflicts and not interrupted for user input or editing).
+
+Outline:
+
+  0. Assumptions
+
+  1. How rebasing and cherry-picking work
+
+  2. Why the renames on MERGE_SIDE1 in any given pick are *always* a
+     superset of the renames on MERGE_SIDE1 for the next pick.
+
+  3. Why any rename on MERGE_SIDE1 in any given pick is _almost_ always also
+     a rename on MERGE_SIDE1 for the next pick
+
+  4. A detailed description of the the counter-examples to #3.
+
+  5. Why the special cases in #4 are still fully reasonable to use to pair
+     up files for three-way content merging in the merge machinery, and why
+     they do not affect the correctness of the merge.
+
+  6. Interaction with skipping of "irrelevant" renames
+
+  7. Additional items that need to be cached
+
+  8. How directory rename detection interacts with the above and why this
+     optimization is still safe even if merge.directoryRenames is set to
+     "true".
+
+
+=== 0. Assumptions ===
+
+There are two assumptions that will hold throughout this document:
+
+  * The upstream side where commits are transplanted to is treated as the
+    first parent side when rebase/cherry-pick call the merge machinery
+
+  * All merges are fully automatic
+
+and a third that will hold in sections 2-5 for simplicity, that I'll later
+address in section 8:
+
+  * No directory renames occur
+
+
+Let me explain more about each assumption and why I include it:
+
+
+The first assumption is merely for the purposes of making this document
+clearer; the optimization implementation does not actually depend upon it.
+However, the assumption does hold in all cases because it reflects the way
+that both rebase and cherry-pick were implemented; and the implementation
+of cherry-pick and rebase are not readily changeable for backwards
+compatibility reasons (see for example the discussion of the --ours and
+--theirs flag in the documentation of `git checkout`, particularly the
+comments about how they behave with rebase).  The optimization avoids
+checking first-parent-ness, though.  It checks the conditions that make the
+optimization valid instead, so it would still continue working if someone
+changed the parent ordering that cherry-pick and rebase use.  But making
+this assumption does make this document much clearer and prevents me from
+having to repeat every example twice.
+
+If the second assumption is violated, then the optimization simply is
+turned off and thus isn't relevant to consider.  The second assumption can
+also be stated as "there is no interruption for a user to resolve conflicts
+or to just further edit or tweak files".  While real rebases and
+cherry-picks are often interrupted (either because it's an interactive
+rebase where the user requested to stop and edit, or because there were
+conflicts that the user needs to resolve), the cache of renames is not
+stored on disk, and thus is thrown away as soon as the rebase or cherry
+pick stops for the user to resolve the operation.
+
+The third assumption makes sections 2-5 simpler, and allows people to
+understand the basics of why this optimization is safe and effective, and
+then I can go back and address the specifics in section 8.  It is probably
+also worth noting that if directory renames do occur, then the default of
+merge.directoryRenames being set to "conflict" means that the operation
+will stop for users to resolve the conflicts and the cache will be thrown
+away, and thus that there won't be an optimization to apply.  So, the only
+reason we need to address directory renames specifically, is that some
+users will have set merge.directoryRenames to "true" to allow the merges to
+continue to proceed automatically.  The optimization is still safe with
+this config setting, but we have to discuss a few more cases to show why;
+this discussion is deferred until section 8.
+
+
+=== 1. How rebasing and cherry-picking work ===
+
+Consider the following setup (from the git-rebase manpage):
+
+		     A---B---C topic
+		    /
+	       D---E---F---G main
+
+After rebasing or cherry-picking topic onto main, this will appear as:
+
+			     A'--B'--C' topic
+			    /
+	       D---E---F---G main
+
+The way the commits A', B', and C' are created is through a series of
+merges, where rebase or cherry-pick sequentially uses each of the three
+A-B-C commits in a special merge operation.  Let's label the three commits
+in the merge operation as MERGE_BASE, MERGE_SIDE1, and MERGE_SIDE2.  For
+this picture, the three commits for each of the three merges would be:
+
+To create A':
+   MERGE_BASE:   E
+   MERGE_SIDE1:  G
+   MERGE_SIDE2:  A
+
+To create B':
+   MERGE_BASE:   A
+   MERGE_SIDE1:  A'
+   MERGE_SIDE2:  B
+
+To create C':
+   MERGE_BASE:   B
+   MERGE_SIDE1:  B'
+   MERGE_SIDE2:  C
+
+Sometimes, folks are surprised that these three-way merges are done.  It
+can be useful in understanding these three-way merges to view them in a
+slightly different light.  For example, in creating C', you can view it as
+either:
+
+  * Apply the changes between B & C to B'
+  * Apply the changes between B & B' to C
+
+Conceptually the two statements above are the same as a three-way merge of
+B, B', and C, at least the parts before you decide to record a commit.
+
+
+=== 2. Why the renames on MERGE_SIDE1 in any given pick are always a ===
+===    superset of the renames on MERGE_SIDE1 for the next pick.     ===
+
+The merge machinery uses the filenames it is fed from MERGE_BASE,
+MERGE_SIDE1, and MERGE_SIDE2.  It will only move content to a different
+filename under one of three conditions:
+
+  * To make both pieces of a conflict available to a user during conflict
+    resolution (examples: directory/file conflict, add/add type conflict
+    such as symlink vs. regular file)
+
+  * When MERGE_SIDE1 renames the file.
+
+  * When MERGE_SIDE2 renames the file.
+
+First, let's remember what commits are involved in the first and second
+picks of the cherry-pick or rebase sequence:
+
+To create A':
+   MERGE_BASE:   E
+   MERGE_SIDE1:  G
+   MERGE_SIDE2:  A
+
+To create B':
+   MERGE_BASE:   A
+   MERGE_SIDE1:  A'
+   MERGE_SIDE2:  B
+
+So, in particular, we need to show that the renames between E and G are a
+superset of those between A and A'.
+
+A' is created by the first merge.  A' will only have renames for one of the
+three reasons listed above.  The first case, a conflict, results in a
+situation where the cache is dropped and thus this optimization doesn't
+take effect, so we need not consider that case.  The third case, a rename
+on MERGE_SIDE2 (i.e. from G to A), will show up in A' but it also shows up
+in A -- therefore when diffing A and A' that path does not show up as a
+rename.  The only remaining way for renames to show up in A' is for the
+rename to come from MERGE_SIDE1.  Therefore, all renames between A and A'
+are a subset of those between E and G.  Equivalently, all renames between E
+and G are a superset of those between A and A'.
+
+
+=== 3. Why any rename on MERGE_SIDE1 in any given pick is _almost_   ===
+===    always also a rename on MERGE_SIDE1 for the next pick.        ===
+
+Let's again look at the first two picks:
+
+To create A':
+   MERGE_BASE:   E
+   MERGE_SIDE1:  G
+   MERGE_SIDE2:  A
+
+To create B':
+   MERGE_BASE:   A
+   MERGE_SIDE1:  A'
+   MERGE_SIDE2:  B
+
+Now let's look at any given rename from MERGE_SIDE1 of the first pick, i.e.
+any given rename from E to G.  Let's use the filenames 'oldfile' and
+'newfile' for demonstration purposes.  That first pick will function as
+follows; when the rename is detected, the merge machinery will do a
+three-way content merge of the following:
+    E:oldfile
+    G:newfile
+    A:oldfile
+and produce a new result:
+    A':newfile
+
+Note above that I've assumed that E->A did not rename oldfile.  If that
+side did rename, then we most likely have a rename/rename(1to2) conflict
+that will cause the rebase or cherry-pick operation to halt and drop the
+in-memory cache of renames and thus doesn't need to be considered further.
+In the special case that E->A does rename the file but also renames it to
+newfile, then there is no conflict from the renaming and the merge can
+succeed.  In this special case, the rename is not valid to cache because
+the second merge will find A:newfile in the MERGE_BASE (see also the new
+testcases in t6429 with "rename same file identically" in their
+description).  So a rename/rename(1to1) needs to be specially handled by
+pruning renames from the cache and decrementing the dir_rename_counts in
+the current and leading directories associated with those renames.  Or,
+since these are really rare, one could just take the easy way out and
+disable the remembering renames optimization when a rename/rename(1to1)
+happens.
+
+The previous paragraph handled the cases for E->A renaming oldfile, let's
+continue assuming that oldfile is not renamed in A.
+
+As per the diagram for creating B', MERGE_SIDE1 involves the changes from A
+to A'.  So, we are curious whether A:oldfile and A':newfile will be viewed
+as renames.  Note that:
+
+  * There will be no A':oldfile (because there could not have been a
+    G:oldfile as we do not do break detection in the merge machinery and
+    G:newfile was detected as a rename, and by the construction of the
+    rename above that merged cleanly, the merge machinery will ensure there
+    is no 'oldfile' in the result).
+
+  * There will be no A:newfile (if there had been, we would have had a
+    rename/add conflict).
+
+  * Clearly A:oldfile and A':newfile are "related" (A':newfile came from a
+    clean three-way content merge involving A:oldfile).
+
+We can also expound on the third point above, by noting that three-way
+content merges can also be viewed as applying the differences between the
+base and one side to the other side.  Thus we can view A':newfile as
+having been created by taking the changes between E:oldfile and G:newfile
+(which were detected as being related, i.e. <50% changed) to A:oldfile.
+
+Thus A:oldfile and A':newfile are just as related as E:oldfile and
+G:newfile are -- they have exactly identical differences.  Since the latter
+were detected as renames, A:oldfile and A':newfile should also be
+detectable as renames almost always.
+
+
+=== 4. A detailed description of the counter-examples to #3.         ===
+
+We already noted in section 3 that rename/rename(1to1) (i.e. both sides
+renaming a file the same way) was one counter-example.  The more
+interesting bit, though, is why did we need to use the "almost" qualifier
+when stating that A:oldfile and A':newfile are "almost" always detectable
+as renames?
+
+Let's repeat an earlier point that section 3 made:
+
+  A':newfile was created by applying the changes between E:oldfile and
+  G:newfile to A:oldfile.  The changes between E:oldfile and G:newfile were
+  <50% of the size of E:oldfile.
+
+If those changes that were <50% of the size of E:oldfile are also <50% of
+the size of A:oldfile, then A:oldfile and A':newfile will be detectable as
+renames.  However, if there is a dramatic size reduction between E:oldfile
+and A:oldfile (but the changes between E:oldfile, G:newfile, and A:oldfile
+still somehow merge cleanly), then traditional rename detection would not
+detect A:oldfile and A':newfile as renames.
+
+Here's an example where that can happen:
+  * E:oldfile had 20 lines
+  * G:newfile added 10 new lines at the beginning of the file
+  * A:oldfile kept the first 3 lines of the file, and deleted all the rest
+then
+  => A':newfile would have 13 lines, 3 of which matches those in A:oldfile.
+E:oldfile -> G:newfile would be detected as a rename, but A:oldfile and
+A':newfile would not be.
+
+
+=== 5. Why the special cases in #4 are still fully reasonable to use to    ===
+===    pair up files for three-way content merging in the merge machinery, ===
+===    and why they do not affect the correctness of the merge.            ===
+
+In the rename/rename(1to1) case, A:newfile and A':newfile are not renames
+since they use the *same* filename.  However, files with the same filename
+are obviously fine to pair up for three-way content merging (the merge
+machinery has never employed break detection).  The interesting
+counter-example case is thus not the rename/rename(1to1) case, but the case
+where A did not rename oldfile.  That was the case that we spent most of
+the time discussing in sections 3 and 4.  The remainder of this section
+will be devoted to that case as well.
+
+So, even if A:oldfile and A':newfile aren't detectable as renames, why is
+it still reasonable to pair them up for three-way content merging in the
+merge machinery?  There are multiple reasons:
+
+  * As noted in sections 3 and 4, the diff between A:oldfile and A':newfile
+    is *exactly* the same as the diff between E:oldfile and G:newfile.  The
+    latter pair were detected as renames, so it seems unlikely to surprise
+    users for us to treat A:oldfile and A':newfile as renames.
+
+  * In fact, "oldfile" and "newfile" were at one point detected as renames
+    due to how they were constructed in the E..G chain.  And we used that
+    information once already in this rebase/cherry-pick.  I think users
+    would be unlikely to be surprised at us continuing to treat the files
+    as renames and would quickly understand why we had done so.
+
+  * Marking or declaring files as renames is *not* the end goal for merges.
+    Merges use renames to determine which files make sense to be paired up
+    for three-way content merges.
+
+  * A:oldfile and A':newfile were _already_ paired up in a three-way
+    content merge; that is how A':newfile was created.  In fact, that
+    three-way content merge was clean.  So using them again in a later
+    three-way content merge seems very reasonable.
+
+However, the above is focusing on the common scenarios.  Let's try to look
+at all possible unusual scenarios and compare without the optimization to
+with the optimization.  Consider the following theoretical cases; we will
+then dive into each to determine which of them are possible,
+and if so, what they mean:
+
+  1. Without the optimization, the second merge results in a conflict.
+     With the optimization, the second merge also results in a conflict.
+     Questions: Are the conflicts confusingly different?  Better in one case?
+
+  2. Without the optimization, the second merge results in NO conflict.
+     With the optimization, the second merge also results in NO conflict.
+     Questions: Are the merges the same?
+
+  3. Without the optimization, the second merge results in a conflict.
+     With the optimization, the second merge results in NO conflict.
+     Questions: Possible?  Bug, bugfix, or something else?
+
+  4. Without the optimization, the second merge results in NO conflict.
+     With the optimization, the second merge results in a conflict.
+     Questions: Possible?  Bug, bugfix, or something else?
+
+I'll consider all four cases, but out of order.
+
+The fourth case is impossible.  For the code without the remembering
+renames optimization to not get a conflict, B:oldfile would need to exactly
+match A:oldfile -- if it doesn't, there would be a modify/delete conflict.
+If A:oldfile matches B:oldfile exactly, then a three-way content merge
+between A:oldfile, A':newfile, and B:oldfile would have no conflict and
+just give us the version of newfile from A' as the result.
+
+From the same logic as the above paragraph, the second case would indeed
+result in identical merges.  When A:oldfile exactly matches B:oldfile, an
+undetected rename would say, "Oh, I see one side didn't modify 'oldfile'
+and the other side deleted it.  I'll delete it.  And I see you have this
+brand new file named 'newfile' in A', so I'll keep it."  That gives the
+same results as three-way content merging A:oldfile, A':newfile, and
+B:oldfile -- a removal of oldfile with the version of newfile from A'
+showing up in the result.
+
+The third case is interesting.  It means that A:oldfile and A':newfile were
+not just similar enough, but that the changes between them did not conflict
+with the changes between A:oldfile and B:oldfile.  This would validate our
+hunch that the files were similar enough to be used in a three-way content
+merge, and thus seems entirely correct for us to have used them that way.
+(Sidenote: One particular example here may be enlightening.  Let's say that
+B was an immediate revert of A.  B clearly would have been a clean revert
+of A, since A was B's immediate parent.  One would assume that if you can
+pick a commit, you should also be able to cherry-pick its immediate revert.
+However, this is one of those funny corner cases; without this
+optimization, we just successfully picked a commit cleanly, but we are
+unable to cherry-pick its immediate revert due to the size differences
+between E:oldfile and A:oldfile.)
+
+That leaves only the first case to consider -- when we get conflicts both
+with or without the optimization.  Without the optimization, we'll have a
+modify/delete conflict, where both A':newfile and B:oldfile are left in the
+tree for the user to deal with and no hints about the potential similarity
+between the two.  With the optimization, we'll have a three-way content
+merged A:oldfile, A':newfile, and B:oldfile with conflict markers
+suggesting we thought the files were related but giving the user the chance
+to resolve.  As noted above, I don't think users will find us treating
+'oldfile' and 'newfile' as related as a surprise since they were between E
+and G.  In any event, though, this case shouldn't be concerning since we
+hit a conflict in both cases, told the user what we know, and asked them to
+resolve it.
+
+So, in summary, case 4 is impossible, case 2 yields the same behavior, and
+cases 1 and 3 seem to provide as good or better behavior with the
+optimization than without.
+
+
+=== 6. Interaction with skipping of "irrelevant" renames ===
+
+Previous optimizations involved skipping rename detection for paths
+considered to be "irrelevant".  See for example the following commits:
+
+  * 32a56dfb99 ("merge-ort: precompute subset of sources for which we
+		need rename detection", 2021-03-11)
+  * 2fd9eda462 ("merge-ort: precompute whether directory rename
+		detection is needed", 2021-03-11)
+  * 9bd342137e ("diffcore-rename: determine which relevant_sources are
+		no longer relevant", 2021-03-13)
+
+Relevance is always determined by what the _other_ side of history has
+done, in terms of modifing a file that our side renamed, or adding a
+file to a directory which our side renamed.  This means that a path
+that is "irrelevant" when picking the first commit of a series in a
+rebase or cherry-pick, may suddenly become "relevant" when picking the
+next commit.
+
+The upshot of this is that we can only cache rename detection results
+for relevant paths, and need to re-check relevance in subsequent
+commits.  If those subsequent commits have additional paths that are
+relevant for rename detection, then we will need to redo rename
+detection -- though we can limit it to the paths for which we have not
+already detected renames.
+
+
+=== 7. Additional items that need to be cached ===
+
+It turns out we have to cache more than just renames; we also cache:
+
+  A) non-renames (i.e. unpaired deletes)
+  B) counts of renames within directories
+  C) sources that were marked as RELEVANT_LOCATION, but which were
+     downgraded to RELEVANT_NO_MORE
+  D) the toplevel trees involved in the merge
+
+These are all stored in struct rename_info, and respectively appear in
+  * cached_pairs (along side actual renames, just with a value of NULL)
+  * dir_rename_counts
+  * cached_irrelevant
+  * merge_trees
+
+The reason for (A) comes from the irrelevant renames skipping
+optimization discussed in section 6.  The fact that irrelevant renames
+are skipped means we only get a subset of the potential renames
+detected and subsequent commits may need to run rename detection on
+the upstream side on a subset of the remaining renames (to get the
+renames that are relevant for that later commit).  Since unpaired
+deletes are involved in rename detection too, we don't want to
+repeatedly check that those paths remain unpaired on the upstream side
+with every commit we are transplanting.
+
+The reason for (B) is that diffcore_rename_extended() is what
+generates the counts of renames by directory which is needed in
+directory rename detection, and if we don't run
+diffcore_rename_extended() again then we need to have the output from
+it, including dir_rename_counts, from the previous run.
+
+The reason for (C) is that merge-ort's tree traversal will again think
+those paths are relevant (marking them as RELEVANT_LOCATION), but the
+fact that they were downgraded to RELEVANT_NO_MORE means that
+dir_rename_counts already has the information we need for directory
+rename detection.  (A path which becomes RELEVANT_CONTENT in a
+subsequent commit will be removed from cached_irrelevant.)
+
+The reason for (D) is that is how we determine whether the remember
+renames optimization can be used.  In particular, remembering that our
+sequence of merges looks like:
+
+   Merge 1:
+   MERGE_BASE:   E
+   MERGE_SIDE1:  G
+   MERGE_SIDE2:  A
+   => Creates    A'
+
+   Merge 2:
+   MERGE_BASE:   A
+   MERGE_SIDE1:  A'
+   MERGE_SIDE2:  B
+   => Creates    B'
+
+It is the fact that the trees A and A' appear both in Merge 1 and in
+Merge 2, with A as a parent of A' that allows this optimization.  So
+we store the trees to compare with what we are asked to merge next
+time.
+
+
+=== 8. How directory rename detection interacts with the above and   ===
+===    why this optimization is still safe even if                   ===
+===    merge.directoryRenames is set to "true".                      ===
+
+As noted in the assumptions section:
+
+    """
+    ...if directory renames do occur, then the default of
+    merge.directoryRenames being set to "conflict" means that the operation
+    will stop for users to resolve the conflicts and the cache will be
+    thrown away, and thus that there won't be an optimization to apply.
+    So, the only reason we need to address directory renames specifically,
+    is that some users will have set merge.directoryRenames to "true" to
+    allow the merges to continue to proceed automatically.
+    """
+
+Let's remember that we need to look at how any given pick affects the next
+one.  So let's again use the first two picks from the diagram in section
+one:
+
+  First pick does this three-way merge:
+    MERGE_BASE:   E
+    MERGE_SIDE1:  G
+    MERGE_SIDE2:  A
+    => creates A'
+
+  Second pick does this three-way merge:
+    MERGE_BASE:   A
+    MERGE_SIDE1:  A'
+    MERGE_SIDE2:  B
+    => creates B'
+
+Now, directory rename detection exists so that if one side of history
+renames a directory, and the other side adds a new file to the old
+directory, then the merge (with merge.directoryRenames=true) can move the
+file into the new directory.  There are two qualitatively different ways to
+add a new file to an old directory: create a new file, or rename a file
+into that directory.  Also, directory renames can be done on either side of
+history, so there are four cases to consider:
+
+  * MERGE_SIDE1 renames old dir, MERGE_SIDE2 adds new file to   old dir
+  * MERGE_SIDE1 renames old dir, MERGE_SIDE2 renames  file into old dir
+  * MERGE_SIDE1 adds new file to   old dir, MERGE_SIDE2 renames old dir
+  * MERGE_SIDE1 renames  file into old dir, MERGE_SIDE2 renames old dir
+
+One last note before we consider these four cases: There are some
+important properties about how we implement this optimization with
+respect to directory rename detection that we need to bear in mind
+while considering all of these cases:
+
+  * rename caching occurs *after* applying directory renames
+
+  * a rename created by directory rename detection is recorded for the side
+    of history that did the directory rename.
+
+  * dir_rename_counts, the nested map of
+	{oldname => {newname => count}},
+    is cached between runs as well.  This basically means that directory
+    rename detection is also cached, though only on the side of history
+    that we cache renames for (MERGE_SIDE1 as far as this document is
+    concerned; see the assumptions section).  Two interesting sub-notes
+    about these counts:
+
+    * If we need to perform rename-detection again on the given side (e.g.
+      some paths are relevant for rename detection that weren't before),
+      then we clear dir_rename_counts and recompute it, making use of
+      cached_pairs.  The reason it is important to do this is optimizations
+      around RELEVANT_LOCATION exist to prevent us from computing
+      unnecessary renames for directory rename detection and from computing
+      dir_rename_counts for irrelevant directories; but those same renames
+      or directories may become necessary for subsequent merges.  The
+      easiest way to "fix up" dir_rename_counts in such cases is to just
+      recompute it.
+
+    * If we prune rename/rename(1to1) entries from the cache, then we also
+      need to update dir_rename_counts to decrement the counts for the
+      involved directory and any relevant parent directories (to undo what
+      update_dir_rename_counts() in diffcore-rename.c incremented when the
+      rename was initially found).  If we instead just disable the
+      remembering renames optimization when the exceedingly rare
+      rename/rename(1to1) cases occur, then dir_rename_counts will get
+      re-computed the next time rename detection occurs, as noted above.
+
+  * the side with multiple commits to pick, is the side of history that we
+    do NOT cache renames for.  Thus, there are no additional commits to
+    change the number of renames in a directory, except for those done by
+    directory rename detection (which always pad the majority).
+
+  * the "renames" we cache are modified slightly by any directory rename,
+    as noted below.
+
+Now, with those notes out of the way, let's go through the four cases
+in order:
+
+Case 1: MERGE_SIDE1 renames old dir, MERGE_SIDE2 adds new file to old dir
+
+  This case looks like this:
+
+    MERGE_BASE:   E,   Has olddir/
+    MERGE_SIDE1:  G,   Renames olddir/ -> newdir/
+    MERGE_SIDE2:  A,   Adds olddir/newfile
+    => creates    A',  With newdir/newfile
+
+    MERGE_BASE:   A,   Has olddir/newfile
+    MERGE_SIDE1:  A',  Has newdir/newfile
+    MERGE_SIDE2:  B,   Modifies olddir/newfile
+    => expected   B',  with threeway-merged newdir/newfile from above
+
+  In this case, with the optimization, note that after the first commit:
+    * MERGE_SIDE1 remembers olddir/ -> newdir/
+    * MERGE_SIDE1 has cached olddir/newfile -> newdir/newfile
+  Given the cached rename noted above, the second merge can proceed as
+  expected without needing to perform rename detection from A -> A'.
+
+Case 2: MERGE_SIDE1 renames old dir, MERGE_SIDE2 renames  file into old dir
+
+  This case looks like this:
+    MERGE_BASE:   E    oldfile, olddir/
+    MERGE_SIDE1:  G    oldfile, olddir/ -> newdir/
+    MERGE_SIDE2:  A    oldfile -> olddir/newfile
+    => creates    A',  With newdir/newfile representing original oldfile
+
+    MERGE_BASE:   A    olddir/newfile
+    MERGE_SIDE1:  A'   newdir/newfile
+    MERGE_SIDE2:  B    modify olddir/newfile
+    => expected   B',  with threeway-merged newdir/newfile from above
+
+  In this case, with the optimization, note that after the first commit:
+    * MERGE_SIDE1 remembers olddir/ -> newdir/
+    * MERGE_SIDE1 has cached olddir/newfile -> newdir/newfile
+		  (NOT oldfile -> newdir/newfile; compare to case with
+		   (p->status == 'R' && new_path) in possibly_cache_new_pair())
+
+  Given the cached rename noted above, the second merge can proceed as
+  expected without needing to perform rename detection from A -> A'.
+
+Case 3: MERGE_SIDE1 adds new file to   old dir, MERGE_SIDE2 renames old dir
+
+  This case looks like this:
+
+    MERGE_BASE:   E,   Has olddir/
+    MERGE_SIDE1:  G,   Adds olddir/newfile
+    MERGE_SIDE2:  A,   Renames olddir/ -> newdir/
+    => creates    A',  With newdir/newfile
+
+    MERGE_BASE:   A,   Has newdir/, but no notion of newdir/newfile
+    MERGE_SIDE1:  A',  Has newdir/newfile
+    MERGE_SIDE2:  B,   Has newdir/, but no notion of newdir/newfile
+    => expected   B',  with newdir/newfile from A'
+
+  In this case, with the optimization, note that after the first commit there
+  were no renames on MERGE_SIDE1, and any renames on MERGE_SIDE2 are tossed.
+  But the second merge didn't need any renames so this is fine.
+
+Case 4: MERGE_SIDE1 renames  file into old dir, MERGE_SIDE2 renames old dir
+
+  This case looks like this:
+
+    MERGE_BASE:   E,   Has olddir/
+    MERGE_SIDE1:  G,   Renames oldfile -> olddir/newfile
+    MERGE_SIDE2:  A,   Renames olddir/ -> newdir/
+    => creates    A',  With newdir/newfile representing original oldfile
+
+    MERGE_BASE:   A,   Has oldfile
+    MERGE_SIDE1:  A',  Has newdir/newfile
+    MERGE_SIDE2:  B,   Modifies oldfile
+    => expected   B',  with threeway-merged newdir/newfile from above
+
+  In this case, with the optimization, note that after the first commit:
+    * MERGE_SIDE1 remembers oldfile -> newdir/newfile
+		  (NOT oldfile -> olddir/newfile; compare to case of second
+		   block under p->status == 'R' in possibly_cache_new_pair())
+    * MERGE_SIDE2 renames are tossed because only MERGE_SIDE1 is remembered
+
+  Given the cached rename noted above, the second merge can proceed as
+  expected without needing to perform rename detection from A -> A'.
+
+Finally, I'll just note here that interactions with the
+skip-irrelevant-renames optimization means we sometimes don't detect
+renames for any files within a directory that was renamed, in which
+case we will not have been able to detect any rename for the directory
+itself.  In such a case, we do not know whether the directory was
+renamed; we want to be careful to avoid cacheing some kind of "this
+directory was not renamed" statement.  If we did, then a subsequent
+commit being rebased could add a file to the old directory, and the
+user would expect it to end up in the correct directory -- something
+our erroneous "this directory was not renamed" cache would preclude.
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index f6653bc..c7c46c0 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -398,6 +398,10 @@
 # with a different indexfile format version.  If it isn't set the index
 # file format used is index-v[23].
 #
+# Define GIT_TEST_UTF8_LOCALE to preferred utf-8 locale for testing.
+# If it isn't set, fallback to $LC_ALL, $LANG or use the first utf-8
+# locale returned by "locale -a".
+#
 # Define HAVE_CLOCK_GETTIME if your platform has clock_gettime.
 #
 # Define HAVE_CLOCK_MONOTONIC if your platform has CLOCK_MONOTONIC.
@@ -2161,6 +2165,16 @@
 strip: $(PROGRAMS) git$X
 	$(STRIP) $(STRIP_OPTS) $^
 
+### Flags affecting all rules
+
+# A GNU make extension since gmake 3.72 (released in late 1994) to
+# remove the target of rules if commands in those rules fail. The
+# default is to only do that if make itself receives a signal. Affects
+# all targets, see:
+#
+#    info make --index-search=.DELETE_ON_ERROR
+.DELETE_ON_ERROR:
+
 ### Target-specific flags and dependencies
 
 # The generic compilation pattern rule and automatically
@@ -2244,7 +2258,6 @@
 	$(gitwebdir_SQ):$(PERL_PATH_SQ):$(SANE_TEXT_GREP):$(PAGER_ENV):\
 	$(perllibdir_SQ)
 define cmd_munge_script
-$(RM) $@ $@+ && \
 sed -e '1s|#!.*/sh|#!$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)|' \
     -e 's|@SHELL_PATH@|$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)|' \
     -e 's|@@DIFF@@|$(DIFF_SQ)|' \
@@ -2314,7 +2327,7 @@
 PERL_DEFINES += $(gitexecdir) $(perllibdir) $(localedir)
 
 $(SCRIPT_PERL_GEN): % : %.perl GIT-PERL-DEFINES GIT-PERL-HEADER GIT-VERSION-FILE
-	$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ $@+ && \
+	$(QUIET_GEN) \
 	sed -e '1{' \
 	    -e '	s|#!.*perl|#!$(PERL_PATH_SQ)|' \
 	    -e '	r GIT-PERL-HEADER' \
@@ -2334,7 +2347,7 @@
 	    fi
 
 GIT-PERL-HEADER: $(PERL_HEADER_TEMPLATE) GIT-PERL-DEFINES Makefile
-	$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ && \
+	$(QUIET_GEN) \
 	INSTLIBDIR='$(perllibdir_SQ)' && \
 	INSTLIBDIR_EXTRA='$(PERLLIB_EXTRA_SQ)' && \
 	INSTLIBDIR="$$INSTLIBDIR$${INSTLIBDIR_EXTRA:+:$$INSTLIBDIR_EXTRA}" && \
@@ -2360,7 +2373,7 @@
 	mv $@+ $@
 else # NO_PERL
 $(SCRIPT_PERL_GEN) git-instaweb: % : unimplemented.sh
-	$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ $@+ && \
+	$(QUIET_GEN) \
 	sed -e '1s|#!.*/sh|#!$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)|' \
 	    -e 's|@@REASON@@|NO_PERL=$(NO_PERL)|g' \
 	    unimplemented.sh >$@+ && \
@@ -2374,14 +2387,14 @@
 ifndef NO_PYTHON
 $(SCRIPT_PYTHON_GEN): GIT-CFLAGS GIT-PREFIX GIT-PYTHON-VARS
 $(SCRIPT_PYTHON_GEN): % : %.py
-	$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ $@+ && \
+	$(QUIET_GEN) \
 	sed -e '1s|#!.*python|#!$(PYTHON_PATH_SQ)|' \
 	    $< >$@+ && \
 	chmod +x $@+ && \
 	mv $@+ $@
 else # NO_PYTHON
 $(SCRIPT_PYTHON_GEN): % : unimplemented.sh
-	$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ $@+ && \
+	$(QUIET_GEN) \
 	sed -e '1s|#!.*/sh|#!$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)|' \
 	    -e 's|@@REASON@@|NO_PYTHON=$(NO_PYTHON)|g' \
 	    unimplemented.sh >$@+ && \
@@ -2389,8 +2402,7 @@
 	mv $@+ $@
 endif # NO_PYTHON
 
-CONFIGURE_RECIPE = $(RM) configure configure.ac+ && \
-		   sed -e 's/@@GIT_VERSION@@/$(GIT_VERSION)/g' \
+CONFIGURE_RECIPE = sed -e 's/@@GIT_VERSION@@/$(GIT_VERSION)/g' \
 			configure.ac >configure.ac+ && \
 		   autoconf -o configure configure.ac+ && \
 		   $(RM) configure.ac+
@@ -2515,7 +2527,6 @@
 ifeq ($(GENERATE_COMPILATION_DATABASE),yes)
 all:: compile_commands.json
 compile_commands.json:
-	@$(RM) $@
 	$(QUIET_GEN)sed -e '1s/^/[/' -e '$$s/,$$/]/' $(compdb_dir)/*.o.json > $@+
 	@if test -s $@+; then mv $@+ $@; else $(RM) $@+; fi
 endif
@@ -2588,10 +2599,10 @@
 		$(CURL_LIBCURL) $(EXPAT_LIBEXPAT) $(LIBS)
 
 $(LIB_FILE): $(LIB_OBJS)
-	$(QUIET_AR)$(RM) $@ && $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $^
+	$(QUIET_AR)$(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $^
 
 $(XDIFF_LIB): $(XDIFF_OBJS)
-	$(QUIET_AR)$(RM) $@ && $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $^
+	$(QUIET_AR)$(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $^
 
 export DEFAULT_EDITOR DEFAULT_PAGER
 
@@ -2803,6 +2814,9 @@
 ifdef GIT_TEST_CMP_USE_COPIED_CONTEXT
 	@echo GIT_TEST_CMP_USE_COPIED_CONTEXT=YesPlease >>$@+
 endif
+ifdef GIT_TEST_UTF8_LOCALE
+	@echo GIT_TEST_UTF8_LOCALE=\''$(subst ','\'',$(subst ','\'',$(GIT_TEST_UTF8_LOCALE)))'\' >>$@+
+endif
 	@echo NO_GETTEXT=\''$(subst ','\'',$(subst ','\'',$(NO_GETTEXT)))'\' >>$@+
 ifdef GIT_PERF_REPEAT_COUNT
 	@echo GIT_PERF_REPEAT_COUNT=\''$(subst ','\'',$(subst ','\'',$(GIT_PERF_REPEAT_COUNT)))'\' >>$@+
diff --git a/RelNotes b/RelNotes
index aece21e..f071367 120000
--- a/RelNotes
+++ b/RelNotes
@@ -1 +1 @@
-Documentation/RelNotes/2.32.0.txt
\ No newline at end of file
+Documentation/RelNotes/2.33.0.txt
\ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/apply.c b/apply.c
index 853d3ed..44bc31d 100644
--- a/apply.c
+++ b/apply.c
@@ -101,9 +101,9 @@
 	state->ws_error_action = warn_on_ws_error;
 	state->ws_ignore_action = ignore_ws_none;
 	state->linenr = 1;
-	string_list_init(&state->fn_table, 0);
-	string_list_init(&state->limit_by_name, 0);
-	string_list_init(&state->symlink_changes, 0);
+	string_list_init_nodup(&state->fn_table);
+	string_list_init_nodup(&state->limit_by_name);
+	string_list_init_nodup(&state->symlink_changes);
 	strbuf_init(&state->root, 0);
 
 	git_apply_config();
diff --git a/archive.c b/archive.c
index ff2bb54..3c266d1 100644
--- a/archive.c
+++ b/archive.c
@@ -645,7 +645,7 @@
 	args.pretty_ctx = &ctx;
 	args.repo = repo;
 	args.prefix = prefix;
-	string_list_init(&args.extra_files, 1);
+	string_list_init_dup(&args.extra_files);
 	argc = parse_archive_args(argc, argv, &ar, &args, name_hint, remote);
 	if (!startup_info->have_repository) {
 		/*
diff --git a/attr.c b/attr.c
index 9e897e4..d029e68 100644
--- a/attr.c
+++ b/attr.c
@@ -685,7 +685,7 @@
  * Callers into the attribute system assume there is a single, system-wide
  * global state where attributes are read from and when the state is flipped by
  * calling git_attr_set_direction(), the stack frames that have been
- * constructed need to be discarded so so that subsequent calls into the
+ * constructed need to be discarded so that subsequent calls into the
  * attribute system will lazily read from the right place.  Since changing
  * direction causes a global paradigm shift, it should not ever be called while
  * another thread could potentially be calling into the attribute system.
diff --git a/builtin/add.c b/builtin/add.c
index b773b5a..09e6845 100644
--- a/builtin/add.c
+++ b/builtin/add.c
@@ -470,7 +470,7 @@
 {
 	int exit_status = 0;
 	struct pathspec pathspec;
-	struct dir_struct dir;
+	struct dir_struct dir = DIR_INIT;
 	int flags;
 	int add_new_files;
 	int require_pathspec;
@@ -577,7 +577,6 @@
 	die_in_unpopulated_submodule(&the_index, prefix);
 	die_path_inside_submodule(&the_index, &pathspec);
 
-	dir_init(&dir);
 	if (add_new_files) {
 		int baselen;
 
diff --git a/builtin/bundle.c b/builtin/bundle.c
index ea69481..053a51b 100644
--- a/builtin/bundle.c
+++ b/builtin/bundle.c
@@ -46,7 +46,7 @@
 		const char* prefix,
 		const char * const usagestr[],
 		const struct option options[],
-		const char **bundle_file) {
+		char **bundle_file) {
 	int newargc;
 	newargc = parse_options(argc, argv, NULL, options, usagestr,
 			     PARSE_OPT_STOP_AT_NON_OPTION);
@@ -61,7 +61,7 @@
 	int progress = isatty(STDERR_FILENO);
 	struct strvec pack_opts;
 	int version = -1;
-
+	int ret;
 	struct option options[] = {
 		OPT_SET_INT('q', "quiet", &progress,
 			    N_("do not show progress meter"), 0),
@@ -76,7 +76,7 @@
 			    N_("specify bundle format version")),
 		OPT_END()
 	};
-	const char* bundle_file;
+	char *bundle_file;
 
 	argc = parse_options_cmd_bundle(argc, argv, prefix,
 			builtin_bundle_create_usage, options, &bundle_file);
@@ -94,75 +94,95 @@
 
 	if (!startup_info->have_repository)
 		die(_("Need a repository to create a bundle."));
-	return !!create_bundle(the_repository, bundle_file, argc, argv, &pack_opts, version);
+	ret = !!create_bundle(the_repository, bundle_file, argc, argv, &pack_opts, version);
+	free(bundle_file);
+	return ret;
 }
 
 static int cmd_bundle_verify(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix) {
-	struct bundle_header header;
+	struct bundle_header header = BUNDLE_HEADER_INIT;
 	int bundle_fd = -1;
 	int quiet = 0;
-
+	int ret;
 	struct option options[] = {
 		OPT_BOOL('q', "quiet", &quiet,
 			    N_("do not show bundle details")),
 		OPT_END()
 	};
-	const char* bundle_file;
+	char *bundle_file;
 
 	argc = parse_options_cmd_bundle(argc, argv, prefix,
 			builtin_bundle_verify_usage, options, &bundle_file);
 	/* bundle internals use argv[1] as further parameters */
 
-	memset(&header, 0, sizeof(header));
-	if ((bundle_fd = read_bundle_header(bundle_file, &header)) < 0)
-		return 1;
+	if ((bundle_fd = read_bundle_header(bundle_file, &header)) < 0) {
+		ret = 1;
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
 	close(bundle_fd);
-	if (verify_bundle(the_repository, &header, !quiet))
-		return 1;
+	if (verify_bundle(the_repository, &header, !quiet)) {
+		ret = 1;
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
+
 	fprintf(stderr, _("%s is okay\n"), bundle_file);
-	return 0;
+	ret = 0;
+cleanup:
+	free(bundle_file);
+	bundle_header_release(&header);
+	return ret;
 }
 
 static int cmd_bundle_list_heads(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix) {
-	struct bundle_header header;
+	struct bundle_header header = BUNDLE_HEADER_INIT;
 	int bundle_fd = -1;
-
+	int ret;
 	struct option options[] = {
 		OPT_END()
 	};
-	const char* bundle_file;
+	char *bundle_file;
 
 	argc = parse_options_cmd_bundle(argc, argv, prefix,
 			builtin_bundle_list_heads_usage, options, &bundle_file);
 	/* bundle internals use argv[1] as further parameters */
 
-	memset(&header, 0, sizeof(header));
-	if ((bundle_fd = read_bundle_header(bundle_file, &header)) < 0)
-		return 1;
+	if ((bundle_fd = read_bundle_header(bundle_file, &header)) < 0) {
+		ret = 1;
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
 	close(bundle_fd);
-	return !!list_bundle_refs(&header, argc, argv);
+	ret = !!list_bundle_refs(&header, argc, argv);
+cleanup:
+	free(bundle_file);
+	bundle_header_release(&header);
+	return ret;
 }
 
 static int cmd_bundle_unbundle(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix) {
-	struct bundle_header header;
+	struct bundle_header header = BUNDLE_HEADER_INIT;
 	int bundle_fd = -1;
-
+	int ret;
 	struct option options[] = {
 		OPT_END()
 	};
-	const char* bundle_file;
+	char *bundle_file;
 
 	argc = parse_options_cmd_bundle(argc, argv, prefix,
 			builtin_bundle_unbundle_usage, options, &bundle_file);
 	/* bundle internals use argv[1] as further parameters */
 
-	memset(&header, 0, sizeof(header));
-	if ((bundle_fd = read_bundle_header(bundle_file, &header)) < 0)
-		return 1;
+	if ((bundle_fd = read_bundle_header(bundle_file, &header)) < 0) {
+		ret = 1;
+		goto cleanup;
+	}
 	if (!startup_info->have_repository)
 		die(_("Need a repository to unbundle."));
-	return !!unbundle(the_repository, &header, bundle_fd, 0) ||
+	ret = !!unbundle(the_repository, &header, bundle_fd, 0) ||
 		list_bundle_refs(&header, argc, argv);
+	bundle_header_release(&header);
+cleanup:
+	free(bundle_file);
+	return ret;
 }
 
 int cmd_bundle(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
diff --git a/builtin/cat-file.c b/builtin/cat-file.c
index 5ebf133..243fe68 100644
--- a/builtin/cat-file.c
+++ b/builtin/cat-file.c
@@ -512,12 +512,6 @@
 	if (opt->cmdmode)
 		data.split_on_whitespace = 1;
 
-	if (opt->all_objects) {
-		struct object_info empty = OBJECT_INFO_INIT;
-		if (!memcmp(&data.info, &empty, sizeof(empty)))
-			data.skip_object_info = 1;
-	}
-
 	/*
 	 * If we are printing out the object, then always fill in the type,
 	 * since we will want to decide whether or not to stream.
@@ -527,6 +521,10 @@
 
 	if (opt->all_objects) {
 		struct object_cb_data cb;
+		struct object_info empty = OBJECT_INFO_INIT;
+
+		if (!memcmp(&data.info, &empty, sizeof(empty)))
+			data.skip_object_info = 1;
 
 		if (has_promisor_remote())
 			warning("This repository uses promisor remotes. Some objects may not be loaded.");
diff --git a/builtin/check-ignore.c b/builtin/check-ignore.c
index 8123455..2191256 100644
--- a/builtin/check-ignore.c
+++ b/builtin/check-ignore.c
@@ -153,7 +153,7 @@
 int cmd_check_ignore(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
 	int num_ignored;
-	struct dir_struct dir;
+	struct dir_struct dir = DIR_INIT;
 
 	git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
 
@@ -182,7 +182,6 @@
 	if (!no_index && read_cache() < 0)
 		die(_("index file corrupt"));
 
-	dir_init(&dir);
 	setup_standard_excludes(&dir);
 
 	if (stdin_paths) {
diff --git a/builtin/checkout--worker.c b/builtin/checkout--worker.c
index 289a9b8..fb9fd13 100644
--- a/builtin/checkout--worker.c
+++ b/builtin/checkout--worker.c
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@
 
 static void report_result(struct parallel_checkout_item *pc_item)
 {
-	struct pc_item_result res;
+	struct pc_item_result res = { 0 };
 	size_t size;
 
 	res.id = pc_item->id;
diff --git a/builtin/clean.c b/builtin/clean.c
index 4944cf44..98a2860 100644
--- a/builtin/clean.c
+++ b/builtin/clean.c
@@ -641,7 +641,7 @@
 
 static int filter_by_patterns_cmd(void)
 {
-	struct dir_struct dir;
+	struct dir_struct dir = DIR_INIT;
 	struct strbuf confirm = STRBUF_INIT;
 	struct strbuf **ignore_list;
 	struct string_list_item *item;
@@ -665,7 +665,6 @@
 		if (!confirm.len)
 			break;
 
-		dir_init(&dir);
 		pl = add_pattern_list(&dir, EXC_CMDL, "manual exclude");
 		ignore_list = strbuf_split_max(&confirm, ' ', 0);
 
@@ -890,7 +889,7 @@
 	int ignored_only = 0, config_set = 0, errors = 0, gone = 1;
 	int rm_flags = REMOVE_DIR_KEEP_NESTED_GIT;
 	struct strbuf abs_path = STRBUF_INIT;
-	struct dir_struct dir;
+	struct dir_struct dir = DIR_INIT;
 	struct pathspec pathspec;
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 	struct string_list exclude_list = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
@@ -921,7 +920,6 @@
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options, builtin_clean_usage,
 			     0);
 
-	dir_init(&dir);
 	if (!interactive && !dry_run && !force) {
 		if (config_set)
 			die(_("clean.requireForce set to true and neither -i, -n, nor -f given; "
diff --git a/builtin/clone.c b/builtin/clone.c
index eeb74c0..66fe666 100644
--- a/builtin/clone.c
+++ b/builtin/clone.c
@@ -1320,9 +1320,8 @@
 			}
 
 		if (!is_local && !complete_refs_before_fetch) {
-			err = transport_fetch_refs(transport, mapped_refs);
-			if (err)
-				goto cleanup;
+			if (transport_fetch_refs(transport, mapped_refs))
+				die(_("remote transport reported error"));
 		}
 
 		remote_head = find_ref_by_name(refs, "HEAD");
@@ -1380,9 +1379,8 @@
 	if (is_local)
 		clone_local(path, git_dir);
 	else if (refs && complete_refs_before_fetch) {
-		err = transport_fetch_refs(transport, mapped_refs);
-		if (err)
-			goto cleanup;
+		if (transport_fetch_refs(transport, mapped_refs))
+			die(_("remote transport reported error"));
 	}
 
 	update_remote_refs(refs, mapped_refs, remote_head_points_at,
@@ -1410,7 +1408,6 @@
 	junk_mode = JUNK_LEAVE_REPO;
 	err = checkout(submodule_progress);
 
-cleanup:
 	free(remote_name);
 	strbuf_release(&reflog_msg);
 	strbuf_release(&branch_top);
diff --git a/builtin/diff-index.c b/builtin/diff-index.c
index 176fe7f..cf09559 100644
--- a/builtin/diff-index.c
+++ b/builtin/diff-index.c
@@ -2,6 +2,7 @@
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "config.h"
 #include "diff.h"
+#include "diff-merges.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "revision.h"
 #include "builtin.h"
@@ -27,6 +28,12 @@
 	rev.abbrev = 0;
 	prefix = precompose_argv_prefix(argc, argv, prefix);
 
+	/*
+	 * We need no diff for merges options, and we need to avoid conflict
+	 * with our own meaning of "-m".
+	 */
+	diff_merges_suppress_options_parsing();
+
 	argc = setup_revisions(argc, argv, &rev, NULL);
 	for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {
 		const char *arg = argv[i];
@@ -35,6 +42,8 @@
 			option |= DIFF_INDEX_CACHED;
 		else if (!strcmp(arg, "--merge-base"))
 			option |= DIFF_INDEX_MERGE_BASE;
+		else if (!strcmp(arg, "-m"))
+			rev.match_missing = 1;
 		else
 			usage(diff_cache_usage);
 	}
diff --git a/builtin/difftool.c b/builtin/difftool.c
index 89334b7..6a9242a 100644
--- a/builtin/difftool.c
+++ b/builtin/difftool.c
@@ -675,7 +675,7 @@
 		"GIT_PAGER=", "GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF=git-difftool--helper", NULL,
 		NULL
 	};
-	int ret = 0, i;
+	int i;
 
 	if (prompt > 0)
 		env[2] = "GIT_DIFFTOOL_PROMPT=true";
@@ -686,8 +686,7 @@
 	strvec_push(&args, "diff");
 	for (i = 0; i < argc; i++)
 		strvec_push(&args, argv[i]);
-	ret = run_command_v_opt_cd_env(args.v, RUN_GIT_CMD, prefix, env);
-	exit(ret);
+	return run_command_v_opt_cd_env(args.v, RUN_GIT_CMD, prefix, env);
 }
 
 int cmd_difftool(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
diff --git a/builtin/fetch.c b/builtin/fetch.c
index dfde96a..25740c1 100644
--- a/builtin/fetch.c
+++ b/builtin/fetch.c
@@ -1126,7 +1126,7 @@
 
 			if (rm->status == REF_STATUS_REJECT_SHALLOW) {
 				if (want_status == FETCH_HEAD_MERGE)
-					warning(_("reject %s because shallow roots are not allowed to be updated"),
+					warning(_("rejected %s because shallow roots are not allowed to be updated"),
 						rm->peer_ref ? rm->peer_ref->name : rm->name);
 				continue;
 			}
@@ -1990,6 +1990,9 @@
 		fetch_config_from_gitmodules(sfjc, rs);
 	}
 
+	if (negotiate_only && !negotiation_tip.nr)
+		die(_("--negotiate-only needs one or more --negotiate-tip=*"));
+
 	if (deepen_relative) {
 		if (deepen_relative < 0)
 			die(_("Negative depth in --deepen is not supported"));
diff --git a/builtin/grep.c b/builtin/grep.c
index ab8822e..7d2f8e5 100644
--- a/builtin/grep.c
+++ b/builtin/grep.c
@@ -704,10 +704,9 @@
 static int grep_directory(struct grep_opt *opt, const struct pathspec *pathspec,
 			  int exc_std, int use_index)
 {
-	struct dir_struct dir;
+	struct dir_struct dir = DIR_INIT;
 	int i, hit = 0;
 
-	dir_init(&dir);
 	if (!use_index)
 		dir.flags |= DIR_NO_GITLINKS;
 	if (exc_std)
diff --git a/builtin/help.c b/builtin/help.c
index bb339f0..b7eec06 100644
--- a/builtin/help.c
+++ b/builtin/help.c
@@ -436,10 +436,9 @@
 		warning(_("'%s': unknown man viewer."), name);
 }
 
-static void show_man_page(const char *git_cmd)
+static void show_man_page(const char *page)
 {
 	struct man_viewer_list *viewer;
-	const char *page = cmd_to_page(git_cmd);
 	const char *fallback = getenv("GIT_MAN_VIEWER");
 
 	setup_man_path();
@@ -453,9 +452,8 @@
 	die(_("no man viewer handled the request"));
 }
 
-static void show_info_page(const char *git_cmd)
+static void show_info_page(const char *page)
 {
-	const char *page = cmd_to_page(git_cmd);
 	setenv("INFOPATH", system_path(GIT_INFO_PATH), 1);
 	execlp("info", "info", "gitman", page, (char *)NULL);
 	die(_("no info viewer handled the request"));
@@ -486,9 +484,8 @@
 	execl_git_cmd("web--browse", "-c", "help.browser", path, (char *)NULL);
 }
 
-static void show_html_page(const char *git_cmd)
+static void show_html_page(const char *page)
 {
-	const char *page = cmd_to_page(git_cmd);
 	struct strbuf page_path; /* it leaks but we exec bellow */
 
 	get_html_page_path(&page_path, page);
@@ -548,6 +545,7 @@
 {
 	int nongit;
 	enum help_format parsed_help_format;
+	const char *page;
 
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, builtin_help_options,
 			builtin_help_usage, 0);
@@ -606,16 +604,17 @@
 
 	argv[0] = check_git_cmd(argv[0]);
 
+	page = cmd_to_page(argv[0]);
 	switch (help_format) {
 	case HELP_FORMAT_NONE:
 	case HELP_FORMAT_MAN:
-		show_man_page(argv[0]);
+		show_man_page(page);
 		break;
 	case HELP_FORMAT_INFO:
-		show_info_page(argv[0]);
+		show_info_page(page);
 		break;
 	case HELP_FORMAT_WEB:
-		show_html_page(argv[0]);
+		show_html_page(page);
 		break;
 	}
 
diff --git a/builtin/log.c b/builtin/log.c
index 6102893..516a114 100644
--- a/builtin/log.c
+++ b/builtin/log.c
@@ -1968,8 +1968,7 @@
 	} else if (rev.diffopt.close_file) {
 		/*
 		 * The diff code parsed --output; it has already opened the
-		 * file, but but we must instruct it not to close after each
-		 * diff.
+		 * file, but we must instruct it not to close after each diff.
 		 */
 		rev.diffopt.no_free = 1;
 	} else {
diff --git a/builtin/ls-files.c b/builtin/ls-files.c
index 45cc3b2..29a26ad 100644
--- a/builtin/ls-files.c
+++ b/builtin/ls-files.c
@@ -608,7 +608,7 @@
 {
 	int require_work_tree = 0, show_tag = 0, i;
 	char *max_prefix;
-	struct dir_struct dir;
+	struct dir_struct dir = DIR_INIT;
 	struct pattern_list *pl;
 	struct string_list exclude_list = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
 	struct option builtin_ls_files_options[] = {
@@ -678,7 +678,6 @@
 	if (argc == 2 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-h"))
 		usage_with_options(ls_files_usage, builtin_ls_files_options);
 
-	dir_init(&dir);
 	prefix = cmd_prefix;
 	if (prefix)
 		prefix_len = strlen(prefix);
diff --git a/builtin/merge-ours.c b/builtin/merge-ours.c
index 4594507..3583cff 100644
--- a/builtin/merge-ours.c
+++ b/builtin/merge-ours.c
@@ -28,6 +28,6 @@
 	if (read_cache() < 0)
 		die_errno("read_cache failed");
 	if (index_differs_from(the_repository, "HEAD", NULL, 0))
-		exit(2);
-	exit(0);
+		return 2;
+	return 0;
 }
diff --git a/builtin/merge-tree.c b/builtin/merge-tree.c
index de85207..5dc94d6 100644
--- a/builtin/merge-tree.c
+++ b/builtin/merge-tree.c
@@ -107,15 +107,12 @@
 	mmfile_t src, dst;
 	xpparam_t xpp;
 	xdemitconf_t xecfg;
-	xdemitcb_t ecb;
+	xdemitcb_t ecb = { .out_line = show_outf };
 
 	memset(&xpp, 0, sizeof(xpp));
 	xpp.flags = 0;
 	memset(&xecfg, 0, sizeof(xecfg));
 	xecfg.ctxlen = 3;
-	ecb.out_hunk = NULL;
-	ecb.out_line = show_outf;
-	ecb.priv = NULL;
 
 	src.ptr = origin(entry, &size);
 	if (!src.ptr)
diff --git a/builtin/merge.c b/builtin/merge.c
index eddb8ae..a8a843b 100644
--- a/builtin/merge.c
+++ b/builtin/merge.c
@@ -56,8 +56,8 @@
 
 static const char * const builtin_merge_usage[] = {
 	N_("git merge [<options>] [<commit>...]"),
-	N_("git merge --abort"),
-	N_("git merge --continue"),
+	"git merge --abort",
+	"git merge --continue",
 	NULL
 };
 
diff --git a/builtin/mktree.c b/builtin/mktree.c
index 891991b..ae78ca1 100644
--- a/builtin/mktree.c
+++ b/builtin/mktree.c
@@ -189,5 +189,5 @@
 		used=0; /* reset tree entry buffer for re-use in batch mode */
 	}
 	strbuf_release(&sb);
-	exit(0);
+	return 0;
 }
diff --git a/builtin/pull.c b/builtin/pull.c
index e8927fc..3e13f81 100644
--- a/builtin/pull.c
+++ b/builtin/pull.c
@@ -126,9 +126,9 @@
 	/* Options passed to git-merge or git-rebase */
 	OPT_GROUP(N_("Options related to merging")),
 	OPT_CALLBACK_F('r', "rebase", &opt_rebase,
-	  "(false|true|merges|preserve|interactive)",
-	  N_("incorporate changes by rebasing rather than merging"),
-	  PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, parse_opt_rebase),
+		"(false|true|merges|preserve|interactive)",
+		N_("incorporate changes by rebasing rather than merging"),
+		PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, parse_opt_rebase),
 	OPT_PASSTHRU('n', NULL, &opt_diffstat, NULL,
 		N_("do not show a diffstat at the end of the merge"),
 		PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_NONEG),
@@ -947,7 +947,6 @@
 	struct oid_array merge_heads = OID_ARRAY_INIT;
 	struct object_id orig_head, curr_head;
 	struct object_id rebase_fork_point;
-	int autostash;
 	int rebase_unspecified = 0;
 	int can_ff;
 
@@ -982,8 +981,8 @@
 	if (get_oid("HEAD", &orig_head))
 		oidclr(&orig_head);
 
-	autostash = config_autostash;
 	if (opt_rebase) {
+		int autostash = config_autostash;
 		if (opt_autostash != -1)
 			autostash = opt_autostash;
 
@@ -1054,7 +1053,6 @@
 
 	if (opt_rebase) {
 		int ret = 0;
-		int ran_ff = 0;
 
 		struct object_id newbase;
 		struct object_id upstream;
@@ -1065,16 +1063,14 @@
 		     recurse_submodules == RECURSE_SUBMODULES_ON_DEMAND) &&
 		    submodule_touches_in_range(the_repository, &upstream, &curr_head))
 			die(_("cannot rebase with locally recorded submodule modifications"));
-		if (!autostash) {
-			if (can_ff) {
-				/* we can fast-forward this without invoking rebase */
-				opt_ff = "--ff-only";
-				ran_ff = 1;
-				ret = run_merge();
-			}
-		}
-		if (!ran_ff)
+
+		if (can_ff) {
+			/* we can fast-forward this without invoking rebase */
+			opt_ff = "--ff-only";
+			ret = run_merge();
+		} else {
 			ret = run_rebase(&newbase, &upstream);
+		}
 
 		if (!ret && (recurse_submodules == RECURSE_SUBMODULES_ON ||
 			     recurse_submodules == RECURSE_SUBMODULES_ON_DEMAND))
diff --git a/builtin/push.c b/builtin/push.c
index 194967e..e8b10a9 100644
--- a/builtin/push.c
+++ b/builtin/push.c
@@ -185,82 +185,73 @@
 	   "\n"
 	   "    git push %s HEAD:<name-of-remote-branch>\n");
 
-static void setup_push_upstream(struct remote *remote, struct branch *branch,
-				int triangular, int simple)
+static const char *get_upstream_ref(struct branch *branch, const char *remote_name)
 {
-	if (!branch)
-		die(_(message_detached_head_die), remote->name);
 	if (!branch->merge_nr || !branch->merge || !branch->remote_name)
 		die(_("The current branch %s has no upstream branch.\n"
 		    "To push the current branch and set the remote as upstream, use\n"
 		    "\n"
 		    "    git push --set-upstream %s %s\n"),
 		    branch->name,
-		    remote->name,
+		    remote_name,
 		    branch->name);
 	if (branch->merge_nr != 1)
 		die(_("The current branch %s has multiple upstream branches, "
 		    "refusing to push."), branch->name);
-	if (triangular)
-		die(_("You are pushing to remote '%s', which is not the upstream of\n"
-		      "your current branch '%s', without telling me what to push\n"
-		      "to update which remote branch."),
-		    remote->name, branch->name);
 
-	if (simple) {
-		/* Additional safety */
-		if (strcmp(branch->refname, branch->merge[0]->src))
-			die_push_simple(branch, remote);
-	}
-
-	refspec_appendf(&rs, "%s:%s", branch->refname, branch->merge[0]->src);
-}
-
-static void setup_push_current(struct remote *remote, struct branch *branch)
-{
-	if (!branch)
-		die(_(message_detached_head_die), remote->name);
-	refspec_appendf(&rs, "%s:%s", branch->refname, branch->refname);
-}
-
-static int is_workflow_triangular(struct remote *remote)
-{
-	struct remote *fetch_remote = remote_get(NULL);
-	return (fetch_remote && fetch_remote != remote);
+	return branch->merge[0]->src;
 }
 
 static void setup_default_push_refspecs(struct remote *remote)
 {
-	struct branch *branch = branch_get(NULL);
-	int triangular = is_workflow_triangular(remote);
+	struct branch *branch;
+	const char *dst;
+	int same_remote;
 
 	switch (push_default) {
-	default:
 	case PUSH_DEFAULT_MATCHING:
 		refspec_append(&rs, ":");
-		break;
-
-	case PUSH_DEFAULT_UNSPECIFIED:
-	case PUSH_DEFAULT_SIMPLE:
-		if (triangular)
-			setup_push_current(remote, branch);
-		else
-			setup_push_upstream(remote, branch, triangular, 1);
-		break;
-
-	case PUSH_DEFAULT_UPSTREAM:
-		setup_push_upstream(remote, branch, triangular, 0);
-		break;
-
-	case PUSH_DEFAULT_CURRENT:
-		setup_push_current(remote, branch);
-		break;
+		return;
 
 	case PUSH_DEFAULT_NOTHING:
 		die(_("You didn't specify any refspecs to push, and "
 		    "push.default is \"nothing\"."));
+		return;
+	default:
 		break;
 	}
+
+	branch = branch_get(NULL);
+	if (!branch)
+		die(_(message_detached_head_die), remote->name);
+
+	dst = branch->refname;
+	same_remote = !strcmp(remote->name, remote_for_branch(branch, NULL));
+
+	switch (push_default) {
+	default:
+	case PUSH_DEFAULT_UNSPECIFIED:
+	case PUSH_DEFAULT_SIMPLE:
+		if (!same_remote)
+			break;
+		if (strcmp(branch->refname, get_upstream_ref(branch, remote->name)))
+			die_push_simple(branch, remote);
+		break;
+
+	case PUSH_DEFAULT_UPSTREAM:
+		if (!same_remote)
+			die(_("You are pushing to remote '%s', which is not the upstream of\n"
+			      "your current branch '%s', without telling me what to push\n"
+			      "to update which remote branch."),
+			    remote->name, branch->name);
+		dst = get_upstream_ref(branch, remote->name);
+		break;
+
+	case PUSH_DEFAULT_CURRENT:
+		break;
+	}
+
+	refspec_appendf(&rs, "%s:%s", branch->refname, dst);
 }
 
 static const char message_advice_pull_before_push[] =
diff --git a/builtin/rerere.c b/builtin/rerere.c
index fd3be17..83d7a77 100644
--- a/builtin/rerere.c
+++ b/builtin/rerere.c
@@ -28,7 +28,7 @@
 {
 	xpparam_t xpp;
 	xdemitconf_t xecfg;
-	xdemitcb_t ecb;
+	xdemitcb_t ecb = { .out_line = outf };
 	mmfile_t minus, plus;
 	int ret;
 
