Git 2.19.4

Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
diff --git a/.gitattributes b/.gitattributes
index 1bdc91e..49b3051 100644
--- a/.gitattributes
+++ b/.gitattributes
@@ -9,3 +9,7 @@
 /command-list.txt eol=lf
 /GIT-VERSION-GEN eol=lf
 /mergetools/* eol=lf
+/Documentation/git-merge.txt conflict-marker-size=32
+/Documentation/gitk.txt conflict-marker-size=32
+/Documentation/user-manual.txt conflict-marker-size=32
+/t/t????-*.sh conflict-marker-size=32
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index 388cc4b..ffceea7 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -113,12 +113,14 @@
 /git-pull
 /git-push
 /git-quiltimport
+/git-range-diff
 /git-read-tree
 /git-rebase
 /git-rebase--am
 /git-rebase--helper
 /git-rebase--interactive
 /git-rebase--merge
+/git-rebase--preserve-merges
 /git-receive-pack
 /git-reflog
 /git-remote
@@ -206,6 +208,7 @@
 /config.mak.autogen
 /config.mak.append
 /configure
+/.vscode/
 /tags
 /TAGS
 /cscope*
diff --git a/.mailmap b/.mailmap
index df7cf63..bef3352 100644
--- a/.mailmap
+++ b/.mailmap
@@ -25,7 +25,7 @@
 Benoit Sigoure <tsunanet@gmail.com> <tsuna@lrde.epita.fr>
 Bernt Hansen <bernt@norang.ca> <bernt@alumni.uwaterloo.ca>
 Brandon Casey <drafnel@gmail.com> <casey@nrlssc.navy.mil>
-brian m. carlson <sandals@crustytoothpaste.net> Brian M. Carlson <sandals@crustytoothpaste.ath.cx>
+brian m. carlson <sandals@crustytoothpaste.net>
 brian m. carlson <sandals@crustytoothpaste.net> <sandals@crustytoothpaste.ath.cx>
 Bryan Larsen <bryan@larsen.st> <bryan.larsen@gmail.com>
 Bryan Larsen <bryan@larsen.st> <bryanlarsen@yahoo.com>
@@ -35,11 +35,13 @@
 Cord Seele <cowose@gmail.com> <cowose@googlemail.com>
 Christian Couder <chriscool@tuxfamily.org> <christian.couder@gmail.com>
 Christian Stimming <stimming@tuhh.de> <chs@ckiste.goetheallee>
+Christopher Díaz Riveros <chrisadr@gentoo.org> Christopher Diaz Riveros
 Csaba Henk <csaba@gluster.com> <csaba@lowlife.hu>
 Dan Johnson <computerdruid@gmail.com>
 Dana L. How <danahow@gmail.com> <how@deathvalley.cswitch.com>
 Dana L. How <danahow@gmail.com> Dana How
 Daniel Barkalow <barkalow@iabervon.org>
+Daniel Knittl-Frank <knittl89@googlemail.com> knittl
 Daniel Trstenjak <daniel.trstenjak@gmail.com> <daniel.trstenjak@online.de>
 Daniel Trstenjak <daniel.trstenjak@gmail.com> <trsten@science-computing.de>
 David Brown <git@davidb.org> <davidb@quicinc.com>
@@ -57,6 +59,7 @@
 Eric Wong <e@80x24.org> <normalperson@yhbt.net>
 Erik Faye-Lund <kusmabite@gmail.com> <kusmabite@googlemail.com>
 Eyvind Bernhardsen <eyvind.bernhardsen@gmail.com> <eyvind-git@orakel.ntnu.no>
+Fangyi Zhou <fangyi.zhou@yuriko.moe> Zhou Fangyi
 Florian Achleitner <florian.achleitner.2.6.31@gmail.com> <florian.achleitner2.6.31@gmail.com>
 Franck Bui-Huu <vagabon.xyz@gmail.com> <fbuihuu@gmail.com>
 Frank Lichtenheld <frank@lichtenheld.de> <djpig@debian.org>
@@ -86,6 +89,8 @@
 Jason Riedy <ejr@eecs.berkeley.edu> <ejr@EECS.Berkeley.EDU>
 Jason Riedy <ejr@eecs.berkeley.edu> <ejr@cs.berkeley.edu>
 Jay Soffian <jaysoffian@gmail.com> <jaysoffian+git@gmail.com>
+Jean-Noël Avila <jn.avila@free.fr> Jean-Noel Avila
+Jean-Noël Avila <jn.avila@free.fr> Jean-Noël AVILA
 Jeff King <peff@peff.net> <peff@github.com>
 Jeff Muizelaar <jmuizelaar@mozilla.com> <jeff@infidigm.net>
 Jens Axboe <axboe@kernel.dk> <axboe@suse.de>
@@ -149,6 +154,7 @@
 Matt Kraai <kraai@ftbfs.org> <matt.kraai@amo.abbott.com>
 Matt McCutchen <matt@mattmccutchen.net> <hashproduct@gmail.com>
 Matthias Kestenholz <matthias@spinlock.ch> <mk@spinlock.ch>
+Matthias Rüster <matthias.ruester@gmail.com> Matthias Ruester
 Matthias Urlichs <matthias@urlichs.de> <smurf@kiste.(none)>
 Matthias Urlichs <matthias@urlichs.de> <smurf@smurf.noris.de>
 Michael Coleman <tutufan@gmail.com>
@@ -213,6 +219,8 @@
 Sebastian Schuberth <sschuberth@gmail.com> <sschuberth@visageimaging.com>
 Seth Falcon <seth@userprimary.net> <sfalcon@fhcrc.org>
 Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>
+Wei Shuyu <wsy@dogben.com> Shuyu Wei
+Sidhant Sharma <tigerkid001@gmail.com> Sidhant Sharma [:tk]
 Simon Hausmann <hausmann@kde.org> <simon@lst.de>
 Simon Hausmann <hausmann@kde.org> <shausman@trolltech.com>
 Stefan Beller <stefanbeller@gmail.com> <stefanbeller@googlemail.com>
@@ -253,7 +261,8 @@
 Uwe Kleine-König <u.kleine-koenig@pengutronix.de> <uzeisberger@io.fsforth.de>
 Uwe Kleine-König <u.kleine-koenig@pengutronix.de> <zeisberg@informatik.uni-freiburg.de>
 Ville Skyttä <ville.skytta@iki.fi> <scop@xemacs.org>
-Vitaly "_Vi" Shukela <public_vi@tut.by>
+Vitaly "_Vi" Shukela <vi0oss@gmail.com> <public_vi@tut.by>
+Vitaly "_Vi" Shukela <vi0oss@gmail.com> Vitaly _Vi Shukela
 W. Trevor King <wking@tremily.us> <wking@drexel.edu>
 William Pursell <bill.pursell@gmail.com>
 YONETANI Tomokazu <y0n3t4n1@gmail.com> <qhwt+git@les.ath.cx>
diff --git a/.travis.yml b/.travis.yml
index 4d4e26c..8d24997 100644
--- a/.travis.yml
+++ b/.travis.yml
@@ -1,7 +1,5 @@
 language: c
 
-sudo: false
-
 cache:
   directories:
     - $HOME/travis-cache
diff --git a/Documentation/.gitignore b/Documentation/.gitignore
index c7096f1..3ef54e0 100644
--- a/Documentation/.gitignore
+++ b/Documentation/.gitignore
@@ -12,3 +12,4 @@
 mergetools-*.txt
 manpage-base-url.xsl
 SubmittingPatches.txt
+tmp-doc-diff/
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index 48aa4ed..8dddb50 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -358,7 +358,10 @@
    string_list for sorted string lists, a hash map (mapping struct
    objects) named "struct decorate", amongst other things.
 
- - When you come up with an API, document it.
+ - When you come up with an API, document its functions and structures
+   in the header file that exposes the API to its callers. Use what is
+   in "strbuf.h" as a model for the appropriate tone and level of
+   detail.
 