@@ -41,8 +41,6 @@
 	xpp.flags = 0;
 	memset(&xecfg, 0, sizeof(xecfg));
 	xecfg.ctxlen = 3;
-	ecb.out_hunk = NULL;
-	ecb.out_line = outf;
 	ret = xdi_diff(&minus, &plus, &xpp, &xecfg, &ecb);
 
 	free(minus.ptr);
diff --git a/builtin/rev-parse.c b/builtin/rev-parse.c
index 7af8dab..22c4e1a 100644
--- a/builtin/rev-parse.c
+++ b/builtin/rev-parse.c
@@ -435,11 +435,11 @@
 	/* get the usage up to the first line with a -- on it */
 	for (;;) {
 		if (strbuf_getline(&sb, stdin) == EOF)
-			die("premature end of input");
+			die(_("premature end of input"));
 		ALLOC_GROW(usage, unb + 1, usz);
 		if (!strcmp("--", sb.buf)) {
 			if (unb < 1)
-				die("no usage string given before the `--' separator");
+				die(_("no usage string given before the `--' separator"));
 			usage[unb] = NULL;
 			break;
 		}
@@ -545,7 +545,7 @@
 	if (quiet)
 		exit(1);
 	else
-		die("Needed a single revision");
+		die(_("Needed a single revision"));
 }
 
 static const char builtin_rev_parse_usage[] =
@@ -709,10 +709,10 @@
 			if (!strcmp(arg, "--resolve-git-dir")) {
 				const char *gitdir = argv[++i];
 				if (!gitdir)
-					die("--resolve-git-dir requires an argument");
+					die(_("--resolve-git-dir requires an argument"));
 				gitdir = resolve_gitdir(gitdir);
 				if (!gitdir)
-					die("not a gitdir '%s'", argv[i]);
+					die(_("not a gitdir '%s'"), argv[i]);
 				puts(gitdir);
 				continue;
 			}
@@ -736,7 +736,7 @@
 		if (!seen_end_of_options && *arg == '-') {
 			if (!strcmp(arg, "--git-path")) {
 				if (!argv[i + 1])
-					die("--git-path requires an argument");
+					die(_("--git-path requires an argument"));
 				strbuf_reset(&buf);
 				print_path(git_path("%s", argv[i + 1]), prefix,
 						format,
@@ -746,7 +746,7 @@
 			}
 			if (!strcmp(arg,"-n")) {
 				if (++i >= argc)
-					die("-n requires an argument");
+					die(_("-n requires an argument"));
 				if ((filter & DO_FLAGS) && (filter & DO_REVS)) {
 					show(arg);
 					show(argv[i]);
@@ -760,26 +760,26 @@
 			}
 			if (opt_with_value(arg, "--path-format", &arg)) {
 				if (!arg)
-					die("--path-format requires an argument");
+					die(_("--path-format requires an argument"));
 				if (!strcmp(arg, "absolute")) {
 					format = FORMAT_CANONICAL;
 				} else if (!strcmp(arg, "relative")) {
 					format = FORMAT_RELATIVE;
 				} else {
-					die("unknown argument to --path-format: %s", arg);
+					die(_("unknown argument to --path-format: %s"), arg);
 				}
 				continue;
 			}
 			if (!strcmp(arg, "--default")) {
 				def = argv[++i];
 				if (!def)
-					die("--default requires an argument");
+					die(_("--default requires an argument"));
 				continue;
 			}
 			if (!strcmp(arg, "--prefix")) {
 				prefix = argv[++i];
 				if (!prefix)
-					die("--prefix requires an argument");
+					die(_("--prefix requires an argument"));
 				startup_info->prefix = prefix;
 				output_prefix = 1;
 				continue;
@@ -848,7 +848,7 @@
 					else if (!strcmp(arg, "loose"))
 						abbrev_ref_strict = 0;
 					else
-						die("unknown mode for --abbrev-ref: %s",
+						die(_("unknown mode for --abbrev-ref: %s"),
 						    arg);
 				}
 				continue;
@@ -892,7 +892,7 @@
 				if (work_tree)
 					print_path(work_tree, prefix, format, DEFAULT_UNMODIFIED);
 				else
-					die("this operation must be run in a work tree");
+					die(_("this operation must be run in a work tree"));
 				continue;
 			}
 			if (!strcmp(arg, "--show-superproject-working-tree")) {
@@ -1020,7 +1020,7 @@
 				if (strcmp(val, "storage") &&
 				    strcmp(val, "input") &&
 				    strcmp(val, "output"))
-					die("unknown mode for --show-object-format: %s",
+					die(_("unknown mode for --show-object-format: %s"),
 					    arg);
 				puts(the_hash_algo->name);
 				continue;
@@ -1058,7 +1058,7 @@
 		if (verify)
 			die_no_single_rev(quiet);
 		if (has_dashdash)
-			die("bad revision '%s'", arg);
+			die(_("bad revision '%s'"), arg);
 		as_is = 1;
 		if (!show_file(arg, output_prefix))
 			continue;
diff --git a/builtin/show-branch.c b/builtin/show-branch.c
index d6d2dab..d77ce7a 100644
--- a/builtin/show-branch.c
+++ b/builtin/show-branch.c
@@ -939,9 +939,12 @@
 					mark = '*';
 				else
 					mark = '+';
-				printf("%s%c%s",
-				       get_color_code(i),
-				       mark, get_color_reset_code());
+				if (mark == ' ')
+					putchar(mark);
+				else
+					printf("%s%c%s",
+					       get_color_code(i),
+					       mark, get_color_reset_code());
 			}
 			putchar(' ');
 		}
diff --git a/builtin/stash.c b/builtin/stash.c
index 01066d7..8f42360 100644
--- a/builtin/stash.c
+++ b/builtin/stash.c
@@ -26,7 +26,7 @@
 	N_("git stash drop [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]"),
 	N_("git stash ( pop | apply ) [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]"),
 	N_("git stash branch <branchname> [<stash>]"),
-	N_("git stash clear"),
+	"git stash clear",
 	N_("git stash [push [-p|--patch] [-k|--[no-]keep-index] [-q|--quiet]\n"
 	   "          [-u|--include-untracked] [-a|--all] [-m|--message <message>]\n"
 	   "          [--pathspec-from-file=<file> [--pathspec-file-nul]]\n"
@@ -67,7 +67,7 @@
 };
 
 static const char * const git_stash_clear_usage[] = {
-	N_("git stash clear"),
+	"git stash clear",
 	NULL
 };
 
@@ -761,7 +761,7 @@
 
 	cp.git_cmd = 1;
 	strvec_pushl(&cp.args, "log", "--format=%gd: %gs", "-g",
-		     "--first-parent", "-m", NULL);
+		     "--first-parent", NULL);
 	strvec_pushv(&cp.args, argv);
 	strvec_push(&cp.args, ref_stash);
 	strvec_push(&cp.args, "--");
@@ -991,9 +991,8 @@
 {
 	int i;
 	int found = 0;
-	struct dir_struct dir;
+	struct dir_struct dir = DIR_INIT;
 
-	dir_init(&dir);
 	if (include_untracked != INCLUDE_ALL_FILES)
 		setup_standard_excludes(&dir);
 
diff --git a/builtin/submodule--helper.c b/builtin/submodule--helper.c
index d55f626..f73963a 100644
--- a/builtin/submodule--helper.c
+++ b/builtin/submodule--helper.c
@@ -19,7 +19,6 @@
 #include "diffcore.h"
 #include "diff.h"
 #include "object-store.h"
-#include "dir.h"
 #include "advice.h"
 
 #define OPT_QUIET (1 << 0)
@@ -1300,7 +1299,7 @@
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "cached", &cached,
 			 N_("use the commit stored in the index instead of the submodule HEAD")),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "files", &files,
-			 N_("to compare the commit in the index with that in the submodule HEAD")),
+			 N_("compare the commit in the index with that in the submodule HEAD")),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "for-status", &for_status,
 			 N_("skip submodules with 'ignore_config' value set to 'all'")),
 		OPT_INTEGER('n', "summary-limit", &summary_limit,
diff --git a/bulk-checkin.c b/bulk-checkin.c
index 127312a..b023d99 100644
--- a/bulk-checkin.c
+++ b/bulk-checkin.c
@@ -100,6 +100,7 @@
 			  const char *path, unsigned flags)
 {
 	git_zstream s;
+	unsigned char ibuf[16384];
 	unsigned char obuf[16384];
 	unsigned hdrlen;
 	int status = Z_OK;
@@ -113,8 +114,6 @@
 	s.avail_out = sizeof(obuf) - hdrlen;
 
 	while (status != Z_STREAM_END) {
-		unsigned char ibuf[16384];
-
 		if (size && !s.avail_in) {
 			ssize_t rsize = size < sizeof(ibuf) ? size : sizeof(ibuf);
 			ssize_t read_result = read_in_full(fd, ibuf, rsize);
diff --git a/bundle.c b/bundle.c
index 693d619..ab63f40 100644
--- a/bundle.c
+++ b/bundle.c
@@ -23,13 +23,16 @@
 	{ 3, v3_bundle_signature },
 };
 
-static void add_to_ref_list(const struct object_id *oid, const char *name,
-		struct ref_list *list)
+void bundle_header_init(struct bundle_header *header)
 {
-	ALLOC_GROW(list->list, list->nr + 1, list->alloc);
-	oidcpy(&list->list[list->nr].oid, oid);
-	list->list[list->nr].name = xstrdup(name);
-	list->nr++;
+	struct bundle_header blank = BUNDLE_HEADER_INIT;
+	memcpy(header, &blank, sizeof(*header));
+}
+
+void bundle_header_release(struct bundle_header *header)
+{
+	string_list_clear(&header->prerequisites, 1);
+	string_list_clear(&header->references, 1);
 }
 
 static int parse_capability(struct bundle_header *header, const char *capability)
@@ -112,10 +115,11 @@
 			status = -1;
 			break;
 		} else {
+			struct object_id *dup = oiddup(&oid);
 			if (is_prereq)
-				add_to_ref_list(&oid, "", &header->prerequisites);
+				string_list_append(&header->prerequisites, "")->util = dup;
 			else
-				add_to_ref_list(&oid, p + 1, &header->references);
+				string_list_append(&header->references, p + 1)->util = dup;
 		}
 	}
 
@@ -139,33 +143,38 @@
 
 int is_bundle(const char *path, int quiet)
 {
-	struct bundle_header header;
+	struct bundle_header header = BUNDLE_HEADER_INIT;
 	int fd = open(path, O_RDONLY);
 
 	if (fd < 0)
 		return 0;
-	memset(&header, 0, sizeof(header));
 	fd = parse_bundle_header(fd, &header, quiet ? NULL : path);
 	if (fd >= 0)
 		close(fd);
+	bundle_header_release(&header);
 	return (fd >= 0);
 }
 
-static int list_refs(struct ref_list *r, int argc, const char **argv)
+static int list_refs(struct string_list *r, int argc, const char **argv)
 {
 	int i;
 
 	for (i = 0; i < r->nr; i++) {
+		struct object_id *oid;
+		const char *name;
+
 		if (argc > 1) {
 			int j;
 			for (j = 1; j < argc; j++)
-				if (!strcmp(r->list[i].name, argv[j]))
+				if (!strcmp(r->items[i].string, argv[j]))
 					break;
 			if (j == argc)
 				continue;
 		}
-		printf("%s %s\n", oid_to_hex(&r->list[i].oid),
-				r->list[i].name);
+
+		oid = r->items[i].util;
+		name = r->items[i].string;
+		printf("%s %s\n", oid_to_hex(oid), name);
 	}
 	return 0;
 }
@@ -181,7 +190,7 @@
 	 * Do fast check, then if any prereqs are missing then go line by line
 	 * to be verbose about the errors
 	 */
-	struct ref_list *p = &header->prerequisites;
+	struct string_list *p = &header->prerequisites;
 	struct rev_info revs;
 	const char *argv[] = {NULL, "--all", NULL};
 	struct commit *commit;
@@ -193,16 +202,18 @@
 
 	repo_init_revisions(r, &revs, NULL);
 	for (i = 0; i < p->nr; i++) {
-		struct ref_list_entry *e = p->list + i;
-		struct object *o = parse_object(r, &e->oid);
+		struct string_list_item *e = p->items + i;
+		const char *name = e->string;
+		struct object_id *oid = e->util;
+		struct object *o = parse_object(r, oid);
 		if (o) {
 			o->flags |= PREREQ_MARK;
-			add_pending_object(&revs, o, e->name);
+			add_pending_object(&revs, o, name);
 			continue;
 		}
 		if (++ret == 1)
 			error("%s", message);
-		error("%s %s", oid_to_hex(&e->oid), e->name);
+		error("%s %s", oid_to_hex(oid), name);
 	}
 	if (revs.pending.nr != p->nr)
 		return ret;
@@ -218,26 +229,29 @@
 			i--;
 
 	for (i = 0; i < p->nr; i++) {
-		struct ref_list_entry *e = p->list + i;
-		struct object *o = parse_object(r, &e->oid);
+		struct string_list_item *e = p->items + i;
+		const char *name = e->string;
+		const struct object_id *oid = e->util;
+		struct object *o = parse_object(r, oid);
 		assert(o); /* otherwise we'd have returned early */
 		if (o->flags & SHOWN)
 			continue;
 		if (++ret == 1)
 			error("%s", message);
-		error("%s %s", oid_to_hex(&e->oid), e->name);
+		error("%s %s", oid_to_hex(oid), name);
 	}
 
 	/* Clean up objects used, as they will be reused. */
 	for (i = 0; i < p->nr; i++) {
-		struct ref_list_entry *e = p->list + i;
-		commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(r, &e->oid, 1);
+		struct string_list_item *e = p->items + i;
+		struct object_id *oid = e->util;
+		commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(r, oid, 1);
 		if (commit)
 			clear_commit_marks(commit, ALL_REV_FLAGS);
 	}
 
 	if (verbose) {
-		struct ref_list *r;
+		struct string_list *r;
 
 		r = &header->references;
 		printf_ln(Q_("The bundle contains this ref:",
diff --git a/bundle.h b/bundle.h
index f9e2d1c..1927d8c 100644
--- a/bundle.h
+++ b/bundle.h
@@ -3,22 +3,23 @@
 
 #include "strvec.h"
 #include "cache.h"
-
-struct ref_list {
-	unsigned int nr, alloc;
-	struct ref_list_entry {
-		struct object_id oid;
-		char *name;
-	} *list;
-};
+#include "string-list.h"
 
 struct bundle_header {
 	unsigned version;
-	struct ref_list prerequisites;
-	struct ref_list references;
+	struct string_list prerequisites;
+	struct string_list references;
 	const struct git_hash_algo *hash_algo;
 };
 
+#define BUNDLE_HEADER_INIT \
+{ \
+	.prerequisites = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP, \
+	.references = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP, \
+}
+void bundle_header_init(struct bundle_header *header);
+void bundle_header_release(struct bundle_header *header);
+
 int is_bundle(const char *path, int quiet);
 int read_bundle_header(const char *path, struct bundle_header *header);
 int create_bundle(struct repository *r, const char *path,
diff --git a/chunk-format.c b/chunk-format.c
index da191e5..1c3dca6 100644
--- a/chunk-format.c
+++ b/chunk-format.c
@@ -58,9 +58,11 @@
 
 int write_chunkfile(struct chunkfile *cf, void *data)
 {
-	int i;
+	int i, result = 0;
 	uint64_t cur_offset = hashfile_total(cf->f);
 
+	trace2_region_enter("chunkfile", "write", the_repository);
+
 	/* Add the table of contents to the current offset */
 	cur_offset += (cf->chunks_nr + 1) * CHUNK_TOC_ENTRY_SIZE;
 
@@ -77,10 +79,10 @@
 
 	for (i = 0; i < cf->chunks_nr; i++) {
 		off_t start_offset = hashfile_total(cf->f);
-		int result = cf->chunks[i].write_fn(cf->f, data);
+		result = cf->chunks[i].write_fn(cf->f, data);
 
 		if (result)
-			return result;
+			goto cleanup;
 
 		if (hashfile_total(cf->f) - start_offset != cf->chunks[i].size)
 			BUG("expected to write %"PRId64" bytes to chunk %"PRIx32", but wrote %"PRId64" instead",
@@ -88,7 +90,9 @@
 			    hashfile_total(cf->f) - start_offset);
 	}
 
-	return 0;
+cleanup:
+	trace2_region_leave("chunkfile", "write", the_repository);
+	return result;
 }
 
 int read_table_of_contents(struct chunkfile *cf,
diff --git a/ci/lib.sh b/ci/lib.sh
index d848c03..476c3f3 100755
--- a/ci/lib.sh
+++ b/ci/lib.sh
@@ -229,6 +229,7 @@
 	CC=gcc
 	MAKEFLAGS="$MAKEFLAGS PYTHON_PATH=/usr/bin/python3 USE_LIBPCRE2=Yes"
 	MAKEFLAGS="$MAKEFLAGS NO_REGEX=Yes ICONV_OMITS_BOM=Yes"
+	MAKEFLAGS="$MAKEFLAGS GIT_TEST_UTF8_LOCALE=C.UTF-8"
 	;;
 esac
 
diff --git a/combine-diff.c b/combine-diff.c
index 7d925ce..d93782d 100644
--- a/combine-diff.c
+++ b/combine-diff.c
@@ -403,11 +403,11 @@
 	state->sline[state->nb-1].p_lno[state->n] = state->ob;
 }
 
-static void consume_line(void *state_, char *line, unsigned long len)
+static int consume_line(void *state_, char *line, unsigned long len)
 {
 	struct combine_diff_state *state = state_;
 	if (!state->lost_bucket)
-		return; /* not in any hunk yet */
+		return 0; /* not in any hunk yet */
 	switch (line[0]) {
 	case '-':
 		append_lost(state->lost_bucket, state->n, line+1, len-1);
@@ -417,6 +417,7 @@
 		state->lno++;
 		break;
 	}
+	return 0;
 }
 
 static void combine_diff(struct repository *r,
diff --git a/commit-graph.c b/commit-graph.c
index 2bcb4e0..1a2602d 100644
--- a/commit-graph.c
+++ b/commit-graph.c
@@ -2422,14 +2422,16 @@
 #define GENERATION_ZERO_EXISTS 1
 #define GENERATION_NUMBER_EXISTS 2
 
+static int commit_graph_checksum_valid(struct commit_graph *g)
+{
+	return hashfile_checksum_valid(g->data, g->data_len);
+}
+
 int verify_commit_graph(struct repository *r, struct commit_graph *g, int flags)
 {
 	uint32_t i, cur_fanout_pos = 0;
 	struct object_id prev_oid, cur_oid;
-	unsigned char checksum[GIT_MAX_HEXSZ];
 	int generation_zero = 0;
-	struct hashfile *f;
-	int devnull;
 	struct progress *progress = NULL;
 	int local_error = 0;
 
@@ -2442,11 +2444,7 @@
 	if (verify_commit_graph_error)
 		return verify_commit_graph_error;
 
-	devnull = open("/dev/null", O_WRONLY);
-	f = hashfd(devnull, NULL);
-	hashwrite(f, g->data, g->data_len - g->hash_len);
-	finalize_hashfile(f, checksum, CSUM_CLOSE);
-	if (!hasheq(checksum, g->data + g->data_len - g->hash_len)) {
+	if (!commit_graph_checksum_valid(g)) {
 		graph_report(_("the commit-graph file has incorrect checksum and is likely corrupt"));
 		verify_commit_graph_error = VERIFY_COMMIT_GRAPH_ERROR_HASH;
 	}
diff --git a/config.c b/config.c
index f9c400a..c4dcb40 100644
--- a/config.c
+++ b/config.c
@@ -1833,9 +1833,10 @@
 char *git_system_config(void)
 {
 	char *system_config = xstrdup_or_null(getenv("GIT_CONFIG_SYSTEM"));
-	if (system_config)
-		return system_config;
-	return system_path(ETC_GITCONFIG);
+	if (!system_config)
+		system_config = system_path(ETC_GITCONFIG);
+	normalize_path_copy(system_config, system_config);
+	return system_config;
 }
 
 void git_global_config(char **user_out, char **xdg_out)
@@ -2072,7 +2073,7 @@
 		e = xmalloc(sizeof(*e));
 		hashmap_entry_init(&e->ent, strhash(key));
 		e->key = xstrdup(key);
-		string_list_init(&e->value_list, 1);
+		string_list_init_dup(&e->value_list);
 		hashmap_add(&cs->config_hash, &e->ent);
 	}
 	si = string_list_append_nodup(&e->value_list, xstrdup_or_null(value));
@@ -3051,7 +3052,8 @@
 		if (contents == MAP_FAILED) {
 			if (errno == ENODEV && S_ISDIR(st.st_mode))
 				errno = EISDIR;
-			error_errno(_("unable to mmap '%s'"), config_filename);
+			error_errno(_("unable to mmap '%s'%s"),
+					config_filename, mmap_os_err());
 			ret = CONFIG_INVALID_FILE;
 			contents = NULL;
 			goto out_free;
diff --git a/config.mak.uname b/config.mak.uname
index cb443b4..69413fb 100644
--- a/config.mak.uname
+++ b/config.mak.uname
@@ -437,6 +437,11 @@
 	NO_POSIX_GOODIES = UnfortunatelyYes
 	NATIVE_CRLF = YesPlease
 	DEFAULT_HELP_FORMAT = html
+ifeq (/mingw64,$(subst 32,64,$(prefix)))
+	# Move system config into top-level /etc/
+	ETC_GITCONFIG = ../etc/gitconfig
+	ETC_GITATTRIBUTES = ../etc/gitattributes
+endif
 
 	CC = compat/vcbuild/scripts/clink.pl
 	AR = compat/vcbuild/scripts/lib.pl
@@ -668,9 +673,14 @@
 		HAVE_LIBCHARSET_H = YesPlease
 		NO_GETTEXT =
 		USE_GETTEXT_SCHEME = fallthrough
-		USE_LIBPCRE= YesPlease
+		USE_LIBPCRE = YesPlease
 		NO_CURL =
 		USE_NED_ALLOCATOR = YesPlease
+		ifeq (/mingw64,$(subst 32,64,$(prefix)))
+			# Move system config into top-level /etc/
+			ETC_GITCONFIG = ../etc/gitconfig
+			ETC_GITATTRIBUTES = ../etc/gitattributes
+		endif
 	else
 		COMPAT_CFLAGS += -D__USE_MINGW_ANSI_STDIO
 		NO_CURL = YesPlease
diff --git a/contrib/buildsystems/CMakeLists.txt b/contrib/buildsystems/CMakeLists.txt
index a878413..171b412 100644
--- a/contrib/buildsystems/CMakeLists.txt
+++ b/contrib/buildsystems/CMakeLists.txt
@@ -43,14 +43,27 @@
 to use another tool say `ninja` add this to the command line when configuring.
 `-G Ninja`
 
+NOTE: By default CMake will install vcpkg locally to your source tree on configuration,
+to avoid this, add `-DNO_VCPKG=TRUE` to the command line when configuring.
+
 ]]
 cmake_minimum_required(VERSION 3.14)
 
 #set the source directory to root of git
 set(CMAKE_SOURCE_DIR ${CMAKE_CURRENT_LIST_DIR}/../..)
-if(WIN32)
+
+option(USE_VCPKG "Whether or not to use vcpkg for obtaining dependencies.  Only applicable to Windows platforms" ON)
+if(NOT WIN32)
+	set(USE_VCPKG OFF CACHE BOOL FORCE)
+endif()
+
+if(NOT DEFINED CMAKE_EXPORT_COMPILE_COMMANDS)
+	set(CMAKE_EXPORT_COMPILE_COMMANDS TRUE)
+endif()
+
+if(USE_VCPKG)
 	set(VCPKG_DIR "${CMAKE_SOURCE_DIR}/compat/vcbuild/vcpkg")
-	if(MSVC AND NOT EXISTS ${VCPKG_DIR})
+	if(NOT EXISTS ${VCPKG_DIR})
 		message("Initializing vcpkg and building the Git's dependencies (this will take a while...)")
 		execute_process(COMMAND ${CMAKE_SOURCE_DIR}/compat/vcbuild/vcpkg_install.bat)
 	endif()
@@ -176,12 +189,18 @@
 	endif()
 endif()
 
-find_program(MSGFMT_EXE msgfmt)
-if(NOT MSGFMT_EXE)
-	set(MSGFMT_EXE ${CMAKE_SOURCE_DIR}/compat/vcbuild/vcpkg/downloads/tools/msys2/msys64/usr/bin/msgfmt.exe)
-	if(NOT EXISTS ${MSGFMT_EXE})
-		message(WARNING "Text Translations won't be built")
-		unset(MSGFMT_EXE)
+if(NO_GETTEXT)
+	message(STATUS "msgfmt not used under NO_GETTEXT")
+else()
+	find_program(MSGFMT_EXE msgfmt)
+	if(NOT MSGFMT_EXE)
+		if(USE_VCPKG)
+			set(MSGFMT_EXE ${CMAKE_SOURCE_DIR}/compat/vcbuild/vcpkg/downloads/tools/msys2/msys64/usr/bin/msgfmt.exe)
+		endif()
+		if(NOT EXISTS ${MSGFMT_EXE})
+			message(WARNING "Text Translations won't be built")
+			unset(MSGFMT_EXE)
+		endif()
 	endif()
 endif()
 
@@ -204,8 +223,6 @@
 
 
 add_compile_definitions(PAGER_ENV="LESS=FRX LV=-c"
-			ETC_GITATTRIBUTES="etc/gitattributes"
-			ETC_GITCONFIG="etc/gitconfig"
 			GIT_EXEC_PATH="libexec/git-core"
 			GIT_LOCALE_PATH="share/locale"
 			GIT_MAN_PATH="share/man"
@@ -220,10 +237,15 @@
 
 if(WIN32)
 	set(FALLBACK_RUNTIME_PREFIX /mingw64)
-	add_compile_definitions(FALLBACK_RUNTIME_PREFIX="${FALLBACK_RUNTIME_PREFIX}")
+	# Move system config into top-level /etc/
+	add_compile_definitions(FALLBACK_RUNTIME_PREFIX="${FALLBACK_RUNTIME_PREFIX}"
+		ETC_GITATTRIBUTES="../etc/gitattributes"
+		ETC_GITCONFIG="../etc/gitconfig")
 else()
 	set(FALLBACK_RUNTIME_PREFIX /home/$ENV{USER})
-	add_compile_definitions(FALLBACK_RUNTIME_PREFIX="${FALLBACK_RUNTIME_PREFIX}")
+	add_compile_definitions(FALLBACK_RUNTIME_PREFIX="${FALLBACK_RUNTIME_PREFIX}"
+		ETC_GITATTRIBUTES="etc/gitattributes"
+		ETC_GITCONFIG="etc/gitconfig")
 endif()
 
 
@@ -982,7 +1004,7 @@
 file(APPEND ${CMAKE_BINARY_DIR}/GIT-BUILD-OPTIONS "RUNTIME_PREFIX='${RUNTIME_PREFIX}'\n")
 file(APPEND ${CMAKE_BINARY_DIR}/GIT-BUILD-OPTIONS "NO_PYTHON='${NO_PYTHON}'\n")
 file(APPEND ${CMAKE_BINARY_DIR}/GIT-BUILD-OPTIONS "SUPPORTS_SIMPLE_IPC='${SUPPORTS_SIMPLE_IPC}'\n")
-if(WIN32)
+if(USE_VCPKG)
 	file(APPEND ${CMAKE_BINARY_DIR}/GIT-BUILD-OPTIONS "PATH=\"$PATH:$TEST_DIRECTORY/../compat/vcbuild/vcpkg/installed/x64-windows/bin\"\n")
 endif()
 
diff --git a/contrib/completion/git-completion.bash b/contrib/completion/git-completion.bash
index b50c5d0..4bdd27d 100644
--- a/contrib/completion/git-completion.bash
+++ b/contrib/completion/git-completion.bash
@@ -1729,6 +1729,7 @@
 			--indent-heuristic --no-indent-heuristic
 			--textconv --no-textconv
 			--patch --no-patch
+			--anchored=
 "
 
 __git_diff_difftool_options="--cached --staged --pickaxe-all --pickaxe-regex
@@ -3512,6 +3513,7 @@
 __git_func_wrap ()
 {
 	local cur words cword prev
+	local __git_cmd_idx=0
 	_get_comp_words_by_ref -n =: cur words cword prev
 	$1
 }
diff --git a/contrib/hooks/multimail/CHANGES b/contrib/hooks/multimail/CHANGES
deleted file mode 100644
index 35791fd..0000000
--- a/contrib/hooks/multimail/CHANGES
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,285 +0,0 @@
-Release 1.5.0
-=============
-
-Backward-incompatible change
-----------------------------
-
-The name of classes for environment was misnamed as `*Environement`.
-It is now `*Environment`.
-
-New features
-------------
-
-* A Thread-Index header is now added to each email sent (except for
-  combined emails where it would not make sense), so that MS Outlook
-  properly groups messages by threads even though they have a
-  different subject line. Unfortunately, even adding this header the
-  threading still seems to be unreliable, but it is unclear whether
-  this is an issue on our side or on MS Outlook's side (see discussion
-  here: https://github.com/git-multimail/git-multimail/pull/194).
-
-* A new variable multimailhook.ExcludeMergeRevisions was added to send
-  notification emails only for non-merge commits.
-
-* For gitolite environment, it is now possible to specify the mail map
-  in a separate file in addition to gitolite.conf, using the variable
-  multimailhook.MailaddressMap.
-
-Internal changes
-----------------
-
-* The testsuite now uses GIT_PRINT_SHA1_ELLIPSIS where needed for
-  compatibility with recent Git versions. Only tests are affected.
-
-* We don't try to install pyflakes in the continuous integration job
-  for old Python versions where it's no longer available.
-
-* Stop using the deprecated cgi.escape in Python 3.
-
-* New flake8 warnings have been fixed.
-
-* Python 3.6 is now tested against on Travis-CI.
-
-* A bunch of lgtm.com warnings have been fixed.
-
-Bug fixes
----------
-
-* SMTPMailer logs in only once now. It used to re-login for each email
-  sent which triggered errors for some SMTP servers.
-
-* migrate-mailhook-config was broken by internal refactoring, it
-  should now work again.
-
-This version was tested with Python 2.6 to 3.7. It was tested with Git
-1.7.10.406.gdc801, 2.15.1 and 2.20.1.98.gecbdaf0.
-
-Release 1.4.0
-=============
-
-New features to troubleshoot a git-multimail installation
----------------------------------------------------------
-
-* One can now perform a basic check of git-multimail's setup by
-  running the hook with the environment variable
-  GIT_MULTIMAIL_CHECK_SETUP set to a non-empty string. See
-  doc/troubleshooting.rst for details.
-
-* A new log files system was added. See the multimailhook.logFile,
-  multimailhook.errorLogFile and multimailhook.debugLogFile variables.
-
-* git_multimail.py can now be made more verbose using
-  multimailhook.verbose.
-
-* A new option --check-ref-filter is now available to help debugging
-  the refFilter* options.
-
-Formatting emails
------------------
-
-* Formatting of emails was made slightly more compact, to reduce the
-  odds of having long subject lines truncated or wrapped in short list
-  of commits.
-
-* multimailhook.emailPrefix may now use the '%(repo_shortname)s'
-  placeholder for the repository's short name.
-
-* A new option multimailhook.subjectMaxLength is available to truncate
-  overly long subject lines.
-
-Bug fixes and minor changes
----------------------------
-
-* Options refFilterDoSendRegex and refFilterDontSendRegex were
-  essentially broken. They should work now.
-
-* The behavior when both refFilter{Do,Dont}SendRegex and
-  refFilter{Exclusion,Inclusion}Regex are set have been slightly
-  changed. Exclusion/Inclusion is now strictly stronger than
-  DoSend/DontSend.
-
-* The management of precedence when a setting can be computed in
-  multiple ways has been considerably refactored and modified.
-  multimailhook.from and multimailhook.reponame now have precedence
-  over the environment-specific settings ($GL_REPO/$GL_USER for
-  gitolite, --stash-user/repo for Stash, --submitter/--project for
-  Gerrit).
-
-* The coverage of the testsuite has been considerably improved. All
-  configuration variables now appear at least once in the testsuite.
-
-This version was tested with Python 2.6 to 3.5. It also mostly works
-with Python 2.4, but there is one known breakage in the testsuite
-related to non-ascii characters. It was tested with Git
-1.7.10.406.gdc801, 1.8.5.6, 2.1.4, and 2.10.0.rc0.1.g07c9292.
-
-Release 1.3.1 (bugfix-only release)
-===================================
-
-* Generate links to commits in combined emails (it was done only for
-  commit emails in 1.3.0).
-
-* Fix broken links on PyPi.
-
-Release 1.3.0
-=============
-
-* New options multimailhook.htmlInIntro and multimailhook.htmlInFooter
-  now allow using HTML in the introduction and footer of emails (e.g.
-  for a more pleasant formatting or to insert a link to the commit on
-  a web interface).
-
-* A new option multimailhook.commitBrowseURL gives a simpler (and less
-  flexible) way to add a link to a web interface for commit emails
-  than multimailhook.htmlInIntro and multimailhook.htmlInFooter.
-
-* A new public function config.add_config_parameters was added to
-  allow custom hooks to set specific Git configuration variables
-  without modifying the configuration files. See an example in
-  post-receive.example.
-
-* Error handling for SMTP has been improved (we used to print Python
-  backtraces for legitimate errors).
-
-* The SMTP mailer can now check TLS certificates when the newly added
-  configuration variable multimailhook.smtpCACerts.
-
-* Python 3 portability has been improved.
-
-* The documentation's formatting has been improved.
-
-* The testsuite has been improved (we now use pyflakes to check for
-  errors in the code).
-
-This version has been tested with Python 2.4 and 2.6 to 3.5, and Git
-v1.7.10-406-gdc801e7, 2.1.4 and 2.8.1.339.g3ad15fd.
-
-No change since 1.3 RC1.
-
-Release 1.2.0
-=============
-
-* It is now possible to exclude some refs (e.g. exclude some branches
-  or tags). See refFilterDoSendRegex, refFilterDontSendRegex,
-  refFilterInclusionRegex and refFilterExclusionRegex.
-
-* New commitEmailFormat option which can be set to "html" to generate
-  simple colorized diffs using HTML for the commit emails.
-
-* git-multimail can now be ran as a Gerrit ref-updated hook, or from
-  Atlassian BitBucket Server (formerly known as Atlassian Stash).
-
-* The From: field is now more customizeable. It can be set
-  independently for refchange emails and commit emails (see
-  fromCommit, fromRefChange). The special values pusher and author can
-  be used in these configuration variable.
-
-* A new command-line option, --version, was added. The version is also
-  available in the X-Git-Multimail-Version header of sent emails.
-
-* Set X-Git-NotificationType header to differentiate the various types
-  of notifications. Current values are: diff, ref_changed_plus_diff,
-  ref_changed.
-
-* Preliminary support for Python 3. The testsuite passes with Python 3,
-  but it has not received as much testing as the Python 2 version yet.
-
-* Several encoding-related fixes. UTF-8 characters work in more
-  situations (but non-ascii characters in email address are still not
-  supported).
-
-* The testsuite and its documentation has been greatly improved.
-
-Plus all the bugfixes from version 1.1.1.
-
-This version has been tested with Python 2.4 and 2.6 to 3.5, and Git
-v1.7.10-406-gdc801e7, git-1.8.2.3 and 2.6.0. Git versions prior to
-v1.7.10-406-gdc801e7 probably work, but cannot run the testsuite
-properly.
-
-Release 1.1.1 (bugfix-only release)
-===================================
-
-* The SMTP mailer was not working with Python 2.4.
-
-Release 1.1.0
-=============
-
-* When a single commit is pushed, omit the reference changed email.
-  Set multimailhook.combineWhenSingleCommit to false to disable this
-  new feature.
-
-* In gitolite environments, the pusher's email address can be used as
-  the From address by creating a specially formatted comment block in
-  gitolite.conf (see multimailhook.from in README).
-
-* Support for SMTP authentication and SSL/TLS encryption was added,
-  see smtpUser, smtpPass, smtpEncryption in README.
-
-* A new option scanCommitForCc was added to allow git-multimail to
-  search the commit message for 'Cc: ...' lines, and add the
-  corresponding emails in Cc.
-
-* If $USER is not set, use the variable $USERNAME. This is needed on
-  Windows platform to recognize the pusher.
-
-* The emailPrefix variable can now be set to an empty string to remove
-  the prefix.
-
-* A short tutorial was added in doc/gitolite.rst to set up
-  git-multimail with gitolite.
-
-* The post-receive file was renamed to post-receive.example. It has
-  always been an example (the standard way to call git-multimail is to
-  call git_multimail.py), but it was unclear to many users.
-
-* A new refchangeShowGraph option was added to make it possible to
-  include both a graph and a log in the summary emails.  The options
-  to control the graph formatting can be set via the new graphOpts
-  option.
-
-* New option --force-send was added to disable new commit detection
-  for update hook. One use-case is to run git_multimail.py after
-  running "git fetch" to send emails about commits that have just been
-  fetched (the detection of new commits was unreliable in this mode).
-
-* The testing infrastructure was considerably improved (continuous
-  integration with travis-ci, automatic check of PEP8 and RST syntax,
-  many improvements to the test scripts).
-
-This version has been tested with Python 2.4 to 2.7, and Git 1.7.1 to
-2.4.
-
-Release 1.0.0
-=============
-
-* Fix encoding of non-ASCII email addresses in email headers.
-
-* Fix backwards-compatibility bugs for older Python 2.x versions.
-
-* Fix a backwards-compatibility bug for Git 1.7.1.
-
-* Add an option commitDiffOpts to customize logs for revisions.
-
-* Pass "-oi" to sendmail by default to prevent premature termination
-  on a line containing only ".".
-
-* Stagger email "Date:" values in an attempt to help mail clients
-  thread the emails in the right order.
-
-* If a mailing list setting is missing, just skip sending the
-  corresponding email (with a warning) instead of failing.
-
-* Add a X-Git-Host header that can be used for email filtering.
-
-* Allow the sender's fully-qualified domain name to be configured.
-
-* Minor documentation improvements.
-
-* Add this CHANGES file.
-
-
-Release 0.9.0
-=============
-
-* Initial release.
diff --git a/contrib/hooks/multimail/CONTRIBUTING.rst b/contrib/hooks/multimail/CONTRIBUTING.rst
deleted file mode 100644
index de20a54..0000000
--- a/contrib/hooks/multimail/CONTRIBUTING.rst
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,60 +0,0 @@
-Contributing
-============
-
-git-multimail is an open-source project, built by volunteers. We would
-welcome your help!
-
-The current maintainers are `Matthieu Moy <http://matthieu-moy.fr>`__ and
-`Michael Haggerty <https://github.com/mhagger>`__.
-
-Please note that although a copy of git-multimail is distributed in
-the "contrib" section of the main Git project, development takes place
-in a separate `git-multimail repository on GitHub`_.
-
-Whenever enough changes to git-multimail have accumulated, a new
-code-drop of git-multimail will be submitted for inclusion in the Git
-project.
-
-We use the GitHub issue tracker to keep track of bugs and feature
-requests, and we use GitHub pull requests to exchange patches (though,
-if you prefer, you can send patches via the Git mailing list with CC
-to the maintainers). Please sign off your patches as per the `Git
-project practice
-<https://github.com/git/git/blob/master/Documentation/SubmittingPatches#L234>`__.
-
-Please vote for issues you would like to be addressed in priority
-(click "add your reaction" and then the "+1" thumbs-up button on the
-GitHub issue).
-
-General discussion of git-multimail can take place on the main `Git
-mailing list`_.
-
-Please CC emails regarding git-multimail to the maintainers so that we
-don't overlook them.
-
-Help needed: testers/maintainer for specific environments/OS
-------------------------------------------------------------
-
-The current maintainer uses and tests git-multimail on Linux with the
-Generic environment. More testers, or better contributors are needed
-to test git-multimail on other real-life setups:
-
-* Mac OS X, Windows: git-multimail is currently not supported on these
-  platforms. But since we have no external dependencies and try to
-  write code as portable as possible, it is possible that
-  git-multimail already runs there and if not, it is likely that it
-  could be ported easily.
-
-  Patches to improve support for Windows and OS X are welcome.
-  Ideally, there would be a sub-maintainer for each OS who would test
-  at least once before each release (around twice a year).
-
-* Gerrit, Stash, Gitolite environments: although the testsuite
-  contains tests for these environments, a tester/maintainer for each
-  environment would be welcome to test and report failure (or success)
-  on real-life environments periodically (here also, feedback before
-  each release would be highly appreciated).
-
-
-.. _`git-multimail repository on GitHub`: https://github.com/git-multimail/git-multimail
-.. _`Git mailing list`: git@vger.kernel.org
diff --git a/contrib/hooks/multimail/README.Git b/contrib/hooks/multimail/README.Git
index 0444442..c427efc 100644
--- a/contrib/hooks/multimail/README.Git
+++ b/contrib/hooks/multimail/README.Git
@@ -1,15 +1,7 @@
-This copy of git-multimail is distributed as part of the "contrib"
-section of the Git project as a convenience to Git users.
 git-multimail is developed as an independent project at the following
 website:
 