  - The first #include in C files, except in platform specific compat/
    implementations, must be either "git-compat-util.h", "cache.h" or
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index d079d7c..95f6a32 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -76,6 +76,7 @@
 TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-format
 TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-heuristics
 TECH_DOCS += technical/pack-protocol
+TECH_DOCS += technical/partial-clone
 TECH_DOCS += technical/protocol-capabilities
 TECH_DOCS += technical/protocol-common
 TECH_DOCS += technical/protocol-v2
@@ -343,7 +344,7 @@
 	mv $@+ $@
 
 manpage-base-url.xsl: manpage-base-url.xsl.in
-	sed "s|@@MAN_BASE_URL@@|$(MAN_BASE_URL)|" $< > $@
+	$(QUIET_GEN)sed "s|@@MAN_BASE_URL@@|$(MAN_BASE_URL)|" $< > $@
 
 %.1 %.5 %.7 : %.xml manpage-base-url.xsl
 	$(QUIET_XMLTO)$(RM) $@ && \
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a06ccf6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,615 @@
+Git 2.19 Release Notes
+======================
+
+Updates since v2.18
+-------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * "git diff" compares the index and the working tree.  For paths
+   added with intent-to-add bit, the command shows the full contents
+   of them as added, but the paths themselves were not marked as new
+   files.  They are now shown as new by default.
+
+   "git apply" learned the "--intent-to-add" option so that an
+   otherwise working-tree-only application of a patch will add new
+   paths to the index marked with the "intent-to-add" bit.
+
+ * "git grep" learned the "--column" option that gives not just the
+   line number but the column number of the hit.
+
+ * The "-l" option in "git branch -l" is an unfortunate short-hand for
+   "--create-reflog", but many users, both old and new, somehow expect
+   it to be something else, perhaps "--list".  This step warns when "-l"
+   is used as a short-hand for "--create-reflog" and warns about the
+   future repurposing of the it when it is used.
+
+ * The userdiff pattern for .php has been updated.
+
+ * The content-transfer-encoding of the message "git send-email" sends
+   out by default was 8bit, which can cause trouble when there is an
+   overlong line to bust RFC 5322/2822 limit.  A new option 'auto' to
+   automatically switch to quoted-printable when there is such a line
+   in the payload has been introduced and is made the default.
+
+ * "git checkout" and "git worktree add" learned to honor
+   checkout.defaultRemote when auto-vivifying a local branch out of a
+   remote tracking branch in a repository with multiple remotes that
+   have tracking branches that share the same names.
+   (merge 8d7b558bae ab/checkout-default-remote later to maint).
+
+ * "git grep" learned the "--only-matching" option.
+
+ * "git rebase --rebase-merges" mode now handles octopus merges as
+   well.
+
+ * Add a server-side knob to skip commits in exponential/fibbonacci
+   stride in an attempt to cover wider swath of history with a smaller
+   number of iterations, potentially accepting a larger packfile
+   transfer, instead of going back one commit a time during common
+   ancestor discovery during the "git fetch" transaction.
+   (merge 42cc7485a2 jt/fetch-negotiator-skipping later to maint).
+
+ * A new configuration variable core.usereplacerefs has been added,
+   primarily to help server installations that want to ignore the
+   replace mechanism altogether.
+
+ * Teach "git tag -s" etc. a few configuration variables (gpg.format
+   that can be set to "openpgp" or "x509", and gpg.<format>.program
+   that is used to specify what program to use to deal with the format)
+   to allow x.509 certs with CMS via "gpgsm" to be used instead of
+   openpgp via "gnupg".
+
+ * Many more strings are prepared for l10n.
+
+ * "git p4 submit" learns to ask its own pre-submit hook if it should
+   continue with submitting.
+
+ * The test performed at the receiving end of "git push" to prevent
+   bad objects from entering repository can be customized via
+   receive.fsck.* configuration variables; we now have gained a
+   counterpart to do the same on the "git fetch" side, with
+   fetch.fsck.* configuration variables.
+
+ * "git pull --rebase=interactive" learned "i" as a short-hand for
+   "interactive".
+
+ * "git instaweb" has been adjusted to run better with newer Apache on
+   RedHat based distros.
+
+ * "git range-diff" is a reimplementation of "git tbdiff" that lets us
+   compare individual patches in two iterations of a topic.
+
+ * The sideband code learned to optionally paint selected keywords at
+   the beginning of incoming lines on the receiving end.
+
+ * "git branch --list" learned to take the default sort order from the
+   'branch.sort' configuration variable, just like "git tag --list"
+   pays attention to 'tag.sort'.
+
+ * "git worktree" command learned "--quiet" option to make it less
+   verbose.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * The bulk of "git submodule foreach" has been rewritten in C.
+
+ * The in-core "commit" object had an all-purpose "void *util" field,
+   which was tricky to use especially in library-ish part of the
+   code.  All of the existing uses of the field has been migrated to a
+   more dedicated "commit-slab" mechanism and the field is eliminated.
+
+ * A less often used command "git show-index" has been modernized.
+   (merge fb3010c31f jk/show-index later to maint).
+
+ * The conversion to pass "the_repository" and then "a_repository"
+   throughout the object access API continues.
+
+ * Continuing with the idea to programatically enumerate various
+   pieces of data required for command line completion, teach the
+   codebase to report the list of configuration variables
+   subcommands care about to help complete them.
+
+ * Separate "rebase -p" codepath out of "rebase -i" implementation to
+   slim down the latter and make it easier to manage.
+
+ * Make refspec parsing codepath more robust.
+
+ * Some flaky tests have been fixed.
+
+ * Continuing with the idea to programmatically enumerate various
+   pieces of data required for command line completion, the codebase
+   has been taught to enumerate options prefixed with "--no-" to
+   negate them.
+
+ * Build and test procedure for netrc credential helper (in contrib/)
+   has been updated.
+
+ * Remove unused function definitions and declarations from ewah
+   bitmap subsystem.
+
+ * Code preparation to make "git p4" closer to be usable with Python 3.
+
+ * Tighten the API to make it harder to misuse in-tree .gitmodules
+   file, even though it shares the same syntax with configuration
+   files, to read random configuration items from it.
+
+ * "git fast-import" has been updated to avoid attempting to create
+   delta against a zero-byte-long string, which is pointless.
+
+ * The codebase has been updated to compile cleanly with -pedantic
+   option.
+   (merge 2b647a05d7 bb/pedantic later to maint).
+
+ * The character display width table has been updated to match the
+   latest Unicode standard.
+   (merge 570951eea2 bb/unicode-11-width later to maint).
+
+ * test-lint now looks for broken use of "VAR=VAL shell_func" in test
+   scripts.
+
+ * Conversion from uchar[40] to struct object_id continues.
+
+ * Recent "security fix" to pay attention to contents of ".gitmodules"
+   while accepting "git push" was a bit overly strict than necessary,
+   which has been adjusted.
+
+ * "git fsck" learns to make sure the optional commit-graph file is in
+   a sane state.
+
+ * "git diff --color-moved" feature has further been tweaked.
+
+ * Code restructuring and a small fix to transport protocol v2 during
+   fetching.
+
+ * Parsing of -L[<N>][,[<M>]] parameters "git blame" and "git log"
+   take has been tweaked.
+
+ * lookup_commit_reference() and friends have been updated to find
+   in-core object for a specific in-core repository instance.
+
+ * Various glitches in the heuristics of merge-recursive strategy have
+   been documented in new tests.
+
+ * "git fetch" learned a new option "--negotiation-tip" to limit the
+   set of commits it tells the other end as "have", to reduce wasted
+   bandwidth and cycles, which would be helpful when the receiving
+   repository has a lot of refs that have little to do with the
+   history at the remote it is fetching from.
+
+ * For a large tree, the index needs to hold many cache entries
+   allocated on heap.  These cache entries are now allocated out of a
+   dedicated memory pool to amortize malloc(3) overhead.
+
+ * Tests to cover various conflicting cases have been added for
+   merge-recursive.
+
+ * Tests to cover conflict cases that involve submodules have been
+   added for merge-recursive.
+
+ * Look for broken "&&" chains that are hidden in subshell, many of
+   which have been found and corrected.
+
+ * The singleton commit-graph in-core instance is made per in-core
+   repository instance.
+
+ * "make DEVELOPER=1 DEVOPTS=pedantic" allows developers to compile