     https://github.com/git-multimail/git-multimail
 
-The version in this directory was obtained from the upstream project
-on January 07 2019 and consists of the "git-multimail" subdirectory from
-revision
-
-    04e80e6c40be465cc62b6c246f0fcb8fd2cfd454 refs/tags/1.5.0
-
-Please see the README file in this directory for information about how
-to report bugs or contribute to git-multimail.
+Please refer to that project page for information about how to report
+bugs or contribute to git-multimail.
diff --git a/contrib/hooks/multimail/README.migrate-from-post-receive-email b/contrib/hooks/multimail/README.migrate-from-post-receive-email
deleted file mode 100644
index 1e6a976..0000000
--- a/contrib/hooks/multimail/README.migrate-from-post-receive-email
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,145 +0,0 @@
-git-multimail is close to, but not exactly, a plug-in replacement for
-the old Git project script contrib/hooks/post-receive-email.  This
-document describes the differences and explains how to configure
-git-multimail to get behavior closest to that of post-receive-email.
-
-If you are in a hurry
-=====================
-
-A script called migrate-mailhook-config is included with
-git-multimail.  If you run this script within a Git repository that is
-configured to use post-receive-email, it will convert the
-configuration settings into the approximate equivalent settings for
-git-multimail.  For more information, run
-
-    migrate-mailhook-config --help
-
-
-Configuration differences
-=========================
-
-* The names of the config options for git-multimail are in namespace
-  "multimailhook.*" instead of "hooks.*".  (Editorial comment:
-  post-receive-email should never have used such a generic top-level
-  namespace.)
-
-* In emails about new annotated tags, post-receive-email includes a
-  shortlog of all changes since the previous annotated tag.  To get
-  this behavior with git-multimail, you need to set
-  multimailhook.announceshortlog to true:
-
-      git config multimailhook.announceshortlog true
-
-* multimailhook.commitlist -- This is a new configuration variable.
-  Recipients listed here will receive a separate email for each new
-  commit.  However, if this variable is *not* set, it defaults to the
-  value of multimailhook.mailinglist.  Therefore, if you *don't* want
-  the members of multimailhook.mailinglist to receive one email per
-  commit, then set this value to the empty string:
-
-      git config multimailhook.commitlist ''
-
-* multimailhook.emailprefix -- If this value is not set, then the
-  subjects of generated emails are prefixed with the short name of the
-  repository enclosed in square brackets; e.g., "[myrepo]".
-  post-receive-email defaults to prefix "[SCM]" if this option is not
-  set.  So if you were using the old default and want to retain it
-  (for example, to avoid having to change your email filters), set
-  this variable explicitly to the old value:
-
-      git config multimailhook.emailprefix "[SCM]"
-
-* The "multimailhook.showrev" configuration option is not supported.
-  Its main use is obsoleted by the one-email-per-commit feature of
-  git-multimail.
-
-
-Other differences
-=================
-
-This section describes other differences in the behavior of
-git-multimail vs. post-receive-email.  For full details, please refer
-to the main README file:
-
-* One email per commit.  For each reference change, the script first
-  outputs one email summarizing the reference change (including
-  one-line summaries of the new commits), then it outputs a separate
-  email for each new commit that was introduced, including patches.
-  These one-email-per-commit emails go to the addresses listed in
-  multimailhook.commitlist.  post-receive-email sends only one email
-  for each *reference* that is changed, no matter how many commits
-  were added to the reference.
-
-* Better algorithm for detecting new commits.  post-receive-email
-  processes one reference change at a time, which causes it to fail to
-  describe new commits that were included in multiple branches.  For
-  example, if a single push adds the "*" commits in the diagram below,
-  then post-receive-email would never include the details of the two
-  commits that are common to "master" and "branch" in its
-  notifications.
-
-      o---o---o---*---*---*    <-- master
-                       \
-                        *---*  <-- branch
-
-  git-multimail analyzes all reference modifications to determine
-  which commits were not present before the change, therefore avoiding
-  that error.
-
-* In reference change emails, git-multimail tells which commits have
-  been added to the reference vs. are entirely new to the repository,
-  and which commits that have been omitted from the reference
-  vs. entirely discarded from the repository.
-
-* The environment in which Git is running can be configured via an
-  "Environment" abstraction.
-
-* Built-in support for Gitolite-managed repositories.
-
-* Instead of using full SHA1 object names in emails, git-multimail
-  mostly uses abbreviated SHA1s, plus one-line log message summaries
-  where appropriate.
-
-* In the schematic diagrams that explain non-fast-forward commits,
-  git-multimail shows the names of the branches involved.
-
-* The emails generated by git-multimail include the name of the Git
-  repository that was modified; this is convenient for recipients who
-  are monitoring multiple repositories.
-
-* git-multimail allows the email "From" addresses to be configured.
-
-* The recipients lists (multimailhook.mailinglist,
-  multimailhook.refchangelist, multimailhook.announcelist, and
-  multimailhook.commitlist) can be comma-separated values and/or
-  multivalued settings in the config file; e.g.,
-
-      [multimailhook]
-              mailinglist = mr.brown@example.com, mr.black@example.com
-              announcelist = Him <him@example.com>
-              announcelist = Jim <jim@example.com>
-              announcelist = pop@example.com
-
-  This might make it easier to maintain short recipients lists without
-  requiring full-fledged mailing list software.
-
-* By default, git-multimail sets email "Reply-To" headers to reply to
-  the pusher (for reference updates) and to the author (for commit
-  notifications).  By default, the pusher's email address is
-  constructed by appending "multimailhook.emaildomain" to the pusher's
-  username.
-
-* The generated emails contain a configurable footer.  By default, it
-  lists the name of the administrator who should be contacted to
-  unsubscribe from notification emails.
-
-* New option multimailhook.emailmaxlinelength to limit the length of
-  lines in the main part of the email body.  The default limit is 500
-  characters.
-
-* New option multimailhook.emailstrictutf8 to ensure that the main
-  part of the email body is valid UTF-8.  Invalid characters are
-  turned into the Unicode replacement character, U+FFFD.  By default
-  this option is turned on.
-
-* Written in Python.  Easier to add new features.
diff --git a/contrib/hooks/multimail/README.rst b/contrib/hooks/multimail/README.rst
deleted file mode 100644
index 7c0fc4a..0000000
--- a/contrib/hooks/multimail/README.rst
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,774 +0,0 @@
-git-multimail version 1.5.0
-===========================
-
-.. image:: https://travis-ci.org/git-multimail/git-multimail.svg?branch=master
-    :target: https://travis-ci.org/git-multimail/git-multimail
-
-git-multimail is a tool for sending notification emails on pushes to a
-Git repository.  It includes a Python module called ``git_multimail.py``,
-which can either be used as a hook script directly or can be imported
-as a Python module into another script.
-
-git-multimail is derived from the Git project's old
-contrib/hooks/post-receive-email, and is mostly compatible with that
-script.  See README.migrate-from-post-receive-email for details about
-the differences and for how to migrate from post-receive-email to
-git-multimail.
-
-git-multimail, like the rest of the Git project, is licensed under
-GPLv2 (see the COPYING file for details).
-
-Please note: although, as a convenience, git-multimail may be
-distributed along with the main Git project, development of
-git-multimail takes place in its own, separate project.  Please, read
-`<CONTRIBUTING.rst>`__ for more information.
-
-
-By default, for each push received by the repository, git-multimail:
-
-1. Outputs one email summarizing each reference that was changed.
-   These "reference change" (called "refchange" below) emails describe
-   the nature of the change (e.g., was the reference created, deleted,
-   fast-forwarded, etc.) and include a one-line summary of each commit
-   that was added to the reference.
-
-2. Outputs one email for each new commit that was introduced by the
-   reference change.  These "commit" emails include a list of the
-   files changed by the commit, followed by the diffs of files
-   modified by the commit.  The commit emails are threaded to the
-   corresponding reference change email via "In-Reply-To".  This style
-   (similar to the "git format-patch" style used on the Git mailing
-   list) makes it easy to scan through the emails, jump to patches
-   that need further attention, and write comments about specific
-   commits.  Commits are handled in reverse topological order (i.e.,
-   parents shown before children).  For example::
-
-     [git] branch master updated
-     + [git] 01/08: doc: fix xref link from api docs to manual pages
-     + [git] 02/08: api-credentials.txt: show the big picture first
-     + [git] 03/08: api-credentials.txt: mention credential.helper explicitly
-     + [git] 04/08: api-credentials.txt: add "see also" section
-     + [git] 05/08: t3510 (cherry-pick-sequence): add missing '&&'
-     + [git] 06/08: Merge branch 'rr/maint-t3510-cascade-fix'
-     + [git] 07/08: Merge branch 'mm/api-credentials-doc'
-     + [git] 08/08: Git 1.7.11-rc2
-
-   By default, each commit appears in exactly one commit email, the
-   first time that it is pushed to the repository.  If a commit is later
-   merged into another branch, then a one-line summary of the commit
-   is included in the reference change email (as usual), but no
-   additional commit email is generated. See
-   `multimailhook.refFilter(Inclusion|Exclusion|DoSend|DontSend)Regex`
-   below to configure which branches and tags are watched by the hook.
-
-   By default, reference change emails have their "Reply-To" field set
-   to the person who pushed the change, and commit emails have their
-   "Reply-To" field set to the author of the commit.
-
-3. Output one "announce" mail for each new annotated tag, including
-   information about the tag and optionally a shortlog describing the
-   changes since the previous tag.  Such emails might be useful if you
-   use annotated tags to mark releases of your project.
-
-
-Requirements
-------------
-
-* Python 2.x, version 2.4 or later.  No non-standard Python modules
-  are required.  git-multimail has preliminary support for Python 3
-  (but it has been better tested with Python 2).
-
-* The ``git`` command must be in your PATH.  git-multimail is known to
-  work with Git versions back to 1.7.1.  (Earlier versions have not
-  been tested; if you do so, please report your results.)
-
-* To send emails using the default configuration, a standard sendmail
-  program must be located at '/usr/sbin/sendmail' or
-  '/usr/lib/sendmail' and must be configured correctly to send emails.
-  If this is not the case, set multimailhook.sendmailCommand, or see
-  the multimailhook.mailer configuration variable below for how to
-  configure git-multimail to send emails via an SMTP server.
-
-* git-multimail is currently tested only on Linux. It may or may not
-  work on other platforms such as Windows and Mac OS. See
-  `<CONTRIBUTING.rst>`__ to improve the situation.
-
-
-Invocation
-----------
-
-``git_multimail.py`` is designed to be used as a ``post-receive`` hook in a
-Git repository (see githooks(5)).  Link or copy it to
-$GIT_DIR/hooks/post-receive within the repository for which email
-notifications are desired.  Usually it should be installed on the
-central repository for a project, to which all commits are eventually
-pushed.
-
-For use on pre-v1.5.1 Git servers, ``git_multimail.py`` can also work as
-an ``update`` hook, taking its arguments on the command line.  To use
-this script in this manner, link or copy it to $GIT_DIR/hooks/update.
-Please note that the script is not completely reliable in this mode
-[1]_.
-
-Alternatively, ``git_multimail.py`` can be imported as a Python module
-into your own Python post-receive script.  This method is a bit more
-work, but allows the behavior of the hook to be customized using
-arbitrary Python code.  For example, you can use a custom environment
-(perhaps inheriting from GenericEnvironment or GitoliteEnvironment) to
-
-* change how the user who did the push is determined
-
-* read users' email addresses from an LDAP server or from a database
-
-* decide which users should be notified about which commits based on
-  the contents of the commits (e.g., for users who want to be notified
-  only about changes affecting particular files or subdirectories)
-
-Or you can change how emails are sent by writing your own Mailer
-class.  The ``post-receive`` script in this directory demonstrates how
-to use ``git_multimail.py`` as a Python module.  (If you make interesting
-changes of this type, please consider sharing them with the
-community.)
-
-
-Troubleshooting/FAQ
--------------------
-
-Please read `<doc/troubleshooting.rst>`__ for frequently asked
-questions and common issues with git-multimail.
-
-
-Configuration
--------------
-
-By default, git-multimail mostly takes its configuration from the
-following ``git config`` settings:
-
-multimailhook.environment
-    This describes the general environment of the repository. In most
-    cases, you do not need to specify a value for this variable:
-    `git-multimail` will autodetect which environment to use.
-    Currently supported values:
-
-    generic
-      the username of the pusher is read from $USER or $USERNAME and
-      the repository name is derived from the repository's path.
-
-    gitolite
-      Environment to use when ``git-multimail`` is ran as a gitolite_
-      hook.
-
-      The username of the pusher is read from $GL_USER, the repository
-      name is read from $GL_REPO, and the From: header value is
-      optionally read from gitolite.conf (see multimailhook.from).
-
-      For more information about gitolite and git-multimail, read
-      `<doc/gitolite.rst>`__
-
-    stash
-      Environment to use when ``git-multimail`` is ran as an Atlassian
-      BitBucket Server (formerly known as Atlassian Stash) hook.
-
-      **Warning:** this mode was provided by a third-party contributor
-      and never tested by the git-multimail maintainers. It is
-      provided as-is and may or may not work for you.
-
-      This value is automatically assumed when the stash-specific
-      flags (``--stash-user`` and ``--stash-repo``) are specified on
-      the command line. When this environment is active, the username
-      and repo come from these two command line flags, which must be
-      specified.
-
-    gerrit
-      Environment to use when ``git-multimail`` is ran as a
-      ``ref-updated`` Gerrit hook.
-
-      This value is used when the gerrit-specific command line flags
-      (``--oldrev``, ``--newrev``, ``--refname``, ``--project``) for
-      gerrit's ref-updated hook are present. When this environment is
-      active, the username of the pusher is taken from the
-      ``--submitter`` argument if that command line option is passed,
-      otherwise 'Gerrit' is used. The repository name is taken from
-      the ``--project`` option on the command line, which must be passed.
-
-      For more information about gerrit and git-multimail, read
-      `<doc/gerrit.rst>`__
-
-    If none of these environments is suitable for your setup, then you
-    can implement a Python class that inherits from Environment and
-    instantiate it via a script that looks like the example
-    post-receive script.
-
-    The environment value can be specified on the command line using
-    the ``--environment`` option. If it is not specified on the
-    command line or by ``multimailhook.environment``, the value is
-    guessed as follows:
-
-    * If stash-specific (respectively gerrit-specific) command flags
-      are present on the command-line, then ``stash`` (respectively
-      ``gerrit``) is used.
-
-    * If the environment variables $GL_USER and $GL_REPO are set, then
-      ``gitolite`` is used.
-
-    * If none of the above apply, then ``generic`` is used.
-
-multimailhook.repoName
-    A short name of this Git repository, to be used in various places
-    in the notification email text.  The default is to use $GL_REPO
-    for gitolite repositories, or otherwise to derive this value from
-    the repository path name.
-
-multimailhook.mailingList
-    The list of email addresses to which notification emails should be
-    sent, as RFC 2822 email addresses separated by commas.  This
-    configuration option can be multivalued.  Leave it unset or set it
-    to the empty string to not send emails by default.  The next few
-    settings can be used to configure specific address lists for
-    specific types of notification email.
-
-multimailhook.refchangeList
-    The list of email addresses to which summary emails about
-    reference changes should be sent, as RFC 2822 email addresses
-    separated by commas.  This configuration option can be
-    multivalued.  The default is the value in
-    multimailhook.mailingList.  Set this value to "none" (or the empty
-    string) to prevent reference change emails from being sent even if
-    multimailhook.mailingList is set.
-
-multimailhook.announceList
-    The list of email addresses to which emails about new annotated
-    tags should be sent, as RFC 2822 email addresses separated by
-    commas.  This configuration option can be multivalued.  The
-    default is the value in multimailhook.refchangeList or
-    multimailhook.mailingList.  Set this value to "none" (or the empty
-    string) to prevent annotated tag announcement emails from being sent
-    even if one of the other values is set.
-
-multimailhook.commitList
-    The list of email addresses to which emails about individual new
-    commits should be sent, as RFC 2822 email addresses separated by
-    commas.  This configuration option can be multivalued.  The
-    default is the value in multimailhook.mailingList.  Set this value
-    to "none" (or the empty string) to prevent notification emails about
-    individual commits from being sent even if
-    multimailhook.mailingList is set.
-
-multimailhook.announceShortlog
-    If this option is set to true, then emails about changes to
-    annotated tags include a shortlog of changes since the previous
-    tag.  This can be useful if the annotated tags represent releases;
-    then the shortlog will be a kind of rough summary of what has
-    happened since the last release.  But if your tagging policy is
-    not so straightforward, then the shortlog might be confusing
-    rather than useful.  Default is false.
-
-multimailhook.commitEmailFormat
-    The format of email messages for the individual commits, can be "text" or
-    "html". In the latter case, the emails will include diffs using colorized
-    HTML instead of plain text used by default. Note that this  currently the
-    ref change emails are always sent in plain text.
-
-    Note that when using "html", the formatting is done by parsing the
-    output of ``git log`` with ``-p``. When using
-    ``multimailhook.commitLogOpts`` to specify a ``--format`` for
-    ``git log``, one may get false positive (e.g. lines in the body of
-    the message starting with ``+++`` or ``---`` colored in red or
-    green).
-
-    By default, all the message is HTML-escaped. See
-    ``multimailhook.htmlInIntro`` to change this behavior.
-
-multimailhook.commitBrowseURL
-    Used to generate a link to an online repository browser in commit
-    emails. This variable must be a string. Format directives like
-    ``%(<variable>)s`` will be expanded the same way as template
-    strings. In particular, ``%(id)s`` will be replaced by the full
-    Git commit identifier (40-chars hexadecimal).
-
-    If the string does not contain any format directive, then
-    ``%(id)s`` will be automatically added to the string. If you don't
-    want ``%(id)s`` to be automatically added, use the empty format
-    directive ``%()s`` anywhere in the string.
-
-    For example, a suitable value for the git-multimail project itself
-    would be
-    ``https://github.com/git-multimail/git-multimail/commit/%(id)s``.
-
-multimailhook.htmlInIntro, multimailhook.htmlInFooter
-    When generating an HTML message, git-multimail escapes any HTML
-    sequence by default. This means that if a template contains HTML
-    like ``<a href="foo">link</a>``, the reader will see the HTML
-    source code and not a proper link.
-
-    Set ``multimailhook.htmlInIntro`` to true to allow writing HTML
-    formatting in introduction templates. Similarly, set
-    ``multimailhook.htmlInFooter`` for HTML in the footer.
-
-    Variables expanded in the template are still escaped. For example,
-    if a repository's path contains a ``<``, it will be rendered as
-    such in the message.
-
-    Read `<doc/customizing-emails.rst>`__ for more details and
-    examples.
-
-multimailhook.refchangeShowGraph
-    If this option is set to true, then summary emails about reference
-    changes will additionally include:
-
-    * a graph of the added commits (if any)
-
-    * a graph of the discarded commits (if any)
-
-    The log is generated by running ``git log --graph`` with the options
-    specified in graphOpts.  The default is false.
-
-multimailhook.refchangeShowLog
-    If this option is set to true, then summary emails about reference
-    changes will include a detailed log of the added commits in
-    addition to the one line summary.  The log is generated by running
-    ``git log`` with the options specified in multimailhook.logOpts.
-    Default is false.
-
-multimailhook.mailer
-    This option changes the way emails are sent.  Accepted values are:
-
-    * **sendmail (the default)**: use the command ``/usr/sbin/sendmail`` or
-      ``/usr/lib/sendmail`` (or sendmailCommand, if configured).  This
-      mode can be further customized via the following options:
-
-      multimailhook.sendmailCommand
-          The command used by mailer ``sendmail`` to send emails.  Shell
-          quoting is allowed in the value of this setting, but remember that
-          Git requires double-quotes to be escaped; e.g.::
-
-              git config multimailhook.sendmailcommand '/usr/sbin/sendmail -oi -t -F \"Git Repo\"'
-
-          Default is '/usr/sbin/sendmail -oi -t' or
-          '/usr/lib/sendmail -oi -t' (depending on which file is
-          present and executable).
-
-      multimailhook.envelopeSender
-          If set then pass this value to sendmail via the -f option to set
-          the envelope sender address.
-
-    * **smtp**: use Python's smtplib.  This is useful when the sendmail
-      command is not available on the system.  This mode can be
-      further customized via the following options:
-
-      multimailhook.smtpServer
-          The name of the SMTP server to connect to.  The value can
-          also include a colon and a port number; e.g.,
-          ``mail.example.com:25``.  Default is 'localhost' using port 25.
-
-      multimailhook.smtpUser, multimailhook.smtpPass
-          Server username and password. Required if smtpEncryption is 'ssl'.
-          Note that the username and password currently need to be
-          set cleartext in the configuration file, which is not
-          recommended. If you need to use this option, be sure your
-          configuration file is read-only.
-
-      multimailhook.envelopeSender
-        The sender address to be passed to the SMTP server.  If
-        unset, then the value of multimailhook.from is used.
-
-      multimailhook.smtpServerTimeout
-        Timeout in seconds. Default is 10.
-
-      multimailhook.smtpEncryption
-        Set the security type. Allowed values: ``none``, ``ssl``, ``tls`` (starttls).
-        Default is ``none``.
-
-      multimailhook.smtpCACerts
-        Set the path to a list of trusted CA certificate to verify the
-        server certificate, only supported when ``smtpEncryption`` is
-        ``tls``. If unset or empty, the server certificate is not
-        verified. If it targets a file containing a list of trusted CA
-        certificates (PEM format) these CAs will be used to verify the
-        server certificate. For debian, you can set
-        ``/etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt`` for using the system
-        trusted CAs. For self-signed server, you can add your server
-        certificate to the system store::
-
-            cd /usr/local/share/ca-certificates/
-            openssl s_client -starttls smtp \
-                   -connect mail.example.net:587 -showcerts \
-                   </dev/null 2>/dev/null \
-                 | openssl x509 -outform PEM >mail.example.net.crt
-            update-ca-certificates
-
-        and used the updated ``/etc/ssl/certs/ca-certificates.crt``. Or
-        directly use your ``/path/to/mail.example.net.crt``. Default is
-        unset.
-
-      multimailhook.smtpServerDebugLevel
-        Integer number. Set to greater than 0 to activate debugging.
-
-multimailhook.from, multimailhook.fromCommit, multimailhook.fromRefchange
-    If set, use this value in the From: field of generated emails.
-    ``fromCommit`` is used for commit emails, ``fromRefchange`` is
-    used for refchange emails, and ``from`` is used as fall-back in
-    all cases.
-
-    The value for these variables can be either:
-
-    - An email address, which will be used directly.
-
-    - The value ``pusher``, in which case the pusher's address (if
-      available) will be used.
-
-    - The value ``author`` (meaningful only for ``fromCommit``), in which
-      case the commit author's address will be used.
-
-    If config values are unset, the value of the From: header is
-    determined as follows:
-
-    1. (gitolite environment only)
-       1.a) If ``multimailhook.MailaddressMap`` is set, and is a path
-       to an existing file (if relative, it is considered relative to
-       the place where ``gitolite.conf`` is located), then this file
-       should contain lines like::
-
-           username Firstname Lastname <email@example.com>
-
-       git-multimail will then look for a line where ``$GL_USER``
-       matches the ``username`` part, and use the rest of the line for
-       the ``From:`` header.
-
-       1.b) Parse gitolite.conf, looking for a block of comments that
-       looks like this::
-
-           # BEGIN USER EMAILS
-           # username Firstname Lastname <email@example.com>
-           # END USER EMAILS
-
-       If that block exists, and there is a line between the BEGIN
-       USER EMAILS and END USER EMAILS lines where the first field
-       matches the gitolite username ($GL_USER), use the rest of the
-       line for the From: header.
-
-    2. If the user.email configuration setting is set, use its value
-       (and the value of user.name, if set).
-
-    3. Use the value of multimailhook.envelopeSender.
-
-multimailhook.MailaddressMap
-    (gitolite environment only)
-    File to look for a ``From:`` address based on the user doing the
-    push. Defaults to unset. See ``multimailhook.from`` for details.
-
-multimailhook.administrator
-    The name and/or email address of the administrator of the Git
-    repository; used in FOOTER_TEMPLATE.  Default is
-    multimailhook.envelopesender if it is set; otherwise a generic
-    string is used.
-
-multimailhook.emailPrefix
-    All emails have this string prepended to their subjects, to aid
-    email filtering (though filtering based on the X-Git-* email
-    headers is probably more robust).  Default is the short name of
-    the repository in square brackets; e.g., ``[myrepo]``.  Set this
-    value to the empty string to suppress the email prefix. You may
-    use the placeholder ``%(repo_shortname)s`` for the short name of
-    the repository.
-
-multimailhook.emailMaxLines
-    The maximum number of lines that should be included in the body of
-    a generated email.  If not specified, there is no limit.  Lines
-    beyond the limit are suppressed and counted, and a final line is
-    added indicating the number of suppressed lines.
-
-multimailhook.emailMaxLineLength
-    The maximum length of a line in the email body.  Lines longer than
-    this limit are truncated to this length with a trailing ``[...]``
-    added to indicate the missing text.  The default is 500, because
-    (a) diffs with longer lines are probably from binary files, for
-    which a diff is useless, and (b) even if a text file has such long
-    lines, the diffs are probably unreadable anyway.  To disable line
-    truncation, set this option to 0.
-
-multimailhook.subjectMaxLength
-    The maximum length of the subject line (i.e. the ``oneline`` field
-    in templates, not including the prefix). Lines longer than this
-    limit are truncated to this length with a trailing ``[...]`` added
-    to indicate the missing text. This option The default is to use
-    ``multimailhook.emailMaxLineLength``. This option avoids sending
-    emails with overly long subject lines, but should not be needed if
-    the commit messages follow the Git convention (one short subject
-    line, then a blank line, then the message body). To disable line
-    truncation, set this option to 0.
-
-multimailhook.maxCommitEmails
-    The maximum number of commit emails to send for a given change.
-    When the number of patches is larger that this value, only the
-    summary refchange email is sent.  This can avoid accidental
-    mailbombing, for example on an initial push.  To disable commit
-    emails limit, set this option to 0.  The default is 500.
-
-multimailhook.excludeMergeRevisions
-    When sending out revision emails, do not consider merge commits (the
-    functional equivalent of `rev-list --no-merges`).
-    The default is `false` (send merge commit emails).
-
-multimailhook.emailStrictUTF8
-    If this boolean option is set to `true`, then the main part of the
-    email body is forced to be valid UTF-8.  Any characters that are
-    not valid UTF-8 are converted to the Unicode replacement
-    character, U+FFFD.  The default is `true`.
-
-    This option is ineffective with Python 3, where non-UTF-8
-    characters are unconditionally replaced.
-
-multimailhook.diffOpts
-    Options passed to ``git diff-tree`` when generating the summary
-    information for ReferenceChange emails.  Default is ``--stat
-    --summary --find-copies-harder``.  Add -p to those options to
-    include a unified diff of changes in addition to the usual summary
-    output.  Shell quoting is allowed; see ``multimailhook.logOpts`` for
-    details.
-
-multimailhook.graphOpts
-    Options passed to ``git log --graph`` when generating graphs for the
-    reference change summary emails (used only if refchangeShowGraph
-    is true).  The default is '--oneline --decorate'.
-
-    Shell quoting is allowed; see logOpts for details.
-
-multimailhook.logOpts
-    Options passed to ``git log`` to generate additional info for
-    reference change emails (used only if refchangeShowLog is set).
-    For example, adding -p will show each commit's complete diff.  The
-    default is empty.
-
-    Shell quoting is allowed; for example, a log format that contains
-    spaces can be specified using something like::
-
-      git config multimailhook.logopts '--pretty=format:"%h %aN <%aE>%n%s%n%n%b%n"'
-
-    If you want to set this by editing your configuration file
-    directly, remember that Git requires double-quotes to be escaped
-    (see git-config(1) for more information)::
-
-      [multimailhook]
-              logopts = --pretty=format:\"%h %aN <%aE>%n%s%n%n%b%n\"
-
-multimailhook.commitLogOpts
-    Options passed to ``git log`` to generate additional info for
-    revision change emails.  For example, adding --ignore-all-spaces
-    will suppress whitespace changes.  The default options are ``-C
-    --stat -p --cc``.  Shell quoting is allowed; see
-    multimailhook.logOpts for details.
-
-multimailhook.dateSubstitute
-    String to use as a substitute for ``Date:`` in the output of ``git
-    log`` while formatting commit messages. This is useful to avoid
-    emitting a line that can be interpreted by mailers as the start of
-    a cited message (Zimbra webmail in particular). Defaults to
-    ``CommitDate:``. Set to an empty string or ``none`` to deactivate
-    the behavior.
-
-multimailhook.emailDomain
-    Domain name appended to the username of the person doing the push
-    to convert it into an email address
-    (via ``"%s@%s" % (username, emaildomain)``). More complicated
-    schemes can be implemented by overriding Environment and
-    overriding its get_pusher_email() method.
-
-multimailhook.replyTo, multimailhook.replyToCommit, multimailhook.replyToRefchange
-    Addresses to use in the Reply-To: field for commit emails
-    (replyToCommit) and refchange emails (replyToRefchange).
-    multimailhook.replyTo is used as default when replyToCommit or
-    replyToRefchange is not set. The shortcuts ``pusher`` and
-    ``author`` are allowed with the same semantics as for
-    ``multimailhook.from``. In addition, the value ``none`` can be
-    used to omit the ``Reply-To:`` field.
-
-    The default is ``pusher`` for refchange emails, and ``author`` for
-    commit emails.
-
-multimailhook.quiet
-    Do not output the list of email recipients from the hook
-
-multimailhook.stdout
-    For debugging, send emails to stdout rather than to the
-    mailer.  Equivalent to the --stdout command line option
-
-multimailhook.scanCommitForCc
-    If this option is set to true, than recipients from lines in commit body
-    that starts with ``CC:`` will be added to CC list.
-    Default: false
-
-multimailhook.combineWhenSingleCommit
-    If this option is set to true and a single new commit is pushed to
-    a branch, combine the summary and commit email messages into a
-    single email.
-    Default: true
-
-multimailhook.refFilterInclusionRegex, multimailhook.refFilterExclusionRegex, multimailhook.refFilterDoSendRegex, multimailhook.refFilterDontSendRegex
-    **Warning:** these options are experimental. They should work, but
-    the user-interface is not stable yet (in particular, the option
-    names may change). If you want to participate in stabilizing the
-    feature, please contact the maintainers and/or send pull-requests.
-    If you are happy with the current shape of the feature, please
-    report it too.
-
-    Regular expressions that can be used to limit refs for which email
-    updates will be sent.  It is an error to specify both an inclusion
-    and an exclusion regex.  If a ``refFilterInclusionRegex`` is
-    specified, emails will only be sent for refs which match this
-    regex.  If a ``refFilterExclusionRegex`` regex is specified,
-    emails will be sent for all refs except those that match this
-    regex (or that match a predefined regex specific to the
-    environment, such as "^refs/notes" for most environments and
-    "^refs/notes|^refs/changes" for the gerrit environment).
-
-    The expressions are matched against the complete refname, and is
-    considered to match if any substring matches. For example, to
-    filter-out all tags, set ``refFilterExclusionRegex`` to
-    ``^refs/tags/`` (note the leading ``^`` but no trailing ``$``). If
-    you set ``refFilterExclusionRegex`` to ``master``, then any ref
-    containing ``master`` will be excluded (the ``master`` branch, but
-    also ``refs/tags/master`` or ``refs/heads/foo-master-bar``).
-
-    ``refFilterDoSendRegex`` and ``refFilterDontSendRegex`` are
-    analogous to ``refFilterInclusionRegex`` and
-    ``refFilterExclusionRegex`` with one difference: with
-    ``refFilterDoSendRegex`` and ``refFilterDontSendRegex``, commits
-    introduced by one excluded ref will not be considered as new when
-    they reach an included ref. Typically, if you add a branch ``foo``
-    to  ``refFilterDontSendRegex``, push commits to this branch, and
-    later merge branch ``foo`` into ``master``, then the notification
-    email for ``master`` will contain a commit email only for the
-    merge commit. If you include ``foo`` in
-    ``refFilterExclusionRegex``, then at the time of merge, you will
-    receive one commit email per commit in the branch.
-
-    These variables can be multi-valued, like::
-
-      [multimailhook]
-              refFilterExclusionRegex = ^refs/tags/
-              refFilterExclusionRegex = ^refs/heads/master$
-
-    You can also provide a whitespace-separated list like::
-
-      [multimailhook]
-              refFilterExclusionRegex = ^refs/tags/ ^refs/heads/master$
-
-    Both examples exclude tags and the master branch, and are
-    equivalent to::
-
-      [multimailhook]
-              refFilterExclusionRegex = ^refs/tags/|^refs/heads/master$
-
-    ``refFilterInclusionRegex`` and ``refFilterExclusionRegex`` are
-    strictly stronger than ``refFilterDoSendRegex`` and
-    ``refFilterDontSendRegex``. In other words, adding a ref to a
-    DoSend/DontSend regex has no effect if it is already excluded by a
-    Exclusion/Inclusion regex.
-
-multimailhook.logFile, multimailhook.errorLogFile, multimailhook.debugLogFile
-
-    When set, these variable designate path to files where
-    git-multimail will log some messages. Normal messages and error
-    messages are sent to ``logFile``, and error messages are also sent
-    to ``errorLogFile``. Debug messages and all other messages are
-    sent to ``debugLogFile``. The recommended way is to set only one
-    of these variables, but it is also possible to set several of them
-    (part of the information is then duplicated in several log files,
-    for example errors are duplicated to all log files).
-
-    Relative path are relative to the Git repository where the push is
-    done.
-
-multimailhook.verbose
-
-    Verbosity level of git-multimail on its standard output. By
-    default, show only error and info messages. If set to true, show
-    also debug messages.
-
-Email filtering aids
---------------------
-
-All emails include extra headers to enable fine tuned filtering and
-give information for debugging.  All emails include the headers
-``X-Git-Host``, ``X-Git-Repo``, ``X-Git-Refname``, and ``X-Git-Reftype``.
-ReferenceChange emails also include headers ``X-Git-Oldrev`` and ``X-Git-Newrev``;
-Revision emails also include header ``X-Git-Rev``.
-
-
-Customizing email contents
---------------------------
-
-git-multimail mostly generates emails by expanding templates.  The
-templates can be customized.  To avoid the need to edit
-``git_multimail.py`` directly, the preferred way to change the templates
-is to write a separate Python script that imports ``git_multimail.py`` as
-a module, then replaces the templates in place.  See the provided
-post-receive script for an example of how this is done.
-
-
-Customizing git-multimail for your environment
-----------------------------------------------
-
-git-multimail is mostly customized via an "environment" that describes
-the local environment in which Git is running.  Two types of
-environment are built in:
-
-GenericEnvironment
-    a stand-alone Git repository.
-
-GitoliteEnvironment
-    a Git repository that is managed by gitolite_.  For such
-    repositories, the identity of the pusher is read from
-    environment variable $GL_USER, the name of the repository is read
-    from $GL_REPO (if it is not overridden by multimailhook.reponame),
-    and the From: header value is optionally read from gitolite.conf
-    (see multimailhook.from).
-
-By default, git-multimail assumes GitoliteEnvironment if $GL_USER and
-$GL_REPO are set, and otherwise assumes GenericEnvironment.
-Alternatively, you can choose one of these two environments explicitly
-by setting a ``multimailhook.environment`` config setting (which can
-have the value `generic` or `gitolite`) or by passing an --environment
-option to the script.
-
-If you need to customize the script in ways that are not supported by
-the existing environments, you can define your own environment class
-class using arbitrary Python code.  To do so, you need to import
-``git_multimail.py`` as a Python module, as demonstrated by the example
-post-receive script.  Then implement your environment class; it should
-usually inherit from one of the existing Environment classes and
-possibly one or more of the EnvironmentMixin classes.  Then set the
-``environment`` variable to an instance of your own environment class
-and pass it to ``run_as_post_receive_hook()``.
-
-The standard environment classes, GenericEnvironment and
-GitoliteEnvironment, are in fact themselves put together out of a
-number of mixin classes, each of which handles one aspect of the
-customization.  For the finest control over your configuration, you
-can specify exactly which mixin classes your own environment class
-should inherit from, and override individual methods (or even add your
-own mixin classes) to implement entirely new behaviors.  If you
-implement any mixins that might be useful to other people, please
-consider sharing them with the community!
-
-
-Getting involved
-----------------
-
-Please, read `<CONTRIBUTING.rst>`__ for instructions on how to
-contribute to git-multimail.
-
-
-Footnotes
----------
-
-.. [1] Because of the way information is passed to update hooks, the
-       script's method of determining whether a commit has already
-       been seen does not work when it is used as an ``update`` script.
-       In particular, no notification email will be generated for a
-       new commit that is added to multiple references in the same
-       push. A workaround is to use --force-send to force sending the
-       emails.
-
-.. _gitolite: https://github.com/sitaramc/gitolite
diff --git a/contrib/hooks/multimail/doc/customizing-emails.rst b/contrib/hooks/multimail/doc/customizing-emails.rst
deleted file mode 100644
index 3f5b67f..0000000
--- a/contrib/hooks/multimail/doc/customizing-emails.rst
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,56 +0,0 @@
-Customizing the content and formatting of emails
-================================================
-
-Overloading template strings
-----------------------------
-
-The content of emails is generated based on template strings defined
-in ``git_multimail.py``. You can customize these template strings
-without changing the script itself, by defining a Python wrapper
-around it. The python wrapper should ``import git_multimail`` and then
-override the ``git_multimail.*`` strings like this::
-
-  import sys  # needed for sys.argv
-
-  # Import and customize git_multimail:
-  import git_multimail
-  git_multimail.REVISION_INTRO_TEMPLATE = """..."""
-  git_multimail.COMBINED_INTRO_TEMPLATE = git_multimail.REVISION_INTRO_TEMPLATE
-
-  # start git_multimail itself:
-  git_multimail.main(sys.argv[1:])
-
-The template strings can use any value already used in the existing
-templates (read the source code).
-
-Using HTML in template strings
-------------------------------
-
-If ``multimailhook.commitEmailFormat`` is set to HTML, then
-git-multimail will generate HTML emails for commit notifications. The
-log and diff will be formatted automatically by git-multimail. By
-default, any HTML special character in the templates will be escaped.
-
-To use HTML formatting in the introduction of the email, set
-``multimailhook.htmlInIntro`` to ``true``. Then, the template can
-contain any HTML tags, that will be sent as-is in the email. For
-example, to add some formatting and a link to the online commit, use
-a format like::
-
-  git_multimail.REVISION_INTRO_TEMPLATE = """\
-  <span style="color:#808080">This is an automated email from the git hooks/post-receive script.</span><br /><br />
-
-  <strong>%(pusher)s</strong> pushed a commit to %(refname_type)s %(short_refname)s
-  in repository %(repo_shortname)s.<br />
-
-  <a href="https://github.com/git-multimail/git-multimail/commit/%(newrev)s">View on GitHub</a>.
-  """
-
-Note that the values expanded from ``%(variable)s`` in the format
-strings will still be escaped.
-
-For a less flexible but easier to set up way to add a link to commit
-emails, see ``multimailhook.commitBrowseURL``.
-
-Similarly, one can set ``multimailhook.htmlInFooter`` and override any
-of the ``*_FOOTER*`` template strings.
diff --git a/contrib/hooks/multimail/doc/gerrit.rst b/contrib/hooks/multimail/doc/gerrit.rst
deleted file mode 100644
index 8011d05..0000000
--- a/contrib/hooks/multimail/doc/gerrit.rst
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,56 +0,0 @@
-Setting up git-multimail on Gerrit
-==================================
-
-Gerrit has its own email-sending system, but you may prefer using
-``git-multimail`` instead. It supports Gerrit natively as a Gerrit
-``ref-updated`` hook (Warning: `Gerrit hooks
-<https://gerrit-review.googlesource.com/Documentation/config-hooks.html>`__
-are distinct from Git hooks). Setting up ``git-multimail`` on a Gerrit
-installation can be done following the instructions below.
-
-The explanations show an easy way to set up ``git-multimail``,
-but leave ``git-multimail`` installed and unconfigured for a while. If
-you run Gerrit on a production server, it is advised that you
-execute the step "Set up the hook" last to avoid confusing your users
-in the meantime.
-
-Set up the hook
----------------
-
-Create a directory ``$site_path/hooks/`` if it does not exist (if you
-don't know what ``$site_path`` is, run ``gerrit.sh status`` and look
-for a ``GERRIT_SITE`` line). Either copy ``git_multimail.py`` to
-``$site_path/hooks/ref-updated`` or create a wrapper script like
-this::
-
-  #! /bin/sh
-  exec /path/to/git_multimail.py "$@"
-
-In both cases, make sure the file is named exactly
-``$site_path/hooks/ref-updated`` and is executable.
-
-(Alternatively, you may configure the ``[hooks]`` section of
-gerrit.config)
-
-Configuration
--------------
-
-Log on the gerrit server and edit ``$site_path/git/$project/config``
-to configure ``git-multimail``.
-
-Troubleshooting
----------------
-
-Warning: this will disable ``git-multimail`` during the debug, and
-could confuse your users. Don't run on a production server.
-
-To debug configuration issues with ``git-multimail``, you can add the
-``--stdout`` option when calling ``git_multimail.py`` like this::
-
-  #!/bin/sh
-  exec /path/to/git-multimail/git-multimail/git_multimail.py \
-    --stdout "$@" >> /tmp/log.txt
-
-and try pushing from a test repository. You should see the source of
-the email that would have been sent in the output of ``git push`` in
-the file ``/tmp/log.txt``.
diff --git a/contrib/hooks/multimail/doc/gitolite.rst b/contrib/hooks/multimail/doc/gitolite.rst
deleted file mode 100644
index 5054833..0000000
--- a/contrib/hooks/multimail/doc/gitolite.rst
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,118 +0,0 @@
-Setting up git-multimail on gitolite
-====================================
-
-``git-multimail`` supports gitolite 3 natively.
-The explanations below show an easy way to set up ``git-multimail``,
-but leave ``git-multimail`` installed and unconfigured for a while. If
-you run gitolite on a production server, it is advised that you
-execute the step "Set up the hook" last to avoid confusing your users
-in the meantime.
-
-Set up the hook
----------------
-
-Log in as your gitolite user.
-
-Create a file ``.gitolite/hooks/common/post-receive`` on your gitolite
-account containing (adapt the path, obviously)::
-
-  #!/bin/sh
-  exec /path/to/git-multimail/git-multimail/git_multimail.py "$@"
-
-Make sure it's executable (``chmod +x``). Record the hook in
-gitolite::
-
-  gitolite setup
-
-Configuration
--------------
-
-First, you have to allow the admin to set Git configuration variables.
-
-As gitolite user, edit the line containing ``GIT_CONFIG_KEYS`` in file
-``.gitolite.rc``, to make it look like::
-
-  GIT_CONFIG_KEYS                 =>  'multimailhook\..*',
-
-You can now log out and return to your normal user.
-
-In the ``gitolite-admin`` clone, edit the file ``conf/gitolite.conf``
-and add::
-
-  repo @all
-      # Not strictly needed as git_multimail.py will chose gitolite if
-      # $GL_USER is set.
-      config multimailhook.environment = gitolite
-      config multimailhook.mailingList = # Where emails should be sent
-      config multimailhook.from = # From address to use
-
-Note that by default, gitolite forbids ``<`` and ``>`` in variable
-values (for security/paranoia reasons, see
-`compensating for UNSAFE_PATT
-<http://gitolite.com/gitolite/git-config/index.html#compensating-for-unsafe95patt>`__
-in gitolite's documentation for explanations and a way to disable
-this). As a consequence, you will not be able to use ``First Last
-<First.Last@example.com>`` as recipient email, but specifying
-``First.Last@example.com`` alone works.
-
-Obviously, you can customize all parameters on a per-repository basis by
-adding these ``config multimailhook.*`` lines in the section
-corresponding to a repository or set of repositories.
-
-To activate ``git-multimail`` on a per-repository basis, do not set
-``multimailhook.mailingList`` in the ``@all`` section and set it only
-for repositories for which you want ``git-multimail``.
-
-Alternatively, you can set up the ``From:`` field on a per-user basis
-by adding a ``BEGIN USER EMAILS``/``END USER EMAILS`` section (see
-``../README``).
-
-Specificities of Gitolite for Configuration
--------------------------------------------
-
-Empty configuration variables
-.............................
-
-With gitolite, the syntax ``config multimailhook.commitList = ""``
-unsets the variable instead of setting it to an empty string (see
-`here
-<http://gitolite.com/gitolite/git-config.html#an-important-warning-about-deleting-a-config-line>`__).
-As a result, there is no way to set a variable to the empty string.
-In all most places where an empty value is required, git-multimail
-now allows to specify special ``"none"`` value (case-sensitive) to
-mean the same.
-
-Alternatively, one can use ``" "`` (a single space) instead of ``""``.
-In most cases (in particular ``multimailhook.*List`` variables), this
-will be equivalent to an empty string.
-
-If you have a use-case where ``"none"`` is not an acceptable value and
-you need ``" "`` or  ``""`` instead, please report it as a bug to
-git-multimail.
-
-Allowing Regular Expressions in Configuration
-.............................................
-
-gitolite has a mechanism to prevent unsafe configuration variable
-values, which prevent characters like ``|`` commonly used in regular
-expressions. If you do not need the safety feature of gitolite and
-need to use regular expressions in your configuration (e.g. for
-``multimailhook.refFilter*`` variables), set
-`UNSAFE_PATT
-<http://gitolite.com/gitolite/git-config.html#unsafe-patt>`__ to a
-less restrictive value.
-
-Troubleshooting
----------------
-
-Warning: this will disable ``git-multimail`` during the debug, and
-could confuse your users. Don't run on a production server.
-
-To debug configuration issues with ``git-multimail``, you can add the
-``--stdout`` option when calling ``git_multimail.py`` like this::
-
-  #!/bin/sh
-  exec /path/to/git-multimail/git-multimail/git_multimail.py --stdout "$@"
-
-and try pushing from a test repository. You should see the source of
-the email that would have been sent in the output of ``git push``.
diff --git a/contrib/hooks/multimail/doc/troubleshooting.rst b/contrib/hooks/multimail/doc/troubleshooting.rst
deleted file mode 100644
index 651b509..0000000
--- a/contrib/hooks/multimail/doc/troubleshooting.rst
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,78 +0,0 @@
-Troubleshooting issues with git-multimail: a FAQ
-================================================
-
-How to check that git-multimail is properly set up?
----------------------------------------------------
-
-Since version 1.4.0, git-multimail allows a simple self-checking of
-its configuration: run it with the environment variable
-``GIT_MULTIMAIL_CHECK_SETUP`` set to a non-empty string. You should
-get something like this::
-
-  $ GIT_MULTIMAIL_CHECK_SETUP=true /home/moy/dev/git-multimail/git-multimail/git_multimail.py
-  Environment values:
-      administrator : 'the administrator of this repository'
-      charset : 'utf-8'
-      emailprefix : '[git-multimail] '
-      fqdn : 'anie'
-      projectdesc : 'UNNAMED PROJECT'
-      pusher : 'moy'
-      repo_path : '/home/moy/dev/git-multimail'
-      repo_shortname : 'git-multimail'
-
-  Now, checking that git-multimail's standard input is properly set ...
-  Please type some text and then press Return
-  foo
-  You have just entered:
-  foo
-  git-multimail seems properly set up.
-
-If you forgot to set an important variable, you may get instead::
-
-  $ GIT_MULTIMAIL_CHECK_SETUP=true /home/moy/dev/git-multimail/git-multimail/git_multimail.py
-  No email recipients configured!
-
-Do not set ``$GIT_MULTIMAIL_CHECK_SETUP`` other than for testing your
-configuration: it would disable the hook completely.
-
-Git is not using the right address in the From/To/Reply-To field
-----------------------------------------------------------------
-
-First, make sure that git-multimail actually uses what you think it is
-using. A lot happens to your email (especially when posting to a
-mailing-list) between the time `git_multimail.py` sends it and the
-time it reaches your inbox.
-
-A simple test (to do on a test repository, do not use in production as
-it would disable email sending): change your post-receive hook to call
-`git_multimail.py` with the `--stdout` option, and try to push to the
-repository. You should see something like::
-
-  Counting objects: 3, done.
-  Writing objects: 100% (3/3), 263 bytes | 0 bytes/s, done.
-  Total 3 (delta 0), reused 0 (delta 0)
-  remote: Sending notification emails to: foo.bar@example.com
-  remote: ===========================================================================
-  remote: Date: Mon, 25 Apr 2016 18:39:59 +0200
-  remote: To: foo.bar@example.com
-  remote: Subject: [git] branch master updated: foo
-  remote: MIME-Version: 1.0
-  remote: Content-Type: text/plain; charset=utf-8
-  remote: Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit
-  remote: Message-ID: <20160425163959.2311.20498@anie>
-  remote: From: Auth Or <Foo.Bar@example.com>
-  remote: Reply-To: Auth Or <Foo.Bar@example.com>
-  remote: X-Git-Host: example
-  ...
-  remote: --
-  remote: To stop receiving notification emails like this one, please contact
-  remote: the administrator of this repository.
-  remote: ===========================================================================
-  To /path/to/repo
-     6278f04..e173f20  master -> master
-
-Note: this does not include the sender (Return-Path: header), as it is
-not part of the message content but passed to the mailer. Some mailer
-show the ``Sender:`` field instead of the ``From:`` field (for
-example, Zimbra Webmail shows ``From: <sender-field> on behalf of
-<from-field>``).
diff --git a/contrib/hooks/multimail/git_multimail.py b/contrib/hooks/multimail/git_multimail.py
deleted file mode 100755
index f563be8..0000000
--- a/contrib/hooks/multimail/git_multimail.py
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,4346 +0,0 @@
-#! /usr/bin/env python
-
-__version__ = '1.5.0'
-
-# Copyright (c) 2015-2016 Matthieu Moy and others
-# Copyright (c) 2012-2014 Michael Haggerty and others
-# Derived from contrib/hooks/post-receive-email, which is
-# Copyright (c) 2007 Andy Parkins
-# and also includes contributions by other authors.
-#
-# This file is part of git-multimail.
-#
-# git-multimail is free software: you can redistribute it and/or
-# modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License version
-# 2 as published by the Free Software Foundation.
-#
-# This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but
-# WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
-# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
-# General Public License for more details.
-#
-# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
-# along with this program.  If not, see
-# <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
-
-"""Generate notification emails for pushes to a git repository.
-
-This hook sends emails describing changes introduced by pushes to a
-git repository.  For each reference that was changed, it emits one
-ReferenceChange email summarizing how the reference was changed,
-followed by one Revision email for each new commit that was introduced
-by the reference change.
-
-Each commit is announced in exactly one Revision email.  If the same
-commit is merged into another branch in the same or a later push, then
-the ReferenceChange email will list the commit's SHA1 and its one-line
-summary, but no new Revision email will be generated.
-
-This script is designed to be used as a "post-receive" hook in a git
-repository (see githooks(5)).  It can also be used as an "update"
-script, but this usage is not completely reliable and is deprecated.
-
-To help with debugging, this script accepts a --stdout option, which
-causes the emails to be written to standard output rather than sent
-using sendmail.
-
-See the accompanying README file for the complete documentation.
-
-"""
-
-import sys
-import os
-import re
-import bisect
-import socket
-import subprocess
-import shlex
-import optparse
-import logging
-import smtplib
-try:
-    import ssl
-except ImportError:
-    # Python < 2.6 do not have ssl, but that's OK if we don't use it.
-    pass
-import time
-
-import uuid
-import base64
-
-PYTHON3 = sys.version_info >= (3, 0)
-
-if sys.version_info <= (2, 5):
-    def all(iterable):
-        for element in iterable:
-            if not element:
-                return False
-        return True
-
-
-def is_ascii(s):
-    return all(ord(c) < 128 and ord(c) > 0 for c in s)
-
-
-if PYTHON3:
-    def is_string(s):
-        return isinstance(s, str)
-
-    def str_to_bytes(s):
-        return s.encode(ENCODING)
-
-    def bytes_to_str(s, errors='strict'):
-        return s.decode(ENCODING, errors)
-
-    unicode = str
-
-    def write_str(f, msg):
-        # Try outputting with the default encoding. If it fails,
-        # try UTF-8.
-        try:
-            f.buffer.write(msg.encode(sys.getdefaultencoding()))
-        except UnicodeEncodeError:
-            f.buffer.write(msg.encode(ENCODING))
-
-    def read_line(f):
-        # Try reading with the default encoding. If it fails,
-        # try UTF-8.
-        out = f.buffer.readline()
-        try:
-            return out.decode(sys.getdefaultencoding())
-        except UnicodeEncodeError:
-            return out.decode(ENCODING)
-
-    import html
-
-    def html_escape(s):
-        return html.escape(s)
-
-else:
-    def is_string(s):
-        try:
-            return isinstance(s, basestring)
-        except NameError:  # Silence Pyflakes warning
-            raise
-
-    def str_to_bytes(s):
-        return s
-
-    def bytes_to_str(s, errors='strict'):
-        return s
-
-    def write_str(f, msg):
-        f.write(msg)
-
-    def read_line(f):
-        return f.readline()
-
-    def next(it):
-        return it.next()
-
-    import cgi
-
-    def html_escape(s):
-        return cgi.escape(s, True)
-
-try:
-    from email.charset import Charset
-    from email.utils import make_msgid
-    from email.utils import getaddresses
-    from email.utils import formataddr
-    from email.utils import formatdate
-    from email.header import Header
-except ImportError:
-    # Prior to Python 2.5, the email module used different names:
-    from email.Charset import Charset
-    from email.Utils import make_msgid
-    from email.Utils import getaddresses
-    from email.Utils import formataddr
-    from email.Utils import formatdate
-    from email.Header import Header
-
-
-DEBUG = False
-
-ZEROS = '0' * 40
-LOGBEGIN = '- Log -----------------------------------------------------------------\n'
-LOGEND = '-----------------------------------------------------------------------\n'
-
-ADDR_HEADERS = set(['from', 'to', 'cc', 'bcc', 'reply-to', 'sender'])
-
-# It is assumed in many places that the encoding is uniformly UTF-8,
-# so changing these constants is unsupported.  But define them here
-# anyway, to make it easier to find (at least most of) the places
-# where the encoding is important.
-(ENCODING, CHARSET) = ('UTF-8', 'utf-8')
-
-
-REF_CREATED_SUBJECT_TEMPLATE = (
-    '%(emailprefix)s%(refname_type)s %(short_refname)s created'
-    ' (now %(newrev_short)s)'
-    )
-REF_UPDATED_SUBJECT_TEMPLATE = (
-    '%(emailprefix)s%(refname_type)s %(short_refname)s updated'
-    ' (%(oldrev_short)s -> %(newrev_short)s)'
-    )
-REF_DELETED_SUBJECT_TEMPLATE = (
-    '%(emailprefix)s%(refname_type)s %(short_refname)s deleted'
-    ' (was %(oldrev_short)s)'
-    )
-
-COMBINED_REFCHANGE_REVISION_SUBJECT_TEMPLATE = (
-    '%(emailprefix)s%(refname_type)s %(short_refname)s updated: %(oneline)s'
-    )
-
-REFCHANGE_HEADER_TEMPLATE = """\
-Date: %(send_date)s
-To: %(recipients)s
-Subject: %(subject)s
-MIME-Version: 1.0
-Content-Type: text/%(contenttype)s; charset=%(charset)s
-Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit
-Message-ID: %(msgid)s
-From: %(fromaddr)s
-Reply-To: %(reply_to)s
-Thread-Index: %(thread_index)s
-X-Git-Host: %(fqdn)s
-X-Git-Repo: %(repo_shortname)s
-X-Git-Refname: %(refname)s
-X-Git-Reftype: %(refname_type)s
-X-Git-Oldrev: %(oldrev)s
-X-Git-Newrev: %(newrev)s
-X-Git-NotificationType: ref_changed
-X-Git-Multimail-Version: %(multimail_version)s
-Auto-Submitted: auto-generated
-"""
-
-REFCHANGE_INTRO_TEMPLATE = """\
-This is an automated email from the git hooks/post-receive script.
-
-%(pusher)s pushed a change to %(refname_type)s %(short_refname)s
-in repository %(repo_shortname)s.
-
-"""
-
-
-FOOTER_TEMPLATE = """\
-
--- \n\
-To stop receiving notification emails like this one, please contact
-%(administrator)s.
-"""
-
-
-REWIND_ONLY_TEMPLATE = """\
-This update removed existing revisions from the reference, leaving the
-reference pointing at a previous point in the repository history.
-
- * -- * -- N   %(refname)s (%(newrev_short)s)
-            \\
-             O -- O -- O   (%(oldrev_short)s)
-
-Any revisions marked "omit" are not gone; other references still
-refer to them.  Any revisions marked "discard" are gone forever.
-"""
-
-
-NON_FF_TEMPLATE = """\
-This update added new revisions after undoing existing revisions.
-That is to say, some revisions that were in the old version of the
-%(refname_type)s are not in the new version.  This situation occurs
-when a user --force pushes a change and generates a repository
-containing something like this:
-
- * -- * -- B -- O -- O -- O   (%(oldrev_short)s)
-            \\
-             N -- N -- N   %(refname)s (%(newrev_short)s)
-
-You should already have received notification emails for all of the O
-revisions, and so the following emails describe only the N revisions
-from the common base, B.
-
-Any revisions marked "omit" are not gone; other references still
-refer to them.  Any revisions marked "discard" are gone forever.
-"""
-
-
-NO_NEW_REVISIONS_TEMPLATE = """\
-No new revisions were added by this update.
-"""
-
-
-DISCARDED_REVISIONS_TEMPLATE = """\
-This change permanently discards the following revisions:
-"""
-
-
-NO_DISCARDED_REVISIONS_TEMPLATE = """\
-The revisions that were on this %(refname_type)s are still contained in
-other references; therefore, this change does not discard any commits
-from the repository.
-"""
-
-
-NEW_REVISIONS_TEMPLATE = """\
-The %(tot)s revisions listed above as "new" are entirely new to this
-repository and will be described in separate emails.  The revisions
-listed as "add" were already present in the repository and have only
-been added to this reference.
-
-"""
-
-
-TAG_CREATED_TEMPLATE = """\
-      at %(newrev_short)-8s (%(newrev_type)s)
-"""
-
-
-TAG_UPDATED_TEMPLATE = """\
-*** WARNING: tag %(short_refname)s was modified! ***
-
-    from %(oldrev_short)-8s (%(oldrev_type)s)
-      to %(newrev_short)-8s (%(newrev_type)s)
-"""
-
-
-TAG_DELETED_TEMPLATE = """\
-*** WARNING: tag %(short_refname)s was deleted! ***
-
-"""
-
-
-# The template used in summary tables.  It looks best if this uses the
-# same alignment as TAG_CREATED_TEMPLATE and TAG_UPDATED_TEMPLATE.
-BRIEF_SUMMARY_TEMPLATE = """\
-%(action)8s %(rev_short)-8s %(text)s
-"""
-
-
-NON_COMMIT_UPDATE_TEMPLATE = """\
-This is an unusual reference change because the reference did not
-refer to a commit either before or after the change.  We do not know
-how to provide full information about this reference change.
-"""
-
-
-REVISION_HEADER_TEMPLATE = """\
-Date: %(send_date)s
-To: %(recipients)s
-Cc: %(cc_recipients)s
-Subject: %(emailprefix)s%(num)02d/%(tot)02d: %(oneline)s
-MIME-Version: 1.0
-Content-Type: text/%(contenttype)s; charset=%(charset)s
-Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit
-From: %(fromaddr)s
-Reply-To: %(reply_to)s
-In-Reply-To: %(reply_to_msgid)s
-References: %(reply_to_msgid)s
-Thread-Index: %(thread_index)s
-X-Git-Host: %(fqdn)s
-X-Git-Repo: %(repo_shortname)s
-X-Git-Refname: %(refname)s
-X-Git-Reftype: %(refname_type)s
-X-Git-Rev: %(rev)s
-X-Git-NotificationType: diff
-X-Git-Multimail-Version: %(multimail_version)s
-Auto-Submitted: auto-generated
-"""
-
-REVISION_INTRO_TEMPLATE = """\
-This is an automated email from the git hooks/post-receive script.
-
-%(pusher)s pushed a commit to %(refname_type)s %(short_refname)s
-in repository %(repo_shortname)s.
-
-"""
-
-LINK_TEXT_TEMPLATE = """\
-View the commit online:
-%(browse_url)s
-
-"""
-
-LINK_HTML_TEMPLATE = """\
-<p><a href="%(browse_url)s">View the commit online</a>.</p>
-"""
-
-
-REVISION_FOOTER_TEMPLATE = FOOTER_TEMPLATE
-
-
-# Combined, meaning refchange+revision email (for single-commit additions)
-COMBINED_HEADER_TEMPLATE = """\
-Date: %(send_date)s
-To: %(recipients)s
-Subject: %(subject)s
-MIME-Version: 1.0
-Content-Type: text/%(contenttype)s; charset=%(charset)s
-Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit
-Message-ID: %(msgid)s
-From: %(fromaddr)s
-Reply-To: %(reply_to)s
-X-Git-Host: %(fqdn)s
-X-Git-Repo: %(repo_shortname)s
-X-Git-Refname: %(refname)s
-X-Git-Reftype: %(refname_type)s
-X-Git-Oldrev: %(oldrev)s
-X-Git-Newrev: %(newrev)s
-X-Git-Rev: %(rev)s
-X-Git-NotificationType: ref_changed_plus_diff
-X-Git-Multimail-Version: %(multimail_version)s
-Auto-Submitted: auto-generated
-"""
-
-COMBINED_INTRO_TEMPLATE = """\
-This is an automated email from the git hooks/post-receive script.
-
-%(pusher)s pushed a commit to %(refname_type)s %(short_refname)s
-in repository %(repo_shortname)s.
-
-"""
-
-COMBINED_FOOTER_TEMPLATE = FOOTER_TEMPLATE
-
-
-class CommandError(Exception):
-    def __init__(self, cmd, retcode):
-        self.cmd = cmd
-        self.retcode = retcode
-        Exception.__init__(
-            self,
-            'Command "%s" failed with retcode %s' % (' '.join(cmd), retcode,)
-            )
-
-
-class ConfigurationException(Exception):
-    pass
-
-
-# The "git" program (this could be changed to include a full path):
-GIT_EXECUTABLE = 'git'
-
-
-# How "git" should be invoked (including global arguments), as a list
-# of words.  This variable is usually initialized automatically by
-# read_git_output() via choose_git_command(), but if a value is set
-# here then it will be used unconditionally.
-GIT_CMD = None
-
-
-def choose_git_command():
-    """Decide how to invoke git, and record the choice in GIT_CMD."""
-
-    global GIT_CMD
-
-    if GIT_CMD is None:
-        try:
-            # Check to see whether the "-c" option is accepted (it was
-            # only added in Git 1.7.2).  We don't actually use the
-            # output of "git --version", though if we needed more
-            # specific version information this would be the place to
-            # do it.
-            cmd = [GIT_EXECUTABLE, '-c', 'foo.bar=baz', '--version']
-            read_output(cmd)
-            GIT_CMD = [GIT_EXECUTABLE, '-c', 'i18n.logoutputencoding=%s' % (ENCODING,)]
-        except CommandError:
-            GIT_CMD = [GIT_EXECUTABLE]
-
-
-def read_git_output(args, input=None, keepends=False, **kw):
-    """Read the output of a Git command."""
-
-    if GIT_CMD is None:
-        choose_git_command()
-
-    return read_output(GIT_CMD + args, input=input, keepends=keepends, **kw)
-
-
-def read_output(cmd, input=None, keepends=False, **kw):
-    if input:
-        stdin = subprocess.PIPE
-        input = str_to_bytes(input)
-    else:
-        stdin = None
-    errors = 'strict'
-    if 'errors' in kw:
-        errors = kw['errors']
-        del kw['errors']
-    p = subprocess.Popen(
-        tuple(str_to_bytes(w) for w in cmd),
-        stdin=stdin, stdout=subprocess.PIPE, stderr=subprocess.PIPE, **kw
-        )
-    (out, err) = p.communicate(input)
-    out = bytes_to_str(out, errors=errors)
-    retcode = p.wait()
-    if retcode:
-        raise CommandError(cmd, retcode)
-    if not keepends:
-        out = out.rstrip('\n\r')
-    return out
-
-
-def read_git_lines(args, keepends=False, **kw):
-    """Return the lines output by Git command.
-
-    Return as single lines, with newlines stripped off."""
-
-    return read_git_output(args, keepends=True, **kw).splitlines(keepends)
-
-
-def git_rev_list_ish(cmd, spec, args=None, **kw):
-    """Common functionality for invoking a 'git rev-list'-like command.
-
-    Parameters:
-      * cmd is the Git command to run, e.g., 'rev-list' or 'log'.
-      * spec is a list of revision arguments to pass to the named
-        command.  If None, this function returns an empty list.
-      * args is a list of extra arguments passed to the named command.
-      * All other keyword arguments (if any) are passed to the
-        underlying read_git_lines() function.
-
-    Return the output of the Git command in the form of a list, one
-    entry per output line.
-    """
-    if spec is None:
-        return []
-    if args is None:
-        args = []
-    args = [cmd, '--stdin'] + args
-    spec_stdin = ''.join(s + '\n' for s in spec)
-    return read_git_lines(args, input=spec_stdin, **kw)
-
-
-def git_rev_list(spec, **kw):
-    """Run 'git rev-list' with the given list of revision arguments.
-
-    See git_rev_list_ish() for parameter and return value
-    documentation.
-    """
-    return git_rev_list_ish('rev-list', spec, **kw)
-
-
-def git_log(spec, **kw):
-    """Run 'git log' with the given list of revision arguments.
-
-    See git_rev_list_ish() for parameter and return value
-    documentation.
-    """
-    return git_rev_list_ish('log', spec, **kw)
-
-
-def header_encode(text, header_name=None):
-    """Encode and line-wrap the value of an email header field."""
-
-    # Convert to unicode, if required.
-    if not isinstance(text, unicode):
-        text = unicode(text, 'utf-8')
-
-    if is_ascii(text):
-        charset = 'ascii'
-    else:
-        charset = 'utf-8'
-
-    return Header(text, header_name=header_name, charset=Charset(charset)).encode()
-
-
-def addr_header_encode(text, header_name=None):
-    """Encode and line-wrap the value of an email header field containing
-    email addresses."""
-
-    # Convert to unicode, if required.
-    if not isinstance(text, unicode):
-        text = unicode(text, 'utf-8')
-
-    text = ', '.join(
-        formataddr((header_encode(name), emailaddr))
-        for name, emailaddr in getaddresses([text])
-        )
-
-    if is_ascii(text):
-        charset = 'ascii'
-    else:
-        charset = 'utf-8'
-
-    return Header(text, header_name=header_name, charset=Charset(charset)).encode()
-
-
-class Config(object):
-    def __init__(self, section, git_config=None):
-        """Represent a section of the git configuration.
-
-        If git_config is specified, it is passed to "git config" in
-        the GIT_CONFIG environment variable, meaning that "git config"
-        will read the specified path rather than the Git default
-        config paths."""
-
-        self.section = section
-        if git_config:
-            self.env = os.environ.copy()
-            self.env['GIT_CONFIG'] = git_config
-        else:
-            self.env = None
-
-    @staticmethod
-    def _split(s):
-        """Split NUL-terminated values."""
-
-        words = s.split('\0')
-        assert words[-1] == ''
-        return words[:-1]
-
-    @staticmethod
-    def add_config_parameters(c):
-        """Add configuration parameters to Git.
-
-        c is either an str or a list of str, each element being of the
-        form 'var=val' or 'var', with the same syntax and meaning as
-        the argument of 'git -c var=val'.
-        """
-        if isinstance(c, str):
-            c = (c,)
-        parameters = os.environ.get('GIT_CONFIG_PARAMETERS', '')
-        if parameters:
-            parameters += ' '
-        # git expects GIT_CONFIG_PARAMETERS to be of the form
-        #    "'name1=value1' 'name2=value2' 'name3=value3'"
-        # including everything inside the double quotes (but not the double
-        # quotes themselves).  Spacing is critical.  Also, if a value contains
-        # a literal single quote that quote must be represented using the
-        # four character sequence: '\''
-        parameters += ' '.join("'" + x.replace("'", "'\\''") + "'" for x in c)
-        os.environ['GIT_CONFIG_PARAMETERS'] = parameters
-
-    def get(self, name, default=None):
-        try:
-            values = self._split(read_git_output(
-                ['config', '--get', '--null', '%s.%s' % (self.section, name)],
-                env=self.env, keepends=True,
-                ))
-            assert len(values) == 1
-            return values[0]
-        except CommandError:
-            return default
-
-    def get_bool(self, name, default=None):
-        try:
-            value = read_git_output(
-                ['config', '--get', '--bool', '%s.%s' % (self.section, name)],
-                env=self.env,
-                )
-        except CommandError:
-            return default
-        return value == 'true'
-
-    def get_all(self, name, default=None):
-        """Read a (possibly multivalued) setting from the configuration.
-
-        Return the result as a list of values, or default if the name
-        is unset."""
-
-        try:
-            return self._split(read_git_output(
-                ['config', '--get-all', '--null', '%s.%s' % (self.section, name)],
-                env=self.env, keepends=True,
-                ))
-        except CommandError:
-            t, e, traceback = sys.exc_info()
-            if e.retcode == 1:
-                # "the section or key is invalid"; i.e., there is no
-                # value for the specified key.
-                return default
-            else:
-                raise
-
-    def set(self, name, value):
-        read_git_output(
-            ['config', '%s.%s' % (self.section, name), value],
-            env=self.env,
-            )
-
-    def add(self, name, value):
-        read_git_output(
-            ['config', '--add', '%s.%s' % (self.section, name), value],
-            env=self.env,
-            )
-
-    def __contains__(self, name):
-        return self.get_all(name, default=None) is not None
-
-    # We don't use this method anymore internally, but keep it here in
-    # case somebody is calling it from their own code:
-    def has_key(self, name):
-        return name in self
-
-    def unset_all(self, name):
-        try:
-            read_git_output(
-                ['config', '--unset-all', '%s.%s' % (self.section, name)],
-                env=self.env,
-                )
-        except CommandError:
-            t, e, traceback = sys.exc_info()
-            if e.retcode == 5:
-                # The name doesn't exist, which is what we wanted anyway...
-                pass
-            else:
-                raise
-
-    def set_recipients(self, name, value):
-        self.unset_all(name)
-        for pair in getaddresses([value]):
-            self.add(name, formataddr(pair))
-
-
-def generate_summaries(*log_args):
-    """Generate a brief summary for each revision requested.
-
-    log_args are strings that will be passed directly to "git log" as
-    revision selectors.  Iterate over (sha1_short, subject) for each
-    commit specified by log_args (subject is the first line of the
-    commit message as a string without EOLs)."""
-
-    cmd = [
-        'log', '--abbrev', '--format=%h %s',
-        ] + list(log_args) + ['--']
-    for line in read_git_lines(cmd):
-        yield tuple(line.split(' ', 1))
-
-
-def limit_lines(lines, max_lines):
-    for (index, line) in enumerate(lines):
-        if index < max_lines:
-            yield line
-
-    if index >= max_lines:
-        yield '... %d lines suppressed ...\n' % (index + 1 - max_lines,)
-
-
-def limit_linelength(lines, max_linelength):
-    for line in lines:
-        # Don't forget that lines always include a trailing newline.
-        if len(line) > max_linelength + 1:
-            line = line[:max_linelength - 7] + ' [...]\n'
-        yield line
-
-
-class CommitSet(object):
-    """A (constant) set of object names.
-
-    The set should be initialized with full SHA1 object names.  The
-    __contains__() method returns True iff its argument is an
-    abbreviation of any the names in the set."""
-
-    def __init__(self, names):
-        self._names = sorted(names)
-
-    def __len__(self):
-        return len(self._names)
-
-    def __contains__(self, sha1_abbrev):
-        """Return True iff this set contains sha1_abbrev (which might be abbreviated)."""
-
-        i = bisect.bisect_left(self._names, sha1_abbrev)
-        return i < len(self) and self._names[i].startswith(sha1_abbrev)
-
-
-class GitObject(object):
-    def __init__(self, sha1, type=None):
-        if sha1 == ZEROS:
-            self.sha1 = self.type = self.commit_sha1 = None
-        else:
-            self.sha1 = sha1
-            self.type = type or read_git_output(['cat-file', '-t', self.sha1])
-
-            if self.type == 'commit':
-                self.commit_sha1 = self.sha1
-            elif self.type == 'tag':
-                try:
-                    self.commit_sha1 = read_git_output(
-                        ['rev-parse', '--verify', '%s^0' % (self.sha1,)]
-                        )
-                except CommandError:
-                    # Cannot deref tag to determine commit_sha1
-                    self.commit_sha1 = None
-            else:
-                self.commit_sha1 = None
-
-        self.short = read_git_output(['rev-parse', '--short', sha1])
-
-    def get_summary(self):
-        """Return (sha1_short, subject) for this commit."""
-
-        if not self.sha1:
-            raise ValueError('Empty commit has no summary')
-
-        return next(iter(generate_summaries('--no-walk', self.sha1)))
-
-    def __eq__(self, other):
-        return isinstance(other, GitObject) and self.sha1 == other.sha1
-
-    def __ne__(self, other):
-        return not self == other
-
-    def __hash__(self):
-        return hash(self.sha1)
-
-    def __nonzero__(self):
-        return bool(self.sha1)
-
-    def __bool__(self):
-        """Python 2 backward compatibility"""
-        return self.__nonzero__()
-
-    def __str__(self):
-        return self.sha1 or ZEROS
-
-
-class Change(object):
-    """A Change that has been made to the Git repository.
-
-    Abstract class from which both Revisions and ReferenceChanges are
-    derived.  A Change knows how to generate a notification email
-    describing itself."""
-
-    def __init__(self, environment):
-        self.environment = environment
-        self._values = None
-        self._contains_html_diff = False
-
-    def _contains_diff(self):
-        # We do contain a diff, should it be rendered in HTML?
-        if self.environment.commit_email_format == "html":
-            self._contains_html_diff = True
-
-    def _compute_values(self):
-        """Return a dictionary {keyword: expansion} for this Change.
-
-        Derived classes overload this method to add more entries to
-        the return value.  This method is used internally by
-        get_values().  The return value should always be a new
-        dictionary."""
-
-        values = self.environment.get_values()
-        fromaddr = self.environment.get_fromaddr(change=self)
-        if fromaddr is not None:
-            values['fromaddr'] = fromaddr
-        values['multimail_version'] = get_version()
-        return values
-
-    # Aliases usable in template strings. Tuple of pairs (destination,
-    # source).
-    VALUES_ALIAS = (
-        ("id", "newrev"),
-        )
-
-    def get_values(self, **extra_values):
-        """Return a dictionary {keyword: expansion} for this Change.
-
-        Return a dictionary mapping keywords to the values that they
-        should be expanded to for this Change (used when interpolating
-        template strings).  If any keyword arguments are supplied, add
-        those to the return value as well.  The return value is always
-        a new dictionary."""
-
-        if self._values is None:
-            self._values = self._compute_values()
-
-        values = self._values.copy()
-        if extra_values:
-            values.update(extra_values)
-
-        for alias, val in self.VALUES_ALIAS:
-            values[alias] = values[val]
-        return values
-
-    def expand(self, template, **extra_values):
-        """Expand template.
-
-        Expand the template (which should be a string) using string
-        interpolation of the values for this Change.  If any keyword
-        arguments are provided, also include those in the keywords
-        available for interpolation."""
-
-        return template % self.get_values(**extra_values)
-
-    def expand_lines(self, template, html_escape_val=False, **extra_values):
-        """Break template into lines and expand each line."""
-
-        values = self.get_values(**extra_values)
-        if html_escape_val:
-            for k in values:
-                if is_string(values[k]):
-                    values[k] = html_escape(values[k])
-        for line in template.splitlines(True):
-            yield line % values
-
-    def expand_header_lines(self, template, **extra_values):
-        """Break template into lines and expand each line as an RFC 2822 header.
-
-        Encode values and split up lines that are too long.  Silently
-        skip lines that contain references to unknown variables."""
-
-        values = self.get_values(**extra_values)
-        if self._contains_html_diff:
-            self._content_type = 'html'
-        else:
-            self._content_type = 'plain'
-        values['contenttype'] = self._content_type
-
-        for line in template.splitlines():
-            (name, value) = line.split(': ', 1)
-
-            try:
-                value = value % values
-            except KeyError:
-                t, e, traceback = sys.exc_info()
-                if DEBUG:
-                    self.environment.log_warning(
-                        'Warning: unknown variable %r in the following line; line skipped:\n'
-                        '    %s\n'
-                        % (e.args[0], line,)
-                        )
-            else:
-                if name.lower() in ADDR_HEADERS:
-                    value = addr_header_encode(value, name)
-                else:
-                    value = header_encode(value, name)
-                for splitline in ('%s: %s\n' % (name, value)).splitlines(True):
-                    yield splitline
-
-    def generate_email_header(self):
-        """Generate the RFC 2822 email headers for this Change, a line at a time.
-
-        The output should not include the trailing blank line."""
-
-        raise NotImplementedError()
-
-    def generate_browse_link(self, base_url):
-        """Generate a link to an online repository browser."""
-        return iter(())
-
-    def generate_email_intro(self, html_escape_val=False):
-        """Generate the email intro for this Change, a line at a time.
-
-        The output will be used as the standard boilerplate at the top
-        of the email body."""
-
-        raise NotImplementedError()
-
-    def generate_email_body(self, push):
-        """Generate the main part of the email body, a line at a time.
-
-        The text in the body might be truncated after a specified
-        number of lines (see multimailhook.emailmaxlines)."""
-
-        raise NotImplementedError()
-
-    def generate_email_footer(self, html_escape_val):
-        """Generate the footer of the email, a line at a time.
-
-        The footer is always included, irrespective of
-        multimailhook.emailmaxlines."""
-
-        raise NotImplementedError()
-
-    def _wrap_for_html(self, lines):
-        """Wrap the lines in HTML <pre> tag when using HTML format.
-
-        Escape special HTML characters and add <pre> and </pre> tags around
-        the given lines if we should be generating HTML as indicated by
-        self._contains_html_diff being set to true.
-        """
-        if self._contains_html_diff:
-            yield "<pre style='margin:0'>\n"
-
-            for line in lines:
-                yield html_escape(line)
-
-            yield '</pre>\n'
-        else:
-            for line in lines:
-                yield line
-
-    def generate_email(self, push, body_filter=None, extra_header_values={}):
-        """Generate an email describing this change.
-
-        Iterate over the lines (including the header lines) of an
-        email describing this change.  If body_filter is not None,
-        then use it to filter the lines that are intended for the
-        email body.
-
-        The extra_header_values field is received as a dict and not as
-        **kwargs, to allow passing other keyword arguments in the
-        future (e.g. passing extra values to generate_email_intro()"""
-
-        for line in self.generate_email_header(**extra_header_values):
-            yield line
-        yield '\n'
-        html_escape_val = (self.environment.html_in_intro and
-                           self._contains_html_diff)
-        intro = self.generate_email_intro(html_escape_val)
-        if not self.environment.html_in_intro:
-            intro = self._wrap_for_html(intro)
-        for line in intro:
-            yield line
-
-        if self.environment.commitBrowseURL:
-            for line in self.generate_browse_link(self.environment.commitBrowseURL):
-                yield line
-
-        body = self.generate_email_body(push)
-        if body_filter is not None:
-            body = body_filter(body)
-
-        diff_started = False
-        if self._contains_html_diff:
-            # "white-space: pre" is the default, but we need to
-            # specify it again in case the message is viewed in a
-            # webmail which wraps it in an element setting white-space
-            # to something else (Zimbra does this and sets
-            # white-space: pre-line).
-            yield '<pre style="white-space: pre; background: #F8F8F8">'
-        for line in body:
-            if self._contains_html_diff:
-                # This is very, very naive. It would be much better to really
-                # parse the diff, i.e. look at how many lines do we have in
-                # the hunk headers instead of blindly highlighting everything
-                # that looks like it might be part of a diff.
-                bgcolor = ''
-                fgcolor = ''
-                if line.startswith('--- a/'):
-                    diff_started = True
-                    bgcolor = 'e0e0ff'
-                elif line.startswith('diff ') or line.startswith('index '):
-                    diff_started = True
-                    fgcolor = '808080'
-                elif diff_started:
-                    if line.startswith('+++ '):
-                        bgcolor = 'e0e0ff'
-                    elif line.startswith('@@'):
-                        bgcolor = 'e0e0e0'
-                    elif line.startswith('+'):
-                        bgcolor = 'e0ffe0'
-                    elif line.startswith('-'):
-                        bgcolor = 'ffe0e0'
-                elif line.startswith('commit '):
-                    fgcolor = '808000'
-                elif line.startswith('    '):
-                    fgcolor = '404040'
-
-                # Chop the trailing LF, we don't want it inside <pre>.
-                line = html_escape(line[:-1])
-
-                if bgcolor or fgcolor:
-                    style = 'display:block; white-space:pre;'
-                    if bgcolor:
-                        style += 'background:#' + bgcolor + ';'
-                    if fgcolor:
-                        style += 'color:#' + fgcolor + ';'
-                    # Use a <span style='display:block> to color the
-                    # whole line. The newline must be inside the span
-                    # to display properly both in Firefox and in
-                    # text-based browser.
-                    line = "<span style='%s'>%s\n</span>" % (style, line)
-                else:
-                    line = line + '\n'
-
-            yield line
-        if self._contains_html_diff:
-            yield '</pre>'
-        html_escape_val = (self.environment.html_in_footer and
-                           self._contains_html_diff)
-        footer = self.generate_email_footer(html_escape_val)
-        if not self.environment.html_in_footer:
-            footer = self._wrap_for_html(footer)
-        for line in footer:
-            yield line
-
-    def get_specific_fromaddr(self):
-        """For kinds of Changes which specify it, return the kind-specific
-        From address to use."""
-        return None
-
-
-class Revision(Change):
-    """A Change consisting of a single git commit."""
-
-    CC_RE = re.compile(r'^\s*C[Cc]:\s*(?P<to>[^#]+@[^\s#]*)\s*(#.*)?$')
-
-    def __init__(self, reference_change, rev, num, tot):
-        Change.__init__(self, reference_change.environment)
-        self.reference_change = reference_change
-        self.rev = rev
-        self.change_type = self.reference_change.change_type
-        self.refname = self.reference_change.refname
-        self.num = num
-        self.tot = tot
-        self.author = read_git_output(['log', '--no-walk', '--format=%aN <%aE>', self.rev.sha1])
-        self.recipients = self.environment.get_revision_recipients(self)
-
-        # -s is short for --no-patch, but -s works on older git's (e.g. 1.7)
-        self.parents = read_git_lines(['show', '-s', '--format=%P',
-                                      self.rev.sha1])[0].split()
-
-        self.cc_recipients = ''
-        if self.environment.get_scancommitforcc():
-            self.cc_recipients = ', '.join(to.strip() for to in self._cc_recipients())
-            if self.cc_recipients:
-                self.environment.log_msg(
-                    'Add %s to CC for %s' % (self.cc_recipients, self.rev.sha1))
-
-    def _cc_recipients(self):
-        cc_recipients = []
-        message = read_git_output(['log', '--no-walk', '--format=%b', self.rev.sha1])
-        lines = message.strip().split('\n')
-        for line in lines:
-            m = re.match(self.CC_RE, line)
-            if m:
-                cc_recipients.append(m.group('to'))
-
-        return cc_recipients
-
-    def _compute_values(self):
-        values = Change._compute_values(self)
-
-        oneline = read_git_output(
-            ['log', '--format=%s', '--no-walk', self.rev.sha1]
-            )
-
-        max_subject_length = self.environment.get_max_subject_length()
-        if max_subject_length > 0 and len(oneline) > max_subject_length:
-            oneline = oneline[:max_subject_length - 6] + ' [...]'
-
-        values['rev'] = self.rev.sha1
-        values['parents'] = ' '.join(self.parents)
-        values['rev_short'] = self.rev.short
-        values['change_type'] = self.change_type
-        values['refname'] = self.refname
-        values['newrev'] = self.rev.sha1
-        values['short_refname'] = self.reference_change.short_refname
-        values['refname_type'] = self.reference_change.refname_type
-        values['reply_to_msgid'] = self.reference_change.msgid
-        values['thread_index'] = self.reference_change.thread_index
-        values['num'] = self.num
-        values['tot'] = self.tot
-        values['recipients'] = self.recipients
-        if self.cc_recipients:
-            values['cc_recipients'] = self.cc_recipients
-        values['oneline'] = oneline
-        values['author'] = self.author
-
-        reply_to = self.environment.get_reply_to_commit(self)
-        if reply_to:
-            values['reply_to'] = reply_to
-
-        return values
-
-    def generate_email_header(self, **extra_values):
-        for line in self.expand_header_lines(
-                REVISION_HEADER_TEMPLATE, **extra_values
-                ):
-            yield line
-
-    def generate_browse_link(self, base_url):
-        if '%(' not in base_url:
-            base_url += '%(id)s'
-        url = "".join(self.expand_lines(base_url))
-        if self._content_type == 'html':
-            for line in self.expand_lines(LINK_HTML_TEMPLATE,
-                                          html_escape_val=True,
-                                          browse_url=url):
-                yield line
-        elif self._content_type == 'plain':
-            for line in self.expand_lines(LINK_TEXT_TEMPLATE,
-                                          html_escape_val=False,
-                                          browse_url=url):
-                yield line
-        else:
-            raise NotImplementedError("Content-type %s unsupported. Please report it as a bug.")
-
-    def generate_email_intro(self, html_escape_val=False):
-        for line in self.expand_lines(REVISION_INTRO_TEMPLATE,
-                                      html_escape_val=html_escape_val):
-            yield line
-
-    def generate_email_body(self, push):
-        """Show this revision."""
-
-        for line in read_git_lines(
-                ['log'] + self.environment.commitlogopts + ['-1', self.rev.sha1],
-                keepends=True,
-                errors='replace'):
-            if line.startswith('Date:   ') and self.environment.date_substitute:
-                yield self.environment.date_substitute + line[len('Date:   '):]
-            else:
-                yield line
-
-    def generate_email_footer(self, html_escape_val):
-        return self.expand_lines(REVISION_FOOTER_TEMPLATE,
-                                 html_escape_val=html_escape_val)
-
-    def generate_email(self, push, body_filter=None, extra_header_values={}):
-        self._contains_diff()
-        return Change.generate_email(self, push, body_filter, extra_header_values)
-
-    def get_specific_fromaddr(self):
-        return self.environment.from_commit
-
-
-class ReferenceChange(Change):
-    """A Change to a Git reference.
-
-    An abstract class representing a create, update, or delete of a
-    Git reference.  Derived classes handle specific types of reference
-    (e.g., tags vs. branches).  These classes generate the main
-    reference change email summarizing the reference change and
-    whether it caused any any commits to be added or removed.
-
-    ReferenceChange objects are usually created using the static
-    create() method, which has the logic to decide which derived class
-    to instantiate."""
-
-    REF_RE = re.compile(r'^refs\/(?P<area>[^\/]+)\/(?P<shortname>.*)$')
-
-    @staticmethod
-    def create(environment, oldrev, newrev, refname):
-        """Return a ReferenceChange object representing the change.
-
-        Return an object that represents the type of change that is being
-        made. oldrev and newrev should be SHA1s or ZEROS."""
-
-        old = GitObject(oldrev)
-        new = GitObject(newrev)
-        rev = new or old
-
-        # The revision type tells us what type the commit is, combined with
-        # the location of the ref we can decide between
-        #  - working branch
-        #  - tracking branch
-        #  - unannotated tag
-        #  - annotated tag
-        m = ReferenceChange.REF_RE.match(refname)
-        if m:
-            area = m.group('area')
-            short_refname = m.group('shortname')
-        else:
-            area = ''
-            short_refname = refname
-
-        if rev.type == 'tag':
-            # Annotated tag:
-            klass = AnnotatedTagChange
-        elif rev.type == 'commit':
-            if area == 'tags':
-                # Non-annotated tag:
-                klass = NonAnnotatedTagChange
-            elif area == 'heads':
-                # Branch:
-                klass = BranchChange
-            elif area == 'remotes':
-                # Tracking branch:
-                environment.log_warning(
-                    '*** Push-update of tracking branch %r\n'
-                    '***  - incomplete email generated.'
-                    % (refname,)
-                    )
-                klass = OtherReferenceChange
-            else:
-                # Some other reference namespace:
-                environment.log_warning(
-                    '*** Push-update of strange reference %r\n'
-                    '***  - incomplete email generated.'
-                    % (refname,)
-                    )
-                klass = OtherReferenceChange
-        else:
-            # Anything else (is there anything else?)
-            environment.log_warning(
-                '*** Unknown type of update to %r (%s)\n'
-                '***  - incomplete email generated.'
-                % (refname, rev.type,)
-                )
-            klass = OtherReferenceChange
-
-        return klass(
-            environment,
-            refname=refname, short_refname=short_refname,
-            old=old, new=new, rev=rev,
-            )
-
-    @staticmethod
-    def make_thread_index():
-        """Return a string appropriate for the Thread-Index header,
-        needed by MS Outlook to get threading right.
-
-        The format is (base64-encoded):
-        - 1 byte must be 1
-        - 5 bytes encode a date (hardcoded here)
-        - 16 bytes for a globally unique identifier
-
-        FIXME: Unfortunately, even with the Thread-Index field, MS
-        Outlook doesn't seem to do the threading reliably (see
-        https://github.com/git-multimail/git-multimail/pull/194).
-        """
-        thread_index = b'\x01\x00\x00\x12\x34\x56' + uuid.uuid4().bytes
-        return base64.standard_b64encode(thread_index).decode('ascii')
-
-    def __init__(self, environment, refname, short_refname, old, new, rev):
-        Change.__init__(self, environment)
-        self.change_type = {
-            (False, True): 'create',
-            (True, True): 'update',
-            (True, False): 'delete',
-            }[bool(old), bool(new)]
-        self.refname = refname
-        self.short_refname = short_refname
-        self.old = old
-        self.new = new
-        self.rev = rev
-        self.msgid = make_msgid()
-        self.thread_index = self.make_thread_index()
-        self.diffopts = environment.diffopts
-        self.graphopts = environment.graphopts
-        self.logopts = environment.logopts
-        self.commitlogopts = environment.commitlogopts
-        self.showgraph = environment.refchange_showgraph
-        self.showlog = environment.refchange_showlog
-
-        self.header_template = REFCHANGE_HEADER_TEMPLATE
-        self.intro_template = REFCHANGE_INTRO_TEMPLATE
-        self.footer_template = FOOTER_TEMPLATE
-
-    def _compute_values(self):
-        values = Change._compute_values(self)
-
-        values['change_type'] = self.change_type
-        values['refname_type'] = self.refname_type
-        values['refname'] = self.refname
-        values['short_refname'] = self.short_refname
-        values['msgid'] = self.msgid
-        values['thread_index'] = self.thread_index
-        values['recipients'] = self.recipients
-        values['oldrev'] = str(self.old)
-        values['oldrev_short'] = self.old.short
-        values['newrev'] = str(self.new)
-        values['newrev_short'] = self.new.short
-
-        if self.old:
-            values['oldrev_type'] = self.old.type
-        if self.new:
-            values['newrev_type'] = self.new.type
-
-        reply_to = self.environment.get_reply_to_refchange(self)
-        if reply_to:
-            values['reply_to'] = reply_to
-
-        return values
-
-    def send_single_combined_email(self, known_added_sha1s):
-        """Determine if a combined refchange/revision email should be sent
-
-        If there is only a single new (non-merge) commit added by a
-        change, it is useful to combine the ReferenceChange and
-        Revision emails into one.  In such a case, return the single
-        revision; otherwise, return None.
-
-        This method is overridden in BranchChange."""
-
-        return None
-
-    def generate_combined_email(self, push, revision, body_filter=None, extra_header_values={}):
-        """Generate an email describing this change AND specified revision.
-
-        Iterate over the lines (including the header lines) of an
-        email describing this change.  If body_filter is not None,
-        then use it to filter the lines that are intended for the
-        email body.
-
-        The extra_header_values field is received as a dict and not as
-        **kwargs, to allow passing other keyword arguments in the
-        future (e.g. passing extra values to generate_email_intro()
-
-        This method is overridden in BranchChange."""
-
-        raise NotImplementedError
-
-    def get_subject(self):
-        template = {
-            'create': REF_CREATED_SUBJECT_TEMPLATE,
-            'update': REF_UPDATED_SUBJECT_TEMPLATE,
-            'delete': REF_DELETED_SUBJECT_TEMPLATE,
-            }[self.change_type]
-        return self.expand(template)
-
-    def generate_email_header(self, **extra_values):
-        if 'subject' not in extra_values:
-            extra_values['subject'] = self.get_subject()
-
-        for line in self.expand_header_lines(
-                self.header_template, **extra_values
-                ):
-            yield line
-
-    def generate_email_intro(self, html_escape_val=False):
-        for line in self.expand_lines(self.intro_template,
-                                      html_escape_val=html_escape_val):
-            yield line
-
-    def generate_email_body(self, push):
-        """Call the appropriate body-generation routine.
-
-        Call one of generate_create_summary() /
-        generate_update_summary() / generate_delete_summary()."""
-
-        change_summary = {
-            'create': self.generate_create_summary,
-            'delete': self.generate_delete_summary,
-            'update': self.generate_update_summary,
-            }[self.change_type](push)
-        for line in change_summary:
-            yield line
-
-        for line in self.generate_revision_change_summary(push):
-            yield line
-
-    def generate_email_footer(self, html_escape_val):
-        return self.expand_lines(self.footer_template,
-                                 html_escape_val=html_escape_val)
-
-    def generate_revision_change_graph(self, push):
-        if self.showgraph:
-            args = ['--graph'] + self.graphopts
-            for newold in ('new', 'old'):
-                has_newold = False
-                spec = push.get_commits_spec(newold, self)
-                for line in git_log(spec, args=args, keepends=True):
-                    if not has_newold:
-                        has_newold = True
-                        yield '\n'
-                        yield 'Graph of %s commits:\n\n' % (
-                            {'new': 'new', 'old': 'discarded'}[newold],)
-                    yield '  ' + line
-                if has_newold:
-                    yield '\n'
-
-    def generate_revision_change_log(self, new_commits_list):
-        if self.showlog:
-            yield '\n'
-            yield 'Detailed log of new commits:\n\n'
-            for line in read_git_lines(
-                    ['log', '--no-walk'] +
-                    self.logopts +
-                    new_commits_list +
-                    ['--'],
-                    keepends=True,
-                    ):
-                yield line
-
-    def generate_new_revision_summary(self, tot, new_commits_list, push):
-        for line in self.expand_lines(NEW_REVISIONS_TEMPLATE, tot=tot):
-            yield line
-        for line in self.generate_revision_change_graph(push):
-            yield line
-        for line in self.generate_revision_change_log(new_commits_list):
-            yield line
-
-    def generate_revision_change_summary(self, push):
-        """Generate a summary of the revisions added/removed by this change."""
-
-        if self.new.commit_sha1 and not self.old.commit_sha1:
-            # A new reference was created.  List the new revisions
-            # brought by the new reference (i.e., those revisions that
-            # were not in the repository before this reference
-            # change).
-            sha1s = list(push.get_new_commits(self))
-            sha1s.reverse()
-            tot = len(sha1s)
-            new_revisions = [
-                Revision(self, GitObject(sha1), num=i + 1, tot=tot)
-                for (i, sha1) in enumerate(sha1s)
-                ]
-
-            if new_revisions:
-                yield self.expand('This %(refname_type)s includes the following new commits:\n')
-                yield '\n'
-                for r in new_revisions:
-                    (sha1, subject) = r.rev.get_summary()
-                    yield r.expand(
-                        BRIEF_SUMMARY_TEMPLATE, action='new', text=subject,
-                        )
-                yield '\n'
-                for line in self.generate_new_revision_summary(
-                        tot, [r.rev.sha1 for r in new_revisions], push):
-                    yield line
-            else:
-                for line in self.expand_lines(NO_NEW_REVISIONS_TEMPLATE):
-                    yield line
-
-        elif self.new.commit_sha1 and self.old.commit_sha1:
-            # A reference was changed to point at a different commit.
-            # List the revisions that were removed and/or added *from
-            # that reference* by this reference change, along with a
-            # diff between the trees for its old and new values.
-
-            # List of the revisions that were added to the branch by
-            # this update.  Note this list can include revisions that
-            # have already had notification emails; we want such
-            # revisions in the summary even though we will not send
-            # new notification emails for them.
-            adds = list(generate_summaries(
-                '--topo-order', '--reverse', '%s..%s'
-                % (self.old.commit_sha1, self.new.commit_sha1,)
-                ))
-
-            # List of the revisions that were removed from the branch
-            # by this update.  This will be empty except for
-            # non-fast-forward updates.
-            discards = list(generate_summaries(
-                '%s..%s' % (self.new.commit_sha1, self.old.commit_sha1,)
-                ))
-
-            if adds:
-                new_commits_list = push.get_new_commits(self)
-            else:
-                new_commits_list = []
-            new_commits = CommitSet(new_commits_list)
-
-            if discards:
-                discarded_commits = CommitSet(push.get_discarded_commits(self))
-            else:
-                discarded_commits = CommitSet([])
-
-            if discards and adds:
-                for (sha1, subject) in discards:
-                    if sha1 in discarded_commits:
-                        action = 'discard'
-                    else:
-                        action = 'omit'
-                    yield self.expand(
-                        BRIEF_SUMMARY_TEMPLATE, action=action,
-                        rev_short=sha1, text=subject,
-                        )
-                for (sha1, subject) in adds:
-                    if sha1 in new_commits:
-                        action = 'new'
-                    else:
-                        action = 'add'
-                    yield self.expand(
-                        BRIEF_SUMMARY_TEMPLATE, action=action,
-                        rev_short=sha1, text=subject,
-                        )
-                yield '\n'
-                for line in self.expand_lines(NON_FF_TEMPLATE):
-                    yield line
-
-            elif discards:
-                for (sha1, subject) in discards:
-                    if sha1 in discarded_commits:
-                        action = 'discard'
-                    else:
-                        action = 'omit'
-                    yield self.expand(
-                        BRIEF_SUMMARY_TEMPLATE, action=action,
-                        rev_short=sha1, text=subject,
-                        )
-                yield '\n'
-                for line in self.expand_lines(REWIND_ONLY_TEMPLATE):
-                    yield line
-
-            elif adds:
-                (sha1, subject) = self.old.get_summary()
-                yield self.expand(
-                    BRIEF_SUMMARY_TEMPLATE, action='from',
-                    rev_short=sha1, text=subject,
-                    )
-                for (sha1, subject) in adds:
-                    if sha1 in new_commits:
-                        action = 'new'
-                    else:
-                        action = 'add'
-                    yield self.expand(
-                        BRIEF_SUMMARY_TEMPLATE, action=action,
-                        rev_short=sha1, text=subject,
-                        )
-
-            yield '\n'
-
-            if new_commits:
-                for line in self.generate_new_revision_summary(
-                        len(new_commits), new_commits_list, push):
-                    yield line
-            else:
-                for line in self.expand_lines(NO_NEW_REVISIONS_TEMPLATE):
-                    yield line
-                for line in self.generate_revision_change_graph(push):
-                    yield line
-
-            # The diffstat is shown from the old revision to the new
-            # revision.  This is to show the truth of what happened in
-            # this change.  There's no point showing the stat from the
-            # base to the new revision because the base is effectively a
-            # random revision at this point - the user will be interested
-            # in what this revision changed - including the undoing of
-            # previous revisions in the case of non-fast-forward updates.
-            yield '\n'
-            yield 'Summary of changes:\n'
-            for line in read_git_lines(
-                    ['diff-tree'] +
-                    self.diffopts +
-                    ['%s..%s' % (self.old.commit_sha1, self.new.commit_sha1,)],
-                    keepends=True,
-                    ):
-                yield line
-
-        elif self.old.commit_sha1 and not self.new.commit_sha1:
-            # A reference was deleted.  List the revisions that were
-            # removed from the repository by this reference change.
-
-            sha1s = list(push.get_discarded_commits(self))
-            tot = len(sha1s)
-            discarded_revisions = [
-                Revision(self, GitObject(sha1), num=i + 1, tot=tot)
-                for (i, sha1) in enumerate(sha1s)
-                ]
-
-            if discarded_revisions:
-                for line in self.expand_lines(DISCARDED_REVISIONS_TEMPLATE):
-                    yield line
-                yield '\n'
-                for r in discarded_revisions:
-                    (sha1, subject) = r.rev.get_summary()
-                    yield r.expand(
-                        BRIEF_SUMMARY_TEMPLATE, action='discard', text=subject,
-                        )
-                for line in self.generate_revision_change_graph(push):
-                    yield line
-            else:
-                for line in self.expand_lines(NO_DISCARDED_REVISIONS_TEMPLATE):
-                    yield line
-
-        elif not self.old.commit_sha1 and not self.new.commit_sha1:
-            for line in self.expand_lines(NON_COMMIT_UPDATE_TEMPLATE):
-                yield line
-
-    def generate_create_summary(self, push):
-        """Called for the creation of a reference."""
-
-        # This is a new reference and so oldrev is not valid
-        (sha1, subject) = self.new.get_summary()
-        yield self.expand(
-            BRIEF_SUMMARY_TEMPLATE, action='at',
-            rev_short=sha1, text=subject,
-            )
-        yield '\n'
-
-    def generate_update_summary(self, push):
-        """Called for the change of a pre-existing branch."""
-
-        return iter([])
-
-    def generate_delete_summary(self, push):
-        """Called for the deletion of any type of reference."""
-
-        (sha1, subject) = self.old.get_summary()
-        yield self.expand(
-            BRIEF_SUMMARY_TEMPLATE, action='was',
-            rev_short=sha1, text=subject,
-            )
-        yield '\n'
-
-    def get_specific_fromaddr(self):
-        return self.environment.from_refchange
-
-
-class BranchChange(ReferenceChange):
-    refname_type = 'branch'
-
-    def __init__(self, environment, refname, short_refname, old, new, rev):
-        ReferenceChange.__init__(
-            self, environment,
-            refname=refname, short_refname=short_refname,
-            old=old, new=new, rev=rev,
-            )
-        self.recipients = environment.get_refchange_recipients(self)
-        self._single_revision = None
-
-    def send_single_combined_email(self, known_added_sha1s):
-        if not self.environment.combine_when_single_commit:
-            return None
-
-        # In the sadly-all-too-frequent usecase of people pushing only
-        # one of their commits at a time to a repository, users feel
-        # the reference change summary emails are noise rather than
-        # important signal.  This is because, in this particular
-        # usecase, there is a reference change summary email for each
-        # new commit, and all these summaries do is point out that
-        # there is one new commit (which can readily be inferred by
-        # the existence of the individual revision email that is also
-        # sent).  In such cases, our users prefer there to be a combined
-        # reference change summary/new revision email.
-        #
-        # So, if the change is an update and it doesn't discard any
-        # commits, and it adds exactly one non-merge commit (gerrit
-        # forces a workflow where every commit is individually merged
-        # and the git-multimail hook fired off for just this one
-        # change), then we send a combined refchange/revision email.
-        try:
-            # If this change is a reference update that doesn't discard
-            # any commits...
-            if self.change_type != 'update':
-                return None
-
-            if read_git_lines(
-                    ['merge-base', self.old.sha1, self.new.sha1]
-                    ) != [self.old.sha1]:
-                return None
-
-            # Check if this update introduced exactly one non-merge
-            # commit:
-
-            def split_line(line):
-                """Split line into (sha1, [parent,...])."""
-
-                words = line.split()
-                return (words[0], words[1:])
-
-            # Get the new commits introduced by the push as a list of
-            # (sha1, [parent,...])
-            new_commits = [
-                split_line(line)
-                for line in read_git_lines(
-                    [
-                        'log', '-3', '--format=%H %P',
-                        '%s..%s' % (self.old.sha1, self.new.sha1),
-                        ]
-                    )
-                ]
-
-            if not new_commits:
-                return None
-
-            # If the newest commit is a merge, save it for a later check
-            # but otherwise ignore it
-            merge = None
-            tot = len(new_commits)
-            if len(new_commits[0][1]) > 1:
-                merge = new_commits[0][0]
-                del new_commits[0]
-
-            # Our primary check: we can't combine if more than one commit
-            # is introduced.  We also currently only combine if the new
-            # commit is a non-merge commit, though it may make sense to
-            # combine if it is a merge as well.
-            if not (
-                    len(new_commits) == 1 and
-                    len(new_commits[0][1]) == 1 and
-                    new_commits[0][0] in known_added_sha1s
-                    ):
-                return None
-
-            # We do not want to combine revision and refchange emails if
-            # those go to separate locations.
-            rev = Revision(self, GitObject(new_commits[0][0]), 1, tot)
-            if rev.recipients != self.recipients:
-                return None
-
-            # We ignored the newest commit if it was just a merge of the one
-            # commit being introduced.  But we don't want to ignore that
-            # merge commit it it involved conflict resolutions.  Check that.
-            if merge and merge != read_git_output(['diff-tree', '--cc', merge]):
-                return None
-
-            # We can combine the refchange and one new revision emails
-            # into one.  Return the Revision that a combined email should
-            # be sent about.
-            return rev
-        except CommandError:
-            # Cannot determine number of commits in old..new or new..old;
-            # don't combine reference/revision emails:
-            return None
-
-    def generate_combined_email(self, push, revision, body_filter=None, extra_header_values={}):
-        values = revision.get_values()
-        if extra_header_values:
-            values.update(extra_header_values)
-        if 'subject' not in extra_header_values:
-            values['subject'] = self.expand(COMBINED_REFCHANGE_REVISION_SUBJECT_TEMPLATE, **values)
-
-        self._single_revision = revision
-        self._contains_diff()
-        self.header_template = COMBINED_HEADER_TEMPLATE
-        self.intro_template = COMBINED_INTRO_TEMPLATE
-        self.footer_template = COMBINED_FOOTER_TEMPLATE
-
-        def revision_gen_link(base_url):
-            # revision is used only to generate the body, and
-            # _content_type is set while generating headers. Get it
-            # from the BranchChange object.
-            revision._content_type = self._content_type
-            return revision.generate_browse_link(base_url)
-        self.generate_browse_link = revision_gen_link
-        for line in self.generate_email(push, body_filter, values):
-            yield line
-
-    def generate_email_body(self, push):
-        '''Call the appropriate body generation routine.
-
-        If this is a combined refchange/revision email, the special logic
-        for handling this combined email comes from this function.  For
-        other cases, we just use the normal handling.'''
-
-        # If self._single_revision isn't set; don't override
-        if not self._single_revision:
-            for line in super(BranchChange, self).generate_email_body(push):
-                yield line
-            return
-
-        # This is a combined refchange/revision email; we first provide
-        # some info from the refchange portion, and then call the revision
-        # generate_email_body function to handle the revision portion.
-        adds = list(generate_summaries(
-            '--topo-order', '--reverse', '%s..%s'
-            % (self.old.commit_sha1, self.new.commit_sha1,)
-            ))
-
-        yield self.expand("The following commit(s) were added to %(refname)s by this push:\n")
-        for (sha1, subject) in adds:
-            yield self.expand(
-                BRIEF_SUMMARY_TEMPLATE, action='new',
-                rev_short=sha1, text=subject,
-                )
-
-        yield self._single_revision.rev.short + " is described below\n"
-        yield '\n'
-
-        for line in self._single_revision.generate_email_body(push):
-            yield line
-
-
-class AnnotatedTagChange(ReferenceChange):
-    refname_type = 'annotated tag'
-
-    def __init__(self, environment, refname, short_refname, old, new, rev):
-        ReferenceChange.__init__(
-            self, environment,
-            refname=refname, short_refname=short_refname,
-            old=old, new=new, rev=rev,
-            )
-        self.recipients = environment.get_announce_recipients(self)
-        self.show_shortlog = environment.announce_show_shortlog
-
-    ANNOTATED_TAG_FORMAT = (
-        '%(*objectname)\n'
-        '%(*objecttype)\n'
-        '%(taggername)\n'
-        '%(taggerdate)'
-        )
-
-    def describe_tag(self, push):
-        """Describe the new value of an annotated tag."""
-
-        # Use git for-each-ref to pull out the individual fields from
-        # the tag
-        [tagobject, tagtype, tagger, tagged] = read_git_lines(
-            ['for-each-ref', '--format=%s' % (self.ANNOTATED_TAG_FORMAT,), self.refname],
-            )
-
-        yield self.expand(
-            BRIEF_SUMMARY_TEMPLATE, action='tagging',
-            rev_short=tagobject, text='(%s)' % (tagtype,),
-            )
-        if tagtype == 'commit':
-            # If the tagged object is a commit, then we assume this is a
-            # release, and so we calculate which tag this tag is
-            # replacing
-            try:
-                prevtag = read_git_output(['describe', '--abbrev=0', '%s^' % (self.new,)])
-            except CommandError:
-                prevtag = None
-            if prevtag:
-                yield ' replaces %s\n' % (prevtag,)
-        else:
-            prevtag = None
-            yield '  length %s bytes\n' % (read_git_output(['cat-file', '-s', tagobject]),)
-
-        yield '      by %s\n' % (tagger,)
-        yield '      on %s\n' % (tagged,)
-        yield '\n'
-
-        # Show the content of the tag message; this might contain a
-        # change log or release notes so is worth displaying.
-        yield LOGBEGIN
-        contents = list(read_git_lines(['cat-file', 'tag', self.new.sha1], keepends=True))
-        contents = contents[contents.index('\n') + 1:]
-        if contents and contents[-1][-1:] != '\n':
-            contents.append('\n')
-        for line in contents:
-            yield line
-
-        if self.show_shortlog and tagtype == 'commit':
-            # Only commit tags make sense to have rev-list operations
-            # performed on them
-            yield '\n'
-            if prevtag:
-                # Show changes since the previous release
-                revlist = read_git_output(
-                    ['rev-list', '--pretty=short', '%s..%s' % (prevtag, self.new,)],
-                    keepends=True,
-                    )
-            else:
-                # No previous tag, show all the changes since time
-                # began
-                revlist = read_git_output(
-                    ['rev-list', '--pretty=short', '%s' % (self.new,)],
-                    keepends=True,
-                    )
-            for line in read_git_lines(['shortlog'], input=revlist, keepends=True):
-                yield line
-
-        yield LOGEND
-        yield '\n'
-
-    def generate_create_summary(self, push):
-        """Called for the creation of an annotated tag."""
-
-        for line in self.expand_lines(TAG_CREATED_TEMPLATE):
-            yield line
-
-        for line in self.describe_tag(push):
-            yield line
-
-    def generate_update_summary(self, push):
-        """Called for the update of an annotated tag.
-
-        This is probably a rare event and may not even be allowed."""
-
-        for line in self.expand_lines(TAG_UPDATED_TEMPLATE):
-            yield line
-
-        for line in self.describe_tag(push):
-            yield line
-
-    def generate_delete_summary(self, push):
-        """Called when a non-annotated reference is updated."""
-
-        for line in self.expand_lines(TAG_DELETED_TEMPLATE):
-            yield line
-
-        yield self.expand('   tag was  %(oldrev_short)s\n')
-        yield '\n'
-
-
-class NonAnnotatedTagChange(ReferenceChange):
-    refname_type = 'tag'
-
-    def __init__(self, environment, refname, short_refname, old, new, rev):
-        ReferenceChange.__init__(
-            self, environment,
-            refname=refname, short_refname=short_refname,
-            old=old, new=new, rev=rev,
-            )
-        self.recipients = environment.get_refchange_recipients(self)
-
-    def generate_create_summary(self, push):
-        """Called for the creation of an annotated tag."""
-
-        for line in self.expand_lines(TAG_CREATED_TEMPLATE):
-            yield line
-
-    def generate_update_summary(self, push):
-        """Called when a non-annotated reference is updated."""
-
-        for line in self.expand_lines(TAG_UPDATED_TEMPLATE):
-            yield line
-
-    def generate_delete_summary(self, push):
-        """Called when a non-annotated reference is updated."""
-
-        for line in self.expand_lines(TAG_DELETED_TEMPLATE):
-            yield line
-
-        for line in ReferenceChange.generate_delete_summary(self, push):
-            yield line
-
-
-class OtherReferenceChange(ReferenceChange):
-    refname_type = 'reference'
-
-    def __init__(self, environment, refname, short_refname, old, new, rev):
-        # We use the full refname as short_refname, because otherwise
-        # the full name of the reference would not be obvious from the
-        # text of the email.
-        ReferenceChange.__init__(
-            self, environment,
-            refname=refname, short_refname=refname,
-            old=old, new=new, rev=rev,
-            )
-        self.recipients = environment.get_refchange_recipients(self)
-
-
-class Mailer(object):
-    """An object that can send emails."""
-
-    def __init__(self, environment):
-        self.environment = environment
-
-    def close(self):
-        pass
-
-    def send(self, lines, to_addrs):
-        """Send an email consisting of lines.
-
-        lines must be an iterable over the lines constituting the
-        header and body of the email.  to_addrs is a list of recipient
-        addresses (can be needed even if lines already contains a
-        "To:" field).  It can be either a string (comma-separated list
-        of email addresses) or a Python list of individual email
-        addresses.
-
-        """
-
-        raise NotImplementedError()
-
-
-class SendMailer(Mailer):
-    """Send emails using 'sendmail -oi -t'."""
-
-    SENDMAIL_CANDIDATES = [
-        '/usr/sbin/sendmail',
-        '/usr/lib/sendmail',
-        ]
-
-    @staticmethod
-    def find_sendmail():
-        for path in SendMailer.SENDMAIL_CANDIDATES:
-            if os.access(path, os.X_OK):
-                return path
-        else:
-            raise ConfigurationException(
-                'No sendmail executable found.  '
-                'Try setting multimailhook.sendmailCommand.'
-                )
-
-    def __init__(self, environment, command=None, envelopesender=None):
-        """Construct a SendMailer instance.
-
-        command should be the command and arguments used to invoke
-        sendmail, as a list of strings.  If an envelopesender is
-        provided, it will also be passed to the command, via '-f
-        envelopesender'."""
-        super(SendMailer, self).__init__(environment)
-        if command:
-            self.command = command[:]
-        else:
-            self.command = [self.find_sendmail(), '-oi', '-t']
-
-        if envelopesender:
-            self.command.extend(['-f', envelopesender])
-
-    def send(self, lines, to_addrs):
-        try:
-            p = subprocess.Popen(self.command, stdin=subprocess.PIPE)
-        except OSError:
-            self.environment.get_logger().error(
-                '*** Cannot execute command: %s\n' % ' '.join(self.command) +
-                '*** %s\n' % sys.exc_info()[1] +
-                '*** Try setting multimailhook.mailer to "smtp"\n' +
-                '*** to send emails without using the sendmail command.\n'
-                )
-            sys.exit(1)
-        try:
-            lines = (str_to_bytes(line) for line in lines)
-            p.stdin.writelines(lines)
-        except Exception:
-            self.environment.get_logger().error(
-                '*** Error while generating commit email\n'
-                '***  - mail sending aborted.\n'
-                )
-            if hasattr(p, 'terminate'):
-                # subprocess.terminate() is not available in Python 2.4
-                p.terminate()
-            else:
-                import signal
-                os.kill(p.pid, signal.SIGTERM)
-            raise
-        else:
-            p.stdin.close()
-            retcode = p.wait()
-            if retcode:
-                raise CommandError(self.command, retcode)
-
-
-class SMTPMailer(Mailer):
-    """Send emails using Python's smtplib."""
-
-    def __init__(self, environment,
-                 envelopesender, smtpserver,
-                 smtpservertimeout=10.0, smtpserverdebuglevel=0,
-                 smtpencryption='none',
-                 smtpuser='', smtppass='',
-                 smtpcacerts=''
-                 ):
-        super(SMTPMailer, self).__init__(environment)
-        if not envelopesender:
-            self.environment.get_logger().error(
-                'fatal: git_multimail: cannot use SMTPMailer without a sender address.\n'
-                'please set either multimailhook.envelopeSender or user.email\n'
-                )
-            sys.exit(1)
-        if smtpencryption == 'ssl' and not (smtpuser and smtppass):
-            raise ConfigurationException(
-                'Cannot use SMTPMailer with security option ssl '
-                'without options username and password.'
-                )
-        self.envelopesender = envelopesender
-        self.smtpserver = smtpserver
-        self.smtpservertimeout = smtpservertimeout
-        self.smtpserverdebuglevel = smtpserverdebuglevel
-        self.security = smtpencryption
-        self.username = smtpuser
-        self.password = smtppass
-        self.smtpcacerts = smtpcacerts
-        self.loggedin = False
-        try:
-            def call(klass, server, timeout):
-                try:
-                    return klass(server, timeout=timeout)
-                except TypeError:
-                    # Old Python versions do not have timeout= argument.
-                    return klass(server)
-            if self.security == 'none':
-                self.smtp = call(smtplib.SMTP, self.smtpserver, timeout=self.smtpservertimeout)
-            elif self.security == 'ssl':
-                if self.smtpcacerts:
-                    raise smtplib.SMTPException(
-                        "Checking certificate is not supported for ssl, prefer starttls"
-                        )
-                self.smtp = call(smtplib.SMTP_SSL, self.smtpserver, timeout=self.smtpservertimeout)
-            elif self.security == 'tls':
-                if 'ssl' not in sys.modules:
-                    self.environment.get_logger().error(
-                        '*** Your Python version does not have the ssl library installed\n'
-                        '*** smtpEncryption=tls is not available.\n'
-                        '*** Either upgrade Python to 2.6 or later\n'
-                        '    or use git_multimail.py version 1.2.\n')
-                if ':' not in self.smtpserver:
-                    self.smtpserver += ':587'  # default port for TLS
-                self.smtp = call(smtplib.SMTP, self.smtpserver, timeout=self.smtpservertimeout)
-                # start: ehlo + starttls
-                # equivalent to
-                #     self.smtp.ehlo()
-                #     self.smtp.starttls()
-                # with access to the ssl layer
-                self.smtp.ehlo()
-                if not self.smtp.has_extn("starttls"):
-                    raise smtplib.SMTPException("STARTTLS extension not supported by server")
-                resp, reply = self.smtp.docmd("STARTTLS")
-                if resp != 220:
-                    raise smtplib.SMTPException("Wrong answer to the STARTTLS command")
-                if self.smtpcacerts:
-                    self.smtp.sock = ssl.wrap_socket(
-                        self.smtp.sock,
-                        ca_certs=self.smtpcacerts,
-                        cert_reqs=ssl.CERT_REQUIRED
-                        )
-                else:
-                    self.smtp.sock = ssl.wrap_socket(
-                        self.smtp.sock,
-                        cert_reqs=ssl.CERT_NONE
-                        )
-                    self.environment.get_logger().error(
-                        '*** Warning, the server certificate is not verified (smtp) ***\n'
-                        '***          set the option smtpCACerts                   ***\n'
-                        )
-                if not hasattr(self.smtp.sock, "read"):
-                    # using httplib.FakeSocket with Python 2.5.x or earlier
-                    self.smtp.sock.read = self.smtp.sock.recv
-                self.smtp.file = smtplib.SSLFakeFile(self.smtp.sock)
-                self.smtp.helo_resp = None
-                self.smtp.ehlo_resp = None
-                self.smtp.esmtp_features = {}
-                self.smtp.does_esmtp = 0
-                # end:   ehlo + starttls
-                self.smtp.ehlo()
-            else:
-                sys.stdout.write('*** Error: Control reached an invalid option. ***')
-                sys.exit(1)
-            if self.smtpserverdebuglevel > 0:
-                sys.stdout.write(
-                    "*** Setting debug on for SMTP server connection (%s) ***\n"
-                    % self.smtpserverdebuglevel)
-                self.smtp.set_debuglevel(self.smtpserverdebuglevel)
-        except Exception:
-            self.environment.get_logger().error(
-                '*** Error establishing SMTP connection to %s ***\n'
-                '*** %s\n'
-                % (self.smtpserver, sys.exc_info()[1]))
-            sys.exit(1)
-
-    def close(self):
-        if hasattr(self, 'smtp'):
-            self.smtp.quit()
-            del self.smtp
-
-    def __del__(self):
-        self.close()
-
-    def send(self, lines, to_addrs):
-        try:
-            if self.username or self.password:
-                if not self.loggedin:
-                    self.smtp.login(self.username, self.password)
-                    self.loggedin = True
-            msg = ''.join(lines)
-            # turn comma-separated list into Python list if needed.
-            if is_string(to_addrs):
-                to_addrs = [email for (name, email) in getaddresses([to_addrs])]
-            self.smtp.sendmail(self.envelopesender, to_addrs, msg)
-        except socket.timeout:
-            self.environment.get_logger().error(
-                '*** Error sending email ***\n'
-                '*** SMTP server timed out (timeout is %s)\n'
-                % self.smtpservertimeout)
-        except smtplib.SMTPResponseException:
-            err = sys.exc_info()[1]
-            self.environment.get_logger().error(
-                '*** Error sending email ***\n'
-                '*** Error %d: %s\n'
-                % (err.smtp_code, bytes_to_str(err.smtp_error)))
-            try:
-                smtp = self.smtp
-                # delete the field before quit() so that in case of
-                # error, self.smtp is deleted anyway.
-                del self.smtp
-                smtp.quit()
-            except:
-                self.environment.get_logger().error(
-                    '*** Error closing the SMTP connection ***\n'
-                    '*** Exiting anyway ... ***\n'
-                    '*** %s\n' % sys.exc_info()[1])
-            sys.exit(1)
-
-
-class OutputMailer(Mailer):
-    """Write emails to an output stream, bracketed by lines of '=' characters.
-
-    This is intended for debugging purposes."""
-
-    SEPARATOR = '=' * 75 + '\n'
-
-    def __init__(self, f, environment=None):
-        super(OutputMailer, self).__init__(environment=environment)
-        self.f = f
-
-    def send(self, lines, to_addrs):
-        write_str(self.f, self.SEPARATOR)
-        for line in lines:
-            write_str(self.f, line)
-        write_str(self.f, self.SEPARATOR)
-
-
-def get_git_dir():
-    """Determine GIT_DIR.
-
-    Determine GIT_DIR either from the GIT_DIR environment variable or
-    from the working directory, using Git's usual rules."""
-
-    try:
-        return read_git_output(['rev-parse', '--git-dir'])
-    except CommandError:
-        sys.stderr.write('fatal: git_multimail: not in a git directory\n')
-        sys.exit(1)
-
-
-class Environment(object):
-    """Describes the environment in which the push is occurring.
-
-    An Environment object encapsulates information about the local
-    environment.  For example, it knows how to determine:
-
-    * the name of the repository to which the push occurred
-
-    * what user did the push
-
-    * what users want to be informed about various types of changes.
-
-    An Environment object is expected to have the following methods:
-
-        get_repo_shortname()
-
-            Return a short name for the repository, for display
-            purposes.
-
-        get_repo_path()
-
-            Return the absolute path to the Git repository.
-
-        get_emailprefix()
-
-            Return a string that will be prefixed to every email's
-            subject.
-
-        get_pusher()
-
-            Return the username of the person who pushed the changes.
-            This value is used in the email body to indicate who
-            pushed the change.
-
-        get_pusher_email() (may return None)
-
-            Return the email address of the person who pushed the
-            changes.  The value should be a single RFC 2822 email
-            address as a string; e.g., "Joe User <user@example.com>"
-            if available, otherwise "user@example.com".  If set, the
-            value is used as the Reply-To address for refchange
-            emails.  If it is impossible to determine the pusher's
-            email, this attribute should be set to None (in which case
-            no Reply-To header will be output).
-
-        get_sender()
-
-            Return the address to be used as the 'From' email address
-            in the email envelope.
-
-        get_fromaddr(change=None)
-
-            Return the 'From' email address used in the email 'From:'
-            headers.  If the change is known when this function is
-            called, it is passed in as the 'change' parameter.  (May
-            be a full RFC 2822 email address like 'Joe User
-            <user@example.com>'.)
-
-        get_administrator()
-
-            Return the name and/or email of the repository
-            administrator.  This value is used in the footer as the
-            person to whom requests to be removed from the
-            notification list should be sent.  Ideally, it should
-            include a valid email address.
-
-        get_reply_to_refchange()
-        get_reply_to_commit()
-
-            Return the address to use in the email "Reply-To" header,
-            as a string.  These can be an RFC 2822 email address, or
-            None to omit the "Reply-To" header.
-            get_reply_to_refchange() is used for refchange emails;
-            get_reply_to_commit() is used for individual commit
-            emails.
-
-        get_ref_filter_regex()
-
-            Return a tuple -- a compiled regex, and a boolean indicating
-            whether the regex picks refs to include (if False, the regex
-            matches on refs to exclude).
-
-        get_default_ref_ignore_regex()
-
-            Return a regex that should be ignored for both what emails
-            to send and when computing what commits are considered new
-            to the repository.  Default is "^refs/notes/".
-
-        get_max_subject_length()
-
-            Return an int giving the maximal length for the subject
-            (git log --oneline).
-
-    They should also define the following attributes:
-
-        announce_show_shortlog (bool)
-
-            True iff announce emails should include a shortlog.
-
-        commit_email_format (string)
-
-            If "html", generate commit emails in HTML instead of plain text
-            used by default.
-
-        html_in_intro (bool)
-        html_in_footer (bool)
-
-            When generating HTML emails, the introduction (respectively,
-            the footer) will be HTML-escaped iff html_in_intro (respectively,
-            the footer) is true. When false, only the values used to expand
-            the template are escaped.
-
-        refchange_showgraph (bool)
-
-            True iff refchanges emails should include a detailed graph.
-
-        refchange_showlog (bool)
-
-            True iff refchanges emails should include a detailed log.
-
-        diffopts (list of strings)
-
-            The options that should be passed to 'git diff' for the
-            summary email.  The value should be a list of strings
-            representing words to be passed to the command.
-
-        graphopts (list of strings)
-
-            Analogous to diffopts, but contains options passed to
-            'git log --graph' when generating the detailed graph for
-            a set of commits (see refchange_showgraph)
-
-        logopts (list of strings)
-
-            Analogous to diffopts, but contains options passed to
-            'git log' when generating the detailed log for a set of
-            commits (see refchange_showlog)
-
-        commitlogopts (list of strings)
-
-            The options that should be passed to 'git log' for each
-            commit mail.  The value should be a list of strings
-            representing words to be passed to the command.
-
-        date_substitute (string)
-
-            String to be used in substitution for 'Date:' at start of
-            line in the output of 'git log'.
-
-        quiet (bool)
-            On success do not write to stderr
-
-        stdout (bool)
-            Write email to stdout rather than emailing. Useful for debugging
-
-        combine_when_single_commit (bool)
-
-            True if a combined email should be produced when a single
-            new commit is pushed to a branch, False otherwise.
-
-        from_refchange, from_commit (strings)
-
-            Addresses to use for the From: field for refchange emails
-            and commit emails respectively.  Set from
-            multimailhook.fromRefchange and multimailhook.fromCommit
-            by ConfigEnvironmentMixin.
-
-        log_file, error_log_file, debug_log_file (string)
-
-            Name of a file to which logs should be sent.
-
-        verbose (int)
-
-            How verbose the system should be.
-            - 0 (default): show info, errors, ...
-            - 1 : show basic debug info
-    """
-
-    REPO_NAME_RE = re.compile(r'^(?P<name>.+?)(?:\.git)$')
-
-    def __init__(self, osenv=None):
-        self.osenv = osenv or os.environ
-        self.announce_show_shortlog = False
-        self.commit_email_format = "text"
-        self.html_in_intro = False
-        self.html_in_footer = False
-        self.commitBrowseURL = None
-        self.maxcommitemails = 500
-        self.excludemergerevisions = False
-        self.diffopts = ['--stat', '--summary', '--find-copies-harder']
-        self.graphopts = ['--oneline', '--decorate']
-        self.logopts = []
-        self.refchange_showgraph = False
-        self.refchange_showlog = False
-        self.commitlogopts = ['-C', '--stat', '-p', '--cc']
-        self.date_substitute = 'AuthorDate: '
-        self.quiet = False
-        self.stdout = False
-        self.combine_when_single_commit = True
-        self.logger = None
-
-        self.COMPUTED_KEYS = [
-            'administrator',
-            'charset',
-            'emailprefix',
-            'pusher',
-            'pusher_email',
-            'repo_path',
-            'repo_shortname',
-            'sender',
-            ]
-
-        self._values = None
-
-    def get_logger(self):
-        """Get (possibly creates) the logger associated to this environment."""
-        if self.logger is None:
-            self.logger = Logger(self)
-        return self.logger
-
-    def get_repo_shortname(self):
-        """Use the last part of the repo path, with ".git" stripped off if present."""
-
-        basename = os.path.basename(os.path.abspath(self.get_repo_path()))
-        m = self.REPO_NAME_RE.match(basename)
-        if m:
-            return m.group('name')
-        else:
-            return basename
-
-    def get_pusher(self):
-        raise NotImplementedError()
-
-    def get_pusher_email(self):
-        return None
-
-    def get_fromaddr(self, change=None):
-        config = Config('user')
-        fromname = config.get('name', default='')
-        fromemail = config.get('email', default='')
-        if fromemail:
-            return formataddr([fromname, fromemail])
-        return self.get_sender()
-
-    def get_administrator(self):
-        return 'the administrator of this repository'
-
-    def get_emailprefix(self):
-        return ''
-
-    def get_repo_path(self):
-        if read_git_output(['rev-parse', '--is-bare-repository']) == 'true':
-            path = get_git_dir()
-        else:
-            path = read_git_output(['rev-parse', '--show-toplevel'])
-        return os.path.abspath(path)
-
-    def get_charset(self):
-        return CHARSET
-
-    def get_values(self):
-        """Return a dictionary {keyword: expansion} for this Environment.
-
-        This method is called by Change._compute_values().  The keys
-        in the returned dictionary are available to be used in any of
-        the templates.  The dictionary is created by calling
-        self.get_NAME() for each of the attributes named in
-        COMPUTED_KEYS and recording those that do not return None.
-        The return value is always a new dictionary."""
-
-        if self._values is None:
-            values = {'': ''}  # %()s expands to the empty string.
-
-            for key in self.COMPUTED_KEYS:
-                value = getattr(self, 'get_%s' % (key,))()
-                if value is not None:
-                    values[key] = value
-
-            self._values = values
-
-        return self._values.copy()
-
-    def get_refchange_recipients(self, refchange):
-        """Return the recipients for notifications about refchange.
-
-        Return the list of email addresses to which notifications
-        about the specified ReferenceChange should be sent."""
-
-        raise NotImplementedError()
-
-    def get_announce_recipients(self, annotated_tag_change):
-        """Return the recipients for notifications about annotated_tag_change.
-
-        Return the list of email addresses to which notifications
-        about the specified AnnotatedTagChange should be sent."""
-
-        raise NotImplementedError()
-
-    def get_reply_to_refchange(self, refchange):
-        return self.get_pusher_email()
-
-    def get_revision_recipients(self, revision):
-        """Return the recipients for messages about revision.
-
-        Return the list of email addresses to which notifications
-        about the specified Revision should be sent.  This method
-        could be overridden, for example, to take into account the
-        contents of the revision when deciding whom to notify about
-        it.  For example, there could be a scheme for users to express
-        interest in particular files or subdirectories, and only
-        receive notification emails for revisions that affecting those
-        files."""
-
-        raise NotImplementedError()
-
-    def get_reply_to_commit(self, revision):
-        return revision.author
-
-    def get_default_ref_ignore_regex(self):
-        # The commit messages of git notes are essentially meaningless
-        # and "filenames" in git notes commits are an implementational
-        # detail that might surprise users at first.  As such, we
-        # would need a completely different method for handling emails
-        # of git notes in order for them to be of benefit for users,
-        # which we simply do not have right now.
-        return "^refs/notes/"
-
-    def get_max_subject_length(self):
-        """Return the maximal subject line (git log --oneline) length.
-        Longer subject lines will be truncated."""
-        raise NotImplementedError()
-
-    def filter_body(self, lines):
-        """Filter the lines intended for an email body.
-
-        lines is an iterable over the lines that would go into the
-        email body.  Filter it (e.g., limit the number of lines, the
-        line length, character set, etc.), returning another iterable.
-        See FilterLinesEnvironmentMixin and MaxlinesEnvironmentMixin
-        for classes implementing this functionality."""
-
-        return lines
-
-    def log_msg(self, msg):
-        """Write the string msg on a log file or on stderr.
-
-        Sends the text to stderr by default, override to change the behavior."""
-        self.get_logger().info(msg)
-
-    def log_warning(self, msg):
-        """Write the string msg on a log file or on stderr.
-
-        Sends the text to stderr by default, override to change the behavior."""
-        self.get_logger().warning(msg)
-
-    def log_error(self, msg):
-        """Write the string msg on a log file or on stderr.
-
-        Sends the text to stderr by default, override to change the behavior."""
-        self.get_logger().error(msg)
-
-    def check(self):
-        pass
-
-
-class ConfigEnvironmentMixin(Environment):
-    """A mixin that sets self.config to its constructor's config argument.
-
-    This class's constructor consumes the "config" argument.
-
-    Mixins that need to inspect the config should inherit from this
-    class (1) to make sure that "config" is still in the constructor
-    arguments with its own constructor runs and/or (2) to be sure that
-    self.config is set after construction."""
-
-    def __init__(self, config, **kw):
-        super(ConfigEnvironmentMixin, self).__init__(**kw)
-        self.config = config
-
-
-class ConfigOptionsEnvironmentMixin(ConfigEnvironmentMixin):
-    """An Environment that reads most of its information from "git config"."""
-
-    @staticmethod
-    def forbid_field_values(name, value, forbidden):
-        for forbidden_val in forbidden:
-            if value is not None and value.lower() == forbidden:
-                raise ConfigurationException(
-                    '"%s" is not an allowed setting for %s' % (value, name)
-                    )
-
-    def __init__(self, config, **kw):
-        super(ConfigOptionsEnvironmentMixin, self).__init__(
-            config=config, **kw
-            )
-
-        for var, cfg in (
-                ('announce_show_shortlog', 'announceshortlog'),
-                ('refchange_showgraph', 'refchangeShowGraph'),
-                ('refchange_showlog', 'refchangeshowlog'),
-                ('quiet', 'quiet'),
-                ('stdout', 'stdout'),
-                ):
-            val = config.get_bool(cfg)
-            if val is not None:
-                setattr(self, var, val)
-
-        commit_email_format = config.get('commitEmailFormat')
-        if commit_email_format is not None:
-            if commit_email_format != "html" and commit_email_format != "text":
-                self.log_warning(
-                    '*** Unknown value for multimailhook.commitEmailFormat: %s\n' %
-                    commit_email_format +
-                    '*** Expected either "text" or "html".  Ignoring.\n'
-                    )
-            else:
-                self.commit_email_format = commit_email_format
-
-        html_in_intro = config.get_bool('htmlInIntro')
-        if html_in_intro is not None:
-            self.html_in_intro = html_in_intro
-
-        html_in_footer = config.get_bool('htmlInFooter')
-        if html_in_footer is not None:
-            self.html_in_footer = html_in_footer
-
-        self.commitBrowseURL = config.get('commitBrowseURL')
-
-        self.excludemergerevisions = config.get('excludeMergeRevisions')
-
-        maxcommitemails = config.get('maxcommitemails')
-        if maxcommitemails is not None:
-            try:
-                self.maxcommitemails = int(maxcommitemails)
-            except ValueError:
-                self.log_warning(
-                    '*** Malformed value for multimailhook.maxCommitEmails: %s\n'
-                    % maxcommitemails +
-                    '*** Expected a number.  Ignoring.\n'
-                    )
-
-        diffopts = config.get('diffopts')
-        if diffopts is not None:
-            self.diffopts = shlex.split(diffopts)
-
-        graphopts = config.get('graphOpts')
-        if graphopts is not None:
-            self.graphopts = shlex.split(graphopts)
-
-        logopts = config.get('logopts')
-        if logopts is not None:
-            self.logopts = shlex.split(logopts)
-
-        commitlogopts = config.get('commitlogopts')
-        if commitlogopts is not None:
-            self.commitlogopts = shlex.split(commitlogopts)
-
-        date_substitute = config.get('dateSubstitute')
-        if date_substitute == 'none':
-            self.date_substitute = None
-        elif date_substitute is not None:
-            self.date_substitute = date_substitute
-
-        reply_to = config.get('replyTo')
-        self.__reply_to_refchange = config.get('replyToRefchange', default=reply_to)
-        self.forbid_field_values('replyToRefchange',
-                                 self.__reply_to_refchange,
-                                 ['author'])
-        self.__reply_to_commit = config.get('replyToCommit', default=reply_to)
-
-        self.from_refchange = config.get('fromRefchange')
-        self.forbid_field_values('fromRefchange',
-                                 self.from_refchange,
-                                 ['author', 'none'])
-        self.from_commit = config.get('fromCommit')
-        self.forbid_field_values('fromCommit',
-                                 self.from_commit,
-                                 ['none'])
-
-        combine = config.get_bool('combineWhenSingleCommit')
-        if combine is not None:
-            self.combine_when_single_commit = combine
-
-        self.log_file = config.get('logFile', default=None)
-        self.error_log_file = config.get('errorLogFile', default=None)
-        self.debug_log_file = config.get('debugLogFile', default=None)