+   with -pedantic option, which may catch more problematic program
+   constructs and potential bugs.
+
+ * Preparatory code to later add json output for telemetry data has
+   been added.
+
+ * Update the way we use Coccinelle to find out-of-style code that
+   need to be modernised.
+
+ * It is too easy to misuse system API functions such as strcat();
+   these selected functions are now forbidden in this codebase and
+   will cause a compilation failure.
+
+ * Add a script (in contrib/) to help users of VSCode work better with
+   our codebase.
+
+ * The Travis CI scripts were taught to ship back the test data from
+   failed tests.
+   (merge aea8879a6a sg/travis-retrieve-trash-upon-failure later to maint).
+
+ * The parse-options machinery learned to refrain from enclosing
+   placeholder string inside a "<bra" and "ket>" pair automatically
+   without PARSE_OPT_LITERAL_ARGHELP.  Existing help text for option
+   arguments that are not formatted correctly have been identified and
+   fixed.
+   (merge 5f0df44cd7 rs/parse-opt-lithelp later to maint).
+
+ * Noiseword "extern" has been removed from function decls in the
+   header files.
+
+ * A few atoms like %(objecttype) and %(objectsize) in the format
+   specifier of "for-each-ref --format=<format>" can be filled without
+   getting the full contents of the object, but just with the object
+   header.  These cases have been optimized by calling
+   oid_object_info() API (instead of reading and inspecting the data).
+
+ * The end result of documentation update has been made to be
+   inspected more easily to help developers.
+
+ * The API to iterate over all objects learned to optionally list
+   objects in the order they appear in packfiles, which helps locality
+   of access if the caller accesses these objects while as objects are
+   enumerated.
+
+ * Improve built-in facility to catch broken &&-chain in the tests.
+
+ * The more library-ish parts of the codebase learned to work on the
+   in-core index-state instance that is passed in by their callers,
+   instead of always working on the singleton "the_index" instance.
+
+ * A test prerequisite defined by various test scripts with slightly
+   different semantics has been consolidated into a single copy and
+   made into a lazily defined one.
+   (merge 6ec633059a wc/make-funnynames-shared-lazy-prereq later to maint).
+
+ * After a partial clone, repeated fetches from promisor remote would
+   have accumulated many packfiles marked with .promisor bit without
+   getting them coalesced into fewer packfiles, hurting performance.
+   "git repack" now learned to repack them.
+
+ * Partially revert the support for multiple hash functions to regain
+   hash comparison performance; we'd think of a way to do this better
+   in the next cycle.
+
+ * "git help --config" (which is used in command line completion)
+   missed the configuration variables not described in the main
+   config.txt file but are described in another file that is included
+   by it, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The test linter code has learned that the end of here-doc mark
+   "EOF" can be quoted in a double-quote pair, not just in a
+   single-quote pair.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.18
+-----------------
+
+ * "git remote update" can take both a single remote nickname and a
+   nickname for remote groups, and the completion script (in contrib/)
+   has been taught about it.
+   (merge 9cd4382ad5 ls/complete-remote-update-names later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch --shallow-since=<cutoff>" that specifies the cut-off
+   point that is newer than the existing history used to end up
+   grabbing the entire history.  Such a request now errors out.
+   (merge e34de73c56 nd/reject-empty-shallow-request later to maint).
+
+ * Fix for 2.17-era regression around `core.safecrlf`.
+   (merge 6cb09125be as/safecrlf-quiet-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The recent addition of "partial clone" experimental feature kicked
+   in when it shouldn't, namely, when there is no partial-clone filter
+   defined even if extensions.partialclone is set.
+   (merge cac1137dc4 jh/partial-clone later to maint).
+
+ * "git send-pack --signed" (hence "git push --signed" over the http
+   transport) did not read user ident from the config mechanism to
+   determine whom to sign the push certificate as, which has been
+   corrected.
+   (merge d067d98887 ms/send-pack-honor-config later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch-pack --all" used to unnecessarily fail upon seeing an
+   annotated tag that points at an object other than a commit.
+   (merge c12c9df527 jk/fetch-all-peeled-fix later to maint).
+
+ * When user edits the patch in "git add -p" and the user's editor is
+   set to strip trailing whitespaces indiscriminately, an empty line
+   that is unchanged in the patch would become completely empty
+   (instead of a line with a sole SP on it).  The code introduced in
+   Git 2.17 timeframe failed to parse such a patch, but now it learned
+   to notice the situation and cope with it.
+   (merge f4d35a6b49 pw/add-p-recount later to maint).
+
+ * The code to try seeing if a fetch is necessary in a submodule
+   during a fetch with --recurse-submodules got confused when the path
+   to the submodule was changed in the range of commits in the
+   superproject, sometimes showing "(null)".  This has been corrected.
+
+ * Bugfix for "rebase -i" corner case regression.
+   (merge a9279c6785 pw/rebase-i-keep-reword-after-conflict later to maint).
+
+ * Recently added "--base" option to "git format-patch" command did
+   not correctly generate prereq patch ids.
+   (merge 15b76c1fb3 xy/format-patch-prereq-patch-id-fix later to maint).
+
+ * POSIX portability fix in Makefile to fix a glitch introduced a few
+   releases ago.
+   (merge 6600054e9b dj/runtime-prefix later to maint).
+
+ * "git filter-branch" when used with the "--state-branch" option
+   still attempted to rewrite the commits whose filtered result is
+   known from the previous attempt (which is recorded on the state
+   branch); the command has been corrected not to waste cycles doing
+   so.
+   (merge 709cfe848a mb/filter-branch-optim later to maint).
+
+ * Clarify that setting core.ignoreCase to deviate from reality would
+   not turn a case-incapable filesystem into a case-capable one.
+   (merge 48294b512a ms/core-icase-doc later to maint).
+
+ * "fsck.skipList" did not prevent a blob object listed there from
+   being inspected for is contents (e.g. we recently started to
+   inspect the contents of ".gitmodules" for certain malicious
+   patterns), which has been corrected.
+   (merge fb16287719 rj/submodule-fsck-skip later to maint).
+
+ * "git checkout --recurse-submodules another-branch" did not report
+   in which submodule it failed to update the working tree, which
+   resulted in an unhelpful error message.
+   (merge ba95d4e4bd sb/submodule-move-head-error-msg later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase" behaved slightly differently depending on which one of
+   the three backends gets used; this has been documented and an
+   effort to make them more uniform has begun.
+   (merge b00bf1c9a8 en/rebase-consistency later to maint).
+
+ * The "--ignore-case" option of "git for-each-ref" (and its friends)
+   did not work correctly, which has been fixed.
+   (merge e674eb2528 jk/for-each-ref-icase later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch" failed to correctly validate the set of objects it
+   received when making a shallow history deeper, which has been
+   corrected.
+   (merge cf1e7c0770 jt/connectivity-check-after-unshallow later to maint).
+
+ * Partial clone support of "git clone" has been updated to correctly
+   validate the objects it receives from the other side.  The server
+   side has been corrected to send objects that are directly
+   requested, even if they may match the filtering criteria (e.g. when
+   doing a "lazy blob" partial clone).
+   (merge a7e67c11b8 jt/partial-clone-fsck-connectivity later to maint).
+
+ * Handling of an empty range by "git cherry-pick" was inconsistent
+   depending on how the range ended up to be empty, which has been
+   corrected.
+   (merge c5e358d073 jk/empty-pick-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git reset --merge" (hence "git merge ---abort") and "git reset --hard"
+   had trouble working correctly in a sparsely checked out working
+   tree after a conflict, which has been corrected.
+   (merge b33fdfc34c mk/merge-in-sparse-checkout later to maint).
+
+ * Correct a broken use of "VAR=VAL shell_func" in a test.
+   (merge 650161a277 jc/t3404-one-shot-export-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git rev-parse ':/substring'" did not consider the history leading
+   only to HEAD when looking for a commit with the given substring,
+   when the HEAD is detached.  This has been fixed.