-        if config.get_bool('Verbose', default=False):
-            self.verbose = 1
-        else:
-            self.verbose = 0
-
-    def get_administrator(self):
-        return (
-            self.config.get('administrator') or
-            self.get_sender() or
-            super(ConfigOptionsEnvironmentMixin, self).get_administrator()
-            )
-
-    def get_repo_shortname(self):
-        return (
-            self.config.get('reponame') or
-            super(ConfigOptionsEnvironmentMixin, self).get_repo_shortname()
-            )
-
-    def get_emailprefix(self):
-        emailprefix = self.config.get('emailprefix')
-        if emailprefix is not None:
-            emailprefix = emailprefix.strip()
-            if emailprefix:
-                emailprefix += ' '
-        else:
-            emailprefix = '[%(repo_shortname)s] '
-        short_name = self.get_repo_shortname()
-        try:
-            return emailprefix % {'repo_shortname': short_name}
-        except:
-            self.get_logger().error(
-                '*** Invalid multimailhook.emailPrefix: %s\n' % emailprefix +
-                '*** %s\n' % sys.exc_info()[1] +
-                "*** Only the '%(repo_shortname)s' placeholder is allowed\n"
-                )
-            raise ConfigurationException(
-                '"%s" is not an allowed setting for emailPrefix' % emailprefix
-                )
-
-    def get_sender(self):
-        return self.config.get('envelopesender')
-
-    def process_addr(self, addr, change):
-        if addr.lower() == 'author':
-            if hasattr(change, 'author'):
-                return change.author
-            else:
-                return None
-        elif addr.lower() == 'pusher':
-            return self.get_pusher_email()
-        elif addr.lower() == 'none':
-            return None
-        else:
-            return addr
-
-    def get_fromaddr(self, change=None):
-        fromaddr = self.config.get('from')
-        if change:
-            specific_fromaddr = change.get_specific_fromaddr()
-            if specific_fromaddr:
-                fromaddr = specific_fromaddr
-        if fromaddr:
-            fromaddr = self.process_addr(fromaddr, change)
-        if fromaddr:
-            return fromaddr
-        return super(ConfigOptionsEnvironmentMixin, self).get_fromaddr(change)
-
-    def get_reply_to_refchange(self, refchange):
-        if self.__reply_to_refchange is None:
-            return super(ConfigOptionsEnvironmentMixin, self).get_reply_to_refchange(refchange)
-        else:
-            return self.process_addr(self.__reply_to_refchange, refchange)
-
-    def get_reply_to_commit(self, revision):
-        if self.__reply_to_commit is None:
-            return super(ConfigOptionsEnvironmentMixin, self).get_reply_to_commit(revision)
-        else:
-            return self.process_addr(self.__reply_to_commit, revision)
-
-    def get_scancommitforcc(self):
-        return self.config.get('scancommitforcc')
-
-
-class FilterLinesEnvironmentMixin(Environment):
-    """Handle encoding and maximum line length of body lines.
-
-        email_max_line_length (int or None)
-
-            The maximum length of any single line in the email body.
-            Longer lines are truncated at that length with ' [...]'
-            appended.
-
-        strict_utf8 (bool)
-
-            If this field is set to True, then the email body text is
-            expected to be UTF-8.  Any invalid characters are
-            converted to U+FFFD, the Unicode replacement character
-            (encoded as UTF-8, of course).
-
-    """
-
-    def __init__(self, strict_utf8=True,
-                 email_max_line_length=500, max_subject_length=500,
-                 **kw):
-        super(FilterLinesEnvironmentMixin, self).__init__(**kw)
-        self.__strict_utf8 = strict_utf8
-        self.__email_max_line_length = email_max_line_length
-        self.__max_subject_length = max_subject_length
-
-    def filter_body(self, lines):
-        lines = super(FilterLinesEnvironmentMixin, self).filter_body(lines)
-        if self.__strict_utf8:
-            if not PYTHON3:
-                lines = (line.decode(ENCODING, 'replace') for line in lines)
-            # Limit the line length in Unicode-space to avoid
-            # splitting characters:
-            if self.__email_max_line_length > 0:
-                lines = limit_linelength(lines, self.__email_max_line_length)
-            if not PYTHON3:
-                lines = (line.encode(ENCODING, 'replace') for line in lines)
-        elif self.__email_max_line_length:
-            lines = limit_linelength(lines, self.__email_max_line_length)
-
-        return lines
-
-    def get_max_subject_length(self):
-        return self.__max_subject_length
-
-
-class ConfigFilterLinesEnvironmentMixin(
-        ConfigEnvironmentMixin,
-        FilterLinesEnvironmentMixin,
-        ):
-    """Handle encoding and maximum line length based on config."""
-
-    def __init__(self, config, **kw):
-        strict_utf8 = config.get_bool('emailstrictutf8', default=None)
-        if strict_utf8 is not None:
-            kw['strict_utf8'] = strict_utf8
-
-        email_max_line_length = config.get('emailmaxlinelength')
-        if email_max_line_length is not None:
-            kw['email_max_line_length'] = int(email_max_line_length)
-
-        max_subject_length = config.get('subjectMaxLength', default=email_max_line_length)
-        if max_subject_length is not None:
-            kw['max_subject_length'] = int(max_subject_length)
-
-        super(ConfigFilterLinesEnvironmentMixin, self).__init__(
-            config=config, **kw
-            )
-
-
-class MaxlinesEnvironmentMixin(Environment):
-    """Limit the email body to a specified number of lines."""
-
-    def __init__(self, emailmaxlines, **kw):
-        super(MaxlinesEnvironmentMixin, self).__init__(**kw)
-        self.__emailmaxlines = emailmaxlines
-
-    def filter_body(self, lines):
-        lines = super(MaxlinesEnvironmentMixin, self).filter_body(lines)
-        if self.__emailmaxlines > 0:
-            lines = limit_lines(lines, self.__emailmaxlines)
-        return lines
-
-
-class ConfigMaxlinesEnvironmentMixin(
-        ConfigEnvironmentMixin,
-        MaxlinesEnvironmentMixin,
-        ):
-    """Limit the email body to the number of lines specified in config."""
-
-    def __init__(self, config, **kw):
-        emailmaxlines = int(config.get('emailmaxlines', default='0'))
-        super(ConfigMaxlinesEnvironmentMixin, self).__init__(
-            config=config,
-            emailmaxlines=emailmaxlines,
-            **kw
-            )
-
-
-class FQDNEnvironmentMixin(Environment):
-    """A mixin that sets the host's FQDN to its constructor argument."""
-
-    def __init__(self, fqdn, **kw):
-        super(FQDNEnvironmentMixin, self).__init__(**kw)
-        self.COMPUTED_KEYS += ['fqdn']
-        self.__fqdn = fqdn
-
-    def get_fqdn(self):
-        """Return the fully-qualified domain name for this host.
-
-        Return None if it is unavailable or unwanted."""
-
-        return self.__fqdn
-
-
-class ConfigFQDNEnvironmentMixin(
-        ConfigEnvironmentMixin,
-        FQDNEnvironmentMixin,
-        ):
-    """Read the FQDN from the config."""
-
-    def __init__(self, config, **kw):
-        fqdn = config.get('fqdn')
-        super(ConfigFQDNEnvironmentMixin, self).__init__(
-            config=config,
-            fqdn=fqdn,
-            **kw
-            )
-
-
-class ComputeFQDNEnvironmentMixin(FQDNEnvironmentMixin):
-    """Get the FQDN by calling socket.getfqdn()."""
-
-    def __init__(self, **kw):
-        super(ComputeFQDNEnvironmentMixin, self).__init__(
-            fqdn=socket.getfqdn(),
-            **kw
-            )
-
-
-class PusherDomainEnvironmentMixin(ConfigEnvironmentMixin):
-    """Deduce pusher_email from pusher by appending an emaildomain."""
-
-    def __init__(self, **kw):
-        super(PusherDomainEnvironmentMixin, self).__init__(**kw)
-        self.__emaildomain = self.config.get('emaildomain')
-
-    def get_pusher_email(self):
-        if self.__emaildomain:
-            # Derive the pusher's full email address in the default way:
-            return '%s@%s' % (self.get_pusher(), self.__emaildomain)
-        else:
-            return super(PusherDomainEnvironmentMixin, self).get_pusher_email()
-
-
-class StaticRecipientsEnvironmentMixin(Environment):
-    """Set recipients statically based on constructor parameters."""
-
-    def __init__(
-            self,
-            refchange_recipients, announce_recipients, revision_recipients, scancommitforcc,
-            **kw
-            ):
-        super(StaticRecipientsEnvironmentMixin, self).__init__(**kw)
-
-        # The recipients for various types of notification emails, as
-        # RFC 2822 email addresses separated by commas (or the empty
-        # string if no recipients are configured).  Although there is
-        # a mechanism to choose the recipient lists based on on the
-        # actual *contents* of the change being reported, we only
-        # choose based on the *type* of the change.  Therefore we can
-        # compute them once and for all:
-        self.__refchange_recipients = refchange_recipients
-        self.__announce_recipients = announce_recipients
-        self.__revision_recipients = revision_recipients
-
-    def check(self):
-        if not (self.get_refchange_recipients(None) or
-                self.get_announce_recipients(None) or
-                self.get_revision_recipients(None) or
-                self.get_scancommitforcc()):
-            raise ConfigurationException('No email recipients configured!')
-        super(StaticRecipientsEnvironmentMixin, self).check()
-
-    def get_refchange_recipients(self, refchange):
-        if self.__refchange_recipients is None:
-            return super(StaticRecipientsEnvironmentMixin,
-                         self).get_refchange_recipients(refchange)
-        return self.__refchange_recipients
-
-    def get_announce_recipients(self, annotated_tag_change):
-        if self.__announce_recipients is None:
-            return super(StaticRecipientsEnvironmentMixin,
-                         self).get_refchange_recipients(annotated_tag_change)
-        return self.__announce_recipients
-
-    def get_revision_recipients(self, revision):
-        if self.__revision_recipients is None:
-            return super(StaticRecipientsEnvironmentMixin,
-                         self).get_refchange_recipients(revision)
-        return self.__revision_recipients
-
-
-class CLIRecipientsEnvironmentMixin(Environment):
-    """Mixin storing recipients information coming from the
-    command-line."""
-
-    def __init__(self, cli_recipients=None, **kw):
-        super(CLIRecipientsEnvironmentMixin, self).__init__(**kw)
-        self.__cli_recipients = cli_recipients
-
-    def get_refchange_recipients(self, refchange):
-        if self.__cli_recipients is None:
-            return super(CLIRecipientsEnvironmentMixin,
-                         self).get_refchange_recipients(refchange)
-        return self.__cli_recipients
-
-    def get_announce_recipients(self, annotated_tag_change):
-        if self.__cli_recipients is None:
-            return super(CLIRecipientsEnvironmentMixin,
-                         self).get_announce_recipients(annotated_tag_change)
-        return self.__cli_recipients
-
-    def get_revision_recipients(self, revision):
-        if self.__cli_recipients is None:
-            return super(CLIRecipientsEnvironmentMixin,
-                         self).get_revision_recipients(revision)
-        return self.__cli_recipients
-
-
-class ConfigRecipientsEnvironmentMixin(
-        ConfigEnvironmentMixin,
-        StaticRecipientsEnvironmentMixin
-        ):
-    """Determine recipients statically based on config."""
-
-    def __init__(self, config, **kw):
-        super(ConfigRecipientsEnvironmentMixin, self).__init__(
-            config=config,
-            refchange_recipients=self._get_recipients(
-                config, 'refchangelist', 'mailinglist',
-                ),
-            announce_recipients=self._get_recipients(
-                config, 'announcelist', 'refchangelist', 'mailinglist',
-                ),
-            revision_recipients=self._get_recipients(
-                config, 'commitlist', 'mailinglist',
-                ),
-            scancommitforcc=config.get('scancommitforcc'),
-            **kw
-            )
-
-    def _get_recipients(self, config, *names):
-        """Return the recipients for a particular type of message.
-
-        Return the list of email addresses to which a particular type
-        of notification email should be sent, by looking at the config
-        value for "multimailhook.$name" for each of names.  Use the
-        value from the first name that is configured.  The return
-        value is a (possibly empty) string containing RFC 2822 email
-        addresses separated by commas.  If no configuration could be
-        found, raise a ConfigurationException."""
-
-        for name in names:
-            lines = config.get_all(name)
-            if lines is not None:
-                lines = [line.strip() for line in lines]
-                # Single "none" is a special value equivalen to empty string.
-                if lines == ['none']:
-                    lines = ['']
-                return ', '.join(lines)
-        else:
-            return ''
-
-
-class StaticRefFilterEnvironmentMixin(Environment):
-    """Set branch filter statically based on constructor parameters."""
-
-    def __init__(self, ref_filter_incl_regex, ref_filter_excl_regex,
-                 ref_filter_do_send_regex, ref_filter_dont_send_regex,
-                 **kw):
-        super(StaticRefFilterEnvironmentMixin, self).__init__(**kw)
-
-        if ref_filter_incl_regex and ref_filter_excl_regex:
-            raise ConfigurationException(
-                "Cannot specify both a ref inclusion and exclusion regex.")
-        self.__is_inclusion_filter = bool(ref_filter_incl_regex)
-        default_exclude = self.get_default_ref_ignore_regex()
-        if ref_filter_incl_regex:
-            ref_filter_regex = ref_filter_incl_regex
-        elif ref_filter_excl_regex:
-            ref_filter_regex = ref_filter_excl_regex + '|' + default_exclude
-        else:
-            ref_filter_regex = default_exclude
-        try:
-            self.__compiled_regex = re.compile(ref_filter_regex)
-        except Exception:
-            raise ConfigurationException(
-                'Invalid Ref Filter Regex "%s": %s' % (ref_filter_regex, sys.exc_info()[1]))
-
-        if ref_filter_do_send_regex and ref_filter_dont_send_regex:
-            raise ConfigurationException(
-                "Cannot specify both a ref doSend and dontSend regex.")
-        self.__is_do_send_filter = bool(ref_filter_do_send_regex)
-        if ref_filter_do_send_regex:
-            ref_filter_send_regex = ref_filter_do_send_regex
-        elif ref_filter_dont_send_regex:
-            ref_filter_send_regex = ref_filter_dont_send_regex
-        else:
-            ref_filter_send_regex = '.*'
-            self.__is_do_send_filter = True
-        try:
-            self.__send_compiled_regex = re.compile(ref_filter_send_regex)
-        except Exception:
-            raise ConfigurationException(
-                'Invalid Ref Filter Regex "%s": %s' %
-                (ref_filter_send_regex, sys.exc_info()[1]))
-
-    def get_ref_filter_regex(self, send_filter=False):
-        if send_filter:
-            return self.__send_compiled_regex, self.__is_do_send_filter
-        else:
-            return self.__compiled_regex, self.__is_inclusion_filter
-
-
-class ConfigRefFilterEnvironmentMixin(
-        ConfigEnvironmentMixin,
-        StaticRefFilterEnvironmentMixin
-        ):
-    """Determine branch filtering statically based on config."""
-
-    def _get_regex(self, config, key):
-        """Get a list of whitespace-separated regex. The refFilter* config
-        variables are multivalued (hence the use of get_all), and we
-        allow each entry to be a whitespace-separated list (hence the
-        split on each line). The whole thing is glued into a single regex."""
-        values = config.get_all(key)
-        if values is None:
-            return values
-        items = []
-        for line in values:
-            for i in line.split():
-                items.append(i)
-        if items == []:
-            return None
-        return '|'.join(items)
-
-    def __init__(self, config, **kw):
-        super(ConfigRefFilterEnvironmentMixin, self).__init__(
-            config=config,
-            ref_filter_incl_regex=self._get_regex(config, 'refFilterInclusionRegex'),
-            ref_filter_excl_regex=self._get_regex(config, 'refFilterExclusionRegex'),
-            ref_filter_do_send_regex=self._get_regex(config, 'refFilterDoSendRegex'),
-            ref_filter_dont_send_regex=self._get_regex(config, 'refFilterDontSendRegex'),
-            **kw
-            )
-
-
-class ProjectdescEnvironmentMixin(Environment):
-    """Make a "projectdesc" value available for templates.
-
-    By default, it is set to the first line of $GIT_DIR/description
-    (if that file is present and appears to be set meaningfully)."""
-
-    def __init__(self, **kw):
-        super(ProjectdescEnvironmentMixin, self).__init__(**kw)
-        self.COMPUTED_KEYS += ['projectdesc']
-
-    def get_projectdesc(self):
-        """Return a one-line description of the project."""
-
-        git_dir = get_git_dir()
-        try:
-            projectdesc = open(os.path.join(git_dir, 'description')).readline().strip()
-            if projectdesc and not projectdesc.startswith('Unnamed repository'):
-                return projectdesc
-        except IOError:
-            pass
-
-        return 'UNNAMED PROJECT'
-
-
-class GenericEnvironmentMixin(Environment):
-    def get_pusher(self):
-        return self.osenv.get('USER', self.osenv.get('USERNAME', 'unknown user'))
-
-
-class GitoliteEnvironmentHighPrecMixin(Environment):
-    def get_pusher(self):
-        return self.osenv.get('GL_USER', 'unknown user')
-
-
-class GitoliteEnvironmentLowPrecMixin(
-        ConfigEnvironmentMixin,
-        Environment):
-
-    def get_repo_shortname(self):
-        # The gitolite environment variable $GL_REPO is a pretty good
-        # repo_shortname (though it's probably not as good as a value
-        # the user might have explicitly put in his config).
-        return (
-            self.osenv.get('GL_REPO', None) or
-            super(GitoliteEnvironmentLowPrecMixin, self).get_repo_shortname()
-            )
-
-    @staticmethod
-    def _compile_regex(re_template):
-        return (
-            re.compile(re_template % x)
-            for x in (
-                r'BEGIN\s+USER\s+EMAILS',
-                r'([^\s]+)\s+(.*)',
-                r'END\s+USER\s+EMAILS',
-                ))
-
-    def get_fromaddr(self, change=None):
-        GL_USER = self.osenv.get('GL_USER')
-        if GL_USER is not None:
-            # Find the path to gitolite.conf.  Note that gitolite v3
-            # did away with the GL_ADMINDIR and GL_CONF environment
-            # variables (they are now hard-coded).
-            GL_ADMINDIR = self.osenv.get(
-                'GL_ADMINDIR',
-                os.path.expanduser(os.path.join('~', '.gitolite')))
-            GL_CONF = self.osenv.get(
-                'GL_CONF',
-                os.path.join(GL_ADMINDIR, 'conf', 'gitolite.conf'))
-
-            mailaddress_map = self.config.get('MailaddressMap')
-            # If relative, consider relative to GL_CONF:
-            if mailaddress_map:
-                mailaddress_map = os.path.join(os.path.dirname(GL_CONF),
-                                               mailaddress_map)
-                if os.path.isfile(mailaddress_map):
-                    f = open(mailaddress_map, 'rU')
-                    try:
-                        # Leading '#' is optional
-                        re_begin, re_user, re_end = self._compile_regex(
-                            r'^(?:\s*#)?\s*%s\s*$')
-                        for l in f:
-                            l = l.rstrip('\n')
-                            if re_begin.match(l) or re_end.match(l):
-                                continue  # Ignore these lines
-                            m = re_user.match(l)
-                            if m:
-                                if m.group(1) == GL_USER:
-                                    return m.group(2)
-                                else:
-                                    continue  # Not this user, but not an error
-                            raise ConfigurationException(
-                                "Syntax error in mail address map.\n"
-                                "Check file {}.\n"
-                                "Line: {}".format(mailaddress_map, l))
-
-                    finally:
-                        f.close()
-
-            if os.path.isfile(GL_CONF):
-                f = open(GL_CONF, 'rU')
-                try:
-                    in_user_emails_section = False
-                    re_begin, re_user, re_end = self._compile_regex(
-                        r'^\s*#\s*%s\s*$')
-                    for l in f:
-                        l = l.rstrip('\n')
-                        if not in_user_emails_section:
-                            if re_begin.match(l):
-                                in_user_emails_section = True
-                            continue
-                        if re_end.match(l):
-                            break
-                        m = re_user.match(l)
-                        if m and m.group(1) == GL_USER:
-                            return m.group(2)
-                finally:
-                    f.close()
-        return super(GitoliteEnvironmentLowPrecMixin, self).get_fromaddr(change)
-
-
-class IncrementalDateTime(object):
-    """Simple wrapper to give incremental date/times.
-
-    Each call will result in a date/time a second later than the
-    previous call.  This can be used to falsify email headers, to
-    increase the likelihood that email clients sort the emails
-    correctly."""
-
-    def __init__(self):
-        self.time = time.time()
-        self.next = self.__next__  # Python 2 backward compatibility
-
-    def __next__(self):
-        formatted = formatdate(self.time, True)
-        self.time += 1
-        return formatted
-
-
-class StashEnvironmentHighPrecMixin(Environment):
-    def __init__(self, user=None, repo=None, **kw):
-        super(StashEnvironmentHighPrecMixin,
-              self).__init__(user=user, repo=repo, **kw)
-        self.__user = user
-        self.__repo = repo
-
-    def get_pusher(self):
-        return re.match(r'(.*?)\s*<', self.__user).group(1)
-
-    def get_pusher_email(self):
-        return self.__user
-
-
-class StashEnvironmentLowPrecMixin(Environment):
-    def __init__(self, user=None, repo=None, **kw):
-        super(StashEnvironmentLowPrecMixin, self).__init__(**kw)
-        self.__repo = repo
-        self.__user = user
-
-    def get_repo_shortname(self):
-        return self.__repo
-
-    def get_fromaddr(self, change=None):
-        return self.__user
-
-
-class GerritEnvironmentHighPrecMixin(Environment):
-    def __init__(self, project=None, submitter=None, update_method=None, **kw):
-        super(GerritEnvironmentHighPrecMixin,
-              self).__init__(submitter=submitter, project=project, **kw)
-        self.__project = project
-        self.__submitter = submitter
-        self.__update_method = update_method
-        "Make an 'update_method' value available for templates."
-        self.COMPUTED_KEYS += ['update_method']
-
-    def get_pusher(self):
-        if self.__submitter:
-            if self.__submitter.find('<') != -1:
-                # Submitter has a configured email, we transformed
-                # __submitter into an RFC 2822 string already.
-                return re.match(r'(.*?)\s*<', self.__submitter).group(1)
-            else:
-                # Submitter has no configured email, it's just his name.
-                return self.__submitter
-        else:
-            # If we arrive here, this means someone pushed "Submit" from
-            # the gerrit web UI for the CR (or used one of the programmatic
-            # APIs to do the same, such as gerrit review) and the
-            # merge/push was done by the Gerrit user.  It was technically
-            # triggered by someone else, but sadly we have no way of
-            # determining who that someone else is at this point.
-            return 'Gerrit'  # 'unknown user'?
-
-    def get_pusher_email(self):
-        if self.__submitter:
-            return self.__submitter
-        else:
-            return super(GerritEnvironmentHighPrecMixin, self).get_pusher_email()
-
-    def get_default_ref_ignore_regex(self):
-        default = super(GerritEnvironmentHighPrecMixin, self).get_default_ref_ignore_regex()
-        return default + '|^refs/changes/|^refs/cache-automerge/|^refs/meta/'
-
-    def get_revision_recipients(self, revision):
-        # Merge commits created by Gerrit when users hit "Submit this patchset"
-        # in the Web UI (or do equivalently with REST APIs or the gerrit review
-        # command) are not something users want to see an individual email for.
-        # Filter them out.
-        committer = read_git_output(['log', '--no-walk', '--format=%cN',
-                                     revision.rev.sha1])
-        if committer == 'Gerrit Code Review':
-            return []
-        else:
-            return super(GerritEnvironmentHighPrecMixin, self).get_revision_recipients(revision)
-
-    def get_update_method(self):
-        return self.__update_method
-
-
-class GerritEnvironmentLowPrecMixin(Environment):
-    def __init__(self, project=None, submitter=None, **kw):
-        super(GerritEnvironmentLowPrecMixin, self).__init__(**kw)
-        self.__project = project
-        self.__submitter = submitter
-
-    def get_repo_shortname(self):
-        return self.__project
-
-    def get_fromaddr(self, change=None):
-        if self.__submitter and self.__submitter.find('<') != -1:
-            return self.__submitter
-        else:
-            return super(GerritEnvironmentLowPrecMixin, self).get_fromaddr(change)
-
-
-class Push(object):
-    """Represent an entire push (i.e., a group of ReferenceChanges).
-
-    It is easy to figure out what commits were added to a *branch* by
-    a Reference change:
-
-        git rev-list change.old..change.new
-
-    or removed from a *branch*:
-
-        git rev-list change.new..change.old
-
-    But it is not quite so trivial to determine which entirely new
-    commits were added to the *repository* by a push and which old
-    commits were discarded by a push.  A big part of the job of this
-    class is to figure out these things, and to make sure that new
-    commits are only detailed once even if they were added to multiple
-    references.
-
-    The first step is to determine the "other" references--those
-    unaffected by the current push.  They are computed by listing all
-    references then removing any affected by this push.  The results
-    are stored in Push._other_ref_sha1s.
-
-    The commits contained in the repository before this push were
-
-        git rev-list other1 other2 other3 ... change1.old change2.old ...
-
-    Where "changeN.old" is the old value of one of the references
-    affected by this push.
-
-    The commits contained in the repository after this push are
-
-        git rev-list other1 other2 other3 ... change1.new change2.new ...
-
-    The commits added by this push are the difference between these
-    two sets, which can be written
-
-        git rev-list \
-            ^other1 ^other2 ... \
-            ^change1.old ^change2.old ... \
-            change1.new change2.new ...
-
-    The commits removed by this push can be computed by
-
-        git rev-list \
-            ^other1 ^other2 ... \
-            ^change1.new ^change2.new ... \
-            change1.old change2.old ...
-
-    The last point is that it is possible that other pushes are
-    occurring simultaneously to this one, so reference values can
-    change at any time.  It is impossible to eliminate all race
-    conditions, but we reduce the window of time during which problems
-    can occur by translating reference names to SHA1s as soon as
-    possible and working with SHA1s thereafter (because SHA1s are
-    immutable)."""
-
-    # A map {(changeclass, changetype): integer} specifying the order
-    # that reference changes will be processed if multiple reference
-    # changes are included in a single push.  The order is significant
-    # mostly because new commit notifications are threaded together
-    # with the first reference change that includes the commit.  The
-    # following order thus causes commits to be grouped with branch
-    # changes (as opposed to tag changes) if possible.
-    SORT_ORDER = dict(
-        (value, i) for (i, value) in enumerate([
-            (BranchChange, 'update'),
-            (BranchChange, 'create'),
-            (AnnotatedTagChange, 'update'),
-            (AnnotatedTagChange, 'create'),
-            (NonAnnotatedTagChange, 'update'),
-            (NonAnnotatedTagChange, 'create'),
-            (BranchChange, 'delete'),
-            (AnnotatedTagChange, 'delete'),
-            (NonAnnotatedTagChange, 'delete'),
-            (OtherReferenceChange, 'update'),
-            (OtherReferenceChange, 'create'),
-            (OtherReferenceChange, 'delete'),
-            ])
-        )
-
-    def __init__(self, environment, changes, ignore_other_refs=False):
-        self.changes = sorted(changes, key=self._sort_key)
-        self.__other_ref_sha1s = None
-        self.__cached_commits_spec = {}
-        self.environment = environment
-
-        if ignore_other_refs:
-            self.__other_ref_sha1s = set()
-
-    @classmethod
-    def _sort_key(klass, change):
-        return (klass.SORT_ORDER[change.__class__, change.change_type], change.refname,)
-
-    @property
-    def _other_ref_sha1s(self):
-        """The GitObjects referred to by references unaffected by this push.
-        """
-        if self.__other_ref_sha1s is None:
-            # The refnames being changed by this push:
-            updated_refs = set(
-                change.refname
-                for change in self.changes
-                )
-
-            # The SHA-1s of commits referred to by all references in this
-            # repository *except* updated_refs:
-            sha1s = set()
-            fmt = (
-                '%(objectname) %(objecttype) %(refname)\n'
-                '%(*objectname) %(*objecttype) %(refname)'
-                )
-            ref_filter_regex, is_inclusion_filter = \
-                self.environment.get_ref_filter_regex()
-            for line in read_git_lines(
-                    ['for-each-ref', '--format=%s' % (fmt,)]):
-                (sha1, type, name) = line.split(' ', 2)
-                if (sha1 and type == 'commit' and
-                        name not in updated_refs and
-                        include_ref(name, ref_filter_regex, is_inclusion_filter)):
-                    sha1s.add(sha1)
-
-            self.__other_ref_sha1s = sha1s
-
-        return self.__other_ref_sha1s
-
-    def _get_commits_spec_incl(self, new_or_old, reference_change=None):
-        """Get new or old SHA-1 from one or each of the changed refs.
-
-        Return a list of SHA-1 commit identifier strings suitable as
-        arguments to 'git rev-list' (or 'git log' or ...).  The
-        returned identifiers are either the old or new values from one
-        or all of the changed references, depending on the values of
-        new_or_old and reference_change.
-
-        new_or_old is either the string 'new' or the string 'old'.  If
-        'new', the returned SHA-1 identifiers are the new values from
-        each changed reference.  If 'old', the SHA-1 identifiers are
-        the old values from each changed reference.
-
-        If reference_change is specified and not None, only the new or
-        old reference from the specified reference is included in the
-        return value.
-
-        This function returns None if there are no matching revisions
-        (e.g., because a branch was deleted and new_or_old is 'new').
-        """
-
-        if not reference_change:
-            incl_spec = sorted(
-                getattr(change, new_or_old).sha1
-                for change in self.changes
-                if getattr(change, new_or_old)
-                )
-            if not incl_spec:
-                incl_spec = None
-        elif not getattr(reference_change, new_or_old).commit_sha1:
-            incl_spec = None
-        else:
-            incl_spec = [getattr(reference_change, new_or_old).commit_sha1]
-        return incl_spec
-
-    def _get_commits_spec_excl(self, new_or_old):
-        """Get exclusion revisions for determining new or discarded commits.
-
-        Return a list of strings suitable as arguments to 'git
-        rev-list' (or 'git log' or ...) that will exclude all
-        commits that, depending on the value of new_or_old, were
-        either previously in the repository (useful for determining
-        which commits are new to the repository) or currently in the
-        repository (useful for determining which commits were
-        discarded from the repository).
-
-        new_or_old is either the string 'new' or the string 'old'.  If
-        'new', the commits to be excluded are those that were in the
-        repository before the push.  If 'old', the commits to be
-        excluded are those that are currently in the repository.  """
-
-        old_or_new = {'old': 'new', 'new': 'old'}[new_or_old]
-        excl_revs = self._other_ref_sha1s.union(
-            getattr(change, old_or_new).sha1
-            for change in self.changes
-            if getattr(change, old_or_new).type in ['commit', 'tag']
-            )
-        return ['^' + sha1 for sha1 in sorted(excl_revs)]
-
-    def get_commits_spec(self, new_or_old, reference_change=None):
-        """Get rev-list arguments for added or discarded commits.
-
-        Return a list of strings suitable as arguments to 'git
-        rev-list' (or 'git log' or ...) that select those commits
-        that, depending on the value of new_or_old, are either new to
-        the repository or were discarded from the repository.
-
-        new_or_old is either the string 'new' or the string 'old'.  If
-        'new', the returned list is used to select commits that are
-        new to the repository.  If 'old', the returned value is used
-        to select the commits that have been discarded from the
-        repository.
-
-        If reference_change is specified and not None, the new or
-        discarded commits are limited to those that are reachable from
-        the new or old value of the specified reference.
-
-        This function returns None if there are no added (or discarded)
-        revisions.
-        """
-        key = (new_or_old, reference_change)
-        if key not in self.__cached_commits_spec:
-            ret = self._get_commits_spec_incl(new_or_old, reference_change)
-            if ret is not None:
-                ret.extend(self._get_commits_spec_excl(new_or_old))
-            self.__cached_commits_spec[key] = ret
-        return self.__cached_commits_spec[key]
-
-    def get_new_commits(self, reference_change=None):
-        """Return a list of commits added by this push.
-
-        Return a list of the object names of commits that were added
-        by the part of this push represented by reference_change.  If
-        reference_change is None, then return a list of *all* commits
-        added by this push."""
-
-        spec = self.get_commits_spec('new', reference_change)
-        return git_rev_list(spec)
-
-    def get_discarded_commits(self, reference_change):
-        """Return a list of commits discarded by this push.
-
-        Return a list of the object names of commits that were
-        entirely discarded from the repository by the part of this
-        push represented by reference_change."""
-
-        spec = self.get_commits_spec('old', reference_change)
-        return git_rev_list(spec)
-
-    def send_emails(self, mailer, body_filter=None):
-        """Use send all of the notification emails needed for this push.
-
-        Use send all of the notification emails (including reference
-        change emails and commit emails) needed for this push.  Send
-        the emails using mailer.  If body_filter is not None, then use
-        it to filter the lines that are intended for the email
-        body."""
-
-        # The sha1s of commits that were introduced by this push.
-        # They will be removed from this set as they are processed, to
-        # guarantee that one (and only one) email is generated for
-        # each new commit.
-        unhandled_sha1s = set(self.get_new_commits())
-        send_date = IncrementalDateTime()
-        for change in self.changes:
-            sha1s = []
-            for sha1 in reversed(list(self.get_new_commits(change))):
-                if sha1 in unhandled_sha1s:
-                    sha1s.append(sha1)
-                    unhandled_sha1s.remove(sha1)
-
-            # Check if we've got anyone to send to
-            if not change.recipients:
-                change.environment.log_warning(
-                    '*** no recipients configured so no email will be sent\n'
-                    '*** for %r update %s->%s'
-                    % (change.refname, change.old.sha1, change.new.sha1,)
-                    )
-            else:
-                if not change.environment.quiet:
-                    change.environment.log_msg(
-                        'Sending notification emails to: %s' % (change.recipients,))
-                extra_values = {'send_date': next(send_date)}
-
-                rev = change.send_single_combined_email(sha1s)
-                if rev:
-                    mailer.send(
-                        change.generate_combined_email(self, rev, body_filter, extra_values),
-                        rev.recipients,
-                        )
-                    # This change is now fully handled; no need to handle
-                    # individual revisions any further.
-                    continue
-                else:
-                    mailer.send(
-                        change.generate_email(self, body_filter, extra_values),
-                        change.recipients,
-                        )
-
-            max_emails = change.environment.maxcommitemails
-            if max_emails and len(sha1s) > max_emails:
-                change.environment.log_warning(
-                    '*** Too many new commits (%d), not sending commit emails.\n' % len(sha1s) +
-                    '*** Try setting multimailhook.maxCommitEmails to a greater value\n' +
-                    '*** Currently, multimailhook.maxCommitEmails=%d' % max_emails
-                    )
-                return
-
-            for (num, sha1) in enumerate(sha1s):
-                rev = Revision(change, GitObject(sha1), num=num + 1, tot=len(sha1s))
-                if len(rev.parents) > 1 and change.environment.excludemergerevisions:
-                    # skipping a merge commit
-                    continue
-                if not rev.recipients and rev.cc_recipients:
-                    change.environment.log_msg('*** Replacing Cc: with To:')
-                    rev.recipients = rev.cc_recipients
-                    rev.cc_recipients = None
-                if rev.recipients:
-                    extra_values = {'send_date': next(send_date)}
-                    mailer.send(
-                        rev.generate_email(self, body_filter, extra_values),
-                        rev.recipients,
-                        )
-
-        # Consistency check:
-        if unhandled_sha1s:
-            change.environment.log_error(
-                'ERROR: No emails were sent for the following new commits:\n'
-                '    %s'
-                % ('\n    '.join(sorted(unhandled_sha1s)),)
-                )
-
-
-def include_ref(refname, ref_filter_regex, is_inclusion_filter):
-    does_match = bool(ref_filter_regex.search(refname))
-    if is_inclusion_filter:
-        return does_match
-    else:  # exclusion filter -- we include the ref if the regex doesn't match
-        return not does_match
-
-
-def run_as_post_receive_hook(environment, mailer):
-    environment.check()
-    send_filter_regex, send_is_inclusion_filter = environment.get_ref_filter_regex(True)
-    ref_filter_regex, is_inclusion_filter = environment.get_ref_filter_regex(False)
-    changes = []
-    while True:
-        line = read_line(sys.stdin)
-        if line == '':
-            break
-        (oldrev, newrev, refname) = line.strip().split(' ', 2)
-        environment.get_logger().debug(
-            "run_as_post_receive_hook: oldrev=%s, newrev=%s, refname=%s" %
-            (oldrev, newrev, refname))
-
-        if not include_ref(refname, ref_filter_regex, is_inclusion_filter):
-            continue
-        if not include_ref(refname, send_filter_regex, send_is_inclusion_filter):
-            continue
-        changes.append(
-            ReferenceChange.create(environment, oldrev, newrev, refname)
-            )
-    if not changes:
-        mailer.close()
-        return
-    push = Push(environment, changes)
-    try:
-        push.send_emails(mailer, body_filter=environment.filter_body)
-    finally:
-        mailer.close()
-
-
-def run_as_update_hook(environment, mailer, refname, oldrev, newrev, force_send=False):
-    environment.check()
-    send_filter_regex, send_is_inclusion_filter = environment.get_ref_filter_regex(True)
-    ref_filter_regex, is_inclusion_filter = environment.get_ref_filter_regex(False)
-    if not include_ref(refname, ref_filter_regex, is_inclusion_filter):
-        return
-    if not include_ref(refname, send_filter_regex, send_is_inclusion_filter):
-        return
-    changes = [
-        ReferenceChange.create(
-            environment,
-            read_git_output(['rev-parse', '--verify', oldrev]),
-            read_git_output(['rev-parse', '--verify', newrev]),
-            refname,
-            ),
-        ]
-    if not changes:
-        mailer.close()
-        return
-    push = Push(environment, changes, force_send)
-    try:
-        push.send_emails(mailer, body_filter=environment.filter_body)
-    finally:
-        mailer.close()
-
-
-def check_ref_filter(environment):
-    send_filter_regex, send_is_inclusion = environment.get_ref_filter_regex(True)
-    ref_filter_regex, ref_is_inclusion = environment.get_ref_filter_regex(False)
-
-    def inc_exc_lusion(b):
-        if b:
-            return 'inclusion'
-        else:
-            return 'exclusion'
-
-    if send_filter_regex:
-        sys.stdout.write("DoSend/DontSend filter regex (" +
-                         (inc_exc_lusion(send_is_inclusion)) +
-                         '): ' + send_filter_regex.pattern +
-                         '\n')
-    if send_filter_regex:
-        sys.stdout.write("Include/Exclude filter regex (" +
-                         (inc_exc_lusion(ref_is_inclusion)) +
-                         '): ' + ref_filter_regex.pattern +
-                         '\n')
-    sys.stdout.write(os.linesep)
-
-    sys.stdout.write(
-        "Refs marked as EXCLUDE are excluded by either refFilterInclusionRegex\n"
-        "or refFilterExclusionRegex. No emails will be sent for commits included\n"
-        "in these refs.\n"
-        "Refs marked as DONT-SEND are excluded by either refFilterDoSendRegex or\n"
-        "refFilterDontSendRegex, but not by either refFilterInclusionRegex or\n"
-        "refFilterExclusionRegex. Emails will be sent for commits included in these\n"
-        "refs only when the commit reaches a ref which isn't excluded.\n"
-        "Refs marked as DO-SEND are not excluded by any filter. Emails will\n"
-        "be sent normally for commits included in these refs.\n")
-
-    sys.stdout.write(os.linesep)
-
-    for refname in read_git_lines(['for-each-ref', '--format', '%(refname)']):
-        sys.stdout.write(refname)
-        if not include_ref(refname, ref_filter_regex, ref_is_inclusion):
-            sys.stdout.write(' EXCLUDE')
-        elif not include_ref(refname, send_filter_regex, send_is_inclusion):
-            sys.stdout.write(' DONT-SEND')
-        else:
-            sys.stdout.write(' DO-SEND')
-
-        sys.stdout.write(os.linesep)
-
-
-def show_env(environment, out):
-    out.write('Environment values:\n')
-    for (k, v) in sorted(environment.get_values().items()):
-        if k:  # Don't show the {'' : ''} pair.
-            out.write('    %s : %r\n' % (k, v))
-    out.write('\n')
-    # Flush to avoid interleaving with further log output
-    out.flush()
-
-
-def check_setup(environment):
-    environment.check()
-    show_env(environment, sys.stdout)
-    sys.stdout.write("Now, checking that git-multimail's standard input "
-                     "is properly set ..." + os.linesep)
-    sys.stdout.write("Please type some text and then press Return" + os.linesep)
-    stdin = sys.stdin.readline()
-    sys.stdout.write("You have just entered:" + os.linesep)
-    sys.stdout.write(stdin)
-    sys.stdout.write("git-multimail seems properly set up." + os.linesep)
-
-
-def choose_mailer(config, environment):
-    mailer = config.get('mailer', default='sendmail')
-
-    if mailer == 'smtp':
-        smtpserver = config.get('smtpserver', default='localhost')
-        smtpservertimeout = float(config.get('smtpservertimeout', default=10.0))
-        smtpserverdebuglevel = int(config.get('smtpserverdebuglevel', default=0))
-        smtpencryption = config.get('smtpencryption', default='none')
-        smtpuser = config.get('smtpuser', default='')
-        smtppass = config.get('smtppass', default='')
-        smtpcacerts = config.get('smtpcacerts', default='')
-        mailer = SMTPMailer(
-            environment,
-            envelopesender=(environment.get_sender() or environment.get_fromaddr()),
-            smtpserver=smtpserver, smtpservertimeout=smtpservertimeout,
-            smtpserverdebuglevel=smtpserverdebuglevel,
-            smtpencryption=smtpencryption,
-            smtpuser=smtpuser,
-            smtppass=smtppass,
-            smtpcacerts=smtpcacerts
-            )
-    elif mailer == 'sendmail':
-        command = config.get('sendmailcommand')
-        if command:
-            command = shlex.split(command)
-        mailer = SendMailer(environment,
-                            command=command, envelopesender=environment.get_sender())
-    else:
-        environment.log_error(
-            'fatal: multimailhook.mailer is set to an incorrect value: "%s"\n' % mailer +
-            'please use one of "smtp" or "sendmail".'
-            )
-        sys.exit(1)
-    return mailer
-
-
-KNOWN_ENVIRONMENTS = {
-    'generic': {'highprec': GenericEnvironmentMixin},
-    'gitolite': {'highprec': GitoliteEnvironmentHighPrecMixin,
-                 'lowprec': GitoliteEnvironmentLowPrecMixin},
-    'stash': {'highprec': StashEnvironmentHighPrecMixin,
-              'lowprec': StashEnvironmentLowPrecMixin},
-    'gerrit': {'highprec': GerritEnvironmentHighPrecMixin,
-               'lowprec': GerritEnvironmentLowPrecMixin},
-    }
-
-
-def choose_environment(config, osenv=None, env=None, recipients=None,
-                       hook_info=None):
-    env_name = choose_environment_name(config, env, osenv)
-    environment_klass = build_environment_klass(env_name)
-    env = build_environment(environment_klass, env_name, config,
-                            osenv, recipients, hook_info)
-    return env
-
-
-def choose_environment_name(config, env, osenv):
-    if not osenv:
-        osenv = os.environ
-
-    if not env:
-        env = config.get('environment')
-
-    if not env:
-        if 'GL_USER' in osenv and 'GL_REPO' in osenv:
-            env = 'gitolite'
-        else:
-            env = 'generic'
-    return env
-
-
-COMMON_ENVIRONMENT_MIXINS = [
-    ConfigRecipientsEnvironmentMixin,
-    CLIRecipientsEnvironmentMixin,
-    ConfigRefFilterEnvironmentMixin,
-    ProjectdescEnvironmentMixin,
-    ConfigMaxlinesEnvironmentMixin,
-    ComputeFQDNEnvironmentMixin,
-    ConfigFilterLinesEnvironmentMixin,
-    PusherDomainEnvironmentMixin,
-    ConfigOptionsEnvironmentMixin,
-    ]
-
-
-def build_environment_klass(env_name):
-    if 'class' in KNOWN_ENVIRONMENTS[env_name]:
-        return KNOWN_ENVIRONMENTS[env_name]['class']
-
-    environment_mixins = []
-    known_env = KNOWN_ENVIRONMENTS[env_name]
-    if 'highprec' in known_env:
-        high_prec_mixin = known_env['highprec']
-        environment_mixins.append(high_prec_mixin)
-    environment_mixins = environment_mixins + COMMON_ENVIRONMENT_MIXINS
-    if 'lowprec' in known_env:
-        low_prec_mixin = known_env['lowprec']
-        environment_mixins.append(low_prec_mixin)
-    environment_mixins.append(Environment)
-    klass_name = env_name.capitalize() + 'Environment'
-    environment_klass = type(
-        klass_name,
-        tuple(environment_mixins),
-        {},
-        )
-    KNOWN_ENVIRONMENTS[env_name]['class'] = environment_klass
-    return environment_klass
-
-
-GerritEnvironment = build_environment_klass('gerrit')
-StashEnvironment = build_environment_klass('stash')
-GitoliteEnvironment = build_environment_klass('gitolite')
-GenericEnvironment = build_environment_klass('generic')
-
-
-def build_environment(environment_klass, env, config,
-                      osenv, recipients, hook_info):
-    environment_kw = {
-        'osenv': osenv,
-        'config': config,
-        }
-
-    if env == 'stash':
-        environment_kw['user'] = hook_info['stash_user']
-        environment_kw['repo'] = hook_info['stash_repo']
-    elif env == 'gerrit':
-        environment_kw['project'] = hook_info['project']
-        environment_kw['submitter'] = hook_info['submitter']
-        environment_kw['update_method'] = hook_info['update_method']
-
-    environment_kw['cli_recipients'] = recipients
-
-    return environment_klass(**environment_kw)
-
-
-def get_version():
-    oldcwd = os.getcwd()
-    try:
-        try:
-            os.chdir(os.path.dirname(os.path.realpath(__file__)))
-            git_version = read_git_output(['describe', '--tags', 'HEAD'])
-            if git_version == __version__:
-                return git_version
-            else:
-                return '%s (%s)' % (__version__, git_version)
-        except:
-            pass
-    finally:
-        os.chdir(oldcwd)
-    return __version__
-
-
-def compute_gerrit_options(options, args, required_gerrit_options,
-                           raw_refname):
-    if None in required_gerrit_options:
-        raise SystemExit("Error: Specify all of --oldrev, --newrev, --refname, "
-                         "and --project; or none of them.")
-
-    if options.environment not in (None, 'gerrit'):
-        raise SystemExit("Non-gerrit environments incompatible with --oldrev, "
-                         "--newrev, --refname, and --project")
-    options.environment = 'gerrit'
-
-    if args:
-        raise SystemExit("Error: Positional parameters not allowed with "
-                         "--oldrev, --newrev, and --refname.")
-
-    # Gerrit oddly omits 'refs/heads/' in the refname when calling
-    # ref-updated hook; put it back.
-    git_dir = get_git_dir()
-    if (not os.path.exists(os.path.join(git_dir, raw_refname)) and
-        os.path.exists(os.path.join(git_dir, 'refs', 'heads',
-                                    raw_refname))):
-        options.refname = 'refs/heads/' + options.refname
-
-    # New revisions can appear in a gerrit repository either due to someone
-    # pushing directly (in which case options.submitter will be set), or they
-    # can press "Submit this patchset" in the web UI for some CR (in which
-    # case options.submitter will not be set and gerrit will not have provided
-    # us the information about who pressed the button).
-    #
-    # Note for the nit-picky: I'm lumping in REST API calls and the ssh
-    # gerrit review command in with "Submit this patchset" button, since they
-    # have the same effect.
-    if options.submitter:
-        update_method = 'pushed'
-        # The submitter argument is almost an RFC 2822 email address; change it
-        # from 'User Name (email@domain)' to 'User Name <email@domain>' so it is
-        options.submitter = options.submitter.replace('(', '<').replace(')', '>')
-    else:
-        update_method = 'submitted'
-        # Gerrit knew who submitted this patchset, but threw that information
-        # away when it invoked this hook.  However, *IF* Gerrit created a
-        # merge to bring the patchset in (project 'Submit Type' is either
-        # "Always Merge", or is "Merge if Necessary" and happens to be
-        # necessary for this particular CR), then it will have the committer
-        # of that merge be 'Gerrit Code Review' and the author will be the
-        # person who requested the submission of the CR.  Since this is fairly
-        # likely for most gerrit installations (of a reasonable size), it's
-        # worth the extra effort to try to determine the actual submitter.
-        rev_info = read_git_lines(['log', '--no-walk', '--merges',
-                                   '--format=%cN%n%aN <%aE>', options.newrev])
-        if rev_info and rev_info[0] == 'Gerrit Code Review':
-            options.submitter = rev_info[1]
-
-    # We pass back refname, oldrev, newrev as args because then the
-    # gerrit ref-updated hook is much like the git update hook
-    return (options,
-            [options.refname, options.oldrev, options.newrev],
-            {'project': options.project, 'submitter': options.submitter,
-             'update_method': update_method})
-
-
-def check_hook_specific_args(options, args):
-    raw_refname = options.refname
-    # Convert each string option unicode for Python3.
-    if PYTHON3:
-        opts = ['environment', 'recipients', 'oldrev', 'newrev', 'refname',
-                'project', 'submitter', 'stash_user', 'stash_repo']
-        for opt in opts:
-            if not hasattr(options, opt):
-                continue
-            obj = getattr(options, opt)
-            if obj:
-                enc = obj.encode('utf-8', 'surrogateescape')
-                dec = enc.decode('utf-8', 'replace')
-                setattr(options, opt, dec)
-
-    # First check for stash arguments
-    if (options.stash_user is None) != (options.stash_repo is None):
-        raise SystemExit("Error: Specify both of --stash-user and "
-                         "--stash-repo or neither.")
-    if options.stash_user:
-        options.environment = 'stash'
-        return options, args, {'stash_user': options.stash_user,
-                               'stash_repo': options.stash_repo}
-
-    # Finally, check for gerrit specific arguments
-    required_gerrit_options = (options.oldrev, options.newrev, options.refname,
-                               options.project)
-    if required_gerrit_options != (None,) * 4:
-        return compute_gerrit_options(options, args, required_gerrit_options,
-                                      raw_refname)
-
-    # No special options in use, just return what we started with
-    return options, args, {}
-
-
-class Logger(object):
-    def parse_verbose(self, verbose):
-        if verbose > 0:
-            return logging.DEBUG
-        else:
-            return logging.INFO
-
-    def create_log_file(self, environment, name, path, verbosity):
-        log_file = logging.getLogger(name)
-        file_handler = logging.FileHandler(path)
-        log_fmt = logging.Formatter("%(asctime)s [%(levelname)-5.5s]  %(message)s")
-        file_handler.setFormatter(log_fmt)
-        log_file.addHandler(file_handler)
-        log_file.setLevel(verbosity)
-        return log_file
-
-    def __init__(self, environment):
-        self.environment = environment
-        self.loggers = []
-        stderr_log = logging.getLogger('git_multimail.stderr')
-
-        class EncodedStderr(object):
-            def write(self, x):
-                write_str(sys.stderr, x)
-
-            def flush(self):
-                sys.stderr.flush()
-
-        stderr_handler = logging.StreamHandler(EncodedStderr())
-        stderr_log.addHandler(stderr_handler)
-        stderr_log.setLevel(self.parse_verbose(environment.verbose))
-        self.loggers.append(stderr_log)
-
-        if environment.debug_log_file is not None:
-            debug_log_file = self.create_log_file(
-                environment, 'git_multimail.debug', environment.debug_log_file, logging.DEBUG)
-            self.loggers.append(debug_log_file)
-
-        if environment.log_file is not None:
-            log_file = self.create_log_file(
-                environment, 'git_multimail.file', environment.log_file, logging.INFO)
-            self.loggers.append(log_file)
-
-        if environment.error_log_file is not None:
-            error_log_file = self.create_log_file(
-                environment, 'git_multimail.error', environment.error_log_file, logging.ERROR)
-            self.loggers.append(error_log_file)
-
-    def info(self, msg, *args, **kwargs):
-        for l in self.loggers:
-            l.info(msg, *args, **kwargs)
-
-    def debug(self, msg, *args, **kwargs):
-        for l in self.loggers:
-            l.debug(msg, *args, **kwargs)
-
-    def warning(self, msg, *args, **kwargs):
-        for l in self.loggers:
-            l.warning(msg, *args, **kwargs)
-
-    def error(self, msg, *args, **kwargs):
-        for l in self.loggers:
-            l.error(msg, *args, **kwargs)
-
-
-def main(args):
-    parser = optparse.OptionParser(
-        description=__doc__,
-        usage='%prog [OPTIONS]\n   or: %prog [OPTIONS] REFNAME OLDREV NEWREV',
-        )
-
-    parser.add_option(
-        '--environment', '--env', action='store', type='choice',
-        choices=list(KNOWN_ENVIRONMENTS.keys()), default=None,
-        help=(
-            'Choose type of environment is in use.  Default is taken from '
-            'multimailhook.environment if set; otherwise "generic".'
-            ),
-        )
-    parser.add_option(
-        '--stdout', action='store_true', default=False,
-        help='Output emails to stdout rather than sending them.',
-        )
-    parser.add_option(
-        '--recipients', action='store', default=None,
-        help='Set list of email recipients for all types of emails.',
-        )
-    parser.add_option(
-        '--show-env', action='store_true', default=False,
-        help=(
-            'Write to stderr the values determined for the environment '
-            '(intended for debugging purposes), then proceed normally.'
-            ),
-        )
-    parser.add_option(
-        '--force-send', action='store_true', default=False,
-        help=(
-            'Force sending refchange email when using as an update hook. '
-            'This is useful to work around the unreliable new commits '
-            'detection in this mode.'
-            ),
-        )
-    parser.add_option(
-        '-c', metavar="<name>=<value>", action='append',
-        help=(
-            'Pass a configuration parameter through to git.  The value given '
-            'will override values from configuration files.  See the -c option '
-            'of git(1) for more details.  (Only works with git >= 1.7.3)'
-            ),
-        )
-    parser.add_option(
-        '--version', '-v', action='store_true', default=False,
-        help=(
-            "Display git-multimail's version"
-            ),
-        )
-
-    parser.add_option(
-        '--python-version', action='store_true', default=False,
-        help=(
-            "Display the version of Python used by git-multimail"
-            ),
-        )
-
-    parser.add_option(
-        '--check-ref-filter', action='store_true', default=False,
-        help=(
-            'List refs and show information on how git-multimail '
-            'will process them.'
-            )
-        )
-
-    # The following options permit this script to be run as a gerrit
-    # ref-updated hook.  See e.g.
-    # code.google.com/p/gerrit/source/browse/Documentation/config-hooks.txt
-    # We suppress help for these items, since these are specific to gerrit,
-    # and we don't want users directly using them any way other than how the
-    # gerrit ref-updated hook is called.
-    parser.add_option('--oldrev', action='store', help=optparse.SUPPRESS_HELP)
-    parser.add_option('--newrev', action='store', help=optparse.SUPPRESS_HELP)
-    parser.add_option('--refname', action='store', help=optparse.SUPPRESS_HELP)
-    parser.add_option('--project', action='store', help=optparse.SUPPRESS_HELP)
-    parser.add_option('--submitter', action='store', help=optparse.SUPPRESS_HELP)
-
-    # The following allow this to be run as a stash asynchronous post-receive
-    # hook (almost identical to a git post-receive hook but triggered also for
-    # merges of pull requests from the UI).  We suppress help for these items,
-    # since these are specific to stash.
-    parser.add_option('--stash-user', action='store', help=optparse.SUPPRESS_HELP)
-    parser.add_option('--stash-repo', action='store', help=optparse.SUPPRESS_HELP)
-
-    (options, args) = parser.parse_args(args)
-    (options, args, hook_info) = check_hook_specific_args(options, args)
-
-    if options.version:
-        sys.stdout.write('git-multimail version ' + get_version() + '\n')
-        return
-
-    if options.python_version:
-        sys.stdout.write('Python version ' + sys.version + '\n')
-        return
-
-    if options.c:
-        Config.add_config_parameters(options.c)
-
-    config = Config('multimailhook')
-
-    environment = None
-    try:
-        environment = choose_environment(
-            config, osenv=os.environ,
-            env=options.environment,
-            recipients=options.recipients,
-            hook_info=hook_info,
-            )
-
-        if options.show_env:
-            show_env(environment, sys.stderr)
-
-        if options.stdout or environment.stdout:
-            mailer = OutputMailer(sys.stdout, environment)
-        else:
-            mailer = choose_mailer(config, environment)
-
-        must_check_setup = os.environ.get('GIT_MULTIMAIL_CHECK_SETUP')
-        if must_check_setup == '':
-            must_check_setup = False
-        if options.check_ref_filter:
-            check_ref_filter(environment)
-        elif must_check_setup:
-            check_setup(environment)
-        # Dual mode: if arguments were specified on the command line, run
-        # like an update hook; otherwise, run as a post-receive hook.
-        elif args:
-            if len(args) != 3:
-                parser.error('Need zero or three non-option arguments')
-            (refname, oldrev, newrev) = args
-            environment.get_logger().debug(
-                "run_as_update_hook: refname=%s, oldrev=%s, newrev=%s, force_send=%s" %
-                (refname, oldrev, newrev, options.force_send))
-            run_as_update_hook(environment, mailer, refname, oldrev, newrev, options.force_send)
-        else:
-            run_as_post_receive_hook(environment, mailer)
-    except ConfigurationException:
-        sys.exit(sys.exc_info()[1])
-    except SystemExit:
-        raise
-    except Exception:
-        t, e, tb = sys.exc_info()
-        import traceback
-        sys.stderr.write('\n')  # Avoid mixing message with previous output
-        msg = (
-            'Exception \'' + t.__name__ +
-            '\' raised. Please report this as a bug to\n'
-            'https://github.com/git-multimail/git-multimail/issues\n'
-            'with the information below:\n\n'
-            'git-multimail version ' + get_version() + '\n'
-            'Python version ' + sys.version + '\n' +
-            traceback.format_exc())
-        try:
-            environment.get_logger().error(msg)
-        except:
-            sys.stderr.write(msg)
-        sys.exit(1)
-
-
-if __name__ == '__main__':
-    main(sys.argv[1:])
diff --git a/contrib/hooks/multimail/migrate-mailhook-config b/contrib/hooks/multimail/migrate-mailhook-config
deleted file mode 100755
index 241ba22..0000000
--- a/contrib/hooks/multimail/migrate-mailhook-config
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,274 +0,0 @@
-#! /usr/bin/env python
-
-"""Migrate a post-receive-email configuration to be usable with git_multimail.py.
-
-See README.migrate-from-post-receive-email for more information.
-
-"""
-
-import sys
-import optparse
-
-from git_multimail import CommandError
-from git_multimail import Config
-from git_multimail import read_output
-
-
-OLD_NAMES = [
-    'mailinglist',
-    'announcelist',
-    'envelopesender',
-    'emailprefix',
-    'showrev',
-    'emailmaxlines',
-    'diffopts',
-    'scancommitforcc',
-    ]
-
-NEW_NAMES = [
-    'environment',
-    'reponame',
-    'mailinglist',
-    'refchangelist',
-    'commitlist',
-    'announcelist',
-    'announceshortlog',
-    'envelopesender',
-    'administrator',
-    'emailprefix',
-    'emailmaxlines',
-    'diffopts',
-    'emaildomain',
-    'scancommitforcc',
-    ]
-
-
-INFO = """\
-
-SUCCESS!
-
-Your post-receive-email configuration has been converted to
-git-multimail format.  Please see README and
-README.migrate-from-post-receive-email to learn about other
-git-multimail configuration possibilities.
-
-For example, git-multimail has the following new options with no
-equivalent in post-receive-email.  You might want to read about them
-to see if they would be useful in your situation:
-
-"""
-
-
-def _check_old_config_exists(old):
-    """Check that at least one old configuration value is set."""
-
-    for name in OLD_NAMES:
-        if name in old:
-            return True
-
-    return False
-
-
-def _check_new_config_clear(new):
-    """Check that none of the new configuration names are set."""
-
-    retval = True
-    for name in NEW_NAMES:
-        if name in new:
-            if retval:
-                sys.stderr.write('INFO: The following configuration values already exist:\n\n')
-            sys.stderr.write('    "%s.%s"\n' % (new.section, name))
-            retval = False
-
-    return retval
-
-
-def erase_values(config, names):
-    for name in names:
-        if name in config:
-            try:
-                sys.stderr.write('...unsetting "%s.%s"\n' % (config.section, name))
-                config.unset_all(name)
-            except CommandError:
-                sys.stderr.write(
-                    '\nWARNING: could not unset "%s.%s".  '
-                    'Perhaps it is not set at the --local level?\n\n'
-                    % (config.section, name)
-                    )
-
-
-def is_section_empty(section, local):
-    """Return True iff the specified configuration section is empty.
-
-    Iff local is True, use the --local option when invoking 'git
-    config'."""
-
-    if local:
-        local_option = ['--local']
-    else:
-        local_option = []
-
-    try:
-        read_output(
-            ['git', 'config'] +
-            local_option +
-            ['--get-regexp', '^%s\.' % (section,)]
-            )
-    except CommandError:
-        t, e, traceback = sys.exc_info()
-        if e.retcode == 1:
-            # This means that no settings were found.
-            return True
-        else:
-            raise
-    else:
-        return False
-
-
-def remove_section_if_empty(section):
-    """If the specified configuration section is empty, delete it."""
-
-    try:
-        empty = is_section_empty(section, local=True)
-    except CommandError:
-        # Older versions of git do not support the --local option, so
-        # if the first attempt fails, try without --local.
-        try:
-            empty = is_section_empty(section, local=False)
-        except CommandError:
-            sys.stderr.write(
-                '\nINFO: If configuration section "%s.*" is empty, you might want '
-                'to delete it.\n\n'
-                % (section,)
-                )
-            return
-
-    if empty:
-        sys.stderr.write('...removing section "%s.*"\n' % (section,))
-        read_output(['git', 'config', '--remove-section', section])
-    else:
-        sys.stderr.write(
-            '\nINFO: Configuration section "%s.*" still has contents.  '
-            'It will not be deleted.\n\n'
-            % (section,)
-            )
-
-
-def migrate_config(strict=False, retain=False, overwrite=False):
-    old = Config('hooks')
-    new = Config('multimailhook')
-    if not _check_old_config_exists(old):
-        sys.exit(
-            'Your repository has no post-receive-email configuration.  '
-            'Nothing to do.'
-            )
-    if not _check_new_config_clear(new):
-        if overwrite:
-            sys.stderr.write('\nWARNING: Erasing the above values...\n\n')
-            erase_values(new, NEW_NAMES)
-        else:
-            sys.exit(
-                '\nERROR: Refusing to overwrite existing values.  Use the --overwrite\n'
-                'option to continue anyway.'
-                )
-
-    name = 'showrev'
-    if name in old:
-        msg = 'git-multimail does not support "%s.%s"' % (old.section, name,)
-        if strict:
-            sys.exit(
-                'ERROR: %s.\n'
-                'Please unset that value then try again, or run without --strict.'
-                % (msg,)
-                )
-        else:
-            sys.stderr.write('\nWARNING: %s (ignoring).\n\n' % (msg,))
-
-    for name in ['mailinglist', 'announcelist']:
-        if name in old:
-            sys.stderr.write(
-                '...copying "%s.%s" to "%s.%s"\n' % (old.section, name, new.section, name)
-                )
-            old_recipients = old.get_all(name, default=None)
-            old_recipients = ', '.join(o.strip() for o in old_recipients)
-            new.set_recipients(name, old_recipients)
-
-    if strict:
-        sys.stderr.write(
-            '...setting "%s.commitlist" to the empty string\n' % (new.section,)
-            )
-        new.set_recipients('commitlist', '')
-        sys.stderr.write(
-            '...setting "%s.announceshortlog" to "true"\n' % (new.section,)
-            )
-        new.set('announceshortlog', 'true')
-
-    for name in ['envelopesender', 'emailmaxlines', 'diffopts', 'scancommitforcc']:
-        if name in old:
-            sys.stderr.write(
-                '...copying "%s.%s" to "%s.%s"\n' % (old.section, name, new.section, name)
-                )
-            new.set(name, old.get(name))
-
-    name = 'emailprefix'
-    if name in old:
-        sys.stderr.write(
-            '...copying "%s.%s" to "%s.%s"\n' % (old.section, name, new.section, name)
-            )
-        new.set(name, old.get(name))
-    elif strict:
-        sys.stderr.write(
-            '...setting "%s.%s" to "[SCM]" to preserve old subject lines\n'
-            % (new.section, name)
-            )
-        new.set(name, '[SCM]')
-
-    if not retain:
-        erase_values(old, OLD_NAMES)
-        remove_section_if_empty(old.section)
-
-    sys.stderr.write(INFO)
-    for name in NEW_NAMES:
-        if name not in OLD_NAMES:
-            sys.stderr.write('    "%s.%s"\n' % (new.section, name,))
-    sys.stderr.write('\n')
-
-
-def main(args):
-    parser = optparse.OptionParser(
-        description=__doc__,
-        usage='%prog [OPTIONS]',
-        )
-
-    parser.add_option(
-        '--strict', action='store_true', default=False,
-        help=(
-            'Slavishly configure git-multimail as closely as possible to '
-            'the post-receive-email configuration.  Default is to turn '
-            'on some new features that have no equivalent in post-receive-email.'
-            ),
-        )
-    parser.add_option(
-        '--retain', action='store_true', default=False,
-        help=(
-            'Retain the post-receive-email configuration values.  '
-            'Default is to delete them after the new values are set.'
-            ),
-        )
-    parser.add_option(
-        '--overwrite', action='store_true', default=False,
-        help=(
-            'Overwrite any existing git-multimail configuration settings.  '
-            'Default is to abort if such settings already exist.'
-            ),
-        )
-
-    (options, args) = parser.parse_args(args)
-
-    if args:
-        parser.error('Unexpected arguments: %s' % (' '.join(args),))
-
-    migrate_config(strict=options.strict, retain=options.retain, overwrite=options.overwrite)
-
-
-main(sys.argv[1:])
diff --git a/contrib/hooks/multimail/post-receive.example b/contrib/hooks/multimail/post-receive.example
deleted file mode 100755
index 0f98c5a..0000000
--- a/contrib/hooks/multimail/post-receive.example
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,101 +0,0 @@
-#! /usr/bin/env python
-
-"""Example post-receive hook based on git-multimail.
-
-The simplest way to use git-multimail is to use the script
-git_multimail.py directly as a post-receive hook, and to configure it
-using Git's configuration files and command-line parameters.  You can
-also write your own Python wrapper for more advanced configurability,
-using git_multimail.py as a Python module.
-
-This script is a simple example of such a post-receive hook.  It is
-intended to be customized before use; see the comments in the script
-to help you get started.
-
-Using git-multimail as a Python module as done here provides more
-flexibility.  It has the following advantages:
-
-* The tool's behavior can be customized using arbitrary Python code,
-  without having to edit git_multimail.py.
-
-* Configuration settings can be read from other sources; for example,
-  user names and email addresses could be read from LDAP or from a
-  database.  Or the settings can even be hardcoded in the importing
-  Python script, if this is preferred.
-
-This script is a very basic example of how to use git_multimail.py as
-a module.  The comments below explain some of the points at which the
-script's behavior could be changed or customized.
-
-"""
-
-import sys
-
-# If necessary, add the path to the directory containing
-# git_multimail.py to the Python path as follows.  (This is not
-# necessary if git_multimail.py is in the same directory as this
-# script):
-
-#LIBDIR = 'path/to/directory/containing/module'
-#sys.path.insert(0, LIBDIR)
-
-import git_multimail
-
-# It is possible to modify the output templates here; e.g.:
-
-#git_multimail.FOOTER_TEMPLATE = """\
-#
-#-- \n\
-#This email was generated by the wonderful git-multimail tool.
-#"""
-
-
-# Specify which "git config" section contains the configuration for
-# git-multimail:
-config = git_multimail.Config('multimailhook')
-
-# Set some Git configuration variables. Equivalent to passing var=val
-# to "git -c var=val" each time git is called, or to adding the
-# configuration in .git/config (must come before instantiating the
-# environment) :
-#git_multimail.Config.add_config_parameters('multimailhook.commitEmailFormat=html')
-#git_multimail.Config.add_config_parameters(('user.name=foo', 'user.email=foo@example.com'))
-
-# Select the type of environment:
-try:
-    environment = git_multimail.GenericEnvironment(config=config)
-    #environment = git_multimail.GitoliteEnvironment(config=config)
-except git_multimail.ConfigurationException:
-    sys.stderr.write('*** %s\n' % sys.exc_info()[1])
-    sys.exit(1)
-
-
-# Choose the method of sending emails based on the git config:
-mailer = git_multimail.choose_mailer(config, environment)
-
-# Alternatively, you may hardcode the mailer using code like one of
-# the following:
-
-# Use "/usr/sbin/sendmail -oi -t" to send emails.  The envelopesender
-# argument is optional:
-#mailer = git_multimail.SendMailer(
-#    command=['/usr/sbin/sendmail', '-oi', '-t'],
-#    envelopesender='git-repo@example.com',
-#    )
-
-# Use Python's smtplib to send emails.  Both arguments are required.
-#mailer = git_multimail.SMTPMailer(
-#    environment=environment,
-#    envelopesender='git-repo@example.com',
-#    # The smtpserver argument can also include a port number; e.g.,
-#    #     smtpserver='mail.example.com:25'
-#    smtpserver='mail.example.com',
-#    )
-
-# OutputMailer is intended only for testing; it writes the emails to
-# the specified file stream.
-#mailer = git_multimail.OutputMailer(sys.stdout)
-
-
-# Read changes from stdin and send notification emails:
-git_multimail.run_as_post_receive_hook(environment, mailer)
diff --git a/contrib/mw-to-git/t/t9360-mw-to-git-clone.sh b/contrib/mw-to-git/t/t9360-mw-to-git-clone.sh
index 4c39bda..f08890d 100755
--- a/contrib/mw-to-git/t/t9360-mw-to-git-clone.sh
+++ b/contrib/mw-to-git/t/t9360-mw-to-git-clone.sh
@@ -86,7 +86,7 @@
 test_expect_success 'Git clone works with an edited page ' '
 	wiki_reset &&
 	wiki_editpage foo "this page will be edited" \
-		false -s "first edition of page foo"&&
+		false -s "first edition of page foo" &&
 	wiki_editpage foo "this page has been edited and must be on the clone " true &&
 	git clone mediawiki::'"$WIKI_URL"' mw_dir_6 &&
 	test_path_is_file mw_dir_6/Foo.mw &&
diff --git a/contrib/mw-to-git/t/t9362-mw-to-git-utf8.sh b/contrib/mw-to-git/t/t9362-mw-to-git-utf8.sh
index 6b0dbda..526d928 100755
--- a/contrib/mw-to-git/t/t9362-mw-to-git-utf8.sh
+++ b/contrib/mw-to-git/t/t9362-mw-to-git-utf8.sh
@@ -287,7 +287,7 @@
 		git add \\ko\\o.mw &&
 		git commit -m " \\ko\\o added" &&
 		git push
-	)&&
+	) &&
 	wiki_page_exist \\ko\\o &&
 	wiki_check_content mw_dir_18/\\ko\\o.mw \\ko\\o
 
@@ -311,7 +311,7 @@
 		git add \\fo\\o.mw &&
 		git commit -m " \\fo\\o added" &&
 		git push
-	)&&
+	) &&
 	wiki_page_exist \\fo\\o &&
 	wiki_check_content mw_dir_20/\\fo\\o.mw \\fo\\o
 
diff --git a/contrib/subtree/git-subtree.sh b/contrib/subtree/git-subtree.sh
index b06782b..7f767b5 100755
--- a/contrib/subtree/git-subtree.sh
+++ b/contrib/subtree/git-subtree.sh
@@ -5,8 +5,12 @@
 # Copyright (C) 2009 Avery Pennarun <apenwarr@gmail.com>
 #
 
-if test -z "$GIT_EXEC_PATH" || test "${PATH#"${GIT_EXEC_PATH}:"}" = "$PATH" || ! test -f "$GIT_EXEC_PATH/git-sh-setup"
+if test -z "$GIT_EXEC_PATH" || ! test -f "$GIT_EXEC_PATH/git-sh-setup" || {
+	test "${PATH#"${GIT_EXEC_PATH}:"}" = "$PATH" &&
+	test ! "$GIT_EXEC_PATH" -ef "${PATH%%:*}" 2>/dev/null
+}
 then
+	basename=${0##*[/\\]}
 	echo >&2 'It looks like either your git installation or your'
 	echo >&2 'git-subtree installation is broken.'
 	echo >&2
@@ -14,10 +18,10 @@
 	echo >&2 " - If \`git --exec-path\` does not print the correct path to"
 	echo >&2 "   your git install directory, then set the GIT_EXEC_PATH"
 	echo >&2 "   environment variable to the correct directory."
-	echo >&2 " - Make sure that your \`${0##*/}\` file is either in your"
+	echo >&2 " - Make sure that your \`$basename\` file is either in your"
 	echo >&2 "   PATH or in your git exec path (\`$(git --exec-path)\`)."
-	echo >&2 " - You should run git-subtree as \`git ${0##*/git-}\`,"
-	echo >&2 "   not as \`${0##*/}\`." >&2
+	echo >&2 " - You should run git-subtree as \`git ${basename#git-}\`,"
+	echo >&2 "   not as \`$basename\`." >&2
 	exit 126
 fi
 
diff --git a/credential.c b/credential.c
index e5202fb..3c05c7c 100644
--- a/credential.c
+++ b/credential.c
@@ -10,8 +10,8 @@
 
 void credential_init(struct credential *c)
 {
-	memset(c, 0, sizeof(*c));
-	c->helpers.strdup_strings = 1;
+	struct credential blank = CREDENTIAL_INIT;
+	memcpy(c, &blank, sizeof(*c));
 }
 
 void credential_clear(struct credential *c)
diff --git a/credential.h b/credential.h
index c0e17e3..f430e77 100644
--- a/credential.h
+++ b/credential.h
@@ -128,7 +128,9 @@
 	char *path;
 };
 
-#define CREDENTIAL_INIT { STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP }
+#define CREDENTIAL_INIT { \
+	.helpers = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP, \
+}
 
 /* Initialize a credential structure, setting all fields to empty. */
 void credential_init(struct credential *);
diff --git a/csum-file.c b/csum-file.c
index 7510950..c951cf8 100644
--- a/csum-file.c
+++ b/csum-file.c
@@ -11,35 +11,33 @@
 #include "progress.h"
 #include "csum-file.h"
 
+static void verify_buffer_or_die(struct hashfile *f,
+				 const void *buf,
+				 unsigned int count)
+{
+	ssize_t ret = read_in_full(f->check_fd, f->check_buffer, count);
+
+	if (ret < 0)
+		die_errno("%s: sha1 file read error", f->name);
+	if (ret != count)
+		die("%s: sha1 file truncated", f->name);
+	if (memcmp(buf, f->check_buffer, count))
+		die("sha1 file '%s' validation error", f->name);
+}
+
 static void flush(struct hashfile *f, const void *buf, unsigned int count)
 {
-	if (0 <= f->check_fd && count)  {
-		unsigned char check_buffer[8192];
-		ssize_t ret = read_in_full(f->check_fd, check_buffer, count);
+	if (0 <= f->check_fd && count)
+		verify_buffer_or_die(f, buf, count);
 
-		if (ret < 0)
-			die_errno("%s: sha1 file read error", f->name);
-		if (ret != count)
-			die("%s: sha1 file truncated", f->name);
-		if (memcmp(buf, check_buffer, count))
-			die("sha1 file '%s' validation error", f->name);
-	}
-
-	for (;;) {
-		int ret = xwrite(f->fd, buf, count);
-		if (ret > 0) {
-			f->total += ret;
-			display_throughput(f->tp, f->total);
-			buf = (char *) buf + ret;
-			count -= ret;
-			if (count)
-				continue;
-			return;
-		}
-		if (!ret)
+	if (write_in_full(f->fd, buf, count) < 0) {
+		if (errno == ENOSPC)
 			die("sha1 file '%s' write error. Out of diskspace", f->name);
 		die_errno("sha1 file '%s' write error", f->name);
 	}
+
+	f->total += count;
+	display_throughput(f->tp, f->total);
 }
 
 void hashflush(struct hashfile *f)
@@ -53,6 +51,13 @@
 	}
 }
 
+static void free_hashfile(struct hashfile *f)
+{
+	free(f->buffer);
+	free(f->check_buffer);
+	free(f);
+}
+
 int finalize_hashfile(struct hashfile *f, unsigned char *result, unsigned int flags)
 {
 	int fd;
@@ -82,20 +87,20 @@
 		if (close(f->check_fd))
 			die_errno("%s: sha1 file error on close", f->name);
 	}
-	free(f);
+	free_hashfile(f);
 	return fd;
 }
 
 void hashwrite(struct hashfile *f, const void *buf, unsigned int count)
 {
 	while (count) {
-		unsigned left = sizeof(f->buffer) - f->offset;
+		unsigned left = f->buffer_len - f->offset;
 		unsigned nr = count > left ? left : count;
 
 		if (f->do_crc)
 			f->crc32 = crc32(f->crc32, buf, nr);
 
-		if (nr == sizeof(f->buffer)) {
+		if (nr == f->buffer_len) {
 			/*
 			 * Flush a full batch worth of data directly
 			 * from the input, skipping the memcpy() to
@@ -121,11 +126,6 @@
 	}
 }
 
-struct hashfile *hashfd(int fd, const char *name)
-{
-	return hashfd_throughput(fd, name, NULL);
-}
-
 struct hashfile *hashfd_check(const char *name)
 {
 	int sink, check;
@@ -139,10 +139,14 @@
 		die_errno("unable to open '%s'", name);
 	f = hashfd(sink, name);
 	f->check_fd = check;
+	f->check_buffer = xmalloc(f->buffer_len);
+
 	return f;
 }
 
-struct hashfile *hashfd_throughput(int fd, const char *name, struct progress *tp)
+static struct hashfile *hashfd_internal(int fd, const char *name,
+					struct progress *tp,
+					size_t buffer_len)
 {
 	struct hashfile *f = xmalloc(sizeof(*f));
 	f->fd = fd;
@@ -153,9 +157,35 @@
 	f->name = name;
 	f->do_crc = 0;
 	the_hash_algo->init_fn(&f->ctx);
+
+	f->buffer_len = buffer_len;
+	f->buffer = xmalloc(buffer_len);
+	f->check_buffer = NULL;
+
 	return f;
 }
 
+struct hashfile *hashfd(int fd, const char *name)
+{
+	/*
+	 * Since we are not going to use a progress meter to
+	 * measure the rate of data passing through this hashfile,
+	 * use a larger buffer size to reduce fsync() calls.
+	 */
+	return hashfd_internal(fd, name, NULL, 128 * 1024);
+}
+
+struct hashfile *hashfd_throughput(int fd, const char *name, struct progress *tp)
+{
+	/*
+	 * Since we are expecting to report progress of the
+	 * write into this hashfile, use a smaller buffer
+	 * size so the progress indicators arrive at a more
+	 * frequent rate.
+	 */
+	return hashfd_internal(fd, name, tp, 8 * 1024);
+}
+
 void hashfile_checkpoint(struct hashfile *f, struct hashfile_checkpoint *checkpoint)
 {
 	hashflush(f);
@@ -187,3 +217,19 @@
 	f->do_crc = 0;
 	return f->crc32;
 }
+
+int hashfile_checksum_valid(const unsigned char *data, size_t total_len)
+{
+	unsigned char got[GIT_MAX_RAWSZ];
+	git_hash_ctx ctx;
+	size_t data_len = total_len - the_hash_algo->rawsz;
+
+	if (total_len < the_hash_algo->rawsz)
+		return 0; /* say "too short"? */
+
+	the_hash_algo->init_fn(&ctx);
+	the_hash_algo->update_fn(&ctx, data, data_len);
+	the_hash_algo->final_fn(got, &ctx);
+
+	return hasheq(got, data + data_len);
+}
diff --git a/csum-file.h b/csum-file.h
index e54d53d..291215b 100644
--- a/csum-file.h
+++ b/csum-file.h
@@ -16,7 +16,9 @@
 	const char *name;
 	int do_crc;
 	uint32_t crc32;
-	unsigned char buffer[8192];
+	size_t buffer_len;
+	unsigned char *buffer;
+	unsigned char *check_buffer;
 };
 
 /* Checkpoint */
@@ -42,6 +44,9 @@
 void crc32_begin(struct hashfile *);
 uint32_t crc32_end(struct hashfile *);
 
+/* Verify checksum validity while reading. Returns non-zero on success. */
+int hashfile_checksum_valid(const unsigned char *data, size_t len);
+
 /*
  * Returns the total number of bytes fed to the hashfile so far (including ones
  * that have not been written out to the descriptor yet).
diff --git a/diff-merges.c b/diff-merges.c
index f3a9dae..0dfcaa1 100644
--- a/diff-merges.c
+++ b/diff-merges.c
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
 static void set_separate(struct rev_info *revs);
 
 static diff_merges_setup_func_t set_to_default = set_separate;
+static int suppress_parsing;
 
 static void suppress(struct rev_info *revs)
 {
@@ -14,7 +15,7 @@
 	revs->combine_merges = 0;
 	revs->dense_combined_merges = 0;
 	revs->combined_all_paths = 0;
-	revs->combined_imply_patch = 0;
+	revs->merges_imply_patch = 0;
 	revs->merges_need_diff = 0;
 }
 
@@ -30,17 +31,6 @@
 	revs->first_parent_merges = 1;
 }
 
-static void set_m(struct rev_info *revs)
-{
-	/*
-	 * To "diff-index", "-m" means "match missing", and to the "log"
-	 * family of commands, it means "show default diff for merges". Set
-	 * both fields appropriately.
-	 */
-	set_to_default(revs);
-	revs->match_missing = 1;
-}
-
 static void set_combined(struct rev_info *revs)
 {
 	suppress(revs);
@@ -101,20 +91,29 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+void diff_merges_suppress_options_parsing(void)
+{
+	suppress_parsing = 1;
+}
+
 int diff_merges_parse_opts(struct rev_info *revs, const char **argv)
 {
 	int argcount = 1;
 	const char *optarg;
 	const char *arg = argv[0];
 
+	if (suppress_parsing)
+		return 0;
+
 	if (!strcmp(arg, "-m")) {
-		set_m(revs);
+		set_to_default(revs);
+		revs->merges_imply_patch = 1;
 	} else if (!strcmp(arg, "-c")) {
 		set_combined(revs);
-		revs->combined_imply_patch = 1;
+		revs->merges_imply_patch = 1;
 	} else if (!strcmp(arg, "--cc")) {
 		set_dense_combined(revs);
-		revs->combined_imply_patch = 1;
+		revs->merges_imply_patch = 1;
 	} else if (!strcmp(arg, "--no-diff-merges")) {
 		suppress(revs);
 	} else if (!strcmp(arg, "--combined-all-paths")) {
@@ -155,15 +154,18 @@
 
 void diff_merges_setup_revs(struct rev_info *revs)
 {
+	if (suppress_parsing)
+		return;
+
 	if (revs->combine_merges == 0)
 		revs->dense_combined_merges = 0;
 	if (revs->separate_merges == 0)
 		revs->first_parent_merges = 0;
 	if (revs->combined_all_paths && !revs->combine_merges)
 		die("--combined-all-paths makes no sense without -c or --cc");
-	if (revs->combined_imply_patch)
+	if (revs->merges_imply_patch)
 		revs->diff = 1;
-	if (revs->combined_imply_patch || revs->merges_need_diff) {
+	if (revs->merges_imply_patch || revs->merges_need_diff) {
 		if (!revs->diffopt.output_format)
 			revs->diffopt.output_format = DIFF_FORMAT_PATCH;
 	}
diff --git a/diff-merges.h b/diff-merges.h
index 09d9a6c..b5d57f6 100644
--- a/diff-merges.h
+++ b/diff-merges.h
@@ -11,6 +11,8 @@
 
 int diff_merges_config(const char *value);
 
+void diff_merges_suppress_options_parsing(void);
+
 int diff_merges_parse_opts(struct rev_info *revs, const char **argv);
 
 void diff_merges_suppress(struct rev_info *revs);
diff --git a/diff.c b/diff.c
index 52c7915..260dc37 100644
--- a/diff.c
+++ b/diff.c
@@ -2340,7 +2340,7 @@
 	ecbdata->lno_in_postimage = strtol(p + 1, NULL, 10);
 }
 
-static void fn_out_consume(void *priv, char *line, unsigned long len)
+static int fn_out_consume(void *priv, char *line, unsigned long len)
 {
 	struct emit_callback *ecbdata = priv;
 	struct diff_options *o = ecbdata->opt;
@@ -2376,7 +2376,7 @@
 		len = sane_truncate_line(line, len);
 		find_lno(line, ecbdata);
 		emit_hunk_header(ecbdata, line, len);
-		return;
+		return 0;
 	}
 
 	if (ecbdata->diff_words) {
@@ -2386,11 +2386,11 @@
 		if (line[0] == '-') {
 			diff_words_append(line, len,
 					  &ecbdata->diff_words->minus);
-			return;
+			return 0;
 		} else if (line[0] == '+') {
 			diff_words_append(line, len,
 					  &ecbdata->diff_words->plus);
-			return;
+			return 0;
 		} else if (starts_with(line, "\\ ")) {
 			/*
 			 * Eat the "no newline at eof" marker as if we
@@ -2399,11 +2399,11 @@
 			 * defer processing. If this is the end of
 			 * preimage, more "+" lines may come after it.
 			 */
-			return;
+			return 0;
 		}
 		diff_words_flush(ecbdata);
 		emit_diff_symbol(o, s, line, len, 0);
-		return;
+		return 0;
 	}
 
 	switch (line[0]) {
@@ -2427,6 +2427,7 @@
 				 line, len, 0);
 		break;
 	}
+	return 0;
 }
 
 static void pprint_rename(struct strbuf *name, const char *a, const char *b)
@@ -2526,7 +2527,7 @@
 	return x;
 }
 
-static void diffstat_consume(void *priv, char *line, unsigned long len)
+static int diffstat_consume(void *priv, char *line, unsigned long len)
 {
 	struct diffstat_t *diffstat = priv;
 	struct diffstat_file *x = diffstat->files[diffstat->nr - 1];
@@ -2535,6 +2536,7 @@
 		x->added++;
 	else if (line[0] == '-')
 		x->deleted++;
+	return 0;
 }
 
 const char mime_boundary_leader[] = "------------";
@@ -3212,7 +3214,7 @@
 	data->lineno = nb - 1;
 }
 
-static void checkdiff_consume(void *priv, char *line, unsigned long len)
+static int checkdiff_consume(void *priv, char *line, unsigned long len)
 {
 	struct checkdiff_t *data = priv;
 	int marker_size = data->conflict_marker_size;
@@ -3236,7 +3238,7 @@
 		}
 		bad = ws_check(line + 1, len - 1, data->ws_rule);
 		if (!bad)
-			return;
+			return 0;
 		data->status |= bad;
 		err = whitespace_error_string(bad);
 		fprintf(data->o->file, "%s%s:%d: %s.\n",
@@ -3248,6 +3250,7 @@
 	} else if (line[0] == ' ') {
 		data->lineno++;
 	}
+	return 0;
 }
 
 static unsigned char *deflate_it(char *data,
@@ -3726,7 +3729,8 @@
 		xpp.anchors_nr = o->anchors_nr;
 		xecfg.ctxlen = o->context;
 		xecfg.interhunkctxlen = o->interhunkcontext;
-		if (xdi_diff_outf(&mf1, &mf2, discard_hunk_line,
+		xecfg.flags = XDL_EMIT_NO_HUNK_HDR;
+		if (xdi_diff_outf(&mf1, &mf2, NULL,
 				  diffstat_consume, diffstat, &xpp, &xecfg))
 			die("unable to generate diffstat for %s", one->path);
 
@@ -4632,6 +4636,12 @@
 	if (HAS_MULTI_BITS(options->pickaxe_opts & DIFF_PICKAXE_KINDS_MASK))
 		die(_("-G, -S and --find-object are mutually exclusive"));
 
+	if (HAS_MULTI_BITS(options->pickaxe_opts & DIFF_PICKAXE_KINDS_G_REGEX_MASK))
+		die(_("-G and --pickaxe-regex are mutually exclusive, use --pickaxe-regex with -S"));
+
+	if (HAS_MULTI_BITS(options->pickaxe_opts & DIFF_PICKAXE_KINDS_ALL_OBJFIND_MASK))
+		die(_("---pickaxe-all and --find-object are mutually exclusive, use --pickaxe-all with -G and -S"));
+
 	/*
 	 * Most of the time we can say "there are changes"
 	 * only by checking if there are changed paths, but
@@ -6119,17 +6129,18 @@
 	}
 }
 
-static void patch_id_consume(void *priv, char *line, unsigned long len)
+static int patch_id_consume(void *priv, char *line, unsigned long len)
 {
 	struct patch_id_t *data = priv;
 	int new_len;
 
 	if (len > 12 && starts_with(line, "\\ "))
-		return;
+		return 0;
 	new_len = remove_space(line, len);
 
 	the_hash_algo->update_fn(data->ctx, line, new_len);
 	data->patchlen += new_len;
+	return 0;
 }
 
 static void patch_id_add_string(git_hash_ctx *ctx, const char *str)
@@ -6227,8 +6238,8 @@
 
 		xpp.flags = 0;
 		xecfg.ctxlen = 3;
-		xecfg.flags = 0;
-		if (xdi_diff_outf(&mf1, &mf2, discard_hunk_line,
+		xecfg.flags = XDL_EMIT_NO_HUNK_HDR;
+		if (xdi_diff_outf(&mf1, &mf2, NULL,
 				  patch_id_consume, &data, &xpp, &xecfg))
 			return error("unable to generate patch-id diff for %s",
 				     p->one->path);
diff --git a/diff.h b/diff.h
index c8f3fae..8ba85c5 100644
--- a/diff.h
+++ b/diff.h
@@ -265,6 +265,7 @@
 	 * postimage of the diff_queue.
 	 */
 	const char *pickaxe;
+	unsigned pickaxe_opts;
 
 	/* -I<regex> */
 	regex_t **ignore_regex;
@@ -304,8 +305,6 @@
 	/* The output format used when `diff_flush()` is run. */
 	int output_format;
 
-	unsigned pickaxe_opts;
-
 	/* Affects the way detection logic for complete rewrites, renames and
 	 * copies.
 	 */
@@ -556,6 +555,10 @@
 #define DIFF_PICKAXE_KINDS_MASK (DIFF_PICKAXE_KIND_S | \
 				 DIFF_PICKAXE_KIND_G | \
 				 DIFF_PICKAXE_KIND_OBJFIND)
+#define DIFF_PICKAXE_KINDS_G_REGEX_MASK (DIFF_PICKAXE_KIND_G | \
+					 DIFF_PICKAXE_REGEX)
+#define DIFF_PICKAXE_KINDS_ALL_OBJFIND_MASK (DIFF_PICKAXE_ALL | \
+					     DIFF_PICKAXE_KIND_OBJFIND)
 
 #define DIFF_PICKAXE_IGNORE_CASE	32
 
diff --git a/diffcore-pickaxe.c b/diffcore-pickaxe.c
index a9c6d60..c88e50c 100644
--- a/diffcore-pickaxe.c
+++ b/diffcore-pickaxe.c
@@ -19,38 +19,31 @@
 	int hit;
 };
 
-static void diffgrep_consume(void *priv, char *line, unsigned long len)
+static int diffgrep_consume(void *priv, char *line, unsigned long len)
 {
 	struct diffgrep_cb *data = priv;
 	regmatch_t regmatch;
 
 	if (line[0] != '+' && line[0] != '-')
-		return;
+		return 0;
 	if (data->hit)
-		/*
-		 * NEEDSWORK: we should have a way to terminate the
-		 * caller early.
-		 */
-		return;
-	data->hit = !regexec_buf(data->regexp, line + 1, len - 1, 1,
-				 &regmatch, 0);
+		BUG("Already matched in diffgrep_consume! Broken xdiff_emit_line_fn?");
+	if (!regexec_buf(data->regexp, line + 1, len - 1, 1,
+			 &regmatch, 0)) {
+		data->hit = 1;
+		return 1;
+	}
+	return 0;
 }
 
 static int diff_grep(mmfile_t *one, mmfile_t *two,
 		     struct diff_options *o,
 		     regex_t *regexp, kwset_t kws)
 {
-	regmatch_t regmatch;
 	struct diffgrep_cb ecbdata;
 	xpparam_t xpp;
 	xdemitconf_t xecfg;
-
-	if (!one)
-		return !regexec_buf(regexp, two->ptr, two->size,
-				    1, &regmatch, 0);
-	if (!two)
-		return !regexec_buf(regexp, one->ptr, one->size,
-				    1, &regmatch, 0);
+	int ret;
 
 	/*
 	 * We have both sides; need to run textual diff and see if
@@ -60,38 +53,47 @@
 	memset(&xecfg, 0, sizeof(xecfg));
 	ecbdata.regexp = regexp;
 	ecbdata.hit = 0;
+	xecfg.flags = XDL_EMIT_NO_HUNK_HDR;
 	xecfg.ctxlen = o->context;
 	xecfg.interhunkctxlen = o->interhunkcontext;
-	if (xdi_diff_outf(one, two, discard_hunk_line, diffgrep_consume,
-			  &ecbdata, &xpp, &xecfg))
-		return 0;
-	return ecbdata.hit;
+
+	/*
+	 * An xdiff error might be our "data->hit" from above. See the
+	 * comment for xdiff_emit_line_fn in xdiff-interface.h
+	 */
+	ret = xdi_diff_outf(one, two, NULL, diffgrep_consume,
+			    &ecbdata, &xpp, &xecfg);
+	if (ecbdata.hit)
+		return 1;
+	if (ret)
+		return ret;
+	return 0;
 }
 
-static unsigned int contains(mmfile_t *mf, regex_t *regexp, kwset_t kws)
+static unsigned int contains(mmfile_t *mf, regex_t *regexp, kwset_t kws,
+			     unsigned int limit)
 {
-	unsigned int cnt;
-	unsigned long sz;
-	const char *data;
-
-	sz = mf->size;
-	data = mf->ptr;
-	cnt = 0;
+	unsigned int cnt = 0;
+	unsigned long sz = mf->size;
+	const char *data = mf->ptr;
 
 	if (regexp) {
 		regmatch_t regmatch;
 		int flags = 0;
 
-		while (sz && *data &&
+		while (sz &&
 		       !regexec_buf(regexp, data, sz, 1, &regmatch, flags)) {
 			flags |= REG_NOTBOL;
 			data += regmatch.rm_eo;
 			sz -= regmatch.rm_eo;
-			if (sz && *data && regmatch.rm_so == regmatch.rm_eo) {
+			if (sz && regmatch.rm_so == regmatch.rm_eo) {
 				data++;
 				sz--;
 			}
 			cnt++;
+
+			if (limit && cnt == limit)
+				return cnt;
 		}
 
 	} else { /* Classic exact string match */
@@ -103,6 +105,9 @@
 			sz -= offset + kwsm.size[0];
 			data += offset + kwsm.size[0];
 			cnt++;
+
+			if (limit && cnt == limit)
+				return cnt;
 		}
 	}
 	return cnt;
@@ -112,9 +117,9 @@
 		       struct diff_options *o,
 		       regex_t *regexp, kwset_t kws)
 {
-	unsigned int one_contains = one ? contains(one, regexp, kws) : 0;
-	unsigned int two_contains = two ? contains(two, regexp, kws) : 0;
-	return one_contains != two_contains;
+	unsigned int c1 = one ? contains(one, regexp, kws, 0) : 0;
+	unsigned int c2 = two ? contains(two, regexp, kws, c1 + 1) : 0;
+	return c1 != c2;
 }
 
 static int pickaxe_match(struct diff_filepair *p, struct diff_options *o,
@@ -136,9 +141,6 @@
 			 oidset_contains(o->objfind, &p->two->oid));
 	}
 
-	if (!o->pickaxe[0])
-		return 0;
-
 	if (o->flags.allow_textconv) {
 		textconv_one = get_textconv(o->repo, p->one);
 		textconv_two = get_textconv(o->repo, p->two);
@@ -163,9 +165,7 @@
 	mf1.size = fill_textconv(o->repo, textconv_one, p->one, &mf1.ptr);
 	mf2.size = fill_textconv(o->repo, textconv_two, p->two, &mf2.ptr);
 
-	ret = fn(DIFF_FILE_VALID(p->one) ? &mf1 : NULL,
-		 DIFF_FILE_VALID(p->two) ? &mf2 : NULL,
-		 o, regexp, kws);
+	ret = fn(&mf1, &mf2, o, regexp, kws);
 
 	if (textconv_one)
 		free(mf1.ptr);
@@ -232,13 +232,31 @@
 	int opts = o->pickaxe_opts;
 	regex_t regex, *regexp = NULL;
 	kwset_t kws = NULL;
+	pickaxe_fn fn;
 
+	if (opts & ~DIFF_PICKAXE_KIND_OBJFIND &&
+	    (!needle || !*needle))
+		BUG("should have needle under -G or -S");
 	if (opts & (DIFF_PICKAXE_REGEX | DIFF_PICKAXE_KIND_G)) {
 		int cflags = REG_EXTENDED | REG_NEWLINE;
 		if (o->pickaxe_opts & DIFF_PICKAXE_IGNORE_CASE)
 			cflags |= REG_ICASE;
 		regcomp_or_die(&regex, needle, cflags);
 		regexp = &regex;
+
+		if (opts & DIFF_PICKAXE_KIND_G)
+			fn = diff_grep;
+		else if (opts & DIFF_PICKAXE_REGEX)
+			fn = has_changes;
+		else
+			/*
+			 * We don't need to check the combination of
+			 * -G and --pickaxe-regex, by the time we get
+			 * here diff.c has already died if they're
+			 * combined. See the usage tests in
+			 * t4209-log-pickaxe.sh.
+			 */
+			BUG("unreachable");
 	} else if (opts & DIFF_PICKAXE_KIND_S) {
 		if (o->pickaxe_opts & DIFF_PICKAXE_IGNORE_CASE &&
 		    has_non_ascii(needle)) {
@@ -255,10 +273,14 @@
 			kwsincr(kws, needle, strlen(needle));
 			kwsprep(kws);
 		}
+		fn = has_changes;
+	} else if (opts & DIFF_PICKAXE_KIND_OBJFIND) {
+		fn = NULL;
+	} else {
+		BUG("unknown pickaxe_opts flag");
 	}
 
-	pickaxe(&diff_queued_diff, o, regexp, kws,
-		(opts & DIFF_PICKAXE_KIND_G) ? diff_grep : has_changes);
+	pickaxe(&diff_queued_diff, o, regexp, kws, fn);
 
 	if (regexp)
 		regfree(regexp);
diff --git a/diffcore-rename.c b/diffcore-rename.c
index 963ca58..4ef0459 100644
--- a/diffcore-rename.c
+++ b/diffcore-rename.c
@@ -54,7 +54,7 @@
 	if (p->broken_pair) {
 		if (!break_idx) {
 			break_idx = xmalloc(sizeof(*break_idx));
-			strintmap_init(break_idx, -1);
+			strintmap_init_with_options(break_idx, -1, NULL, 0);
 		}
 		strintmap_set(break_idx, p->one->path, rename_dst_nr);
 	}
@@ -87,13 +87,13 @@
 	short name_score;
 };
 
-struct prefetch_options {
+struct inexact_prefetch_options {
 	struct repository *repo;
 	int skip_unmodified;
 };
-static void prefetch(void *prefetch_options)
+static void inexact_prefetch(void *prefetch_options)
 {
-	struct prefetch_options *options = prefetch_options;
+	struct inexact_prefetch_options *options = prefetch_options;
 	int i;
 	struct oid_array to_fetch = OID_ARRAY_INIT;
 
@@ -126,7 +126,7 @@
 			       struct diff_filespec *src,
 			       struct diff_filespec *dst,
 			       int minimum_score,
-			       int skip_unmodified)
+			       struct diff_populate_filespec_options *dpf_opt)
 {
 	/* src points at a file that existed in the original tree (or
 	 * optionally a file in the destination tree) and dst points
@@ -143,15 +143,6 @@
 	 */
 	unsigned long max_size, delta_size, base_size, src_copied, literal_added;
 	int score;
-	struct diff_populate_filespec_options dpf_options = {
-		.check_size_only = 1
-	};
-	struct prefetch_options prefetch_options = {r, skip_unmodified};
-
-	if (r == the_repository && has_promisor_remote()) {
-		dpf_options.missing_object_cb = prefetch;
-		dpf_options.missing_object_data = &prefetch_options;
-	}
 
 	/* We deal only with regular files.  Symlink renames are handled
 	 * only when they are exact matches --- in other words, no edits
@@ -169,11 +160,13 @@
 	 * is a possible size - we really should have a flag to
 	 * say whether the size is valid or not!)
 	 */
+	dpf_opt->check_size_only = 1;
+
 	if (!src->cnt_data &&
-	    diff_populate_filespec(r, src, &dpf_options))
+	    diff_populate_filespec(r, src, dpf_opt))
 		return 0;
 	if (!dst->cnt_data &&
-	    diff_populate_filespec(r, dst, &dpf_options))
+	    diff_populate_filespec(r, dst, dpf_opt))
 		return 0;
 
 	max_size = ((src->size > dst->size) ? src->size : dst->size);
@@ -191,11 +184,11 @@
 	if (max_size * (MAX_SCORE-minimum_score) < delta_size * MAX_SCORE)
 		return 0;
 
-	dpf_options.check_size_only = 0;
+	dpf_opt->check_size_only = 0;
 
-	if (!src->cnt_data && diff_populate_filespec(r, src, &dpf_options))
+	if (!src->cnt_data && diff_populate_filespec(r, src, dpf_opt))
 		return 0;
-	if (!dst->cnt_data && diff_populate_filespec(r, dst, &dpf_options))
+	if (!dst->cnt_data && diff_populate_filespec(r, dst, dpf_opt))
 		return 0;
 
 	if (diffcore_count_changes(r, src, dst,
@@ -568,7 +561,8 @@
 static void initialize_dir_rename_info(struct dir_rename_info *info,
 				       struct strintmap *relevant_sources,
 				       struct strintmap *dirs_removed,
-				       struct strmap *dir_rename_count)
+				       struct strmap *dir_rename_count,
+				       struct strmap *cached_pairs)
 {
 	struct hashmap_iter iter;
 	struct strmap_entry *entry;
@@ -633,6 +627,17 @@
 					 rename_dst[i].p->two->path);
 	}
 
+	/* Add cached_pairs to counts */
+	strmap_for_each_entry(cached_pairs, &iter, entry) {
+		const char *old_name = entry->key;
+		const char *new_name = entry->value;
+		if (!new_name)
+			/* known delete; ignore it */
+			continue;
+
+		update_dir_rename_counts(info, dirs_removed, old_name, new_name);
+	}
+
 	/*
 	 * Now we collapse
 	 *    dir_rename_count: old_directory -> {new_directory -> count}
@@ -811,6 +816,78 @@
 	return idx;
 }
 
+struct basename_prefetch_options {
+	struct repository *repo;
+	struct strintmap *relevant_sources;
+	struct strintmap *sources;
+	struct strintmap *dests;
+	struct dir_rename_info *info;
+};
+static void basename_prefetch(void *prefetch_options)
+{
+	struct basename_prefetch_options *options = prefetch_options;
+	struct strintmap *relevant_sources = options->relevant_sources;
+	struct strintmap *sources = options->sources;
+	struct strintmap *dests = options->dests;
+	struct dir_rename_info *info = options->info;
+	int i;
+	struct oid_array to_fetch = OID_ARRAY_INIT;
+
+	/*
+	 * TODO: The following loops mirror the code/logic from
+	 * find_basename_matches(), though not quite exactly.  Maybe
+	 * abstract the iteration logic out somehow?
+	 */
+	for (i = 0; i < rename_src_nr; ++i) {
+		char *filename = rename_src[i].p->one->path;
+		const char *base = NULL;
+		intptr_t src_index;
+		intptr_t dst_index;
+
+		/* Skip irrelevant sources */
+		if (relevant_sources &&
+		    !strintmap_contains(relevant_sources, filename))
+			continue;
+
+		/*
+		 * If the basename is unique among remaining sources, then
+		 * src_index will equal 'i' and we can attempt to match it
+		 * to a unique basename in the destinations.  Otherwise,
+		 * use directory rename heuristics, if possible.
+		 */
+		base = get_basename(filename);
+		src_index = strintmap_get(sources, base);
+		assert(src_index == -1 || src_index == i);
+
+		if (strintmap_contains(dests, base)) {
+			struct diff_filespec *one, *two;
+
+			/* Find a matching destination, if possible */
+			dst_index = strintmap_get(dests, base);
+			if (src_index == -1 || dst_index == -1) {
+				src_index = i;
+				dst_index = idx_possible_rename(filename, info);
+			}
+			if (dst_index == -1)
+				continue;
+
+			/* Ignore this dest if already used in a rename */
+			if (rename_dst[dst_index].is_rename)
+				continue; /* already used previously */
+
+			one = rename_src[src_index].p->one;
+			two = rename_dst[dst_index].p->two;
+
+			/* Add the pairs */
+			diff_add_if_missing(options->repo, &to_fetch, two);
+			diff_add_if_missing(options->repo, &to_fetch, one);
+		}
+	}
+
+	promisor_remote_get_direct(options->repo, to_fetch.oid, to_fetch.nr);
+	oid_array_clear(&to_fetch);
+}
+
 static int find_basename_matches(struct diff_options *options,
 				 int minimum_score,
 				 struct dir_rename_info *info,
@@ -850,18 +927,18 @@
 	int i, renames = 0;
 	struct strintmap sources;
 	struct strintmap dests;
-
-	/*
-	 * The prefeteching stuff wants to know if it can skip prefetching
-	 * blobs that are unmodified...and will then do a little extra work
-	 * to verify that the oids are indeed different before prefetching.
-	 * Unmodified blobs are only relevant when doing copy detection;
-	 * when limiting to rename detection, diffcore_rename[_extended]()
-	 * will never be called with unmodified source paths fed to us, so
-	 * the extra work necessary to check if rename_src entries are
-	 * unmodified would be a small waste.
-	 */
-	int skip_unmodified = 0;
+	struct diff_populate_filespec_options dpf_options = {
+		.check_binary = 0,
+		.missing_object_cb = NULL,
+		.missing_object_data = NULL
+	};
+	struct basename_prefetch_options prefetch_options = {
+		.repo = options->repo,
+		.relevant_sources = relevant_sources,
+		.sources = &sources,
+		.dests = &dests,
+		.info = info
+	};
 
 	/*
 	 * Create maps of basename -> fullname(s) for remaining sources and
@@ -898,6 +975,11 @@
 			strintmap_set(&dests, base, i);
 	}
 
+	if (options->repo == the_repository && has_promisor_remote()) {
+		dpf_options.missing_object_cb = basename_prefetch;
+		dpf_options.missing_object_data = &prefetch_options;
+	}
+
 	/* Now look for basename matchups and do similarity estimation */
 	for (i = 0; i < rename_src_nr; ++i) {
 		char *filename = rename_src[i].p->one->path;
@@ -941,7 +1023,7 @@
 			one = rename_src[src_index].p->one;
 			two = rename_dst[dst_index].p->two;
 			score = estimate_similarity(options->repo, one, two,
-						    minimum_score, skip_unmodified);
+						    minimum_score, &dpf_options);
 
 			/* If sufficiently similar, record as rename pair */
 			if (score < minimum_score)
@@ -1247,7 +1329,8 @@
 void diffcore_rename_extended(struct diff_options *options,
 			      struct strintmap *relevant_sources,
 			      struct strintmap *dirs_removed,
-			      struct strmap *dir_rename_count)
+			      struct strmap *dir_rename_count,
+			      struct strmap *cached_pairs)
 {
 	int detect_rename = options->detect_rename;
 	int minimum_score = options->rename_score;
@@ -1259,6 +1342,14 @@
 	int num_sources, want_copies;
 	struct progress *progress = NULL;
 	struct dir_rename_info info;
+	struct diff_populate_filespec_options dpf_options = {
+		.check_binary = 0,
+		.missing_object_cb = NULL,
+		.missing_object_data = NULL
+	};
+	struct inexact_prefetch_options prefetch_options = {
+		.repo = options->repo
+	};
 
 	trace2_region_enter("diff", "setup", options->repo);
 	info.setup = 0;
@@ -1363,7 +1454,8 @@
 		/* Preparation for basename-driven matching. */
 		trace2_region_enter("diff", "dir rename setup", options->repo);
 		initialize_dir_rename_info(&info, relevant_sources,
-					   dirs_removed, dir_rename_count);
+					   dirs_removed, dir_rename_count,
+					   cached_pairs);
 		trace2_region_leave("diff", "dir rename setup", options->repo);
 
 		/* Utilize file basenames to quickly find renames. */
@@ -1419,6 +1511,13 @@
 				(uint64_t)num_destinations * (uint64_t)num_sources);
 	}
 
+	/* Finish setting up dpf_options */
+	prefetch_options.skip_unmodified = skip_unmodified;
+	if (options->repo == the_repository && has_promisor_remote()) {
+		dpf_options.missing_object_cb = inexact_prefetch;
+		dpf_options.missing_object_data = &prefetch_options;
+	}
+
 	CALLOC_ARRAY(mx, st_mult(NUM_CANDIDATE_PER_DST, num_destinations));
 	for (dst_cnt = i = 0; i < rename_dst_nr; i++) {
 		struct diff_filespec *two = rename_dst[i].p->two;
@@ -1444,7 +1543,7 @@
 			this_src.score = estimate_similarity(options->repo,
 							     one, two,
 							     minimum_score,
-							     skip_unmodified);
+							     &dpf_options);
 			this_src.name_score = basename_same(one, two);
 			this_src.dst = i;
 			this_src.src = j;
@@ -1529,7 +1628,7 @@
 			/* all the usual ones need to be kept */
 			diff_q(&outq, p);
 		else
-			/* no need to keep unmodified pairs; FIXME: remove earlier? */
+			/* no need to keep unmodified pairs */
 			pair_to_free = p;
 
 		if (pair_to_free)
@@ -1560,5 +1659,5 @@
 
 void diffcore_rename(struct diff_options *options)
 {
-	diffcore_rename_extended(options, NULL, NULL, NULL);
+	diffcore_rename_extended(options, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL);
 }
diff --git a/diffcore.h b/diffcore.h
index f5c6de4..533b30e 100644
--- a/diffcore.h
+++ b/diffcore.h
@@ -181,7 +181,8 @@
 void diffcore_rename_extended(struct diff_options *options,
 			      struct strintmap *relevant_sources,
 			      struct strintmap *dirs_removed,
-			      struct strmap *dir_rename_count);
+			      struct strmap *dir_rename_count,
+			      struct strmap *cached_pairs);
 void diffcore_merge_broken(void);
 void diffcore_pickaxe(struct diff_options *);
 void diffcore_order(const char *orderfile);
diff --git a/dir.c b/dir.c
index ebe5ec0..313e932 100644
--- a/dir.c
+++ b/dir.c
@@ -53,12 +53,6 @@
 	int check_only, int stop_at_first_file, const struct pathspec *pathspec);
 static int resolve_dtype(int dtype, struct index_state *istate,
 			 const char *path, int len);
-
-void dir_init(struct dir_struct *dir)
-{
-	memset(dir, 0, sizeof(*dir));
-}
-
 struct dirent *readdir_skip_dot_and_dotdot(DIR *dirp)
 {
 	struct dirent *e;
@@ -3105,6 +3099,7 @@
 	struct exclude_list_group *group;
 	struct pattern_list *pl;
 	struct exclude_stack *stk;
+	struct dir_struct new = DIR_INIT;
 
 	for (i = EXC_CMDL; i <= EXC_FILE; i++) {
 		group = &dir->exclude_list_group[i];
@@ -3132,7 +3127,7 @@
 	}
 	strbuf_release(&dir->basebuf);
 
-	dir_init(dir);
+	memcpy(dir, &new, sizeof(*dir));
 }
 
 struct ondisk_untracked_cache {
diff --git a/dir.h b/dir.h
index e3db9b9..8d0ddd8 100644
--- a/dir.h
+++ b/dir.h
@@ -342,6 +342,8 @@
 	unsigned visited_directories;
 };
 
+#define DIR_INIT { 0 }
+
 struct dirent *readdir_skip_dot_and_dotdot(DIR *dirp);
 
 /*Count the number of slashes for string s*/
@@ -367,8 +369,6 @@
 int report_path_error(const char *ps_matched, const struct pathspec *pathspec);
 int within_depth(const char *name, int namelen, int depth, int max_depth);
 
-void dir_init(struct dir_struct *dir);
-
 int fill_directory(struct dir_struct *dir,
 		   struct index_state *istate,
 		   const struct pathspec *pathspec);
diff --git a/entry.c b/entry.c
index 711ee06..125fabd 100644
--- a/entry.c
+++ b/entry.c
@@ -143,8 +143,8 @@
 	if (!state->delayed_checkout) {
 		state->delayed_checkout = xmalloc(sizeof(*state->delayed_checkout));
 		state->delayed_checkout->state = CE_CAN_DELAY;
-		string_list_init(&state->delayed_checkout->filters, 0);
-		string_list_init(&state->delayed_checkout->paths, 0);
+		string_list_init_nodup(&state->delayed_checkout->filters);
+		string_list_init_nodup(&state->delayed_checkout->paths);
 	}
 }
 
diff --git a/fetch-pack.c b/fetch-pack.c
index c135635..b0c7be7 100644
--- a/fetch-pack.c
+++ b/fetch-pack.c
@@ -1645,6 +1645,15 @@
 			if (process_section_header(&reader, "packfile-uris", 1))
 				receive_packfile_uris(&reader, &packfile_uris);
 			process_section_header(&reader, "packfile", 0);
+
+			/*
+			 * this is the final request we'll make of the server;
+			 * do a half-duplex shutdown to indicate that they can
+			 * hang up as soon as the pack is sent.
+			 */
+			close(fd[1]);
+			fd[1] = -1;
+
 			if (get_pack(args, fd, pack_lockfiles,
 				     packfile_uris.nr ? &index_pack_args : NULL,
 				     sought, nr_sought, &fsck_options.gitmodules_found))
diff --git a/git-compat-util.h b/git-compat-util.h
index a508dbe..b466053 100644
--- a/git-compat-util.h
+++ b/git-compat-util.h
@@ -876,6 +876,7 @@
 void *xrealloc(void *ptr, size_t size);
 void *xcalloc(size_t nmemb, size_t size);
 void *xmmap(void *start, size_t length, int prot, int flags, int fd, off_t offset);
+const char *mmap_os_err(void);
 void *xmmap_gently(void *start, size_t length, int prot, int flags, int fd, off_t offset);
 int xopen(const char *path, int flags, ...);
 ssize_t xread(int fd, void *buf, size_t len);
@@ -986,11 +987,9 @@
 
 static inline size_t xsize_t(off_t len)
 {
-	size_t size = (size_t) len;
-
-	if (len != (off_t) size)
+	if (len < 0 || (uintmax_t) len > SIZE_MAX)
 		die("Cannot handle files this big");
-	return size;
+	return (size_t) len;
 }
 
 __attribute__((format (printf, 3, 4)))
@@ -1368,7 +1367,7 @@
 	(type *)container_of_or_null_offset(ptr, offsetof(type, member))
 
 /*
- * like offsetof(), but takes a pointer to a a variable of type which
+ * like offsetof(), but takes a pointer to a variable of type which
  * contains @member, instead of a specified type.
  * @ptr is subject to multiple evaluation since we can't rely on __typeof__
  * everywhere.
diff --git a/git-cvsserver.perl b/git-cvsserver.perl
index f6f3fc1..ed035f3 100755
--- a/git-cvsserver.perl
+++ b/git-cvsserver.perl
@@ -2149,7 +2149,7 @@
                    ( $meta2->{revision} or "workingcopy" ));
 
         # TODO: Use --label instead of -L because -L is no longer
-        #  documented and may go away someday.  Not sure if there there are
+        #  documented and may go away someday.  Not sure if there are
         #  versions that only support -L, which would make this change risky?
         #  http://osdir.com/ml/bug-gnu-utils-gnu/2010-12/msg00060.html
         #    ("man diff" should actually document the best migration strategy,
diff --git a/git-p4.py b/git-p4.py
index d34a194..2b45002 100755
--- a/git-p4.py
+++ b/git-p4.py
@@ -1977,8 +1977,11 @@
                 newdiff += "+%s\n" % os.readlink(newFile)
             else:
                 f = open(newFile, "r")
-                for line in f.readlines():
-                    newdiff += "+" + line
+                try:
+                    for line in f.readlines():
+                        newdiff += "+" + line
+                except UnicodeDecodeError:
+                    pass # Found non-text data and skip, since diff description should only include text
                 f.close()
 
         return (diff + newdiff).replace('\r\n', '\n')
diff --git a/git-send-email.perl b/git-send-email.perl
index 25be2eb..7ba0b34 100755
--- a/git-send-email.perl
+++ b/git-send-email.perl
@@ -70,6 +70,7 @@
 
   Sending:
     --envelope-sender       <str>  * Email envelope sender.
+    --sendmail-cmd          <str>  * Command to run to send email.
     --smtp-server       <str:int>  * Outgoing SMTP server to use. The port
                                      is optional. Default 'localhost'.
     --smtp-server-option    <str>  * Outgoing SMTP server option to use.
@@ -262,6 +263,7 @@
 my (@suppress_cc);
 my ($auto_8bit_encoding);
 my ($compose_encoding);
+my ($sendmail_cmd);
 # Variables with corresponding config settings & hardcoded defaults
 my ($debug_net_smtp) = 0;		# Net::SMTP, see send_message()
 my $thread = 1;
@@ -309,6 +311,7 @@
     "assume8bitencoding" => \$auto_8bit_encoding,
     "composeencoding" => \$compose_encoding,
     "transferencoding" => \$target_xfer_encoding,
+    "sendmailcmd" => \$sendmail_cmd,
 );
 
 my %config_path_settings = (
@@ -442,6 +445,7 @@
 		    "no-bcc" => \$no_bcc,
 		    "chain-reply-to!" => \$chain_reply_to,
 		    "no-chain-reply-to" => sub {$chain_reply_to = 0},
+		    "sendmail-cmd=s" => \$sendmail_cmd,
 		    "smtp-server=s" => \$smtp_server,
 		    "smtp-server-option=s" => \@smtp_server_options,
 		    "smtp-server-port=s" => \$smtp_server_port,
@@ -1013,16 +1017,19 @@
 	$reply_to = sanitize_address($reply_to);
 }
 
-if (!defined $smtp_server) {
+if (!defined $sendmail_cmd && !defined $smtp_server) {
 	my @sendmail_paths = qw( /usr/sbin/sendmail /usr/lib/sendmail );
 	push @sendmail_paths, map {"$_/sendmail"} split /:/, $ENV{PATH};
 	foreach (@sendmail_paths) {
 		if (-x $_) {
-			$smtp_server = $_;
+			$sendmail_cmd = $_;
 			last;
 		}
 	}
-	$smtp_server ||= 'localhost'; # could be 127.0.0.1, too... *shrug*
+
+	if (!defined $sendmail_cmd) {
+		$smtp_server = 'localhost'; # could be 127.0.0.1, too... *shrug*
+	}
 }
 
 if ($compose && $compose > 0) {
@@ -1502,11 +1509,17 @@
 
 	if ($dry_run) {
 		# We don't want to send the email.
-	} elsif (file_name_is_absolute($smtp_server)) {
+	} elsif (defined $sendmail_cmd || file_name_is_absolute($smtp_server)) {
 		my $pid = open my $sm, '|-';
 		defined $pid or die $!;
 		if (!$pid) {
-			exec($smtp_server, @sendmail_parameters) or die $!;
+			if (defined $sendmail_cmd) {
+				exec ("sh", "-c", "$sendmail_cmd \"\$@\"", "-", @sendmail_parameters)
+					or die $!;
+			} else {
+				exec ($smtp_server, @sendmail_parameters)
+					or die $!;
+			}
 		}
 		print $sm "$header\n$message";
 		close $sm or die $!;
@@ -1602,14 +1615,21 @@
 		printf($dry_run ? __("Dry-Sent %s\n") : __("Sent %s\n"), $subject);
 	} else {
 		print($dry_run ? __("Dry-OK. Log says:\n") : __("OK. Log says:\n"));
-		if (!file_name_is_absolute($smtp_server)) {
+		if (!defined $sendmail_cmd && !file_name_is_absolute($smtp_server)) {
 			print "Server: $smtp_server\n";
 			print "MAIL FROM:<$raw_from>\n";
 			foreach my $entry (@recipients) {
 			    print "RCPT TO:<$entry>\n";
 			}
 		} else {
-			print "Sendmail: $smtp_server ".join(' ',@sendmail_parameters)."\n";
+			my $sm;
+			if (defined $sendmail_cmd) {
+				$sm = $sendmail_cmd;
+			} else {
+				$sm = $smtp_server;
+			}
+
+			print "Sendmail: $sm ".join(' ',@sendmail_parameters)."\n";
 		}
 		print $header, "\n";
 		if ($smtp) {
diff --git a/git-submodule.sh b/git-submodule.sh
index 4678378..cb06aa0 100755
--- a/git-submodule.sh
+++ b/git-submodule.sh
@@ -335,7 +335,7 @@
 		shift
 	done
 
-	git ${wt_prefix:+-C "$wt_prefix"} ${prefix:+--super-prefix "$prefix"} submodule--helper foreach ${GIT_QUIET:+--quiet} ${recursive:+--recursive} -- "$@"
+	git ${wt_prefix:+-C "$wt_prefix"} submodule--helper foreach ${GIT_QUIET:+--quiet} ${recursive:+--recursive} -- "$@"
 }
 
 #
@@ -402,7 +402,7 @@
 		shift
 	done
 
-	git ${wt_prefix:+-C "$wt_prefix"} submodule--helper deinit ${GIT_QUIET:+--quiet} ${prefix:+--prefix "$prefix"} ${force:+--force} ${deinit_all:+--all} -- "$@"
+	git ${wt_prefix:+-C "$wt_prefix"} submodule--helper deinit ${GIT_QUIET:+--quiet} ${force:+--force} ${deinit_all:+--all} -- "$@"
 }
 
 is_tip_reachable () (
@@ -726,7 +726,7 @@
 		shift
 	done
 
-	git ${wt_prefix:+-C "$wt_prefix"} ${prefix:+--super-prefix "$prefix"} submodule--helper set-branch ${GIT_QUIET:+--quiet} ${branch:+--branch "$branch"} ${default:+--default} -- "$@"
+	git ${wt_prefix:+-C "$wt_prefix"} submodule--helper set-branch ${GIT_QUIET:+--quiet} ${branch:+--branch "$branch"} ${default:+--default} -- "$@"
 }
 
 #
@@ -755,7 +755,7 @@
 		shift
 	done
 
-	git ${wt_prefix:+-C "$wt_prefix"} ${prefix:+--super-prefix "$prefix"} submodule--helper set-url ${GIT_QUIET:+--quiet} -- "$@"
+	git ${wt_prefix:+-C "$wt_prefix"} submodule--helper set-url ${GIT_QUIET:+--quiet} -- "$@"
 }
 
 #
@@ -807,7 +807,7 @@
 		shift
 	done
 
-	git ${wt_prefix:+-C "$wt_prefix"} submodule--helper summary ${prefix:+--prefix "$prefix"} ${files:+--files} ${cached:+--cached} ${for_status:+--for-status} ${summary_limit:+-n $summary_limit} -- "$@"
+	git ${wt_prefix:+-C "$wt_prefix"} submodule--helper summary ${files:+--files} ${cached:+--cached} ${for_status:+--for-status} ${summary_limit:+-n $summary_limit} -- "$@"
 }
 #
 # List all submodules, prefixed with:
@@ -848,7 +848,7 @@
 		shift
 	done
 
-	git ${wt_prefix:+-C "$wt_prefix"} ${prefix:+--super-prefix "$prefix"} submodule--helper status ${GIT_QUIET:+--quiet} ${cached:+--cached} ${recursive:+--recursive} -- "$@"
+	git ${wt_prefix:+-C "$wt_prefix"} submodule--helper status ${GIT_QUIET:+--quiet} ${cached:+--cached} ${recursive:+--recursive} -- "$@"
 }
 #
 # Sync remote urls for submodules
@@ -881,7 +881,7 @@
 		esac
 	done
 
-	git ${wt_prefix:+-C "$wt_prefix"} ${prefix:+--super-prefix "$prefix"} submodule--helper sync ${GIT_QUIET:+--quiet} ${recursive:+--recursive} -- "$@"
+	git ${wt_prefix:+-C "$wt_prefix"} submodule--helper sync ${GIT_QUIET:+--quiet} ${recursive:+--recursive} -- "$@"
 }
 
 cmd_absorbgitdirs()
diff --git a/graph.c b/graph.c
index c128ad0..e3828eb 100644
--- a/graph.c
+++ b/graph.c
@@ -95,7 +95,7 @@
 		if (!color_parse_mem(start, comma - start, color))
 			strvec_push(colors, color);
 		else
-			warning(_("ignore invalid color '%.*s' in log.graphColors"),
+			warning(_("ignored invalid color '%.*s' in log.graphColors"),
 				(int)(comma - start), start);
 		start = comma + 1;
 	}
diff --git a/grep.c b/grep.c
index 8f91af1..424a395 100644
--- a/grep.c
+++ b/grep.c
@@ -657,6 +657,8 @@
 	x = compile_pattern_not(list);
 	p = *list;
 	if (p && p->token == GREP_AND) {
+		if (!x)
+			die("--and not preceded by pattern expression");
 		if (!p->next)
 			die("--and not followed by pattern expression");
 		*list = p->next;
diff --git a/hash.h b/hash.h
index 2986f99..9c6df4d 100644
--- a/hash.h
+++ b/hash.h
@@ -263,6 +263,22 @@
 	dst->algo = src->algo;
 }
 
+/* Like oidcpy() but zero-pads the unused bytes in dst's hash array. */
+static inline void oidcpy_with_padding(struct object_id *dst,
+				       struct object_id *src)
+{
+	size_t hashsz;
+
+	if (!src->algo)
+		hashsz = the_hash_algo->rawsz;
+	else
+		hashsz = hash_algos[src->algo].rawsz;
+
+	memcpy(dst->hash, src->hash, hashsz);
+	memset(dst->hash + hashsz, 0, GIT_MAX_RAWSZ - hashsz);
+	dst->algo = src->algo;
+}
+
 static inline struct object_id *oiddup(const struct object_id *src)
 {
 	struct object_id *dst = xmalloc(sizeof(struct object_id));
diff --git a/json-writer.c b/json-writer.c
index aadb9db..f1cfd8f 100644
--- a/json-writer.c
+++ b/json-writer.c
@@ -3,10 +3,8 @@
 
 void jw_init(struct json_writer *jw)
 {
-	strbuf_init(&jw->json, 0);
-	strbuf_init(&jw->open_stack, 0);
-	jw->need_comma = 0;
-	jw->pretty = 0;
+	struct json_writer blank = JSON_WRITER_INIT;
+	memcpy(jw, &blank, sizeof(*jw));;
 }
 
 void jw_release(struct json_writer *jw)
diff --git a/json-writer.h b/json-writer.h
index 83906b0..209355e 100644
--- a/json-writer.h
+++ b/json-writer.h
@@ -64,7 +64,10 @@
 	unsigned int pretty:1;
 };
 
-#define JSON_WRITER_INIT { STRBUF_INIT, STRBUF_INIT, 0, 0 }
+#define JSON_WRITER_INIT { \
+	.json = STRBUF_INIT, \
+	.open_stack = STRBUF_INIT, \
+}
 
 void jw_init(struct json_writer *jw);
 void jw_release(struct json_writer *jw);
diff --git a/khash.h b/khash.h
index 21c2095..cb79bf8 100644
--- a/khash.h
+++ b/khash.h
@@ -74,7 +74,7 @@
 	void kh_destroy_##name(kh_##name##_t *h);					\
 	void kh_clear_##name(kh_##name##_t *h);						\
 	khint_t kh_get_##name(const kh_##name##_t *h, khkey_t key); \
-	int kh_resize_##name(kh_##name##_t *h, khint_t new_n_buckets); \
+	void kh_resize_##name(kh_##name##_t *h, khint_t new_n_buckets); \
 	khint_t kh_put_##name(kh_##name##_t *h, khkey_t key, int *ret); \
 	void kh_del_##name(kh_##name##_t *h, khint_t x);
 