+   (merge 6b3351e799 wc/find-commit-with-pattern-on-detached-head later to maint).
+
+ * Build doc update for Windows.
+   (merge ede8d89bb1 nd/command-list later to maint).
+
+ * core.commentchar is now honored when preparing the list of commits
+   to replay in "rebase -i".
+
+ * "git pull --rebase" on a corrupt HEAD caused a segfault.  In
+   general we substitute an empty tree object when running the in-core
+   equivalent of the diff-index command, and the codepath has been
+   corrected to do so as well to fix this issue.
+   (merge 3506dc9445 jk/has-uncommitted-changes-fix later to maint).
+
+ * httpd tests saw occasional breakage due to the way its access log
+   gets inspected by the tests, which has been updated to make them
+   less flaky.
+   (merge e8b3b2e275 sg/httpd-test-unflake later to maint).
+
+ * Tests to cover more D/F conflict cases have been added for
+   merge-recursive.
+
+ * "git gc --auto" opens file descriptors for the packfiles before
+   spawning "git repack/prune", which would upset Windows that does
+   not want a process to work on a file that is open by another
+   process.  The issue has been worked around.
+   (merge 12e73a3ce4 kg/gc-auto-windows-workaround later to maint).
+
+ * The recursive merge strategy did not properly ensure there was no
+   change between HEAD and the index before performing its operation,
+   which has been corrected.
+   (merge 55f39cf755 en/dirty-merge-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase" started exporting GIT_DIR environment variable and
+   exposing it to hook scripts when part of it got rewritten in C.
+   Instead of matching the old scripted Porcelains' behaviour,
+   compensate by also exporting GIT_WORK_TREE environment as well to
+   lessen the damage.  This can harm existing hooks that want to
+   operate on different repository, but the current behaviour is
+   already broken for them anyway.
+   (merge ab5e67d751 bc/sequencer-export-work-tree-as-well later to maint).
+
+ * "git send-email" when using in a batched mode that limits the
+   number of messages sent in a single SMTP session lost the contents
+   of the variable used to choose between tls/ssl, unable to send the
+   second and later batches, which has been fixed.
+   (merge 636f3d7ac5 jm/send-email-tls-auth-on-batch later to maint).
+
+ * The lazy clone support had a few places where missing but promised
+   objects were not correctly tolerated, which have been fixed.
+
+ * One of the "diff --color-moved" mode "dimmed_zebra" that was named
+   in an unusual way has been deprecated and replaced by
+   "dimmed-zebra".
+   (merge e3f2f5f9cd es/diff-color-moved-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The wire-protocol v2 relies on the client to send "ref prefixes" to
+   limit the bandwidth spent on the initial ref advertisement.  "git
+   clone" when learned to speak v2 forgot to do so, which has been
+   corrected.
+   (merge 402c47d939 bw/clone-ref-prefixes later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff --histogram" had a bad memory usage pattern, which has
+   been rearranged to reduce the peak usage.
+   (merge 79cb2ebb92 sb/histogram-less-memory later to maint).
+
+ * Code clean-up to use size_t/ssize_t when they are the right type.
+   (merge 7726d360b5 jk/size-t later to maint).
+
+ * The wire-protocol v2 relies on the client to send "ref prefixes" to
+   limit the bandwidth spent on the initial ref advertisement.  "git
+   fetch $remote branch:branch" that asks tags that point into the
+   history leading to the "branch" automatically followed sent to
+   narrow prefix and broke the tag following, which has been fixed.
+   (merge 2b554353a5 jt/tag-following-with-proto-v2-fix later to maint).
+
+ * When the sparse checkout feature is in use, "git cherry-pick" and
+   other mergy operations lost the skip_worktree bit when a path that
+   is excluded from checkout requires content level merge, which is
+   resolved as the same as the HEAD version, without materializing the
+   merge result in the working tree, which made the path appear as
+   deleted.  This has been corrected by preserving the skip_worktree
+   bit (and not materializing the file in the working tree).
+   (merge 2b75fb601c en/merge-recursive-skip-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The "author-script" file "git rebase -i" creates got broken when
+   we started to move the command away from shell script, which is
+   getting fixed now.
+   (merge 5522bbac20 es/rebase-i-author-script-fix later to maint).
+
+ * The automatic tree-matching in "git merge -s subtree" was broken 5
+   years ago and nobody has noticed since then, which is now fixed.
+   (merge 2ec4150713 jk/merge-subtree-heuristics later to maint).
+
+ * "git fetch $there refs/heads/s" ought to fetch the tip of the
+   branch 's', but when "refs/heads/refs/heads/s", i.e. a branch whose
+   name is "refs/heads/s" exists at the same time, fetched that one
+   instead by mistake.  This has been corrected to honor the usual
+   disambiguation rules for abbreviated refnames.
+   (merge 60650a48c0 jt/refspec-dwim-precedence-fix later to maint).
+
+ * Futureproofing a helper function that can easily be misused.
+   (merge 65bb21e77e es/want-color-fd-defensive later to maint).
+
+ * The http-backend (used for smart-http transport) used to slurp the
+   whole input until EOF, without paying attention to CONTENT_LENGTH
+   that is supplied in the environment and instead expecting the Web
+   server to close the input stream.  This has been fixed.
+   (merge eebfe40962 mk/http-backend-content-length later to maint).
+
+ * "git merge --abort" etc. did not clean things up properly when
+   there were conflicted entries in the index in certain order that
+   are involved in D/F conflicts.  This has been corrected.
+   (merge ad3762042a en/abort-df-conflict-fixes later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff --indent-heuristic" had a bad corner case performance.
+   (merge 301ef85401 sb/indent-heuristic-optim later to maint).
+
+ * The "--exec" option to "git rebase --rebase-merges" placed the exec
+   commands at wrong places, which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git verify-tag" and "git verify-commit" have been taught to use
+   the exit status of underlying "gpg --verify" to signal bad or
+   untrusted signature they found.
+   (merge 4e5dc9ca17 jc/gpg-status later to maint).
+
+ * "git mergetool" stopped and gave an extra prompt to continue after
+   the last path has been handled, which did not make much sense.
+   (merge d651a54b8a ng/mergetool-lose-final-prompt later to maint).
+
+ * Among the three codepaths we use O_APPEND to open a file for
+   appending, one used for writing GIT_TRACE output requires O_APPEND
+   implementation that behaves sensibly when multiple processes are
+   writing to the same file.  POSIX emulation used in the Windows port
+   has been updated to improve in this area.
+   (merge d641097589 js/mingw-o-append later to maint).
+
+ * "git pull --rebase -v" in a repository with a submodule barfed as
+   an intermediate process did not understand what "-v(erbose)" flag
+   meant, which has been fixed.
+   (merge e84c3cf3dc sb/pull-rebase-submodule later to maint).
+
+ * Recent update to "git config" broke updating variable in a
+   subsection, which has been corrected.
+   (merge bff7df7a87 sb/config-write-fix later to maint).
+
+ * When "git rebase -i" is told to squash two or more commits into
+   one, it labeled the log message for each commit with its number.
+   It correctly called the first one "1st commit", but the next one
+   was "commit #1", which was off-by-one.  This has been corrected.
+   (merge dd2e36ebac pw/rebase-i-squash-number-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git rebase -i", when a 'merge <branch>' insn in its todo list
+   fails, segfaulted, which has been (minimally) corrected.
+   (merge bc9238bb09 pw/rebase-i-merge-segv-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git cherry-pick --quit" failed to remove CHERRY_PICK_HEAD even
+   though we won't be in a cherry-pick session after it returns, which
+   has been corrected.
+   (merge 3e7dd99208 nd/cherry-pick-quit-fix later to maint).
+
+ * In a recent update in 2.18 era, "git pack-objects" started
+   producing a larger than necessary packfiles by missing
+   opportunities to use large deltas.  This has been corrected.
+
+ * The meaning of the possible values the "core.checkStat"
+   configuration variable can take were not adequately documented,
+   which has been fixed.
+   (merge 9bf5d4c4e2 nd/config-core-checkstat-doc later to maint).
+
+ * Recent "git rebase -i" update started to write bogusly formatted
+   author-script, with a matching broken reading code.  These are
+   fixed.
+
+ * Recent addition of "directory rename" heuristics to the
+   merge-recursive backend makes the command susceptible to false
+   positives and false negatives.  In the context of "git am -3",
+   which does not know about surrounding unmodified paths and thus
+   cannot inform the merge machinery about the full trees involved,
+   this risk is particularly severe.  As such, the heuristic is
+   disabled for "git am -3" to keep the machinery "more stupid but
+   predictable".
+
+ * "git merge-base" in 2.19-rc1 has performance regression when the
+   (experimental) commit-graph feature is in use, which has been
+   mitigated.
+
+ * Code cleanup, docfix, build fix, etc.
+   (merge aee9be2ebe sg/update-ref-stdin-cleanup later to maint).
+   (merge 037714252f jc/clean-after-sanity-tests later to maint).
+   (merge 5b26c3c941 en/merge-recursive-cleanup later to maint).
+   (merge 0dcbc0392e bw/config-refer-to-gitsubmodules-doc later to maint).
+   (merge bb4d000e87 bw/protocol-v2 later to maint).
+   (merge 928f0ab4ba vs/typofixes later to maint).
+   (merge d7f590be84 en/rebase-i-microfixes later to maint).
+   (merge 81d395cc85 js/rebase-recreate-merge later to maint).
+   (merge 51d1863168 tz/exclude-doc-smallfixes later to maint).
+   (merge a9aa3c0927 ds/commit-graph later to maint).
+   (merge 5cf8e06474 js/enhanced-version-info later to maint).
+   (merge 6aaded5509 tb/config-default later to maint).
+   (merge 022d2ac1f3 sb/blame-color later to maint).
+   (merge 5a06a20e0c bp/test-drop-caches-for-windows later to maint).
+   (merge dd61cc1c2e jk/ui-color-always-to-auto later to maint).
+   (merge 1e83b9bfdd sb/trailers-docfix later to maint).
+   (merge ab29f1b329 sg/fast-import-dump-refs-on-checkpoint-fix later to maint).
+   (merge 6a8ad880f0 jn/subtree-test-fixes later to maint).
+   (merge ffbd51cc60 nd/pack-objects-threading-doc later to maint).
+   (merge e9dac7be60 es/mw-to-git-chain-fix later to maint).
+   (merge fe583c6c7a rs/remote-mv-leakfix later to maint).
+   (merge 69885ab015 en/t3031-title-fix later to maint).
+   (merge 8578037bed nd/config-blame-sort later to maint).
+   (merge 8ad169c4ba hn/config-in-code-comment later to maint).
+   (merge b7446fcfdf ar/t4150-am-scissors-test-fix later to maint).
+   (merge a8132410ee js/typofixes later to maint).
+   (merge 388d0ff6e5 en/update-index-doc later to maint).
+   (merge e05aa688dd jc/update-index-doc later to maint).
+   (merge 10c600172c sg/t5310-empty-input-fix later to maint).
+   (merge 5641eb9465 jh/partial-clone-doc later to maint).
+   (merge 2711b1ad5e ab/submodule-relative-url-tests later to maint).
+   (merge ce528de023 ab/unconditional-free-and-null later to maint).
+   (merge bbc072f5d8 rs/opt-updates later to maint).
+   (merge 69d846f053 jk/use-compat-util-in-test-tool later to maint).
+   (merge 1820703045 js/larger-timestamps later to maint).
+   (merge c8b35b95e1 sg/t4051-fix later to maint).
+   (merge 30612cb670 sg/t0020-conversion-fix later to maint).
+   (merge 15da753709 sg/t7501-thinkofix later to maint).
+   (merge 79b04f9b60 sg/t3903-missing-fix later to maint).
+   (merge 2745817028 sg/t3420-autostash-fix later to maint).
+   (merge 7afb0d6777 sg/test-rebase-editor-fix later to maint).
+   (merge 6c6ce21baa es/freebsd-iconv-portability later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..da76726
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,6 @@
+Git v2.19.1 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges up the fixes that appear in v2.14.5 and in
+v2.17.2 to address the recently reported CVE-2018-17456; see the
+release notes for those versions for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..759e6ca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,108 @@
+Git v2.19.2 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Fixes since v2.19.1
+-------------------
+
+ * "git interpret-trailers" and its underlying machinery had a buggy
+   code that attempted to ignore patch text after commit log message,
+   which triggered in various codepaths that will always get the log
+   message alone and never get such an input.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" did not clear the state files correctly when a run
+   of "squash/fixup" is aborted and then the user manually amended the
+   commit instead, which has been corrected.
+
+ * When fsmonitor is in use, after operation on submodules updates
+   .gitmodules, we lost track of the fact that we did so and relied on
+   stale fsmonitor data.
+
+ * Fix for a long-standing bug that leaves the index file corrupt when
+   it shrinks during a partial commit.
+
+ * Further fix for O_APPEND emulation on Windows
+
+ * A corner case bugfix in "git rerere" code.
+
+ * "git add ':(attr:foo)'" is not supported and is supposed to be
+   rejected while the command line arguments are parsed, but we fail
+   to reject such a command line upfront.
+
+ * "git rebase" etc. in Git 2.19 fails to abort when given an empty
+   commit log message as result of editing, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The code to backfill objects in lazily cloned repository did not
+   work correctly, which has been corrected.
+
+ * Update error messages given by "git remote" and make them consistent.
+
+ * "git update-ref" learned to make both "--no-deref" and "--stdin"
+   work at the same time.
+
+ * Recently added "range-diff" had a corner-case bug to cause it
+   segfault, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The recently introduced commit-graph auxiliary data is incompatible
+   with mechanisms such as replace & grafts that "breaks" immutable
+   nature of the object reference relationship.  Disable optimizations
+   based on its use (and updating existing commit-graph) when these
+   incompatible features are in use in the repository.
+
+ * The mailmap file update.
+
+ * The code in "git status" sometimes hit an assertion failure.  This
+   was caused by a structure that was reused without cleaning the data
+   used for the first run, which has been corrected.
+
+ * A corner-case bugfix.
+
+ * A partial clone that is configured to lazily fetch missing objects
+   will on-demand issue a "git fetch" request to the originating
+   repository to fill not-yet-obtained objects.  The request has been
+   optimized for requesting a tree object (and not the leaf blob
+   objects contained in it) by telling the originating repository that
+   no blobs are needed.
+
+ * The codepath to support the experimental split-index mode had
+   remaining "racily clean" issues fixed.
+
+ * "git log --graph" showing an octopus merge sometimes miscounted the
+   number of display columns it is consuming to show the merge and its
+   parent commits, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The implementation of run_command() API on the UNIX platforms had a
+   bug that caused a command not on $PATH to be found in the current
+   directory.
+
+ * A mutex used in "git pack-objects" were not correctly initialized
+   and this caused "git repack" to dump core on Windows.
+
+ * Under certain circumstances, "git diff D:/a/b/c D:/a/b/d" on
+   Windows would strip initial parts from the paths because they
+   were not recognized as absolute, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The receive.denyCurrentBranch=updateInstead codepath kicked in even
+   when the push should have been rejected due to other reasons, such
+   as it does not fast-forward or the update-hook rejects it, which
+   has been corrected.
+
+ * "git repack" in a shallow clone did not correctly update the
+   shallow points in the repository, leading to a repository that
+   does not pass fsck.
+
+ * Operations on promisor objects make sense in the context of only a
+   small subset of the commands that internally use the revisions
+   machinery, but the "--exclude-promisor-objects" option were taken
+   and led to nonsense results by commands like "log", to which it
+   didn't make much sense.  This has been corrected.
+
+ * The "container" mode of TravisCI is going away.  Our .travis.yml
+   file is getting prepared for the transition.
+
+ * Our test scripts can now take the '-V' option as a synonym for the
+   '--verbose-log' option.
+
+ * A regression in Git 2.12 era made "git fsck" fall into an infinite
+   loop while processing truncated loose objects.
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..92d7f89
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,8 @@
+Git v2.19.3 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges up the fixes that appear in v2.14.6, v2.15.4
+and in v2.17.3, addressing the security issues CVE-2019-1348,
+CVE-2019-1349, CVE-2019-1350, CVE-2019-1351, CVE-2019-1352,
+CVE-2019-1353, CVE-2019-1354, and CVE-2019-1387; see the release notes
+for those versions for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..35d0ae5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,5 @@
+Git v2.19.4 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+This release merges the security fix that appears in v2.17.4; see
+the release notes for that version for details.
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index 2488544..b44fd51 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -298,7 +298,7 @@
 