@@ -116,7 +116,7 @@
 			return __ac_iseither(h->flags, i)? h->n_buckets : i;		\
 		} else return 0;												\
 	}																	\
-	SCOPE int kh_resize_##name(kh_##name##_t *h, khint_t new_n_buckets) \
+	SCOPE void kh_resize_##name(kh_##name##_t *h, khint_t new_n_buckets) \
 	{ /* This function uses 0.25*n_buckets bytes of working space instead of [sizeof(key_t+val_t)+.25]*n_buckets. */ \
 		khint32_t *new_flags = NULL;										\
 		khint_t j = 1;													\
@@ -126,7 +126,6 @@
 			if (h->size >= (khint_t)(new_n_buckets * __ac_HASH_UPPER + 0.5)) j = 0;	/* requested size is too small */ \
 			else { /* hash table size to be changed (shrink or expand); rehash */ \
 				ALLOC_ARRAY(new_flags, __ac_fsize(new_n_buckets)); \
-				if (!new_flags) return -1;								\
 				memset(new_flags, 0xaa, __ac_fsize(new_n_buckets) * sizeof(khint32_t)); \
 				if (h->n_buckets < new_n_buckets) {	/* expand */		\
 					REALLOC_ARRAY(h->keys, new_n_buckets); \
@@ -173,18 +172,15 @@
 			h->n_occupied = h->size;									\
 			h->upper_bound = (khint_t)(h->n_buckets * __ac_HASH_UPPER + 0.5); \
 		}																\
-		return 0;														\
 	}																	\
 	SCOPE khint_t kh_put_##name(kh_##name##_t *h, khkey_t key, int *ret) \
 	{																	\
 		khint_t x;														\
 		if (h->n_occupied >= h->upper_bound) { /* update the hash table */ \
 			if (h->n_buckets > (h->size<<1)) {							\
-				if (kh_resize_##name(h, h->n_buckets - 1) < 0) { /* clear "deleted" elements */ \
-					*ret = -1; return h->n_buckets;						\
-				}														\
-			} else if (kh_resize_##name(h, h->n_buckets + 1) < 0) { /* expand the hash table */ \
-				*ret = -1; return h->n_buckets;							\
+				kh_resize_##name(h, h->n_buckets - 1); /* clear "deleted" elements */ \
+			} else { \
+				kh_resize_##name(h, h->n_buckets + 1); /* expand the hash table */ \
 			}															\
 		} /* TODO: to implement automatically shrinking; resize() already support shrinking */ \
 		{																\
diff --git a/list-objects-filter-options.c b/list-objects-filter-options.c
index 96a605c..fd8d59f 100644
--- a/list-objects-filter-options.c
+++ b/list-objects-filter-options.c
@@ -102,7 +102,7 @@
 	} else if (skip_prefix(arg, "object:type=", &v0)) {
 		int type = type_from_string_gently(v0, strlen(v0), 1);
 		if (type < 0) {
-			strbuf_addf(errbuf, _("'%s' for 'object:type=<type>' is"
+			strbuf_addf(errbuf, _("'%s' for 'object:type=<type>' is "
 					      "not a valid object type"), v0);
 			return 1;
 		}
diff --git a/list-objects.c b/list-objects.c
index 7f40467..473a332 100644
--- a/list-objects.c
+++ b/list-objects.c
@@ -164,6 +164,9 @@
 		die("bad tree object");
 	if (obj->flags & (UNINTERESTING | SEEN))
 		return;
+	if (revs->include_check_obj &&
+	    !revs->include_check_obj(&tree->object, revs->include_check_data))
+		return;
 
 	failed_parse = parse_tree_gently(tree, 1);
 	if (failed_parse) {
diff --git a/ll-merge.c b/ll-merge.c
index 9a8a2c3..2616575 100644
--- a/ll-merge.c
+++ b/ll-merge.c
@@ -91,7 +91,9 @@
 	 * With -Xtheirs or -Xours, we have cleanly merged;
 	 * otherwise we got a conflict.
 	 */
-	return (opts->variant ? 0 : 1);
+	return opts->variant == XDL_MERGE_FAVOR_OURS ||
+	       opts->variant == XDL_MERGE_FAVOR_THEIRS ?
+	       0 : 1;
 }
 
 static int ll_xdl_merge(const struct ll_merge_driver *drv_unused,
@@ -136,7 +138,7 @@
 
 static int ll_union_merge(const struct ll_merge_driver *drv_unused,
 			  mmbuffer_t *result,
-			  const char *path_unused,
+			  const char *path,
 			  mmfile_t *orig, const char *orig_name,
 			  mmfile_t *src1, const char *name1,
 			  mmfile_t *src2, const char *name2,
@@ -148,8 +150,8 @@
 	assert(opts);
 	o = *opts;
 	o.variant = XDL_MERGE_FAVOR_UNION;
-	return ll_xdl_merge(drv_unused, result, path_unused,
-			    orig, NULL, src1, NULL, src2, NULL,
+	return ll_xdl_merge(drv_unused, result, path,
+			    orig, orig_name, src1, name1, src2, name2,
 			    &o, marker_size);
 }
 
diff --git a/mailinfo.c b/mailinfo.c
index ccc6beb..02f6f95 100644
--- a/mailinfo.c
+++ b/mailinfo.c
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@
 static void get_sane_name(struct strbuf *out, struct strbuf *name, struct strbuf *email)
 {
 	struct strbuf *src = name;
-	if (name->len < 3 || 60 < name->len || strpbrk(name->buf, "@<>"))
+	if (!name->len || 60 < name->len || strpbrk(name->buf, "@<>"))
 		src = email;
 	else if (name == out)
 		return;
@@ -705,8 +705,8 @@
 			perforation++;
 			continue;
 		}
-		if ((!memcmp(c, ">8", 2) || !memcmp(c, "8<", 2) ||
-		     !memcmp(c, ">%", 2) || !memcmp(c, "%<", 2))) {
+		if (starts_with(c, ">8") || starts_with(c, "8<") ||
+		    starts_with(c, ">%") || starts_with(c, "%<")) {
 			in_perforation = 1;
 			perforation += 2;
 			scissors += 2;
diff --git a/merge-ort.c b/merge-ort.c
index 4a9ce2a..8cfa0cc 100644
--- a/merge-ort.c
+++ b/merge-ort.c
@@ -29,6 +29,7 @@
 #include "entry.h"
 #include "ll-merge.h"
 #include "object-store.h"
+#include "promisor-remote.h"
 #include "revision.h"
 #include "strmap.h"
 #include "submodule.h"
@@ -53,6 +54,8 @@
 	MERGE_SIDE2 = 2
 };
 
+static unsigned RESULT_INITIALIZED = 0x1abe11ed; /* unlikely accidental value */
+
 struct traversal_callback_data {
 	unsigned long mask;
 	unsigned long dirmask;
@@ -141,6 +144,72 @@
 	char *callback_data_traverse_path;
 
 	/*
+	 * merge_trees: trees passed to the merge algorithm for the merge
+	 *
+	 * merge_trees records the trees passed to the merge algorithm.  But,
+	 * this data also is stored in merge_result->priv.  If a sequence of
+	 * merges are being done (such as when cherry-picking or rebasing),
+	 * the next merge can look at this and re-use information from
+	 * previous merges under certain circumstances.
+	 *
+	 * See also all the cached_* variables.
+	 */
+	struct tree *merge_trees[3];
+
+	/*
+	 * cached_pairs_valid_side: which side's cached info can be reused
+	 *
+	 * See the description for merge_trees.  For repeated merges, at most
+	 * only one side's cached information can be used.  Valid values:
+	 *   MERGE_SIDE2: cached data from side2 can be reused
+	 *   MERGE_SIDE1: cached data from side1 can be reused
+	 *   0:           no cached data can be reused
+	 */
+	int cached_pairs_valid_side;
+
+	/*
+	 * cached_pairs: Caching of renames and deletions.
+	 *
+	 * These are mappings recording renames and deletions of individual
+	 * files (not directories).  They are thus a map from an old
+	 * filename to either NULL (for deletions) or a new filename (for
+	 * renames).
+	 */
+	struct strmap cached_pairs[3];
+
+	/*
+	 * cached_target_names: just the destinations from cached_pairs
+	 *
+	 * We sometimes want a fast lookup to determine if a given filename
+	 * is one of the destinations in cached_pairs.  cached_target_names
+	 * is thus duplicative information, but it provides a fast lookup.
+	 */
+	struct strset cached_target_names[3];
+
+	/*
+	 * cached_irrelevant: Caching of rename_sources that aren't relevant.
+	 *
+	 * If we try to detect a rename for a source path and succeed, it's
+	 * part of a rename.  If we try to detect a rename for a source path
+	 * and fail, then it's a delete.  If we do not try to detect a rename
+	 * for a path, then we don't know if it's a rename or a delete.  If
+	 * merge-ort doesn't think the path is relevant, then we just won't
+	 * cache anything for that path.  But there's a slight problem in
+	 * that merge-ort can think a path is RELEVANT_LOCATION, but due to
+	 * commit 9bd342137e ("diffcore-rename: determine which
+	 * relevant_sources are no longer relevant", 2021-03-13),
+	 * diffcore-rename can downgrade the path to RELEVANT_NO_MORE.  To
+	 * avoid excessive calls to diffcore_rename_extended() we still need
+	 * to cache such paths, though we cannot record them as either
+	 * renames or deletes.  So we cache them here as a "turned out to be
+	 * irrelevant *for this commit*" as they are often also irrelevant
+	 * for subsequent commits, though we will have to do some extra
+	 * checking to see whether such paths become relevant for rename
+	 * detection when cherry-picking/rebasing subsequent commits.
+	 */
+	struct strset cached_irrelevant[3];
+
+	/*
 	 * needed_limit: value needed for inexact rename detection to run
 	 *
 	 * If the current rename limit wasn't high enough for inexact
@@ -382,6 +451,8 @@
 		reinitialize ? strmap_partial_clear : strmap_clear;
 	void (*strintmap_func)(struct strintmap *) =
 		reinitialize ? strintmap_partial_clear : strintmap_clear;
+	void (*strset_func)(struct strset *) =
+		reinitialize ? strset_partial_clear : strset_clear;
 
 	/*
 	 * We marked opti->paths with strdup_strings = 0, so that we
@@ -417,15 +488,21 @@
 	/* Free memory used by various renames maps */
 	for (i = MERGE_SIDE1; i <= MERGE_SIDE2; ++i) {
 		strintmap_func(&renames->dirs_removed[i]);
-
-		partial_clear_dir_rename_count(&renames->dir_rename_count[i]);
-		if (!reinitialize)
-			strmap_clear(&renames->dir_rename_count[i], 1);
-
 		strmap_func(&renames->dir_renames[i], 0);
-
 		strintmap_func(&renames->relevant_sources[i]);
+		if (!reinitialize)
+			assert(renames->cached_pairs_valid_side == 0);
+		if (i != renames->cached_pairs_valid_side) {
+			strset_func(&renames->cached_target_names[i]);
+			strmap_func(&renames->cached_pairs[i], 1);
+			strset_func(&renames->cached_irrelevant[i]);
+			partial_clear_dir_rename_count(&renames->dir_rename_count[i]);
+			if (!reinitialize)
+				strmap_clear(&renames->dir_rename_count[i], 1);
+		}
 	}
+	renames->cached_pairs_valid_side = 0;
+	renames->dir_rename_mask = 0;
 
 	if (!reinitialize) {
 		struct hashmap_iter iter;
@@ -448,8 +525,6 @@
 		strmap_clear(&opti->output, 0);
 	}
 
-	renames->dir_rename_mask = 0;
-
 	/* Clean out callback_data as well. */
 	FREE_AND_NULL(renames->callback_data);
 	renames->callback_data_nr = renames->callback_data_alloc = 0;
@@ -690,15 +765,51 @@
 	struct rename_info *renames = &opt->priv->renames;
 	int names_idx = is_add ? side : 0;
 
-	if (!is_add) {
+	if (is_add) {
+		assert(match_mask == 0 || match_mask == 6);
+		if (strset_contains(&renames->cached_target_names[side],
+				    pathname))
+			return;
+	} else {
 		unsigned content_relevant = (match_mask == 0);
 		unsigned location_relevant = (dir_rename_mask == 0x07);
 
+		assert(match_mask == 0 || match_mask == 3 || match_mask == 5);
+
+		/*
+		 * If pathname is found in cached_irrelevant[side] due to
+		 * previous pick but for this commit content is relevant,
+		 * then we need to remove it from cached_irrelevant.
+		 */
+		if (content_relevant)
+			/* strset_remove is no-op if strset doesn't have key */
+			strset_remove(&renames->cached_irrelevant[side],
+				      pathname);
+
+		/*
+		 * We do not need to re-detect renames for paths that we already
+		 * know the pairing, i.e. for cached_pairs (or
+		 * cached_irrelevant).  However, handle_deferred_entries() needs
+		 * to loop over the union of keys from relevant_sources[side] and
+		 * cached_pairs[side], so for simplicity we set relevant_sources
+		 * for all the cached_pairs too and then strip them back out in
+		 * prune_cached_from_relevant() at the beginning of
+		 * detect_regular_renames().
+		 */
 		if (content_relevant || location_relevant) {
 			/* content_relevant trumps location_relevant */
 			strintmap_set(&renames->relevant_sources[side], pathname,
 				      content_relevant ? RELEVANT_CONTENT : RELEVANT_LOCATION);
 		}
+
+		/*
+		 * Avoid creating pair if we've already cached rename results.
+		 * Note that we do this after setting relevant_sources[side]
+		 * as noted in the comment above.
+		 */
+		if (strmap_contains(&renames->cached_pairs[side], pathname) ||
+		    strset_contains(&renames->cached_irrelevant[side], pathname))
+			return;
 	}
 
 	one = alloc_filespec(pathname);
@@ -1729,7 +1840,7 @@
 			free(new_path);
 		} else {
 			CALLOC_ARRAY(collision_info, 1);
-			string_list_init(&collision_info->source_files, 0);
+			string_list_init_nodup(&collision_info->source_files);
 			strmap_put(collisions, new_path, collision_info);
 		}
 		string_list_insert(&collision_info->source_files,
@@ -2037,6 +2148,9 @@
 			VERIFY_CI(side2);
 
 			if (!strcmp(pathnames[1], pathnames[2])) {
+				struct rename_info *ri = &opt->priv->renames;
+				int j;
+
 				/* Both sides renamed the same way */
 				assert(side1 == side2);
 				memcpy(&side1->stages[0], &base->stages[0],
@@ -2046,6 +2160,16 @@
 				base->merged.is_null = 1;
 				base->merged.clean = 1;
 
+				/*
+				 * Disable remembering renames optimization;
+				 * rename/rename(1to1) is incredibly rare, and
+				 * just disabling the optimization is easier
+				 * than purging cached_pairs,
+				 * cached_target_names, and dir_rename_counts.
+				 */
+				for (j = 0; j < 3; j++)
+					ri->merge_trees[j] = NULL;
+
 				/* We handled both renames, i.e. i+1 handled */
 				i++;
 				/* Move to next rename */
@@ -2273,7 +2397,9 @@
 static inline int possible_renames(struct rename_info *renames)
 {
 	return possible_side_renames(renames, 1) ||
-	       possible_side_renames(renames, 2);
+	       possible_side_renames(renames, 2) ||
+	       !strmap_empty(&renames->cached_pairs[1]) ||
+	       !strmap_empty(&renames->cached_pairs[2]);
 }
 
 static void resolve_diffpair_statuses(struct diff_queue_struct *q)
@@ -2297,6 +2423,112 @@
 	}
 }
 
+static void prune_cached_from_relevant(struct rename_info *renames,
+				       unsigned side)
+{
+	/* Reason for this function described in add_pair() */
+	struct hashmap_iter iter;
+	struct strmap_entry *entry;
+
+	/* Remove from relevant_sources all entries in cached_pairs[side] */
+	strmap_for_each_entry(&renames->cached_pairs[side], &iter, entry) {
+		strintmap_remove(&renames->relevant_sources[side],
+				 entry->key);
+	}
+	/* Remove from relevant_sources all entries in cached_irrelevant[side] */
+	strset_for_each_entry(&renames->cached_irrelevant[side], &iter, entry) {
+		strintmap_remove(&renames->relevant_sources[side],
+				 entry->key);
+	}
+}
+
+static void use_cached_pairs(struct merge_options *opt,
+			     struct strmap *cached_pairs,
+			     struct diff_queue_struct *pairs)
+{
+	struct hashmap_iter iter;
+	struct strmap_entry *entry;
+
+	/*
+	 * Add to side_pairs all entries from renames->cached_pairs[side_index].
+	 * (Info in cached_irrelevant[side_index] is not relevant here.)
+	 */
+	strmap_for_each_entry(cached_pairs, &iter, entry) {
+		struct diff_filespec *one, *two;
+		const char *old_name = entry->key;
+		const char *new_name = entry->value;
+		if (!new_name)
+			new_name = old_name;
+
+		/* We don't care about oid/mode, only filenames and status */
+		one = alloc_filespec(old_name);
+		two = alloc_filespec(new_name);
+		diff_queue(pairs, one, two);
+		pairs->queue[pairs->nr-1]->status = entry->value ? 'R' : 'D';
+	}
+}
+
+static void cache_new_pair(struct rename_info *renames,
+			   int side,
+			   char *old_path,
+			   char *new_path,
+			   int free_old_value)
+{
+	char *old_value;
+	new_path = xstrdup(new_path);
+	old_value = strmap_put(&renames->cached_pairs[side],
+			       old_path, new_path);
+	strset_add(&renames->cached_target_names[side], new_path);
+	if (free_old_value)
+		free(old_value);
+	else
+		assert(!old_value);
+}
+
+static void possibly_cache_new_pair(struct rename_info *renames,
+				    struct diff_filepair *p,
+				    unsigned side,
+				    char *new_path)
+{
+	int dir_renamed_side = 0;
+
+	if (new_path) {
+		/*
+		 * Directory renames happen on the other side of history from
+		 * the side that adds new files to the old directory.
+		 */
+		dir_renamed_side = 3 - side;
+	} else {
+		int val = strintmap_get(&renames->relevant_sources[side],
+					p->one->path);
+		if (val == RELEVANT_NO_MORE) {
+			assert(p->status == 'D');
+			strset_add(&renames->cached_irrelevant[side],
+				   p->one->path);
+		}
+		if (val <= 0)
+			return;
+	}
+
+	if (p->status == 'D') {
+		/*
+		 * If we already had this delete, we'll just set it's value
+		 * to NULL again, so no harm.
+		 */
+		strmap_put(&renames->cached_pairs[side], p->one->path, NULL);
+	} else if (p->status == 'R') {
+		if (!new_path)
+			new_path = p->two->path;
+		else
+			cache_new_pair(renames, dir_renamed_side,
+				       p->two->path, new_path, 0);
+		cache_new_pair(renames, side, p->one->path, new_path, 1);
+	} else if (p->status == 'A' && new_path) {
+		cache_new_pair(renames, dir_renamed_side,
+			       p->two->path, new_path, 0);
+	}
+}
+
 static int compare_pairs(const void *a_, const void *b_)
 {
 	const struct diff_filepair *a = *((const struct diff_filepair **)a_);
@@ -2305,13 +2537,14 @@
 	return strcmp(a->one->path, b->one->path);
 }
 
-/* Call diffcore_rename() to compute which files have changed on given side */
+/* Call diffcore_rename() to update deleted/added pairs into rename pairs */
 static void detect_regular_renames(struct merge_options *opt,
 				   unsigned side_index)
 {
 	struct diff_options diff_opts;
 	struct rename_info *renames = &opt->priv->renames;
 
+	prune_cached_from_relevant(renames, side_index);
 	if (!possible_side_renames(renames, side_index)) {
 		/*
 		 * No rename detection needed for this side, but we still need
@@ -2322,6 +2555,7 @@
 		return;
 	}
 
+	partial_clear_dir_rename_count(&renames->dir_rename_count[side_index]);
 	repo_diff_setup(opt->repo, &diff_opts);
 	diff_opts.flags.recursive = 1;
 	diff_opts.flags.rename_empty = 0;
@@ -2339,7 +2573,8 @@
 	diffcore_rename_extended(&diff_opts,
 				 &renames->relevant_sources[side_index],
 				 &renames->dirs_removed[side_index],
-				 &renames->dir_rename_count[side_index]);
+				 &renames->dir_rename_count[side_index],
+				 &renames->cached_pairs[side_index]);
 	trace2_region_leave("diff", "diffcore_rename", opt->repo);
 	resolve_diffpair_statuses(&diff_queued_diff);
 
@@ -2355,8 +2590,10 @@
 }
 
 /*
- * Get information of all renames which occurred in 'side_pairs', discarding
- * non-renames.
+ * Get information of all renames which occurred in 'side_pairs', making use
+ * of any implicit directory renames in side_dir_renames (also making use of
+ * implicit directory renames rename_exclusions as needed by
+ * check_for_directory_rename()).  Add all (updated) renames into result.
  */
 static int collect_renames(struct merge_options *opt,
 			   struct diff_queue_struct *result,
@@ -2379,6 +2616,7 @@
 		char *new_path; /* non-NULL only with directory renames */
 
 		if (p->status != 'A' && p->status != 'R') {
+			possibly_cache_new_pair(renames, p, side_index, NULL);
 			diff_free_filepair(p);
 			continue;
 		}
@@ -2390,6 +2628,7 @@
 						      &collisions,
 						      &clean);
 
+		possibly_cache_new_pair(renames, p, side_index, new_path);
 		if (p->status != 'R' && !new_path) {
 			diff_free_filepair(p);
 			continue;
@@ -2445,6 +2684,8 @@
 	trace2_region_enter("merge", "regular renames", opt->repo);
 	detect_regular_renames(opt, MERGE_SIDE1);
 	detect_regular_renames(opt, MERGE_SIDE2);
+	use_cached_pairs(opt, &renames->cached_pairs[1], &renames->pairs[1]);
+	use_cached_pairs(opt, &renames->cached_pairs[2], &renames->pairs[2]);
 	trace2_region_leave("merge", "regular renames", opt->repo);
 
 	trace2_region_enter("merge", "directory renames", opt->repo);
@@ -2511,31 +2752,58 @@
 
 /*** Function Grouping: functions related to process_entries() ***/
 
-static int string_list_df_name_compare(const char *one, const char *two)
+static int sort_dirs_next_to_their_children(const char *one, const char *two)
 {
-	int onelen = strlen(one);
-	int twolen = strlen(two);
+	unsigned char c1, c2;
+
 	/*
-	 * Here we only care that entries for D/F conflicts are
-	 * adjacent, in particular with the file of the D/F conflict
-	 * appearing before files below the corresponding directory.
-	 * The order of the rest of the list is irrelevant for us.
+	 * Here we only care that entries for directories appear adjacent
+	 * to and before files underneath the directory.  We can achieve
+	 * that by pretending to add a trailing slash to every file and
+	 * then sorting.  In other words, we do not want the natural
+	 * sorting of
+	 *     foo
+	 *     foo.txt
+	 *     foo/bar
+	 * Instead, we want "foo" to sort as though it were "foo/", so that
+	 * we instead get
+	 *     foo.txt
+	 *     foo
+	 *     foo/bar
+	 * To achieve this, we basically implement our own strcmp, except that
+	 * if we get to the end of either string instead of comparing NUL to
+	 * another character, we compare '/' to it.
 	 *
-	 * To achieve this, we sort with df_name_compare and provide
-	 * the mode S_IFDIR so that D/F conflicts will sort correctly.
-	 * We use the mode S_IFDIR for everything else for simplicity,
-	 * since in other cases any changes in their order due to
-	 * sorting cause no problems for us.
+	 * If this unusual "sort as though '/' were appended" perplexes
+	 * you, perhaps it will help to note that this is not the final
+	 * sort.  write_tree() will sort again without the trailing slash
+	 * magic, but just on paths immediately under a given tree.
+	 *
+	 * The reason to not use df_name_compare directly was that it was
+	 * just too expensive (we don't have the string lengths handy), so
+	 * it was reimplemented.
 	 */
-	int cmp = df_name_compare(one, onelen, S_IFDIR,
-				  two, twolen, S_IFDIR);
+
 	/*
-	 * Now that 'foo' and 'foo/bar' compare equal, we have to make sure
-	 * that 'foo' comes before 'foo/bar'.
+	 * NOTE: This function will never be called with two equal strings,
+	 * because it is used to sort the keys of a strmap, and strmaps have
+	 * unique keys by construction.  That simplifies our c1==c2 handling
+	 * below.
 	 */
-	if (cmp)
-		return cmp;
-	return onelen - twolen;
+
+	while (*one && (*one == *two)) {
+		one++;
+		two++;
+	}
+
+	c1 = *one ? *one : '/';
+	c2 = *two ? *two : '/';
+
+	if (c1 == c2) {
+		/* Getting here means one is a leading directory of the other */
+		return (*one) ? 1 : -1;
+	} else
+		return c1 - c2;
 }
 
 static int read_oid_strbuf(struct merge_options *opt,
@@ -3002,7 +3270,7 @@
 	 *       above.
 	 */
 	if (ci->match_mask) {
-		ci->merged.clean = 1;
+		ci->merged.clean = !ci->df_conflict && !ci->path_conflict;
 		if (ci->match_mask == 6) {
 			/* stages[1] == stages[2] */
 			ci->merged.result.mode = ci->stages[1].mode;
@@ -3014,6 +3282,8 @@
 
 			ci->merged.result.mode = ci->stages[side].mode;
 			ci->merged.is_null = !ci->merged.result.mode;
+			if (ci->merged.is_null)
+				ci->merged.clean = 1;
 			oidcpy(&ci->merged.result.oid, &ci->stages[side].oid);
 
 			assert(othermask == 2 || othermask == 4);
@@ -3186,6 +3456,7 @@
 				   path)) {
 			ci->merged.is_null = 1;
 			ci->merged.clean = 1;
+			assert(!ci->df_conflict && !ci->path_conflict);
 		} else if (ci->path_conflict &&
 			   oideq(&ci->stages[0].oid, &ci->stages[side].oid)) {
 			/*
@@ -3212,6 +3483,7 @@
 		ci->merged.is_null = 1;
 		ci->merged.result.mode = 0;
 		oidcpy(&ci->merged.result.oid, null_oid());
+		assert(!ci->df_conflict);
 		ci->merged.clean = !ci->path_conflict;
 	}
 
@@ -3222,9 +3494,59 @@
 	 */
 	if (!ci->merged.clean)
 		strmap_put(&opt->priv->conflicted, path, ci);
+
+	/* Record metadata for ci->merged in dir_metadata */
 	record_entry_for_tree(dir_metadata, path, &ci->merged);
 }
 
+static void prefetch_for_content_merges(struct merge_options *opt,
+					struct string_list *plist)
+{
+	struct string_list_item *e;
+	struct oid_array to_fetch = OID_ARRAY_INIT;
+
+	if (opt->repo != the_repository || !has_promisor_remote())
+		return;
+
+	for (e = &plist->items[plist->nr-1]; e >= plist->items; --e) {
+		/* char *path = e->string; */
+		struct conflict_info *ci = e->util;
+		int i;
+
+		/* Ignore clean entries */
+		if (ci->merged.clean)
+			continue;
+
+		/* Ignore entries that don't need a content merge */
+		if (ci->match_mask || ci->filemask < 6 ||
+		    !S_ISREG(ci->stages[1].mode) ||
+		    !S_ISREG(ci->stages[2].mode) ||
+		    oideq(&ci->stages[1].oid, &ci->stages[2].oid))
+			continue;
+
+		/* Also don't need content merge if base matches either side */
+		if (ci->filemask == 7 &&
+		    S_ISREG(ci->stages[0].mode) &&
+		    (oideq(&ci->stages[0].oid, &ci->stages[1].oid) ||
+		     oideq(&ci->stages[0].oid, &ci->stages[2].oid)))
+			continue;
+
+		for (i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
+			unsigned side_mask = (1 << i);
+			struct version_info *vi = &ci->stages[i];
+
+			if ((ci->filemask & side_mask) &&
+			    S_ISREG(vi->mode) &&
+			    oid_object_info_extended(opt->repo, &vi->oid, NULL,
+						     OBJECT_INFO_FOR_PREFETCH))
+				oid_array_append(&to_fetch, &vi->oid);
+		}
+	}
+
+	promisor_remote_get_direct(opt->repo, to_fetch.oid, to_fetch.nr);
+	oid_array_clear(&to_fetch);
+}
+
 static void process_entries(struct merge_options *opt,
 			    struct object_id *result_oid)
 {
@@ -3255,7 +3577,7 @@
 	trace2_region_leave("merge", "plist copy", opt->repo);
 
 	trace2_region_enter("merge", "plist special sort", opt->repo);
-	plist.cmp = string_list_df_name_compare;
+	plist.cmp = sort_dirs_next_to_their_children;
 	string_list_sort(&plist);
 	trace2_region_leave("merge", "plist special sort", opt->repo);
 
@@ -3271,6 +3593,7 @@
 	 * the way when it is time to process the file at the same path).
 	 */
 	trace2_region_enter("merge", "processing", opt->repo);
+	prefetch_for_content_merges(opt, &plist);
 	for (entry = &plist.items[plist.nr-1]; entry >= plist.items; --entry) {
 		char *path = entry->string;
 		/*
@@ -3635,6 +3958,10 @@
 	assert(opt->obuf.len == 0);
 
 	assert(opt->priv == NULL);
+	if (result->_properly_initialized != 0 &&
+	    result->_properly_initialized != RESULT_INITIALIZED)
+		BUG("struct merge_result passed to merge_incore_*recursive() must be zeroed or filled with values from a previous run");
+	assert(!!result->priv == !!result->_properly_initialized);
 	if (result->priv) {
 		opt->priv = result->priv;
 		result->priv = NULL;
@@ -3674,8 +4001,22 @@
 					 NULL, 1);
 		strmap_init_with_options(&renames->dir_renames[i],
 					 NULL, 0);
+		/*
+		 * relevant_sources uses -1 for the default, because we need
+		 * to be able to distinguish not-in-strintmap from valid
+		 * relevant_source values from enum file_rename_relevance.
+		 * In particular, possibly_cache_new_pair() expects a negative
+		 * value for not-found entries.
+		 */
 		strintmap_init_with_options(&renames->relevant_sources[i],
-					    0, NULL, 0);
+					    -1 /* explicitly invalid */,
+					    NULL, 0);
+		strmap_init_with_options(&renames->cached_pairs[i],
+					 NULL, 1);
+		strset_init_with_options(&renames->cached_irrelevant[i],
+					 NULL, 1);
+		strset_init_with_options(&renames->cached_target_names[i],
+					 NULL, 0);
 	}
 
 	/*
@@ -3689,7 +4030,7 @@
 	 */
 	strmap_init_with_options(&opt->priv->paths, NULL, 0);
 	strmap_init_with_options(&opt->priv->conflicted, NULL, 0);
-	string_list_init(&opt->priv->paths_to_free, 0);
+	string_list_init_nodup(&opt->priv->paths_to_free);
 
 	/*
 	 * keys & strbufs in output will sometimes need to outlive "paths",
@@ -3701,6 +4042,50 @@
 	trace2_region_leave("merge", "allocate/init", opt->repo);
 }
 
+static void merge_check_renames_reusable(struct merge_options *opt,
+					 struct merge_result *result,
+					 struct tree *merge_base,
+					 struct tree *side1,
+					 struct tree *side2)
+{
+	struct rename_info *renames;
+	struct tree **merge_trees;
+	struct merge_options_internal *opti = result->priv;
+
+	if (!opti)
+		return;
+
+	renames = &opti->renames;
+	merge_trees = renames->merge_trees;
+
+	/*
+	 * Handle case where previous merge operation did not want cache to
+	 * take effect, e.g. because rename/rename(1to1) makes it invalid.
+	 */
+	if (!merge_trees[0]) {
+		assert(!merge_trees[0] && !merge_trees[1] && !merge_trees[2]);
+		renames->cached_pairs_valid_side = 0; /* neither side valid */
+		return;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Handle other cases; note that merge_trees[0..2] will only
+	 * be NULL if opti is, or if all three were manually set to
+	 * NULL by e.g. rename/rename(1to1) handling.
+	 */
+	assert(merge_trees[0] && merge_trees[1] && merge_trees[2]);
+
+	/* Check if we meet a condition for re-using cached_pairs */
+	if (oideq(&merge_base->object.oid, &merge_trees[2]->object.oid) &&
+	    oideq(&side1->object.oid, &result->tree->object.oid))
+		renames->cached_pairs_valid_side = MERGE_SIDE1;
+	else if (oideq(&merge_base->object.oid, &merge_trees[1]->object.oid) &&
+		 oideq(&side2->object.oid, &result->tree->object.oid))
+		renames->cached_pairs_valid_side = MERGE_SIDE2;
+	else
+		renames->cached_pairs_valid_side = 0; /* neither side valid */
+}
+
 /*** Function Grouping: merge_incore_*() and their internal variants ***/
 
 /*
@@ -3751,6 +4136,7 @@
 	result->clean &= strmap_empty(&opt->priv->conflicted);
 	if (!opt->priv->call_depth) {
 		result->priv = opt->priv;
+		result->_properly_initialized = RESULT_INITIALIZED;
 		opt->priv = NULL;
 	}
 }
@@ -3848,7 +4234,16 @@
 
 	trace2_region_enter("merge", "merge_start", opt->repo);
 	assert(opt->ancestor != NULL);
+	merge_check_renames_reusable(opt, result, merge_base, side1, side2);
 	merge_start(opt, result);
+	/*
+	 * Record the trees used in this merge, so if there's a next merge in
+	 * a cherry-pick or rebase sequence it might be able to take advantage
+	 * of the cached_pairs in that next merge.
+	 */
+	opt->priv->renames.merge_trees[0] = merge_base;
+	opt->priv->renames.merge_trees[1] = side1;
+	opt->priv->renames.merge_trees[2] = side2;
 	trace2_region_leave("merge", "merge_start", opt->repo);
 
 	merge_ort_nonrecursive_internal(opt, merge_base, side1, side2, result);
diff --git a/merge-ort.h b/merge-ort.h
index d53a0a3..c011864 100644
--- a/merge-ort.h
+++ b/merge-ort.h
@@ -29,6 +29,8 @@
 	 * !clean) and to print "CONFLICT" messages.  Not for external use.
 	 */
 	void *priv;
+	/* Also private */
+	unsigned _properly_initialized;
 };
 
 /*
diff --git a/merge-recursive.c b/merge-recursive.c
index d146bb1..a67bf2a 100644
--- a/merge-recursive.c
+++ b/merge-recursive.c
@@ -121,7 +121,7 @@
 	entry->dir = directory;
 	entry->non_unique_new_dir = 0;
 	strbuf_init(&entry->new_dir, 0);
-	string_list_init(&entry->possible_new_dirs, 0);
+	string_list_init_nodup(&entry->possible_new_dirs);
 }
 
 struct collision_entry {
@@ -2152,7 +2152,7 @@
  *      implicit renaming of files that should be left in place.  (See
  *      testcase 6b in t6043 for details.)
  *   2. Prune directory renames if there are still files left in the
- *      the original directory.  These represent a partial directory rename,
+ *      original directory.  These represent a partial directory rename,
  *      i.e. a rename where only some of the files within the directory
  *      were renamed elsewhere.  (Technically, this could be done earlier
  *      in get_directory_renames(), except that would prevent us from
@@ -2804,12 +2804,19 @@
 			int renamed_stage = a_renames == renames1 ? 2 : 3;
 			int other_stage =   a_renames == renames1 ? 3 : 2;
 
+			/*
+			 * Directory renames have a funny corner case...
+			 */
+			int renamed_to_self = !strcmp(ren1_src, ren1_dst);
+
 			/* BUG: We should only remove ren1_src in the base
 			 * stage and in other_stage (think of rename +
 			 * add-source case).
 			 */
-			remove_file(opt, 1, ren1_src,
-				    renamed_stage == 2 || !was_tracked(opt, ren1_src));
+			if (!renamed_to_self)
+				remove_file(opt, 1, ren1_src,
+					    renamed_stage == 2 ||
+					    !was_tracked(opt, ren1_src));
 
 			oidcpy(&src_other.oid,
 			       &ren1->src_entry->stages[other_stage].oid);
@@ -2823,6 +2830,9 @@
 			    ren1->dir_rename_original_type == 'A') {
 				setup_rename_conflict_info(RENAME_VIA_DIR,
 							   opt, ren1, NULL);
+			} else if (renamed_to_self) {
+				setup_rename_conflict_info(RENAME_NORMAL,
+							   opt, ren1, NULL);
 			} else if (oideq(&src_other.oid, null_oid())) {
 				setup_rename_conflict_info(RENAME_DELETE,
 							   opt, ren1, NULL);
@@ -3180,7 +3190,6 @@
 	struct rename *ren = ci->ren1;
 	struct merge_file_info mfi;
 	int clean;
-	int side = (ren->branch == opt->branch1 ? 2 : 3);
 
 	/* Merge the content and write it out */
 	clean = handle_content_merge(&mfi, opt, path, was_dirty(opt, path),
@@ -3190,9 +3199,7 @@
 	    opt->detect_directory_renames == MERGE_DIRECTORY_RENAMES_CONFLICT &&
 	    ren->dir_rename_original_dest) {
 		if (update_stages(opt, path,
-				  NULL,
-				  side == 2 ? &mfi.blob : NULL,
-				  side == 2 ? NULL : &mfi.blob))
+				  &mfi.blob, &mfi.blob, &mfi.blob))
 			return -1;
 		clean = 0; /* not clean, but conflicted */
 	}
@@ -3703,7 +3710,7 @@
 	}
 
 	CALLOC_ARRAY(opt->priv, 1);
-	string_list_init(&opt->priv->df_conflict_file_set, 1);
+	string_list_init_dup(&opt->priv->df_conflict_file_set);
 	return 0;
 }
 
diff --git a/merge.c b/merge.c
index 5fb88af..6e73688 100644
--- a/merge.c
+++ b/merge.c
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@
 	struct unpack_trees_options opts;
 	struct tree_desc t[MAX_UNPACK_TREES];
 	int i, nr_trees = 0;
-	struct dir_struct dir;
+	struct dir_struct dir = DIR_INIT;
 	struct lock_file lock_file = LOCK_INIT;
 
 	refresh_index(r->index, REFRESH_QUIET, NULL, NULL, NULL);
@@ -80,7 +80,6 @@
 	}
 
 	memset(&opts, 0, sizeof(opts));
-	dir_init(&dir);
 	if (overwrite_ignore) {
 		dir.flags |= DIR_SHOW_IGNORED;
 		setup_standard_excludes(&dir);
diff --git a/mergetools/kdiff3 b/mergetools/kdiff3
index 0264ed5..520cb91 100644
--- a/mergetools/kdiff3
+++ b/mergetools/kdiff3
@@ -25,3 +25,12 @@
 exit_code_trustable () {
 	true
 }
+
+translate_merge_tool_path() {
+	if type kdiff3 >/dev/null 2>/dev/null
+	then
+		echo kdiff3
+	else
+		mergetool_find_win32_cmd "kdiff3.exe" "Kdiff3"
+	fi
+}
diff --git a/midx.c b/midx.c
index 21d6a05..9a35b02 100644
--- a/midx.c
+++ b/midx.c
@@ -885,6 +885,11 @@
 static void clear_midx_files_ext(struct repository *r, const char *ext,
 				 unsigned char *keep_hash);
 
+static int midx_checksum_valid(struct multi_pack_index *m)
+{
+	return hashfile_checksum_valid(m->data, m->data_len);
+}
+
 static int write_midx_internal(const char *object_dir, struct multi_pack_index *m,
 			       struct string_list *packs_to_drop,
 			       const char *preferred_pack_name,
@@ -911,6 +916,11 @@
 	else
 		ctx.m = load_multi_pack_index(object_dir, 1);
 
+	if (ctx.m && !midx_checksum_valid(ctx.m)) {
+		warning(_("ignoring existing multi-pack-index; checksum mismatch"));
+		ctx.m = NULL;
+	}
+
 	ctx.nr = 0;
 	ctx.alloc = ctx.m ? ctx.m->num_packs : 16;
 	ctx.info = NULL;
@@ -1218,6 +1228,9 @@
 		return result;
 	}
 
+	if (!midx_checksum_valid(m))
+		midx_report(_("incorrect checksum"));
+
 	if (flags & MIDX_PROGRESS)
 		progress = start_delayed_progress(_("Looking for referenced packfiles"),
 					  m->num_packs);
diff --git a/object-file.c b/object-file.c
index ebf273e..ecca5a8 100644
--- a/object-file.c
+++ b/object-file.c
@@ -1023,12 +1023,26 @@
 	return ret;
 }
 
+const char *mmap_os_err(void)
+{
+	static const char blank[] = "";
+#if defined(__linux__)
+	if (errno == ENOMEM) {
+		/* this continues an existing error message: */
+		static const char enomem[] =
+", check sys.vm.max_map_count and/or RLIMIT_DATA";
+		return enomem;
+	}
+#endif /* OS-specific bits */
+	return blank;
+}
+
 void *xmmap(void *start, size_t length,
 	int prot, int flags, int fd, off_t offset)
 {
 	void *ret = xmmap_gently(start, length, prot, flags, fd, offset);
 	if (ret == MAP_FAILED)
-		die_errno(_("mmap failed"));
+		die_errno(_("mmap failed%s"), mmap_os_err());
 	return ret;
 }
 
diff --git a/pack-bitmap.c b/pack-bitmap.c
index d90e1d9..bfc1014 100644
--- a/pack-bitmap.c
+++ b/pack-bitmap.c
@@ -525,6 +525,22 @@
 	return 1;
 }
 
+static int should_include_obj(struct object *obj, void *_data)
+{
+	struct include_data *data = _data;
+	int bitmap_pos;
+
+	bitmap_pos = bitmap_position(data->bitmap_git, &obj->oid);
+	if (bitmap_pos < 0)
+		return 1;
+	if ((data->seen && bitmap_get(data->seen, bitmap_pos)) ||
+	     bitmap_get(data->base, bitmap_pos)) {
+		obj->flags |= SEEN;
+		return 0;
+	}
+	return 1;
+}
+
 static int add_commit_to_bitmap(struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git,
 				struct bitmap **base,
 				struct commit *commit)
@@ -620,6 +636,7 @@
 		incdata.seen = seen;
 
 		revs->include_check = should_include;
+		revs->include_check_obj = should_include_obj;
 		revs->include_check_data = &incdata;
 
 		if (prepare_revision_walk(revs))
@@ -633,6 +650,7 @@
 					      &show_data, NULL);
 
 		revs->include_check = NULL;
+		revs->include_check_obj = NULL;
 		revs->include_check_data = NULL;
 	}
 
diff --git a/pack-check.c b/pack-check.c
index 4b089fe..c8e560d 100644
--- a/pack-check.c
+++ b/pack-check.c
@@ -164,22 +164,13 @@
 
 int verify_pack_index(struct packed_git *p)
 {
-	size_t len;
-	const unsigned char *index_base;
-	git_hash_ctx ctx;
-	unsigned char hash[GIT_MAX_RAWSZ];
 	int err = 0;
 
 	if (open_pack_index(p))
 		return error("packfile %s index not opened", p->pack_name);
-	index_base = p->index_data;
-	len = p->index_size - the_hash_algo->rawsz;
 
 	/* Verify SHA1 sum of the index file */
-	the_hash_algo->init_fn(&ctx);
-	the_hash_algo->update_fn(&ctx, index_base, len);
-	the_hash_algo->final_fn(hash, &ctx);
-	if (!hasheq(hash, index_base + len))
+	if (!hashfile_checksum_valid(p->index_data, p->index_size))
 		err = error("Packfile index for %s hash mismatch",
 			    p->pack_name);
 	return err;
diff --git a/packfile.c b/packfile.c
index 755aa7a..9ef6d98 100644
--- a/packfile.c
+++ b/packfile.c
@@ -652,8 +652,8 @@
 				PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE,
 				p->pack_fd, win->offset);
 			if (win->base == MAP_FAILED)
-				die_errno("packfile %s cannot be mapped",
-					  p->pack_name);
+				die_errno(_("packfile %s cannot be mapped%s"),
+					  p->pack_name, mmap_os_err());
 			if (!win->offset && win->len == p->pack_size
 				&& !p->do_not_close)
 				close_pack_fd(p);
diff --git a/pager.c b/pager.c
index 3d37dd7..52f27a6 100644
--- a/pager.c
+++ b/pager.c
@@ -11,6 +11,10 @@
 static struct child_process pager_process = CHILD_PROCESS_INIT;
 static const char *pager_program;
 
+/* Is the value coming back from term_columns() just a guess? */
+static int term_columns_guessed;
+
+
 static void close_pager_fds(void)
 {
 	/* signal EOF to pager */
@@ -114,7 +118,8 @@
 	{
 		char buf[64];
 		xsnprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%d", term_columns());
-		setenv("COLUMNS", buf, 0);
+		if (!term_columns_guessed)
+			setenv("COLUMNS", buf, 0);
 	}
 
 	setenv("GIT_PAGER_IN_USE", "true", 1);
@@ -158,15 +163,20 @@
 		return term_columns_at_startup;
 
 	term_columns_at_startup = 80;
+	term_columns_guessed = 1;
 
 	col_string = getenv("COLUMNS");
-	if (col_string && (n_cols = atoi(col_string)) > 0)
+	if (col_string && (n_cols = atoi(col_string)) > 0) {
 		term_columns_at_startup = n_cols;
+		term_columns_guessed = 0;
+	}
 #ifdef TIOCGWINSZ
 	else {
 		struct winsize ws;
-		if (!ioctl(1, TIOCGWINSZ, &ws) && ws.ws_col)
+		if (!ioctl(1, TIOCGWINSZ, &ws) && ws.ws_col) {
 			term_columns_at_startup = ws.ws_col;
+			term_columns_guessed = 0;
+		}
 	}
 #endif
 
diff --git a/parallel-checkout.c b/parallel-checkout.c
index 6b1af32..ddc0ff3 100644
--- a/parallel-checkout.c
+++ b/parallel-checkout.c
@@ -411,7 +411,7 @@
 	len_data = sizeof(struct pc_item_fixed_portion) + name_len +
 		   working_tree_encoding_len;
 
-	data = xcalloc(1, len_data);
+	data = xmalloc(len_data);
 
 	fixed_portion = (struct pc_item_fixed_portion *)data;
 	fixed_portion->id = pc_item->id;
@@ -421,13 +421,12 @@
 	fixed_portion->name_len = name_len;
 	fixed_portion->working_tree_encoding_len = working_tree_encoding_len;
 	/*
-	 * We use hashcpy() instead of oidcpy() because the hash[] positions
-	 * after `the_hash_algo->rawsz` might not be initialized. And Valgrind
-	 * would complain about passing uninitialized bytes to a syscall
-	 * (write(2)). There is no real harm in this case, but the warning could
-	 * hinder the detection of actual errors.
+	 * We pad the unused bytes in the hash array because, otherwise,
+	 * Valgrind would complain about passing uninitialized bytes to a
+	 * write() syscall. The warning doesn't represent any real risk here,
+	 * but it could hinder the detection of actual errors.
 	 */
-	hashcpy(fixed_portion->oid.hash, pc_item->ce->oid.hash);
+	oidcpy_with_padding(&fixed_portion->oid, &pc_item->ce->oid);
 
 	variant = data + sizeof(*fixed_portion);
 	if (working_tree_encoding_len) {
diff --git a/perl/Git/SVN.pm b/perl/Git/SVN.pm
index f6f1dc0..35ff5a6 100644
--- a/perl/Git/SVN.pm
+++ b/perl/Git/SVN.pm
@@ -1636,7 +1636,7 @@
 	my $commit = shift;
 
 	my @revs = split / /, command_oneline(
-		qw(rev-list --parents -1 -m), $commit);
+		qw(rev-list --parents -1), $commit);
 
 	# Commits with no parents, e.g. the start of a partial branch,
 	# have changes by definition.
diff --git a/promisor-remote.c b/promisor-remote.c
index c088dcb..db2ebdc 100644
--- a/promisor-remote.c
+++ b/promisor-remote.c
@@ -31,6 +31,8 @@
 		die(_("promisor-remote: unable to fork off fetch subprocess"));
 	child_in = xfdopen(child.in, "w");
 
+	trace2_data_intmax("promisor", repo, "fetch_count", oid_nr);
+
 	for (i = 0; i < oid_nr; i++) {
 		if (fputs(oid_to_hex(&oids[i]), child_in) < 0)
 			die_errno(_("promisor-remote: could not write to fetch subprocess"));
diff --git a/protocol-caps.h b/protocol-caps.h
index 6351648..0a9f49d 100644
--- a/protocol-caps.h
+++ b/protocol-caps.h
@@ -7,4 +7,4 @@
 int cap_object_info(struct repository *r, struct strvec *keys,
 		    struct packet_reader *request);
 
-#endif /* PROTOCOL_CAPS_H */
\ No newline at end of file
+#endif /* PROTOCOL_CAPS_H */
diff --git a/range-diff.c b/range-diff.c
index 1a4471f..e947979 100644
--- a/range-diff.c
+++ b/range-diff.c
@@ -274,9 +274,10 @@
 	hashmap_clear(&map);
 }
 
-static void diffsize_consume(void *data, char *line, unsigned long len)
+static int diffsize_consume(void *data, char *line, unsigned long len)
 {
 	(*(int *)data)++;
+	return 0;
 }
 
 static void diffsize_hunk(void *data, long ob, long on, long nb, long nn,
diff --git a/read-cache.c b/read-cache.c
index 1b3c2eb..ba2b012 100644
--- a/read-cache.c
+++ b/read-cache.c
@@ -26,6 +26,7 @@
 #include "thread-utils.h"
 #include "progress.h"
 #include "sparse-index.h"
+#include "csum-file.h"
 
 /* Mask for the name length in ce_flags in the on-disk index */
 
@@ -1627,8 +1628,7 @@
 		t2_sum_scan += t2_did_scan;
 		if (new_entry == ce)
 			continue;
-		if (progress)
-			display_progress(progress, i);
+		display_progress(progress, i);
 		if (!new_entry) {
 			const char *fmt;
 
@@ -1663,10 +1663,8 @@
 	trace2_data_intmax("index", NULL, "refresh/sum_lstat", t2_sum_lstat);
 	trace2_data_intmax("index", NULL, "refresh/sum_scan", t2_sum_scan);
 	trace2_region_leave("index", "refresh", NULL);
-	if (progress) {
-		display_progress(progress, istate->cache_nr);
-		stop_progress(&progress);
-	}
+	display_progress(progress, istate->cache_nr);
+	stop_progress(&progress);
 	trace_performance_leave("refresh index");
 	return has_errors;
 }
@@ -2235,7 +2233,8 @@
 
 	mmap = xmmap_gently(NULL, mmap_size, PROT_READ, MAP_PRIVATE, fd, 0);
 	if (mmap == MAP_FAILED)
-		die_errno(_("%s: unable to map index file"), path);
+		die_errno(_("%s: unable to map index file%s"), path,
+			mmap_os_err());
 	close(fd);
 
 	hdr = (const struct cache_header *)mmap;
@@ -2521,80 +2520,23 @@
 	}
 }
 
-#define WRITE_BUFFER_SIZE (128 * 1024)
-static unsigned char write_buffer[WRITE_BUFFER_SIZE];
-static unsigned long write_buffer_len;
-
-static int ce_write_flush(git_hash_ctx *context, int fd)
+static int write_index_ext_header(struct hashfile *f,
+				  git_hash_ctx *eoie_f,
+				  unsigned int ext,
+				  unsigned int sz)
 {
-	unsigned int buffered = write_buffer_len;
-	if (buffered) {
-		the_hash_algo->update_fn(context, write_buffer, buffered);
-		if (write_in_full(fd, write_buffer, buffered) < 0)
-			return -1;
-		write_buffer_len = 0;
+	hashwrite_be32(f, ext);
+	hashwrite_be32(f, sz);
+
+	if (eoie_f) {
+		ext = htonl(ext);
+		sz = htonl(sz);
+		the_hash_algo->update_fn(eoie_f, &ext, sizeof(ext));
+		the_hash_algo->update_fn(eoie_f, &sz, sizeof(sz));
 	}
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int ce_write(git_hash_ctx *context, int fd, void *data, unsigned int len)
-{
-	while (len) {
-		unsigned int buffered = write_buffer_len;
-		unsigned int partial = WRITE_BUFFER_SIZE - buffered;
-		if (partial > len)
-			partial = len;
-		memcpy(write_buffer + buffered, data, partial);
-		buffered += partial;
-		if (buffered == WRITE_BUFFER_SIZE) {
-			write_buffer_len = buffered;
-			if (ce_write_flush(context, fd))
-				return -1;
-			buffered = 0;
-		}
-		write_buffer_len = buffered;
-		len -= partial;
-		data = (char *) data + partial;
-	}
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static int write_index_ext_header(git_hash_ctx *context, git_hash_ctx *eoie_context,
-				  int fd, unsigned int ext, unsigned int sz)
-{
-	ext = htonl(ext);
-	sz = htonl(sz);
-	if (eoie_context) {
-		the_hash_algo->update_fn(eoie_context, &ext, 4);
-		the_hash_algo->update_fn(eoie_context, &sz, 4);
-	}
-	return ((ce_write(context, fd, &ext, 4) < 0) ||
-		(ce_write(context, fd, &sz, 4) < 0)) ? -1 : 0;
-}
-
-static int ce_flush(git_hash_ctx *context, int fd, unsigned char *hash)
-{
-	unsigned int left = write_buffer_len;
-
-	if (left) {
-		write_buffer_len = 0;
-		the_hash_algo->update_fn(context, write_buffer, left);
-	}
-
-	/* Flush first if not enough space for hash signature */
-	if (left + the_hash_algo->rawsz > WRITE_BUFFER_SIZE) {
-		if (write_in_full(fd, write_buffer, left) < 0)
-			return -1;
-		left = 0;
-	}
-
-	/* Append the hash signature at the end */
-	the_hash_algo->final_fn(write_buffer + left, context);
-	hashcpy(hash, write_buffer + left);
-	left += the_hash_algo->rawsz;
-	return (write_in_full(fd, write_buffer, left) < 0) ? -1 : 0;
-}
-
 static void ce_smudge_racily_clean_entry(struct index_state *istate,
 					 struct cache_entry *ce)
 {
@@ -2673,11 +2615,10 @@
 	}
 }
 
-static int ce_write_entry(git_hash_ctx *c, int fd, struct cache_entry *ce,
+static int ce_write_entry(struct hashfile *f, struct cache_entry *ce,
 			  struct strbuf *previous_name, struct ondisk_cache_entry *ondisk)
 {
 	int size;
-	int result;
 	unsigned int saved_namelen;
 	int stripped_name = 0;
 	static unsigned char padding[8] = { 0x00 };
@@ -2693,11 +2634,9 @@
 	if (!previous_name) {
 		int len = ce_namelen(ce);
 		copy_cache_entry_to_ondisk(ondisk, ce);
-		result = ce_write(c, fd, ondisk, size);
-		if (!result)
-			result = ce_write(c, fd, ce->name, len);
-		if (!result)
-			result = ce_write(c, fd, padding, align_padding_size(size, len));
+		hashwrite(f, ondisk, size);
+		hashwrite(f, ce->name, len);
+		hashwrite(f, padding, align_padding_size(size, len));
 	} else {
 		int common, to_remove, prefix_size;
 		unsigned char to_remove_vi[16];
@@ -2711,13 +2650,10 @@
 		prefix_size = encode_varint(to_remove, to_remove_vi);
 
 		copy_cache_entry_to_ondisk(ondisk, ce);
-		result = ce_write(c, fd, ondisk, size);
-		if (!result)
-			result = ce_write(c, fd, to_remove_vi, prefix_size);
-		if (!result)
-			result = ce_write(c, fd, ce->name + common, ce_namelen(ce) - common);
-		if (!result)
-			result = ce_write(c, fd, padding, 1);
+		hashwrite(f, ondisk, size);
+		hashwrite(f, to_remove_vi, prefix_size);
+		hashwrite(f, ce->name + common, ce_namelen(ce) - common);
+		hashwrite(f, padding, 1);
 
 		strbuf_splice(previous_name, common, to_remove,
 			      ce->name + common, ce_namelen(ce) - common);
@@ -2727,7 +2663,7 @@
 		ce->ce_flags &= ~CE_STRIP_NAME;
 	}
 
-	return result;
+	return 0;
 }
 
 /*
@@ -2839,8 +2775,8 @@
 			  int strip_extensions)
 {
 	uint64_t start = getnanotime();
-	int newfd = tempfile->fd;
-	git_hash_ctx c, eoie_c;
+	struct hashfile *f;
+	git_hash_ctx *eoie_c = NULL;
 	struct cache_header hdr;
 	int i, err = 0, removed, extended, hdr_version;
 	struct cache_entry **cache = istate->cache;
@@ -2854,6 +2790,8 @@
 	struct index_entry_offset_table *ieot = NULL;
 	int nr, nr_threads;
 
+	f = hashfd(tempfile->fd, tempfile->filename.buf);
+
 	for (i = removed = extended = 0; i < entries; i++) {
 		if (cache[i]->ce_flags & CE_REMOVE)
 			removed++;
@@ -2882,9 +2820,7 @@
 	hdr.hdr_version = htonl(hdr_version);
 	hdr.hdr_entries = htonl(entries - removed);
 
-	the_hash_algo->init_fn(&c);
-	if (ce_write(&c, newfd, &hdr, sizeof(hdr)) < 0)
-		return -1;
+	hashwrite(f, &hdr, sizeof(hdr));
 
 	if (!HAVE_THREADS || git_config_get_index_threads(&nr_threads))
 		nr_threads = 1;
@@ -2919,12 +2855,8 @@
 		}
 	}
 
-	offset = lseek(newfd, 0, SEEK_CUR);
-	if (offset < 0) {
-		free(ieot);
-		return -1;
-	}
-	offset += write_buffer_len;
+	offset = hashfile_total(f);
+
 	nr = 0;
 	previous_name = (hdr_version == 4) ? &previous_name_buf : NULL;
 
@@ -2959,14 +2891,10 @@
 			if (previous_name)
 				previous_name->buf[0] = 0;
 			nr = 0;
-			offset = lseek(newfd, 0, SEEK_CUR);
-			if (offset < 0) {
-				free(ieot);
-				return -1;
-			}
-			offset += write_buffer_len;
+
+			offset = hashfile_total(f);
 		}
-		if (ce_write_entry(&c, newfd, ce, previous_name, (struct ondisk_cache_entry *)&ondisk) < 0)
+		if (ce_write_entry(f, ce, previous_name, (struct ondisk_cache_entry *)&ondisk) < 0)
 			err = -1;
 
 		if (err)
@@ -2985,14 +2913,16 @@
 		return err;
 	}
 
-	/* Write extension data here */
-	offset = lseek(newfd, 0, SEEK_CUR);
-	if (offset < 0) {
-		free(ieot);
-		return -1;
+	offset = hashfile_total(f);
+
+	/*
+	 * The extension headers must be hashed on their own for the
+	 * EOIE extension. Create a hashfile here to compute that hash.
+	 */
+	if (offset && record_eoie()) {
+		CALLOC_ARRAY(eoie_c, 1);
+		the_hash_algo->init_fn(eoie_c);
 	}
-	offset += write_buffer_len;
-	the_hash_algo->init_fn(&eoie_c);
 
 	/*
 	 * Lets write out CACHE_EXT_INDEXENTRYOFFSETTABLE first so that we
@@ -3005,8 +2935,8 @@
 		struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
 
 		write_ieot_extension(&sb, ieot);
-		err = write_index_ext_header(&c, &eoie_c, newfd, CACHE_EXT_INDEXENTRYOFFSETTABLE, sb.len) < 0
-			|| ce_write(&c, newfd, sb.buf, sb.len) < 0;
+		err = write_index_ext_header(f, eoie_c, CACHE_EXT_INDEXENTRYOFFSETTABLE, sb.len) < 0;
+		hashwrite(f, sb.buf, sb.len);
 		strbuf_release(&sb);
 		free(ieot);
 		if (err)
@@ -3018,9 +2948,9 @@
 		struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
 
 		err = write_link_extension(&sb, istate) < 0 ||
-			write_index_ext_header(&c, &eoie_c, newfd, CACHE_EXT_LINK,
-					       sb.len) < 0 ||
-			ce_write(&c, newfd, sb.buf, sb.len) < 0;
+			write_index_ext_header(f, eoie_c, CACHE_EXT_LINK,
+					       sb.len) < 0;
+		hashwrite(f, sb.buf, sb.len);
 		strbuf_release(&sb);
 		if (err)
 			return -1;
@@ -3029,8 +2959,8 @@
 		struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
 
 		cache_tree_write(&sb, istate->cache_tree);
-		err = write_index_ext_header(&c, &eoie_c, newfd, CACHE_EXT_TREE, sb.len) < 0
-			|| ce_write(&c, newfd, sb.buf, sb.len) < 0;
+		err = write_index_ext_header(f, eoie_c, CACHE_EXT_TREE, sb.len) < 0;
+		hashwrite(f, sb.buf, sb.len);
 		strbuf_release(&sb);
 		if (err)
 			return -1;
@@ -3039,9 +2969,9 @@
 		struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
 
 		resolve_undo_write(&sb, istate->resolve_undo);
-		err = write_index_ext_header(&c, &eoie_c, newfd, CACHE_EXT_RESOLVE_UNDO,
-					     sb.len) < 0
-			|| ce_write(&c, newfd, sb.buf, sb.len) < 0;
+		err = write_index_ext_header(f, eoie_c, CACHE_EXT_RESOLVE_UNDO,
+					     sb.len) < 0;
+		hashwrite(f, sb.buf, sb.len);
 		strbuf_release(&sb);
 		if (err)
 			return -1;
@@ -3050,9 +2980,9 @@
 		struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
 
 		write_untracked_extension(&sb, istate->untracked);
-		err = write_index_ext_header(&c, &eoie_c, newfd, CACHE_EXT_UNTRACKED,
-					     sb.len) < 0 ||
-			ce_write(&c, newfd, sb.buf, sb.len) < 0;
+		err = write_index_ext_header(f, eoie_c, CACHE_EXT_UNTRACKED,
+					     sb.len) < 0;
+		hashwrite(f, sb.buf, sb.len);
 		strbuf_release(&sb);
 		if (err)
 			return -1;
@@ -3061,14 +2991,14 @@
 		struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
 
 		write_fsmonitor_extension(&sb, istate);
-		err = write_index_ext_header(&c, &eoie_c, newfd, CACHE_EXT_FSMONITOR, sb.len) < 0
-			|| ce_write(&c, newfd, sb.buf, sb.len) < 0;
+		err = write_index_ext_header(f, eoie_c, CACHE_EXT_FSMONITOR, sb.len) < 0;
+		hashwrite(f, sb.buf, sb.len);
 		strbuf_release(&sb);
 		if (err)
 			return -1;
 	}
 	if (istate->sparse_index) {
-		if (write_index_ext_header(&c, &eoie_c, newfd, CACHE_EXT_SPARSE_DIRECTORIES, 0) < 0)
+		if (write_index_ext_header(f, eoie_c, CACHE_EXT_SPARSE_DIRECTORIES, 0) < 0)
 			return -1;
 	}
 
@@ -3078,19 +3008,18 @@
 	 * read.  Write it out regardless of the strip_extensions parameter as we need it
 	 * when loading the shared index.
 	 */
-	if (offset && record_eoie()) {
+	if (eoie_c) {
 		struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
 
-		write_eoie_extension(&sb, &eoie_c, offset);
-		err = write_index_ext_header(&c, NULL, newfd, CACHE_EXT_ENDOFINDEXENTRIES, sb.len) < 0
-			|| ce_write(&c, newfd, sb.buf, sb.len) < 0;
+		write_eoie_extension(&sb, eoie_c, offset);
+		err = write_index_ext_header(f, NULL, CACHE_EXT_ENDOFINDEXENTRIES, sb.len) < 0;
+		hashwrite(f, sb.buf, sb.len);
 		strbuf_release(&sb);
 		if (err)
 			return -1;
 	}
 
-	if (ce_flush(&c, newfd, istate->oid.hash))
-		return -1;
+	finalize_hashfile(f, istate->oid.hash, CSUM_HASH_IN_STREAM);
 	if (close_tempfile_gently(tempfile)) {
 		error(_("could not close '%s'"), get_tempfile_path(tempfile));
 		return -1;
diff --git a/ref-filter.c b/ref-filter.c
index 97116e1..4db0e40 100644
--- a/ref-filter.c
+++ b/ref-filter.c
@@ -109,6 +109,56 @@
 } ref_to_worktree_map;
 