 The sign-off is a simple line at the end of the explanation for
 the patch, which certifies that you wrote it or otherwise have
-the right to pass it on as a open-source patch.  The rules are
+the right to pass it on as an open-source patch.  The rules are
 pretty simple: if you can certify the below D-C-O:
 
 [[dco]]
@@ -403,7 +403,7 @@
 help you find out who they are.
 
 . You get comments and suggestions for improvements.  You may
-  even get them in a "on top of your change" patch form.
+  even get them in an "on top of your change" patch form.
 
 . Polish, refine, and re-send to the list and the people who
   spend their time to improve your patch.  Go back to step (2).
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index ab641bf..09a2385 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -344,6 +344,16 @@
 		Advice shown when you used linkgit:git-checkout[1] to
 		move to the detach HEAD state, to instruct how to create
 		a local branch after the fact.
+	checkoutAmbiguousRemoteBranchName::
+		Advice shown when the argument to
+		linkgit:git-checkout[1] ambiguously resolves to a
+		remote tracking branch on more than one remote in
+		situations where an unambiguous argument would have
+		otherwise caused a remote-tracking branch to be
+		checked out. See the `checkout.defaultRemote`
+		configuration variable for how to set a given remote
+		to used by default in some situations where this
+		advice would be printed.
 	amWorkDir::
 		Advice that shows the location of the patch file when
 		linkgit:git-am[1] fails to apply it.
@@ -354,7 +364,7 @@
 		Advice on what to do when you've accidentally added one
 		git repo inside of another.
 	ignoredHook::
-		Advice shown if an hook is ignored because the hook is not
+		Advice shown if a hook is ignored because the hook is not
 		set as executable.
 	waitingForEditor::
 		Print a message to the terminal whenever Git is waiting for
@@ -390,16 +400,19 @@
 	default mode is 'dotGitOnly'.
 
 core.ignoreCase::
-	If true, this option enables various workarounds to enable
+	Internal variable which enables various workarounds to enable
 	Git to work better on filesystems that are not case sensitive,
-	like FAT. For example, if a directory listing finds
-	"makefile" when Git expects "Makefile", Git will assume
+	like APFS, HFS+, FAT, NTFS, etc. For example, if a directory listing
+	finds "makefile" when Git expects "Makefile", Git will assume
 	it is really the same file, and continue to remember it as
 	"Makefile".
 +
 The default is false, except linkgit:git-clone[1] or linkgit:git-init[1]
 will probe and set core.ignoreCase true if appropriate when the repository
 is created.
++
+Git relies on the proper configuration of this variable for your operating
+and file system. Modifying this value may result in unexpected behavior.
 
 core.precomposeUnicode::
 	This option is only used by Mac OS implementation of Git.
@@ -449,10 +462,20 @@
 	See linkgit:git-update-index[1]. `keep` by default.
 
 core.checkStat::
-	Determines which stat fields to match between the index
-	and work tree. The user can set this to 'default' or
-	'minimal'. Default (or explicitly 'default'), is to check
-	all fields, including the sub-second part of mtime and ctime.
+	When missing or is set to `default`, many fields in the stat
+	structure are checked to detect if a file has been modified
+	since Git looked at it.  When this configuration variable is
+	set to `minimal`, sub-second part of mtime and ctime, the
+	uid and gid of the owner of the file, the inode number (and
+	the device number, if Git was compiled to use it), are
+	excluded from the check among these fields, leaving only the
+	whole-second part of mtime (and ctime, if `core.trustCtime`
+	is set) and the filesize to be checked.
++
+There are implementations of Git that do not leave usable values in
+some fields (e.g. JGit); by excluding these fields from the
+comparison, the `minimal` mode may help interoperability when the
+same repository is used by these other systems at the same time.
 
 core.quotePath::
 	Commands that output paths (e.g. 'ls-files', 'diff'), will
@@ -905,8 +928,14 @@
 the `GIT_NOTES_REF` environment variable.  See linkgit:git-notes[1].
 
 core.commitGraph::
-	Enable git commit graph feature. Allows reading from the
-	commit-graph file.
+	If true, then git will read the commit-graph file (if it exists)
+	to parse the graph structure of commits. Defaults to false. See
+	linkgit:git-commit-graph[1] for more information.
+
+core.useReplaceRefs::
+	If set to `false`, behave as if the `--no-replace-objects`
+	option was given on the command line. See linkgit:git[1] and
+	linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
 
 core.sparseCheckout::
 	Enable "sparse checkout" feature. See section "Sparse checkout" in
@@ -974,23 +1003,28 @@
 	Tells 'git apply' how to handle whitespaces, in the same way
 	as the `--whitespace` option. See linkgit:git-apply[1].
 
-blame.showRoot::
-	Do not treat root commits as boundaries in linkgit:git-blame[1].
-	This option defaults to false.
-
 blame.blankBoundary::
 	Show blank commit object name for boundary commits in
 	linkgit:git-blame[1]. This option defaults to false.
 
-blame.showEmail::
-	Show the author email instead of author name in linkgit:git-blame[1].
-	This option defaults to false.
+blame.coloring::
+	This determines the coloring scheme to be applied to blame
+	output. It can be 'repeatedLines', 'highlightRecent',
+	or 'none' which is the default.
 
 blame.date::
 	Specifies the format used to output dates in linkgit:git-blame[1].
 	If unset the iso format is used. For supported values,
 	see the discussion of the `--date` option at linkgit:git-log[1].
 
+blame.showEmail::
+	Show the author email instead of author name in linkgit:git-blame[1].
+	This option defaults to false.
+
+blame.showRoot::
+	Do not treat root commits as boundaries in linkgit:git-blame[1].
+	This option defaults to false.
+
 branch.autoSetupMerge::
 	Tells 'git branch' and 'git checkout' to set up new branches
 	so that linkgit:git-pull[1] will appropriately merge from the
@@ -1018,6 +1052,12 @@
 	branch to track another branch.
 	This option defaults to never.
 
+branch.sort::
+	This variable controls the sort ordering of branches when displayed by
+	linkgit:git-branch[1]. Without the "--sort=<value>" option provided, the
+	value of this variable will be used as the default.
+	See linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1] field names for valid values.
+
 branch.<name>.remote::
 	When on branch <name>, it tells 'git fetch' and 'git push'
 	which remote to fetch from/push to.  The remote to push to
@@ -1098,6 +1138,22 @@
 	browse HTML help (see `-w` option in linkgit:git-help[1]) or a
 	working repository in gitweb (see linkgit:git-instaweb[1]).
 
+checkout.defaultRemote::
+	When you run 'git checkout <something>' and only have one
+	remote, it may implicitly fall back on checking out and
+	tracking e.g. 'origin/<something>'. This stops working as soon
+	as you have more than one remote with a '<something>'
+	reference. This setting allows for setting the name of a
+	preferred remote that should always win when it comes to
+	disambiguation. The typical use-case is to set this to
+	`origin`.
++
+Currently this is used by linkgit:git-checkout[1] when 'git checkout
+<something>' will checkout the '<something>' branch on another remote,
+and by linkgit:git-worktree[1] when 'git worktree add' refers to a
+remote branch. This setting might be used for other checkout-like
+commands or functionality in the future.
+
 clean.requireForce::
 	A boolean to make git-clean do nothing unless given -f,
 	-i or -n.   Defaults to true.
@@ -1112,6 +1168,28 @@
 color.advice.hint::
 	Use customized color for hints.
 
+color.blame.highlightRecent::
+	This can be used to color the metadata of a blame line depending
+	on age of the line.
++
+This setting should be set to a comma-separated list of color and date settings,
+starting and ending with a color, the dates should be set from oldest to newest.
+The metadata will be colored given the colors if the the line was introduced
+before the given timestamp, overwriting older timestamped colors.
++
+Instead of an absolute timestamp relative timestamps work as well, e.g.
+2.weeks.ago is valid to address anything older than 2 weeks.
++
+It defaults to 'blue,12 month ago,white,1 month ago,red', which colors
+everything older than one year blue, recent changes between one month and
+one year old are kept white, and lines introduced within the last month are
+colored red.
+
+color.blame.repeatedLines::
+	Use the customized color for the part of git-blame output that
+	is repeated meta information per line (such as commit id,
+	author name, date and timezone). Defaults to cyan.
+
 color.branch::
 	A boolean to enable/disable color in the output of
 	linkgit:git-branch[1]. May be set to `always`,
@@ -1139,13 +1217,6 @@
 'git-diff-{asterisk}' plumbing commands.  Can be overridden on the
 command line with the `--color[=<when>]` option.
 
-diff.colorMoved::
-	If set to either a valid `<mode>` or a true value, moved lines
-	in a diff are colored differently, for details of valid modes
-	see '--color-moved' in linkgit:git-diff[1]. If simply set to
-	true the default color mode will be used. When set to false,
-	moved lines are not colored.
-
 color.diff.<slot>::
 	Use customized color for diff colorization.  `<slot>` specifies
 	which part of the patch to use the specified color, and is one
@@ -1156,13 +1227,16 @@
 	(highlighting whitespace errors), `oldMoved` (deleted lines),
 	`newMoved` (added lines), `oldMovedDimmed`, `oldMovedAlternative`,
 	`oldMovedAlternativeDimmed`, `newMovedDimmed`, `newMovedAlternative`
-	and `newMovedAlternativeDimmed` (See the '<mode>'
-	setting of '--color-moved' in linkgit:git-diff[1] for details).
+	`newMovedAlternativeDimmed` (See the '<mode>'
+	setting of '--color-moved' in linkgit:git-diff[1] for details),
+	`contextDimmed`, `oldDimmed`, `newDimmed`, `contextBold`,
+	`oldBold`, and `newBold` (see linkgit:git-range-diff[1] for details).
 
 color.decorate.<slot>::
 	Use customized color for 'git log --decorate' output.  `<slot>` is one
 	of `branch`, `remoteBranch`, `tag`, `stash` or `HEAD` for local
-	branches, remote-tracking branches, tags, stash and HEAD, respectively.
+	branches, remote-tracking branches, tags, stash and HEAD, respectively
+	and `grafted` for grafted commits.
 
 color.grep::
 	When set to `always`, always highlight matches.  When `false` (or
@@ -1181,8 +1255,10 @@
 	filename prefix (when not using `-h`)
 `function`;;
 	function name lines (when using `-p`)
-`linenumber`;;
+`lineNumber`;;
 	line number prefix (when using `-n`)
+`column`;;
+	column number prefix (when using `--column`)
 `match`;;
 	matching text (same as setting `matchContext` and `matchSelected`)
 `matchContext`;;
@@ -1223,6 +1299,18 @@
 color.push.error::
 	Use customized color for push errors.
 
+color.remote::
+	If set, keywords at the start of the line are highlighted. The
+	keywords are "error", "warning", "hint" and "success", and are
+	matched case-insensitively. May be set to `always`, `false` (or
+	`never`) or `auto` (or `true`). If unset, then the value of
+	`color.ui` is used (`auto` by default).
+
+color.remote.<slot>::
+	Use customized color for each remote keyword. `<slot>` may be
+	`hint`, `warning`, `success` or `error` which match the
+	corresponding keyword.
+
 color.showBranch::
 	A boolean to enable/disable color in the output of
 	linkgit:git-show-branch[1]. May be set to `always`,
@@ -1251,33 +1339,6 @@
 	status short-format), or
 	`unmerged` (files which have unmerged changes).
 
-color.blame.repeatedLines::
-	Use the customized color for the part of git-blame output that
-	is repeated meta information per line (such as commit id,
-	author name, date and timezone). Defaults to cyan.
-
-color.blame.highlightRecent::
-	This can be used to color the metadata of a blame line depending
-	on age of the line.
-+
-This setting should be set to a comma-separated list of color and date settings,
-starting and ending with a color, the dates should be set from oldest to newest.
-The metadata will be colored given the colors if the the line was introduced
-before the given timestamp, overwriting older timestamped colors.
-+
-Instead of an absolute timestamp relative timestamps work as well, e.g.
-2.weeks.ago is valid to address anything older than 2 weeks.
-+
-It defaults to 'blue,12 month ago,white,1 month ago,red', which colors
-everything older than one year blue, recent changes between one month and
-one year old are kept white, and lines introduced within the last month are
-colored red.
-
-blame.coloring::
-	This determines the coloring scheme to be applied to blame
-	output. It can be 'repeatedLines', 'highlightRecent',
-	or 'none' which is the default.
-
 color.transport::
 	A boolean to enable/disable color when pushes are rejected. May be
 	set to `always`, `false` (or `never`) or `auto` (or `true`), in which
@@ -1457,10 +1518,19 @@
 
 fetch.fsckObjects::
 	If it is set to true, git-fetch-pack will check all fetched
-	objects. It will abort in the case of a malformed object or a
-	broken link. The result of an abort are only dangling objects.
-	Defaults to false. If not set, the value of `transfer.fsckObjects`
-	is used instead.
+	objects. See `transfer.fsckObjects` for what's
+	checked. Defaults to false. If not set, the value of
+	`transfer.fsckObjects` is used instead.
+
+fetch.fsck.<msg-id>::
+	Acts like `fsck.<msg-id>`, but is used by
+	linkgit:git-fetch-pack[1] instead of linkgit:git-fsck[1]. See
+	the `fsck.<msg-id>` documentation for details.
+
+fetch.fsck.skipList::
+	Acts like `fsck.skipList`, but is used by
+	linkgit:git-fetch-pack[1] instead of linkgit:git-fsck[1]. See
+	the `fsck.skipList` documentation for details.
 
 fetch.unpackLimit::
 	If the number of objects fetched over the Git native
@@ -1491,6 +1561,18 @@
 	`full` and `compact`. Default value is `full`. See section
 	OUTPUT in linkgit:git-fetch[1] for detail.
 