 /*
+ * The enum atom_type is used as the index of valid_atom array.
+ * In the atom parsing stage, it will be passed to used_atom.atom_type
+ * as the identifier of the atom type. We can check the type of used_atom
+ * entry by `if (used_atom[i].atom_type == ATOM_*)`.
+ */
+enum atom_type {
+	ATOM_REFNAME,
+	ATOM_OBJECTTYPE,
+	ATOM_OBJECTSIZE,
+	ATOM_OBJECTNAME,
+	ATOM_DELTABASE,
+	ATOM_TREE,
+	ATOM_PARENT,
+	ATOM_NUMPARENT,
+	ATOM_OBJECT,
+	ATOM_TYPE,
+	ATOM_TAG,
+	ATOM_AUTHOR,
+	ATOM_AUTHORNAME,
+	ATOM_AUTHOREMAIL,
+	ATOM_AUTHORDATE,
+	ATOM_COMMITTER,
+	ATOM_COMMITTERNAME,
+	ATOM_COMMITTEREMAIL,
+	ATOM_COMMITTERDATE,
+	ATOM_TAGGER,
+	ATOM_TAGGERNAME,
+	ATOM_TAGGEREMAIL,
+	ATOM_TAGGERDATE,
+	ATOM_CREATOR,
+	ATOM_CREATORDATE,
+	ATOM_SUBJECT,
+	ATOM_BODY,
+	ATOM_TRAILERS,
+	ATOM_CONTENTS,
+	ATOM_UPSTREAM,
+	ATOM_PUSH,
+	ATOM_SYMREF,
+	ATOM_FLAG,
+	ATOM_HEAD,
+	ATOM_COLOR,
+	ATOM_WORKTREEPATH,
+	ATOM_ALIGN,
+	ATOM_END,
+	ATOM_IF,
+	ATOM_THEN,
+	ATOM_ELSE,
+};
+
+/*
  * An atom is a valid field atom listed below, possibly prefixed with
  * a "*" to denote deref_tag().
  *
@@ -119,6 +169,7 @@
  * array.
  */
 static struct used_atom {
+	enum atom_type atom_type;
 	const char *name;
 	cmp_type type;
 	info_source source;
@@ -146,6 +197,9 @@
 			enum { O_FULL, O_LENGTH, O_SHORT } option;
 			unsigned int length;
 		} oid;
+		struct {
+			enum { O_SIZE, O_SIZE_DISK } option;
+		} objectsize;
 		struct email_option {
 			enum { EO_RAW, EO_TRIM, EO_LOCALPART } option;
 		} email_option;
@@ -269,11 +323,13 @@
 				  const char *arg, struct strbuf *err)
 {
 	if (!arg) {
+		atom->u.objectsize.option = O_SIZE;
 		if (*atom->name == '*')
 			oi_deref.info.sizep = &oi_deref.size;
 		else
 			oi.info.sizep = &oi.size;
 	} else if (!strcmp(arg, "disk")) {
+		atom->u.objectsize.option = O_SIZE_DISK;
 		if (*atom->name == '*')
 			oi_deref.info.disk_sizep = &oi_deref.disk_size;
 		else
@@ -501,47 +557,47 @@
 	int (*parser)(const struct ref_format *format, struct used_atom *atom,
 		      const char *arg, struct strbuf *err);
 } valid_atom[] = {
-	{ "refname", SOURCE_NONE, FIELD_STR, refname_atom_parser },
-	{ "objecttype", SOURCE_OTHER, FIELD_STR, objecttype_atom_parser },
-	{ "objectsize", SOURCE_OTHER, FIELD_ULONG, objectsize_atom_parser },
-	{ "objectname", SOURCE_OTHER, FIELD_STR, oid_atom_parser },
-	{ "deltabase", SOURCE_OTHER, FIELD_STR, deltabase_atom_parser },
-	{ "tree", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, oid_atom_parser },
-	{ "parent", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, oid_atom_parser },
-	{ "numparent", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_ULONG },
-	{ "object", SOURCE_OBJ },
-	{ "type", SOURCE_OBJ },
-	{ "tag", SOURCE_OBJ },
-	{ "author", SOURCE_OBJ },
-	{ "authorname", SOURCE_OBJ },
-	{ "authoremail", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, person_email_atom_parser },
-	{ "authordate", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_TIME },
-	{ "committer", SOURCE_OBJ },
-	{ "committername", SOURCE_OBJ },
-	{ "committeremail", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, person_email_atom_parser },
-	{ "committerdate", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_TIME },
-	{ "tagger", SOURCE_OBJ },
-	{ "taggername", SOURCE_OBJ },
-	{ "taggeremail", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, person_email_atom_parser },
-	{ "taggerdate", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_TIME },
-	{ "creator", SOURCE_OBJ },
-	{ "creatordate", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_TIME },
-	{ "subject", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, subject_atom_parser },
-	{ "body", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, body_atom_parser },
-	{ "trailers", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, trailers_atom_parser },
-	{ "contents", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, contents_atom_parser },
-	{ "upstream", SOURCE_NONE, FIELD_STR, remote_ref_atom_parser },
-	{ "push", SOURCE_NONE, FIELD_STR, remote_ref_atom_parser },
-	{ "symref", SOURCE_NONE, FIELD_STR, refname_atom_parser },
-	{ "flag", SOURCE_NONE },
-	{ "HEAD", SOURCE_NONE, FIELD_STR, head_atom_parser },
-	{ "color", SOURCE_NONE, FIELD_STR, color_atom_parser },
-	{ "worktreepath", SOURCE_NONE },
-	{ "align", SOURCE_NONE, FIELD_STR, align_atom_parser },
-	{ "end", SOURCE_NONE },
-	{ "if", SOURCE_NONE, FIELD_STR, if_atom_parser },
-	{ "then", SOURCE_NONE },
-	{ "else", SOURCE_NONE },
+	[ATOM_REFNAME] = { "refname", SOURCE_NONE, FIELD_STR, refname_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_OBJECTTYPE] = { "objecttype", SOURCE_OTHER, FIELD_STR, objecttype_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_OBJECTSIZE] = { "objectsize", SOURCE_OTHER, FIELD_ULONG, objectsize_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_OBJECTNAME] = { "objectname", SOURCE_OTHER, FIELD_STR, oid_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_DELTABASE] = { "deltabase", SOURCE_OTHER, FIELD_STR, deltabase_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_TREE] = { "tree", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, oid_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_PARENT] = { "parent", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, oid_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_NUMPARENT] = { "numparent", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_ULONG },
+	[ATOM_OBJECT] = { "object", SOURCE_OBJ },
+	[ATOM_TYPE] = { "type", SOURCE_OBJ },
+	[ATOM_TAG] = { "tag", SOURCE_OBJ },
+	[ATOM_AUTHOR] = { "author", SOURCE_OBJ },
+	[ATOM_AUTHORNAME] = { "authorname", SOURCE_OBJ },
+	[ATOM_AUTHOREMAIL] = { "authoremail", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, person_email_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_AUTHORDATE] = { "authordate", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_TIME },
+	[ATOM_COMMITTER] = { "committer", SOURCE_OBJ },
+	[ATOM_COMMITTERNAME] = { "committername", SOURCE_OBJ },
+	[ATOM_COMMITTEREMAIL] = { "committeremail", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, person_email_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_COMMITTERDATE] = { "committerdate", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_TIME },
+	[ATOM_TAGGER] = { "tagger", SOURCE_OBJ },
+	[ATOM_TAGGERNAME] = { "taggername", SOURCE_OBJ },
+	[ATOM_TAGGEREMAIL] = { "taggeremail", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, person_email_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_TAGGERDATE] = { "taggerdate", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_TIME },
+	[ATOM_CREATOR] = { "creator", SOURCE_OBJ },
+	[ATOM_CREATORDATE] = { "creatordate", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_TIME },
+	[ATOM_SUBJECT] = { "subject", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, subject_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_BODY] = { "body", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, body_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_TRAILERS] = { "trailers", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, trailers_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_CONTENTS] = { "contents", SOURCE_OBJ, FIELD_STR, contents_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_UPSTREAM] = { "upstream", SOURCE_NONE, FIELD_STR, remote_ref_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_PUSH] = { "push", SOURCE_NONE, FIELD_STR, remote_ref_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_SYMREF] = { "symref", SOURCE_NONE, FIELD_STR, refname_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_FLAG] = { "flag", SOURCE_NONE },
+	[ATOM_HEAD] = { "HEAD", SOURCE_NONE, FIELD_STR, head_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_COLOR] = { "color", SOURCE_NONE, FIELD_STR, color_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_WORKTREEPATH] = { "worktreepath", SOURCE_NONE },
+	[ATOM_ALIGN] = { "align", SOURCE_NONE, FIELD_STR, align_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_END] = { "end", SOURCE_NONE },
+	[ATOM_IF] = { "if", SOURCE_NONE, FIELD_STR, if_atom_parser },
+	[ATOM_THEN] = { "then", SOURCE_NONE },
+	[ATOM_ELSE] = { "else", SOURCE_NONE },
 	/*
 	 * Please update $__git_ref_fieldlist in git-completion.bash
 	 * when you add new atoms
@@ -623,6 +679,7 @@
 	at = used_atom_cnt;
 	used_atom_cnt++;
 	REALLOC_ARRAY(used_atom, used_atom_cnt);
+	used_atom[at].atom_type = i;
 	used_atom[at].name = xmemdupz(atom, ep - atom);
 	used_atom[at].type = valid_atom[i].cmp_type;
 	used_atom[at].source = valid_atom[i].source;
@@ -647,7 +704,7 @@
 		return -1;
 	if (*atom == '*')
 		need_tagged = 1;
-	if (!strcmp(valid_atom[i].name, "symref"))
+	if (i == ATOM_SYMREF)
 		need_symref = 1;
 	return at;
 }
@@ -960,22 +1017,25 @@
 
 	for (i = 0; i < used_atom_cnt; i++) {
 		const char *name = used_atom[i].name;
+		enum atom_type atom_type = used_atom[i].atom_type;
 		struct atom_value *v = &val[i];
 		if (!!deref != (*name == '*'))
 			continue;
 		if (deref)
 			name++;
-		if (!strcmp(name, "objecttype"))
+		if (atom_type == ATOM_OBJECTTYPE)
 			v->s = xstrdup(type_name(oi->type));
-		else if (!strcmp(name, "objectsize:disk")) {
-			v->value = oi->disk_size;
-			v->s = xstrfmt("%"PRIuMAX, (uintmax_t)oi->disk_size);
-		} else if (!strcmp(name, "objectsize")) {
-			v->value = oi->size;
-			v->s = xstrfmt("%"PRIuMAX , (uintmax_t)oi->size);
-		} else if (!strcmp(name, "deltabase"))
+		else if (atom_type == ATOM_OBJECTSIZE) {
+			if (used_atom[i].u.objectsize.option == O_SIZE_DISK) {
+				v->value = oi->disk_size;
+				v->s = xstrfmt("%"PRIuMAX, (uintmax_t)oi->disk_size);
+			} else if (used_atom[i].u.objectsize.option == O_SIZE) {
+				v->value = oi->size;
+				v->s = xstrfmt("%"PRIuMAX , (uintmax_t)oi->size);
+			}
+		} else if (atom_type == ATOM_DELTABASE)
 			v->s = xstrdup(oid_to_hex(&oi->delta_base_oid));
-		else if (deref)
+		else if (atom_type == ATOM_OBJECTNAME && deref)
 			grab_oid(name, "objectname", &oi->oid, v, &used_atom[i]);
 	}
 }
@@ -988,16 +1048,17 @@
 
 	for (i = 0; i < used_atom_cnt; i++) {
 		const char *name = used_atom[i].name;
+		enum atom_type atom_type = used_atom[i].atom_type;
 		struct atom_value *v = &val[i];
 		if (!!deref != (*name == '*'))
 			continue;
 		if (deref)
 			name++;
-		if (!strcmp(name, "tag"))
+		if (atom_type == ATOM_TAG)
 			v->s = xstrdup(tag->tag);
-		else if (!strcmp(name, "type") && tag->tagged)
+		else if (atom_type == ATOM_TYPE && tag->tagged)
 			v->s = xstrdup(type_name(tag->tagged->type));
-		else if (!strcmp(name, "object") && tag->tagged)
+		else if (atom_type == ATOM_OBJECT && tag->tagged)
 			v->s = xstrdup(oid_to_hex(&tag->tagged->oid));
 	}
 }
@@ -1010,18 +1071,20 @@
 
 	for (i = 0; i < used_atom_cnt; i++) {
 		const char *name = used_atom[i].name;
+		enum atom_type atom_type = used_atom[i].atom_type;
 		struct atom_value *v = &val[i];
 		if (!!deref != (*name == '*'))
 			continue;
 		if (deref)
 			name++;
-		if (grab_oid(name, "tree", get_commit_tree_oid(commit), v, &used_atom[i]))
+		if (atom_type == ATOM_TREE &&
+		    grab_oid(name, "tree", get_commit_tree_oid(commit), v, &used_atom[i]))
 			continue;
-		if (!strcmp(name, "numparent")) {
+		if (atom_type == ATOM_NUMPARENT) {
 			v->value = commit_list_count(commit->parents);
 			v->s = xstrfmt("%lu", (unsigned long)v->value);
 		}
-		else if (starts_with(name, "parent")) {
+		else if (atom_type == ATOM_PARENT) {
 			struct commit_list *parents;
 			struct strbuf s = STRBUF_INIT;
 			for (parents = commit->parents; parents; parents = parents->next) {
@@ -1201,15 +1264,16 @@
 		return;
 	for (i = 0; i < used_atom_cnt; i++) {
 		const char *name = used_atom[i].name;
+		enum atom_type atom_type = used_atom[i].atom_type;
 		struct atom_value *v = &val[i];
 		if (!!deref != (*name == '*'))
 			continue;
 		if (deref)
 			name++;
 
-		if (starts_with(name, "creatordate"))
+		if (atom_type == ATOM_CREATORDATE)
 			grab_date(wholine, v, name);
-		else if (!strcmp(name, "creator"))
+		else if (atom_type == ATOM_CREATOR)
 			v->s = copy_line(wholine);
 	}
 }
@@ -1689,6 +1753,7 @@
 	/* Fill in specials first */
 	for (i = 0; i < used_atom_cnt; i++) {
 		struct used_atom *atom = &used_atom[i];
+		enum atom_type atom_type = atom->atom_type;
 		const char *name = used_atom[i].name;
 		struct atom_value *v = &ref->value[i];
 		int deref = 0;
@@ -1703,18 +1768,18 @@
 			name++;
 		}
 
-		if (starts_with(name, "refname"))
+		if (atom_type == ATOM_REFNAME)
 			refname = get_refname(atom, ref);
-		else if (!strcmp(name, "worktreepath")) {
+		else if (atom_type == ATOM_WORKTREEPATH) {
 			if (ref->kind == FILTER_REFS_BRANCHES)
 				v->s = get_worktree_path(atom, ref);
 			else
 				v->s = xstrdup("");
 			continue;
 		}
-		else if (starts_with(name, "symref"))
+		else if (atom_type == ATOM_SYMREF)
 			refname = get_symref(atom, ref);
-		else if (starts_with(name, "upstream")) {
+		else if (atom_type == ATOM_UPSTREAM) {
 			const char *branch_name;
 			/* only local branches may have an upstream */
 			if (!skip_prefix(ref->refname, "refs/heads/",
@@ -1730,7 +1795,7 @@
 			else
 				v->s = xstrdup("");
 			continue;
-		} else if (!strcmp(atom->name, "push") || starts_with(atom->name, "push:")) {
+		} else if (atom_type == ATOM_PUSH && atom->u.remote_ref.push) {
 			const char *branch_name;
 			v->s = xstrdup("");
 			if (!skip_prefix(ref->refname, "refs/heads/",
@@ -1749,10 +1814,10 @@
 			free((char *)v->s);
 			fill_remote_ref_details(atom, refname, branch, &v->s);
 			continue;
-		} else if (starts_with(name, "color:")) {
+		} else if (atom_type == ATOM_COLOR) {
 			v->s = xstrdup(atom->u.color);
 			continue;
-		} else if (!strcmp(name, "flag")) {
+		} else if (atom_type == ATOM_FLAG) {
 			char buf[256], *cp = buf;
 			if (ref->flag & REF_ISSYMREF)
 				cp = copy_advance(cp, ",symref");
@@ -1765,23 +1830,24 @@
 				v->s = xstrdup(buf + 1);
 			}
 			continue;
-		} else if (!deref && grab_oid(name, "objectname", &ref->objectname, v, atom)) {
-			continue;
-		} else if (!strcmp(name, "HEAD")) {
+		} else if (!deref && atom_type == ATOM_OBJECTNAME &&
+			   grab_oid(name, "objectname", &ref->objectname, v, atom)) {
+				continue;
+		} else if (atom_type == ATOM_HEAD) {
 			if (atom->u.head && !strcmp(ref->refname, atom->u.head))
 				v->s = xstrdup("*");
 			else
 				v->s = xstrdup(" ");
 			continue;
-		} else if (starts_with(name, "align")) {
+		} else if (atom_type == ATOM_ALIGN) {
 			v->handler = align_atom_handler;
 			v->s = xstrdup("");
 			continue;
-		} else if (!strcmp(name, "end")) {
+		} else if (atom_type == ATOM_END) {
 			v->handler = end_atom_handler;
 			v->s = xstrdup("");
 			continue;
-		} else if (starts_with(name, "if")) {
+		} else if (atom_type == ATOM_IF) {
 			const char *s;
 			if (skip_prefix(name, "if:", &s))
 				v->s = xstrdup(s);
@@ -1789,11 +1855,11 @@
 				v->s = xstrdup("");
 			v->handler = if_atom_handler;
 			continue;
-		} else if (!strcmp(name, "then")) {
+		} else if (atom_type == ATOM_THEN) {
 			v->handler = then_atom_handler;
 			v->s = xstrdup("");
 			continue;
-		} else if (!strcmp(name, "else")) {
+		} else if (atom_type == ATOM_ELSE) {
 			v->handler = else_atom_handler;
 			v->s = xstrdup("");
 			continue;
diff --git a/refs.c b/refs.c
index 8c94902..8b9f7c3 100644
--- a/refs.c
+++ b/refs.c
@@ -2010,7 +2010,7 @@
 	     oideq(current_ref_iter->oid, base)))
 		return ref_iterator_peel(current_ref_iter, peeled);
 
-	return peel_object(base, peeled);
+	return peel_object(base, peeled) ? -1 : 0;
 }
 
 int refs_create_symref(struct ref_store *refs,
diff --git a/refs/packed-backend.c b/refs/packed-backend.c
index dfecdbc..f8aa97d 100644
--- a/refs/packed-backend.c
+++ b/refs/packed-backend.c
@@ -889,7 +889,7 @@
 	} else if ((iter->base.flags & (REF_ISBROKEN | REF_ISSYMREF))) {
 		return -1;
 	} else {
-		return !!peel_object(&iter->oid, peeled);
+		return peel_object(&iter->oid, peeled) ? -1 : 0;
 	}
 }
 
@@ -1425,7 +1425,7 @@
 	 */
 
 	CALLOC_ARRAY(data, 1);
-	string_list_init(&data->updates, 0);
+	string_list_init_nodup(&data->updates);
 
 	transaction->backend_data = data;
 
diff --git a/refs/ref-cache.c b/refs/ref-cache.c
index 46f1e54..49d732f 100644
--- a/refs/ref-cache.c
+++ b/refs/ref-cache.c
@@ -491,7 +491,7 @@
 static int cache_ref_iterator_peel(struct ref_iterator *ref_iterator,
 				   struct object_id *peeled)
 {
-	return peel_object(ref_iterator->oid, peeled);
+	return peel_object(ref_iterator->oid, peeled) ? -1 : 0;
 }
 
 static int cache_ref_iterator_abort(struct ref_iterator *ref_iterator)
diff --git a/refs/refs-internal.h b/refs/refs-internal.h
index 467f4b3..3155708 100644
--- a/refs/refs-internal.h
+++ b/refs/refs-internal.h
@@ -453,6 +453,9 @@
  */
 typedef int ref_iterator_advance_fn(struct ref_iterator *ref_iterator);
 
+/*
+ * Peels the current ref, returning 0 for success or -1 for failure.
+ */
 typedef int ref_iterator_peel_fn(struct ref_iterator *ref_iterator,
 				 struct object_id *peeled);
 
diff --git a/remote.c b/remote.c
index 6d1e8d0..dfb863d 100644
--- a/remote.c
+++ b/remote.c
@@ -1592,7 +1592,7 @@
 			else
 				/*
 				 * If the ref isn't stale, and is reachable
-				 * from from one of the reflog entries of
+				 * from one of the reflog entries of
 				 * the local branch, force the update.
 				 */
 				force_ref_update = 1;
diff --git a/revision.c b/revision.c
index 8140561..cddd054 100644
--- a/revision.c
+++ b/revision.c
@@ -316,9 +316,10 @@
 		revs->no_walk = 0;
 	if (revs->reflog_info && obj->type == OBJ_COMMIT) {
 		struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
-		int len = interpret_branch_name(name, 0, &buf, &options);
+		size_t namelen = strlen(name);
+		int len = interpret_branch_name(name, namelen, &buf, &options);
 
-		if (0 < len && name[len] && buf.len)
+		if (0 < len && len < namelen && buf.len)
 			strbuf_addstr(&buf, name + len);
 		add_reflog_for_walk(revs->reflog_info,
 				    (struct commit *)obj,
diff --git a/revision.h b/revision.h
index 93aa012..5c5510d 100644
--- a/revision.h
+++ b/revision.h
@@ -193,10 +193,10 @@
 			/* Diff-merge flags */
 			explicit_diff_merges: 1,
 			merges_need_diff: 1,
+			merges_imply_patch:1,
 			separate_merges: 1,
 			combine_merges:1,
 			combined_all_paths:1,
-			combined_imply_patch:1,
 			dense_combined_merges:1,
 			first_parent_merges:1;
 
@@ -262,6 +262,7 @@
 	int min_parents;
 	int max_parents;
 	int (*include_check)(struct commit *, void *);
+	int (*include_check_obj)(struct object *obj, void *);
 	void *include_check_data;
 
 	/* diff info for patches and for paths limiting */
diff --git a/run-command.c b/run-command.c
index 549a94a..f72e72c 100644
--- a/run-command.c
+++ b/run-command.c
@@ -11,9 +11,8 @@
 
 void child_process_init(struct child_process *child)
 {
-	memset(child, 0, sizeof(*child));
-	strvec_init(&child->args);
-	strvec_init(&child->env_array);
+	struct child_process blank = CHILD_PROCESS_INIT;
+	memcpy(child, &blank, sizeof(*child));
 }
 
 void child_process_clear(struct child_process *child)
diff --git a/run-command.h b/run-command.h
index 2213253..af12967 100644
--- a/run-command.h
+++ b/run-command.h
@@ -141,7 +141,10 @@
 	void *clean_on_exit_handler_cbdata;
 };
 
-#define CHILD_PROCESS_INIT { NULL, STRVEC_INIT, STRVEC_INIT }
+#define CHILD_PROCESS_INIT { \
+	.args = STRVEC_INIT, \
+	.env_array = STRVEC_INIT, \
+}
 
 /**
  * The functions: child_process_init, start_command, finish_command,
diff --git a/send-pack.c b/send-pack.c
index 9cb9f71..5a79e0e 100644
--- a/send-pack.c
+++ b/send-pack.c
@@ -486,6 +486,12 @@
 	const char *push_cert_nonce = NULL;
 	struct packet_reader reader;
 
+	if (!remote_refs) {
+		fprintf(stderr, "No refs in common and none specified; doing nothing.\n"
+			"Perhaps you should specify a branch.\n");
+		return 0;
+	}
+
 	git_config_get_bool("push.negotiate", &push_negotiate);
 	if (push_negotiate)
 		get_commons_through_negotiation(args->url, remote_refs, &commons);
@@ -534,11 +540,6 @@
 		}
 	}
 
-	if (!remote_refs) {
-		fprintf(stderr, "No refs in common and none specified; doing nothing.\n"
-			"Perhaps you should specify a branch.\n");
-		return 0;
-	}
 	if (args->atomic && !atomic_supported)
 		die(_("the receiving end does not support --atomic push"));
 
diff --git a/setup.c b/setup.c
index 5a2dd95..eb9367c 100644
--- a/setup.c
+++ b/setup.c
@@ -663,7 +663,9 @@
 	if (format->version >= 1 && format->unknown_extensions.nr) {
 		int i;
 
-		strbuf_addstr(err, _("unknown repository extensions found:"));
+		strbuf_addstr(err, Q_("unknown repository extension found:",
+				      "unknown repository extensions found:",
+				      format->unknown_extensions.nr));
 
 		for (i = 0; i < format->unknown_extensions.nr; i++)
 			strbuf_addf(err, "\n\t%s",
@@ -675,7 +677,9 @@
 		int i;
 
 		strbuf_addstr(err,
-			      _("repo version is 0, but v1-only extensions found:"));
+			      Q_("repo version is 0, but v1-only extension found:",
+				 "repo version is 0, but v1-only extensions found:",
+				 format->v1_only_extensions.nr));
 
 		for (i = 0; i < format->v1_only_extensions.nr; i++)
 			strbuf_addf(err, "\n\t%s",
diff --git a/sh-i18n--envsubst.c b/sh-i18n--envsubst.c
index e7430b9..6cd307a 100644
--- a/sh-i18n--envsubst.c
+++ b/sh-i18n--envsubst.c
@@ -104,12 +104,12 @@
   if (ferror (stderr) || fflush (stderr))
     {
       fclose (stderr);
-      exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
+      return (EXIT_FAILURE);
     }
   if (fclose (stderr) && errno != EBADF)
-    exit (EXIT_FAILURE);
+    return (EXIT_FAILURE);
 
-  exit (EXIT_SUCCESS);
+  return (EXIT_SUCCESS);
 }
 
 /* Parse the string and invoke the callback each time a $VARIABLE or
diff --git a/shell.c b/shell.c
index cef7ffd..811e13b 100644
--- a/shell.c
+++ b/shell.c
@@ -177,7 +177,7 @@
 		default:
 			continue;
 		}
-		exit(cmd->exec(cmd->name, arg));
+		return cmd->exec(cmd->name, arg);
 	}
 
 	cd_to_homedir();
diff --git a/sideband.c b/sideband.c
index 6f9e026..85bddfd 100644
--- a/sideband.c
+++ b/sideband.c
@@ -183,8 +183,31 @@
 		while ((brk = strpbrk(b, "\n\r"))) {
 			int linelen = brk - b;
 
+			/*
+			 * For message accross packet boundary, there would have
+			 * a nonempty "scratch" buffer from last call of this
+			 * function, and there may have a leading CR/LF in "buf".
+			 * For this case we should add a clear-to-eol suffix to
+			 * clean leftover letters we previously have written on
+			 * the same line.
+			 */
+			if (scratch->len && !linelen)
+				strbuf_addstr(scratch, suffix);
+
 			if (!scratch->len)
 				strbuf_addstr(scratch, DISPLAY_PREFIX);
+
+			/*
+			 * A use case that we should not add clear-to-eol suffix
+			 * to empty lines:
+			 *
+			 * For progress reporting we may receive a bunch of
+			 * percentage updates followed by '\r' to remain on the
+			 * same line, and at the end receive a single '\n' to
+			 * move to the next line. We should preserve the final
+			 * status report line by not appending clear-to-eol
+			 * suffix to this single line break.
+			 */
 			if (linelen > 0) {
 				maybe_colorize_sideband(scratch, b, linelen);
 				strbuf_addstr(scratch, suffix);
diff --git a/split-index.c b/split-index.c
index 4d6e52d..8e52e89 100644
--- a/split-index.c
+++ b/split-index.c
@@ -207,7 +207,8 @@
 	b->ce_flags &= ondisk_flags;
 	ret = memcmp(&a->ce_stat_data, &b->ce_stat_data,
 		     offsetof(struct cache_entry, name) -
-		     offsetof(struct cache_entry, ce_stat_data));
+		     offsetof(struct cache_entry, oid)) ||
+		!oideq(&a->oid, &b->oid);
 	a->ce_flags = ce_flags;
 	b->ce_flags = base_flags;
 
diff --git a/strbuf.c b/strbuf.c
index 4df30b4..c8a5789 100644
--- a/strbuf.c
+++ b/strbuf.c
@@ -52,8 +52,8 @@
 
 void strbuf_init(struct strbuf *sb, size_t hint)
 {
-	sb->alloc = sb->len = 0;
-	sb->buf = strbuf_slopbuf;
+	struct strbuf blank = STRBUF_INIT;
+	memcpy(sb, &blank, sizeof(*sb));
 	if (hint)
 		strbuf_grow(sb, hint);
 }
diff --git a/string-list.c b/string-list.c
index a917955..43576ad 100644
--- a/string-list.c
+++ b/string-list.c
@@ -1,10 +1,24 @@
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "string-list.h"
 
+void string_list_init_nodup(struct string_list *list)
+{
+	struct string_list blank = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
+	memcpy(list, &blank, sizeof(*list));
+}
+
+void string_list_init_dup(struct string_list *list)
+{
+	struct string_list blank = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
+	memcpy(list, &blank, sizeof(*list));
+}
+
 void string_list_init(struct string_list *list, int strdup_strings)
 {
-	memset(list, 0, sizeof(*list));
-	list->strdup_strings = strdup_strings;
+	if (strdup_strings)
+		string_list_init_dup(list);
+	else
+		string_list_init_nodup(list);
 }
 
 /* if there is no exact match, point to the index where the entry could be
diff --git a/string-list.h b/string-list.h
index 6c5d274..0d6b469 100644
--- a/string-list.h
+++ b/string-list.h
@@ -91,14 +91,21 @@
 	compare_strings_fn cmp; /* NULL uses strcmp() */
 };
 
-#define STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP { NULL, 0, 0, 0, NULL }
-#define STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP   { NULL, 0, 0, 1, NULL }
+#define STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP { 0 }
+#define STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP   { .strdup_strings = 1 }
 
 /* General functions which work with both sorted and unsorted lists. */
 
 /**
- * Initialize the members of the string_list, set `strdup_strings`
- * member according to the value of the second parameter.
+ * Initialize the members of a string_list pointer in the same way as
+ * the corresponding `STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP` and
+ * `STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP` macros.
+ */
+void string_list_init_nodup(struct string_list *list);
+void string_list_init_dup(struct string_list *list);
+
+/**
+ * TODO remove: For compatibility with any in-flight older API users
  */
 void string_list_init(struct string_list *list, int strdup_strings);
 
diff --git a/strmap.c b/strmap.c
index 4fb9f61..ee48635 100644
--- a/strmap.c
+++ b/strmap.c
@@ -25,7 +25,8 @@
 
 void strmap_init(struct strmap *map)
 {
-	strmap_init_with_options(map, NULL, 1);
+	struct strmap blank = STRMAP_INIT;
+	memcpy(map, &blank, sizeof(*map));
 }
 
 void strmap_init_with_options(struct strmap *map,
diff --git a/strvec.c b/strvec.c
index 21dce0a..61a76ce 100644
--- a/strvec.c
+++ b/strvec.c
@@ -6,9 +6,8 @@
 
 void strvec_init(struct strvec *array)
 {
-	array->v = empty_strvec;
-	array->nr = 0;
-	array->alloc = 0;
+	struct strvec blank = STRVEC_INIT;
+	memcpy(array, &blank, sizeof(*array));
 }
 
 static void strvec_push_nodup(struct strvec *array, const char *value)
diff --git a/t/README b/t/README
index 1a2072b..9e70122 100644
--- a/t/README
+++ b/t/README
@@ -1126,6 +1126,12 @@
 
    Git wasn't compiled with NO_PTHREADS=YesPlease.
 
+ - REFFILES
+
+   Test is specific to packed/loose ref storage, and should be
+   disabled for other ref storage backends
+
+
 Tips for Writing Tests
 ----------------------
 
diff --git a/t/helper/test-fast-rebase.c b/t/helper/test-fast-rebase.c
index 3732122..fc2d460 100644
--- a/t/helper/test-fast-rebase.c
+++ b/t/helper/test-fast-rebase.c
@@ -91,7 +91,6 @@
 	struct commit *last_commit = NULL, *last_picked_commit = NULL;
 	struct object_id head;
 	struct lock_file lock = LOCK_INIT;
-	int clean = 1;
 	struct strvec rev_walk_args = STRVEC_INIT;
 	struct rev_info revs;
 	struct commit *commit;
@@ -124,7 +123,8 @@
 	assert(oideq(&onto->object.oid, &head));
 
 	hold_locked_index(&lock, LOCK_DIE_ON_ERROR);
-	assert(repo_read_index(the_repository) >= 0);
+	if (repo_read_index(the_repository) < 0)
+		BUG("Could not read index");
 
 	repo_init_revisions(the_repository, &revs, NULL);
 	revs.verbose_header = 1;
@@ -175,11 +175,10 @@
 		free((char*)merge_opt.ancestor);
 		merge_opt.ancestor = NULL;
 		if (!result.clean)
-			die("Aborting: Hit a conflict and restarting is not implemented.");
+			break;
 		last_picked_commit = commit;
 		last_commit = create_commit(result.tree, commit, last_commit);
 	}
-	fprintf(stderr, "\nDone.\n");
 	/* TODO: There should be some kind of rev_info_free(&revs) call... */
 	memset(&revs, 0, sizeof(revs));
 
@@ -188,24 +187,39 @@
 	if (result.clean < 0)
 		exit(128);
 
-	strbuf_addf(&reflog_msg, "finish rebase %s onto %s",
-		    oid_to_hex(&last_picked_commit->object.oid),
-		    oid_to_hex(&last_commit->object.oid));
-	if (update_ref(reflog_msg.buf, branch_name.buf,
-		       &last_commit->object.oid,
-		       &last_picked_commit->object.oid,
-		       REF_NO_DEREF, UPDATE_REFS_MSG_ON_ERR)) {
-		error(_("could not update %s"), argv[4]);
-		die("Failed to update %s", argv[4]);
-	}
-	if (create_symref("HEAD", branch_name.buf, reflog_msg.buf) < 0)
-		die(_("unable to update HEAD"));
-	strbuf_release(&reflog_msg);
-	strbuf_release(&branch_name);
+	if (result.clean) {
+		fprintf(stderr, "\nDone.\n");
+		strbuf_addf(&reflog_msg, "finish rebase %s onto %s",
+			    oid_to_hex(&last_picked_commit->object.oid),
+			    oid_to_hex(&last_commit->object.oid));
+		if (update_ref(reflog_msg.buf, branch_name.buf,
+			       &last_commit->object.oid,
+			       &last_picked_commit->object.oid,
+			       REF_NO_DEREF, UPDATE_REFS_MSG_ON_ERR)) {
+			error(_("could not update %s"), argv[4]);
+			die("Failed to update %s", argv[4]);
+		}
+		if (create_symref("HEAD", branch_name.buf, reflog_msg.buf) < 0)
+			die(_("unable to update HEAD"));
+		strbuf_release(&reflog_msg);
+		strbuf_release(&branch_name);
 
-	prime_cache_tree(the_repository, the_repository->index, result.tree);
+		prime_cache_tree(the_repository, the_repository->index,
+				 result.tree);
+	} else {
+		fprintf(stderr, "\nAborting: Hit a conflict.\n");
+		strbuf_addf(&reflog_msg, "rebase progress up to %s",
+			    oid_to_hex(&last_picked_commit->object.oid));
+		if (update_ref(reflog_msg.buf, "HEAD",
+			       &last_commit->object.oid,
+			       &head,
+			       REF_NO_DEREF, UPDATE_REFS_MSG_ON_ERR)) {
+			error(_("could not update %s"), argv[4]);
+			die("Failed to update %s", argv[4]);
+		}
+	}
 	if (write_locked_index(&the_index, &lock,
 			       COMMIT_LOCK | SKIP_IF_UNCHANGED))
 		die(_("unable to write %s"), get_index_file());
-	return (clean == 0);
+	return (result.clean == 0);
 }
diff --git a/t/helper/test-hash-speed.c b/t/helper/test-hash-speed.c
index 432233c..f40d9ad 100644
--- a/t/helper/test-hash-speed.c
+++ b/t/helper/test-hash-speed.c
@@ -57,5 +57,5 @@
 		free(p);
 	}
 
-	exit(0);
+	return 0;
 }
diff --git a/t/helper/test-hash.c b/t/helper/test-hash.c
index 0a31de6..261c545 100644
--- a/t/helper/test-hash.c
+++ b/t/helper/test-hash.c
@@ -54,5 +54,5 @@
 		fwrite(hash, 1, algop->rawsz, stdout);
 	else
 		puts(hash_to_hex_algop(hash, algop));
-	exit(0);
+	return 0;
 }
diff --git a/t/helper/test-match-trees.c b/t/helper/test-match-trees.c
index b9fd427..4079fde 100644
--- a/t/helper/test-match-trees.c
+++ b/t/helper/test-match-trees.c
@@ -23,5 +23,5 @@
 	shift_tree(the_repository, &one->object.oid, &two->object.oid, &shifted, -1);
 	printf("shifted: %s\n", oid_to_hex(&shifted));
 
-	exit(0);
+	return 0;
 }
diff --git a/t/helper/test-reach.c b/t/helper/test-reach.c
index cda804e..2f65c7f 100644
--- a/t/helper/test-reach.c
+++ b/t/helper/test-reach.c
@@ -166,5 +166,5 @@
 		print_sorted_commit_ids(list);
 	}
 
-	exit(0);
+	return 0;
 }
diff --git a/t/helper/test-ref-store.c b/t/helper/test-ref-store.c
index bba5f84..b314b81 100644
--- a/t/helper/test-ref-store.c
+++ b/t/helper/test-ref-store.c
@@ -118,7 +118,7 @@
 
 static int cmd_resolve_ref(struct ref_store *refs, const char **argv)
 {
-	struct object_id oid;
+	struct object_id oid = *null_oid();
 	const char *refname = notnull(*argv++, "refname");
 	int resolve_flags = arg_flags(*argv++, "resolve-flags");
 	int flags;
diff --git a/t/lib-git-svn.sh b/t/lib-git-svn.sh
index 547eb3c..2fde235 100644
--- a/t/lib-git-svn.sh
+++ b/t/lib-git-svn.sh
@@ -121,12 +121,22 @@
 		 --listen-host 127.0.0.1 &
 }
 
-prepare_a_utf8_locale () {
-	a_utf8_locale=$(locale -a | sed -n '/\.[uU][tT][fF]-*8$/{
-	p
-	q
-}')
-	if test -n "$a_utf8_locale"
+prepare_utf8_locale () {
+	if test -z "$GIT_TEST_UTF8_LOCALE"
+	then
+		case "${LC_ALL:-$LANG}" in
+		*.[Uu][Tt][Ff]8 | *.[Uu][Tt][Ff]-8)
+			GIT_TEST_UTF8_LOCALE="${LC_ALL:-$LANG}"
+			;;
+		*)
+			GIT_TEST_UTF8_LOCALE=$(locale -a | sed -n '/\.[uU][tT][fF]-*8$/{
+				p
+				q
+			}')
+			;;
+		esac
+	fi
+	if test -n "$GIT_TEST_UTF8_LOCALE"
 	then
 		test_set_prereq UTF8
 	else
diff --git a/t/lib-submodule-update.sh b/t/lib-submodule-update.sh
index 4b714e9..f7c7df0 100644
--- a/t/lib-submodule-update.sh
+++ b/t/lib-submodule-update.sh
@@ -63,6 +63,7 @@
 	git init submodule_update_repo &&
 	(
 		cd submodule_update_repo &&
+		branch=$(git symbolic-ref --short HEAD) &&
 		echo "expect" >>.gitignore &&
 		echo "actual" >>.gitignore &&
 		echo "x" >file1 &&
@@ -144,7 +145,7 @@
 		git checkout -b valid_sub1 &&
 		git revert HEAD &&
 
-		git checkout "${GIT_TEST_DEFAULT_INITIAL_BRANCH_NAME-master}"
+		git checkout "$branch"
 	)
 }
 
diff --git a/t/perf/p4209-pickaxe.sh b/t/perf/p4209-pickaxe.sh
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..f585a44
--- /dev/null
+++ b/t/perf/p4209-pickaxe.sh
@@ -0,0 +1,70 @@
+#!/bin/sh
+
+test_description="Test pickaxe performance"
+
+. ./perf-lib.sh
+
+test_perf_default_repo
+
+# Not --max-count, as that's the number of matching commit, so it's
+# unbounded. We want to limit our revision walk here.
+from_rev_desc=
+from_rev=
+max_count=1000
+if test_have_prereq EXPENSIVE
+then
+	max_count=10000
+fi
+from_rev=" $(git rev-list HEAD | head -n $max_count | tail -n 1).."
+from_rev_desc=" <limit-rev>.."
+
+for icase in \
+	'' \
+	'-i '
+do
+	# -S (no regex)
+	for pattern in \
+		'int main' \
+		'æ'
+	do
+		for opts in \
+			'-S'
+		do
+			test_perf "git log $icase$opts'$pattern'$from_rev_desc" "
+				git log --pretty=format:%H $icase$opts'$pattern'$from_rev
+			"
+		done
+	done
+
+	# -S (regex)
+	for pattern in  \
+		'(int|void|null)' \
+		'if *\([^ ]+ & ' \
+		'[àáâãäåæñøùúûüýþ]'
+	do
+		for opts in \
+			'--pickaxe-regex -S'
+		do
+			test_perf "git log $icase$opts'$pattern'$from_rev_desc" "
+				git log --pretty=format:%H $icase$opts'$pattern'$from_rev
+			"
+		done
+	done
+
+	# -G
+	for pattern in  \
+		'(int|void|null)' \
+		'if *\([^ ]+ & ' \
+		'[àáâãäåæñøùúûüýþ]'
+	do
+		for opts in \
+			'-G'
+		do
+			test_perf "git log $icase$opts'$pattern'$from_rev_desc" "
+				git log --pretty=format:%H $icase$opts'$pattern'$from_rev
+			"
+		done
+	done
+done
+
+test_done
diff --git a/t/t0000-basic.sh b/t/t0000-basic.sh
index 705d62c..2c6e34b 100755
--- a/t/t0000-basic.sh
+++ b/t/t0000-basic.sh
@@ -84,10 +84,6 @@
 		passing metrics
 		'
 
-		# Tell the framework that we are self-testing to make sure
-		# it yields a stable result.
-		GIT_TEST_FRAMEWORK_SELFTEST=t &&
-
 		# Point to the t/test-lib.sh, which isn't in ../ as usual
 		. "\$TEST_DIRECTORY"/test-lib.sh
 		EOF
diff --git a/t/t1006-cat-file.sh b/t/t1006-cat-file.sh
index 5d2dc99..18b3779 100755
--- a/t/t1006-cat-file.sh
+++ b/t/t1006-cat-file.sh
@@ -586,4 +586,26 @@
 	test_cmp expect actual
 '
 
+test_expect_success 'set up object list for --batch-all-objects tests' '
+	git -C all-two cat-file --batch-all-objects --batch-check="%(objectname)" >objects
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'cat-file --batch="%(objectname)" with --batch-all-objects will work' '
+	git -C all-two cat-file --batch="%(objectname)" <objects >expect &&
+	git -C all-two cat-file --batch-all-objects --batch="%(objectname)" >actual &&
+	cmp expect actual
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'cat-file --batch="%(rest)" with --batch-all-objects will work' '
+	git -C all-two cat-file --batch="%(rest)" <objects >expect &&
+	git -C all-two cat-file --batch-all-objects --batch="%(rest)" >actual &&
+	cmp expect actual
+'
+
+test_expect_success 'cat-file --batch="batman" with --batch-all-objects will work' '
+	git -C all-two cat-file --batch="batman" <objects >expect &&
+	git -C all-two cat-file --batch-all-objects --batch="batman" >actual &&
+	cmp expect actual
+'
+
 test_done
diff --git a/t/t1092-sparse-checkout-compatibility.sh b/t/t1092-sparse-checkout-compatibility.sh
index e9a815c..d028b73 100755
--- a/t/t1092-sparse-checkout-compatibility.sh
+++ b/t/t1092-sparse-checkout-compatibility.sh
@@ -268,7 +268,7 @@
 	for branch in rename-out-to-out rename-out-to-in rename-in-to-out
 	do
 		test_all_match git checkout rename-base &&
-		test_all_match git checkout $branch -- .&&
+		test_all_match git checkout $branch -- . &&
 		test_all_match git diff --staged --no-renames &&
 		test_all_match git diff --staged --find-renames || return 1
 	done
diff --git a/t/t1301-shared-repo.sh b/t/t1301-shared-repo.sh
index ac947bf..84bf197 100755
--- a/t/t1301-shared-repo.sh
+++ b/t/t1301-shared-repo.sh
@@ -124,7 +124,7 @@
 		: happy
 		;;
 	*)
-		echo Ooops, .git/logs/refs/heads/main is not 0662 [$actual]
+		echo Ooops, .git/logs/refs/heads/main is not 066x [$actual]
 		false
 		;;
 	esac
diff --git a/t/t1307-config-blob.sh b/t/t1307-config-blob.sh
index 002e6d3..930dce0 100755
--- a/t/t1307-config-blob.sh
+++ b/t/t1307-config-blob.sh
@@ -65,9 +65,7 @@
 '
 
 test_expect_success 'can parse blob ending with CR' '
-	printf "[some]key = value\\r" >config &&
-	git add config &&
-	git commit -m CR &&
+	test_commit --printf CR config "[some]key = value\\r" &&
 	echo value >expect &&
 	git config --blob=HEAD:config some.key >actual &&
 	test_cmp expect actual
diff --git a/t/t1350-config-hooks-path.sh b/t/t1350-config-hooks-path.sh
index f1f9aee..fa9647a 100755
--- a/t/t1350-config-hooks-path.sh
+++ b/t/t1350-config-hooks-path.sh
@@ -5,6 +5,7 @@
 . ./test-lib.sh
 
 test_expect_success 'set up a pre-commit hook in core.hooksPath' '
+	>actual &&
 	mkdir -p .git/custom-hooks .git/hooks &&
 	write_script .git/custom-hooks/pre-commit <<-\EOF &&
 	echo CUSTOM >>actual
diff --git a/t/t1401-symbolic-ref.sh b/t/t1401-symbolic-ref.sh
index a4ebb0b..132a1b8 100755
--- a/t/t1401-symbolic-ref.sh
+++ b/t/t1401-symbolic-ref.sh
@@ -7,17 +7,19 @@
 # the git repo, meaning that further tests will operate on
 # the surrounding git repo instead of the trash directory.
 reset_to_sane() {
-	echo ref: refs/heads/foo >.git/HEAD
+	rm -rf .git &&
+	"$TAR" xf .git.tar
 }
 
-test_expect_success 'symbolic-ref writes HEAD' '
+test_expect_success 'setup' '
 	git symbolic-ref HEAD refs/heads/foo &&
-	echo ref: refs/heads/foo >expect &&
-	test_cmp expect .git/HEAD
+	test_commit file &&
+	"$TAR" cf .git.tar .git/
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'symbolic-ref reads HEAD' '
-	echo refs/heads/foo >expect &&
+test_expect_success 'symbolic-ref read/write roundtrip' '
+	git symbolic-ref HEAD refs/heads/read-write-roundtrip &&
+	echo refs/heads/read-write-roundtrip >expect &&
 	git symbolic-ref HEAD >actual &&
 	test_cmp expect actual
 '
@@ -25,12 +27,13 @@
 test_expect_success 'symbolic-ref refuses non-ref for HEAD' '
 	test_must_fail git symbolic-ref HEAD foo
 '
+
 reset_to_sane
 
 test_expect_success 'symbolic-ref refuses bare sha1' '
-	echo content >file && git add file && git commit -m one &&
 	test_must_fail git symbolic-ref HEAD $(git rev-parse HEAD)
 '
+
 reset_to_sane
 
 test_expect_success 'HEAD cannot be removed' '
@@ -42,16 +45,16 @@
 test_expect_success 'symbolic-ref can be deleted' '
 	git symbolic-ref NOTHEAD refs/heads/foo &&
 	git symbolic-ref -d NOTHEAD &&
-	test_path_is_file .git/refs/heads/foo &&
-	test_path_is_missing .git/NOTHEAD
+	git rev-parse refs/heads/foo &&
+	test_must_fail git symbolic-ref NOTHEAD
 '
 reset_to_sane
 
 test_expect_success 'symbolic-ref can delete dangling symref' '
 	git symbolic-ref NOTHEAD refs/heads/missing &&
 	git symbolic-ref -d NOTHEAD &&
-	test_path_is_missing .git/refs/heads/missing &&
-	test_path_is_missing .git/NOTHEAD
+	test_must_fail git rev-parse refs/heads/missing &&
+	test_must_fail git symbolic-ref NOTHEAD
 '
 reset_to_sane
 
diff --git a/t/t1403-show-ref.sh b/t/t1403-show-ref.sh
index 6ce62f8..17d3cc1 100755
--- a/t/t1403-show-ref.sh
+++ b/t/t1403-show-ref.sh
@@ -7,11 +7,9 @@
 . ./test-lib.sh
 
 test_expect_success setup '
-	test_commit A &&
-	git tag -f -a -m "annotated A" A &&
+	test_commit --annotate A &&
 	git checkout -b side &&
-	test_commit B &&
-	git tag -f -a -m "annotated B" B &&
+	test_commit --annotate B &&
 	git checkout main &&
 	test_commit C &&
 	git branch B A^0
diff --git a/t/t1404-update-ref-errors.sh b/t/t1404-update-ref-errors.sh
index 8b51c4e..b729c1f 100755
--- a/t/t1404-update-ref-errors.sh
+++ b/t/t1404-update-ref-errors.sh
@@ -189,7 +189,7 @@
 
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'empty directory should not fool rev-parse' '
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'empty directory should not fool rev-parse' '
 	prefix=refs/e-rev-parse &&
 	git update-ref $prefix/foo $C &&
 	git pack-refs --all &&
@@ -199,7 +199,7 @@
 	test_cmp expected actual
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'empty directory should not fool for-each-ref' '
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'empty directory should not fool for-each-ref' '
 	prefix=refs/e-for-each-ref &&
 	git update-ref $prefix/foo $C &&
 	git for-each-ref $prefix >expected &&
@@ -209,14 +209,14 @@
 	test_cmp expected actual
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'empty directory should not fool create' '
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'empty directory should not fool create' '
 	prefix=refs/e-create &&
 	mkdir -p .git/$prefix/foo/bar/baz &&
 	printf "create %s $C\n" $prefix/foo |
 	git update-ref --stdin
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'empty directory should not fool verify' '
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'empty directory should not fool verify' '
 	prefix=refs/e-verify &&
 	git update-ref $prefix/foo $C &&
 	git pack-refs --all &&
@@ -225,7 +225,7 @@
 	git update-ref --stdin
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'empty directory should not fool 1-arg update' '
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'empty directory should not fool 1-arg update' '
 	prefix=refs/e-update-1 &&
 	git update-ref $prefix/foo $C &&
 	git pack-refs --all &&
@@ -234,7 +234,7 @@
 	git update-ref --stdin
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'empty directory should not fool 2-arg update' '
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'empty directory should not fool 2-arg update' '
 	prefix=refs/e-update-2 &&
 	git update-ref $prefix/foo $C &&
 	git pack-refs --all &&
@@ -243,7 +243,7 @@
 	git update-ref --stdin
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'empty directory should not fool 0-arg delete' '
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'empty directory should not fool 0-arg delete' '
 	prefix=refs/e-delete-0 &&
 	git update-ref $prefix/foo $C &&
 	git pack-refs --all &&
@@ -252,7 +252,7 @@
 	git update-ref --stdin
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'empty directory should not fool 1-arg delete' '
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'empty directory should not fool 1-arg delete' '
 	prefix=refs/e-delete-1 &&
 	git update-ref $prefix/foo $C &&
 	git pack-refs --all &&
@@ -466,7 +466,7 @@
 	test_cmp expected output.err
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'non-empty directory blocks create' '
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'non-empty directory blocks create' '
 	prefix=refs/ne-create &&
 	mkdir -p .git/$prefix/foo/bar &&
 	: >.git/$prefix/foo/bar/baz.lock &&
@@ -485,7 +485,7 @@
 	test_cmp expected output.err
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'broken reference blocks create' '
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'broken reference blocks create' '
 	prefix=refs/broken-create &&
 	mkdir -p .git/$prefix &&
 	echo "gobbledigook" >.git/$prefix/foo &&
@@ -504,7 +504,7 @@
 	test_cmp expected output.err
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'non-empty directory blocks indirect create' '
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'non-empty directory blocks indirect create' '
 	prefix=refs/ne-indirect-create &&
 	git symbolic-ref $prefix/symref $prefix/foo &&
 	mkdir -p .git/$prefix/foo/bar &&
@@ -524,7 +524,7 @@
 	test_cmp expected output.err
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'broken reference blocks indirect create' '
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'broken reference blocks indirect create' '
 	prefix=refs/broken-indirect-create &&
 	git symbolic-ref $prefix/symref $prefix/foo &&
 	echo "gobbledigook" >.git/$prefix/foo &&
@@ -543,7 +543,7 @@
 	test_cmp expected output.err
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'no bogus intermediate values during delete' '
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'no bogus intermediate values during delete' '
 	prefix=refs/slow-transaction &&
 	# Set up a reference with differing loose and packed versions:
 	git update-ref $prefix/foo $C &&
@@ -600,7 +600,7 @@
 	test_must_fail git rev-parse --verify --quiet $prefix/foo
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'delete fails cleanly if packed-refs file is locked' '
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'delete fails cleanly if packed-refs file is locked' '
 	prefix=refs/locked-packed-refs &&
 	# Set up a reference with differing loose and packed versions:
 	git update-ref $prefix/foo $C &&
@@ -616,7 +616,7 @@
 	test_cmp unchanged actual
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'delete fails cleanly if packed-refs.new write fails' '
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'delete fails cleanly if packed-refs.new write fails' '
 	# Setup and expectations are similar to the test above.
 	prefix=refs/failed-packed-refs &&
 	git update-ref $prefix/foo $C &&
diff --git a/t/t1407-worktree-ref-store.sh b/t/t1407-worktree-ref-store.sh
index d3fe777..ad8006c 100755
--- a/t/t1407-worktree-ref-store.sh
+++ b/t/t1407-worktree-ref-store.sh
@@ -52,7 +52,14 @@
 	test_cmp expected actual
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'for_each_reflog()' '
+# Some refs (refs/bisect/*, pseudorefs) are kept per worktree, so they should
+# only appear in the for-each-reflog output if it is called from the correct
+# worktree, which is exercised in this test. This test is poorly written (and
+# therefore marked REFFILES) for mulitple reasons: 1) it creates invalidly
+# formatted log entres. 2) it uses direct FS access for creating the reflogs. 3)
+# PSEUDO-WT and refs/bisect/random do not create reflogs by default, so it is
+# not testing a realistic scenario.
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'for_each_reflog()' '
 	echo $ZERO_OID > .git/logs/PSEUDO-MAIN &&
 	mkdir -p     .git/logs/refs/bisect &&
 	echo $ZERO_OID > .git/logs/refs/bisect/random &&
diff --git a/t/t1413-reflog-detach.sh b/t/t1413-reflog-detach.sh
index bde0520..934688a 100755
--- a/t/t1413-reflog-detach.sh
+++ b/t/t1413-reflog-detach.sh
@@ -7,8 +7,7 @@
 . ./test-lib.sh
 
 reset_state () {
-	git checkout main &&
-	cp saved_reflog .git/logs/HEAD
+	rm -rf .git && "$TAR" xf .git-saved.tar
 }
 
 test_expect_success setup '
@@ -17,7 +16,7 @@
 	git branch side &&
 	test_tick &&
 	git commit --allow-empty -m second &&
-	cat .git/logs/HEAD >saved_reflog
+	"$TAR" cf .git-saved.tar .git
 '
 
 test_expect_success baseline '
diff --git a/t/t1414-reflog-walk.sh b/t/t1414-reflog-walk.sh
index 80d9470..ea64cec 100755
--- a/t/t1414-reflog-walk.sh
+++ b/t/t1414-reflog-walk.sh
@@ -119,7 +119,9 @@
 	test_cmp expect actual
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'walk prefers reflog to ref tip' '
+# Create a situation where the reflog and ref database disagree about the latest
+# state of HEAD.
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'walk prefers reflog to ref tip' '
 	head=$(git rev-parse HEAD) &&
 	one=$(git rev-parse one) &&
 	ident="$GIT_COMMITTER_NAME <$GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL> $GIT_COMMITTER_DATE" &&
diff --git a/t/t1415-worktree-refs.sh b/t/t1415-worktree-refs.sh
index 7ab9124..a3e6ea0 100755
--- a/t/t1415-worktree-refs.sh
+++ b/t/t1415-worktree-refs.sh
@@ -16,7 +16,10 @@
 	git -C wt2 update-ref refs/worktree/foo HEAD
 '
 
-test_expect_success 'refs/worktree must not be packed' '
+# The 'packed-refs' file is stored directly in .git/. This means it is global
+# to the repository, and can only contain refs that are shared across all
+# worktrees.
+test_expect_success REFFILES 'refs/worktree must not be packed' '
 	git pack-refs --all &&
 	test_path_is_missing .git/refs/tags/wt1 &&
 	test_path_is_file .git/refs/worktree/foo &&
@@ -37,9 +40,8 @@
 '
 
 test_expect_success 'ambiguous main-worktree/HEAD' '
-	mkdir -p .git/refs/heads/main-worktree &&
-	test_when_finished rm -f .git/refs/heads/main-worktree/HEAD &&
-	cp .git/HEAD .git/refs/heads/main-worktree/HEAD &&
+	test_when_finished git update-ref -d refs/heads/main-worktree/HEAD &&
+	git update-ref refs/heads/main-worktree/HEAD $(git rev-parse HEAD) &&
 	git rev-parse main-worktree/HEAD 2>warn &&
 	grep "main-worktree/HEAD.*ambiguous" warn
 '
@@ -51,9 +53,8 @@
 '
 
 test_expect_success 'ambiguous worktrees/xx/HEAD' '
-	mkdir -p .git/refs/heads/worktrees/wt1 &&
-	test_when_finished rm -f .git/refs/heads/worktrees/wt1/HEAD &&
-	cp .git/HEAD .git/refs/heads/worktrees/wt1/HEAD &&
+	git update-ref refs/heads/worktrees/wt1/HEAD $(git rev-parse HEAD) &&
+	test_when_finished git update-ref -d refs/heads/worktrees/wt1/HEAD &&
 	git rev-parse worktrees/wt1/HEAD 2>warn &&
 	grep "worktrees/wt1/HEAD.*ambiguous" warn
 '
diff --git a/t/t2017-checkout-orphan.sh b/t/t2017-checkout-orphan.sh
index c7adbdd..88d6992 100755
--- a/t/t2017-checkout-orphan.sh
+++ b/t/t2017-checkout-orphan.sh
@@ -76,7 +76,7 @@
 	git rev-parse --verify delta@{0}
 '
 
-test_expect_success '--orphan does not make reflog when core.logAllRefUpdates = false' '
+test_expect_success REFFILES '--orphan does not make reflog when core.logAllRefUpdates = false' '
 	git checkout main &&
 	git config core.logAllRefUpdates false &&
 	git checkout --orphan epsilon &&
diff --git a/t/t2030-unresolve-info.sh b/t/t2030-unresolve-info.sh
index be6c84c..f691e6d 100755
--- a/t/t2030-unresolve-info.sh
+++ b/t/t2030-unresolve-info.sh
@@ -179,8 +179,7 @@
 
 test_expect_success 'rerere forget (binary)' '
 	git checkout -f side &&
-	printf "a\0c" >binary &&
-	git commit -a -m binary &&
+	test_commit --printf binary binary "a\0c" &&
 	test_must_fail git merge second &&
 	git rerere forget binary
 '
diff --git a/t/t3202-show-branch-octopus.sh b/t/t3202-show-branch-octopus.sh
deleted file mode 100755
index 5cb0126..0000000
--- a/t/t3202-show-branch-octopus.sh
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,70 +0,0 @@
-#!/bin/sh
-
-test_description='test show-branch with more than 8 heads'
-
-GIT_TEST_DEFAULT_INITIAL_BRANCH_NAME=main
-export GIT_TEST_DEFAULT_INITIAL_BRANCH_NAME
-
-. ./test-lib.sh
-
-numbers="1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10"
-
-test_expect_success 'setup' '
-
-	> file &&
-	git add file &&
-	test_tick &&
-	git commit -m initial &&
-
-	for i in $numbers
-	do
-		git checkout -b branch$i main &&
-		> file$i &&
-		git add file$i &&
-		test_tick &&
-		git commit -m branch$i || return 1
-	done
-
-'
-
-cat > expect << EOF
-! [branch1] branch1
- ! [branch2] branch2
-  ! [branch3] branch3
-   ! [branch4] branch4
-    ! [branch5] branch5
-     ! [branch6] branch6
-      ! [branch7] branch7
-       ! [branch8] branch8
-        ! [branch9] branch9
-         * [branch10] branch10
-----------
-         * [branch10] branch10
-        +  [branch9] branch9
-       +   [branch8] branch8
-      +    [branch7] branch7
-     +     [branch6] branch6
-    +      [branch5] branch5
-   +       [branch4] branch4
-  +        [branch3] branch3
- +         [branch2] branch2
-+          [branch1] branch1
-+++++++++* [branch10^] initial
-EOF
-
-test_expect_success 'show-branch with more than 8 branches' '
-
-	git show-branch $(for i in $numbers; do echo branch$i; done) > out &&
-	test_cmp expect out
-
-'
-
-test_expect_success 'show-branch with showbranch.default' '
-	for i in $numbers; do
-		git config --add showbranch.default branch$i
-	done &&
-	git show-branch >out &&
-	test_cmp expect out
-'
-
-test_done
diff --git a/t/t3202-show-branch.sh b/t/t3202-show-branch.sh
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..ad9902a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/t/t3202-show-branch.sh
@@ -0,0 +1,149 @@
+#!/bin/sh
+
+test_description='test show-branch'
+
+. ./test-lib.sh
+
+test_expect_success 'setup' '
+	test_commit initial &&
+	for i in $(test_seq 1 10)
+	do
+		git checkout -b branch$i initial &&
+		test_commit --no-tag branch$i
+	done &&
+	git for-each-ref \
+		--sort=version:refname \
+		--format="%(refname:strip=2)" \
+		"refs/heads/branch*" >branches.sorted &&
+	sed "s/^> //" >expect <<-\EOF
+	> ! [branch1] branch1
+	>  ! [branch2] branch2
+	>   ! [branch3] branch3
+	>    ! [branch4] branch4
+	>     ! [branch5] branch5
+	>      ! [branch6] branch6
+	>       ! [branch7] branch7
+	>        ! [branch8] bran