+fetch.negotiationAlgorithm::
+	Control how information about the commits in the local repository is
+	sent when negotiating the contents of the packfile to be sent by the
+	server. Set to "skipping" to use an algorithm that skips commits in an
+	effort to converge faster, but may result in a larger-than-necessary
+	packfile; The default is "default" which instructs Git to use the default algorithm
+	that never skips commits (unless the server has acknowledged it or one
+	of its descendants).
+	Unknown values will cause 'git fetch' to error out.
++
+See also the `--negotiation-tip` option for linkgit:git-fetch[1].
+
 format.attach::
 	Enable multipart/mixed attachments as the default for
 	'format-patch'.  The value can also be a double quoted string
@@ -1590,15 +1672,42 @@
 	linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
 
 fsck.<msg-id>::
-	Allows overriding the message type (error, warn or ignore) of a
-	specific message ID such as `missingEmail`.
+	During fsck git may find issues with legacy data which
+	wouldn't be generated by current versions of git, and which
+	wouldn't be sent over the wire if `transfer.fsckObjects` was
+	set. This feature is intended to support working with legacy
+	repositories containing such data.
 +
-For convenience, fsck prefixes the error/warning with the message ID,
-e.g.  "missingEmail: invalid author/committer line - missing email" means
-that setting `fsck.missingEmail = ignore` will hide that issue.
+Setting `fsck.<msg-id>` will be picked up by linkgit:git-fsck[1], but
+to accept pushes of such data set `receive.fsck.<msg-id>` instead, or
+to clone or fetch it set `fetch.fsck.<msg-id>`.
 +
-This feature is intended to support working with legacy repositories
-which cannot be repaired without disruptive changes.
+The rest of the documentation discusses `fsck.*` for brevity, but the
+same applies for the corresponding `receive.fsck.*` and
+`fetch.<msg-id>.*`. variables.
++
+Unlike variables like `color.ui` and `core.editor` the
+`receive.fsck.<msg-id>` and `fetch.fsck.<msg-id>` variables will not
+fall back on the `fsck.<msg-id>` configuration if they aren't set. To
+uniformly configure the same fsck settings in different circumstances
+all three of them they must all set to the same values.
++
+When `fsck.<msg-id>` is set, errors can be switched to warnings and
+vice versa by configuring the `fsck.<msg-id>` setting where the
+`<msg-id>` is the fsck message ID and the value is one of `error`,
+`warn` or `ignore`. For convenience, fsck prefixes the error/warning
+with the message ID, e.g. "missingEmail: invalid author/committer line
+- missing email" means that setting `fsck.missingEmail = ignore` will
+hide that issue.
++
+In general, it is better to enumerate existing objects with problems
+with `fsck.skipList`, instead of listing the kind of breakages these
+problematic objects share to be ignored, as doing the latter will
+allow new instances of the same breakages go unnoticed.
++
+Setting an unknown `fsck.<msg-id>` value will cause fsck to die, but
+doing the same for `receive.fsck.<msg-id>` and `fetch.fsck.<msg-id>`
+will only cause git to warn.
 
 fsck.skipList::
 	The path to a sorted list of object names (i.e. one SHA-1 per
@@ -1607,6 +1716,15 @@
 	should be accepted despite early commits containing errors that
 	can be safely ignored such as invalid committer email addresses.
 	Note: corrupt objects cannot be skipped with this setting.
++
+Like `fsck.<msg-id>` this variable has corresponding
+`receive.fsck.skipList` and `fetch.fsck.skipList` variants.
++
+Unlike variables like `color.ui` and `core.editor` the
+`receive.fsck.skipList` and `fetch.fsck.skipList` variables will not
+fall back on the `fsck.skipList` configuration if they aren't set. To
+uniformly configure the same fsck settings in different circumstances
+all three of them they must all set to the same values.
 
 gc.aggressiveDepth::
 	The depth parameter used in the delta compression
@@ -1647,6 +1765,13 @@
 will be repacked. After this the number of packs should go below
 gc.autoPackLimit and gc.bigPackThreshold should be respected again.
 
+gc.writeCommitGraph::
+	If true, then gc will rewrite the commit-graph file when
+	linkgit:git-gc[1] is run. When using linkgit:git-gc[1]
+	'--auto' the commit-graph will be updated if housekeeping is
+	required. Default is false. See linkgit:git-commit-graph[1]
+	for details.
+
 gc.logExpiry::
 	If the file gc.log exists, then `git gc --auto` won't run
 	unless that file is more than 'gc.logExpiry' old.  Default is
@@ -1797,6 +1922,9 @@
 grep.lineNumber::
 	If set to true, enable `-n` option by default.
 
+grep.column::
+	If set to true, enable the `--column` option by default.
+
 grep.patternType::
 	Set the default matching behavior. Using a value of 'basic', 'extended',
 	'fixed', or 'perl' will enable the `--basic-regexp`, `--extended-regexp`,
@@ -1827,6 +1955,16 @@
 	signed, and the program is expected to send the result to its
 	standard output.
 
+gpg.format::
+	Specifies which key format to use when signing with `--gpg-sign`.
+	Default is "openpgp" and another possible value is "x509".
+
+gpg.<format>.program::
+	Use this to customize the program used for the signing format you
+	chose. (see `gpg.program` and `gpg.format`) `gpg.program` can still
+	be used as a legacy synonym for	`gpg.openpgp.program`. The default
+	value for `gpg.x509.program` is "gpgsm".
+
 gui.commitMsgWidth::
 	Defines how wide the commit message window is in the
 	linkgit:git-gui[1]. "75" is the default.
@@ -2690,6 +2828,8 @@
 * `1` - the original wire protocol with the addition of a version string
   in the initial response from the server.
 
+* `2` - link:technical/protocol-v2.html[wire protocol version 2].
+
 --
 
 pull.ff::
@@ -2880,32 +3020,21 @@
 
 receive.fsckObjects::
 	If it is set to true, git-receive-pack will check all received
-	objects. It will abort in the case of a malformed object or a
-	broken link. The result of an abort are only dangling objects.
-	Defaults to false. If not set, the value of `transfer.fsckObjects`
-	is used instead.
+	objects. See `transfer.fsckObjects` for what's checked.
+	Defaults to false. If not set, the value of
+	`transfer.fsckObjects` is used instead.
 
 receive.fsck.<msg-id>::
-	When `receive.fsckObjects` is set to true, errors can be switched
-	to warnings and vice versa by configuring the `receive.fsck.<msg-id>`
-	setting where the `<msg-id>` is the fsck message ID and the value
-	is one of `error`, `warn` or `ignore`. For convenience, fsck prefixes
-	the error/warning with the message ID, e.g. "missingEmail: invalid
-	author/committer line - missing email" means that setting
-	`receive.fsck.missingEmail = ignore` will hide that issue.
-+
-This feature is intended to support working with legacy repositories
-which would not pass pushing when `receive.fsckObjects = true`, allowing
-the host to accept repositories with certain known issues but still catch
-other issues.
+	Acts like `fsck.<msg-id>`, but is used by
+	linkgit:git-receive-pack[1] instead of
+	linkgit:git-fsck[1]. See the `fsck.<msg-id>` documentation for
+	details.
 
 receive.fsck.skipList::
-	The path to a sorted list of object names (i.e. one SHA-1 per
-	line) that are known to be broken in a non-fatal way and should
-	be ignored. This feature is useful when an established project
-	should be accepted despite early commits containing errors that
-	can be safely ignored such as invalid committer email addresses.
-	Note: corrupt objects cannot be skipped with this setting.
+	Acts like `fsck.skipList`, but is used by
+	linkgit:git-receive-pack[1] instead of
+	linkgit:git-fsck[1]. See the `fsck.skipList` documentation for
+	details.
 
 receive.keepAlive::
 	After receiving the pack from the client, `receive-pack` may
@@ -3327,12 +3456,13 @@
 submodule.<name>.active::
 	Boolean value indicating if the submodule is of interest to git
 	commands.  This config option takes precedence over the
-	submodule.active config option.
+	submodule.active config option. See linkgit:gitsubmodules[7] for
+	details.
 
 submodule.active::
 	A repeated field which contains a pathspec used to match against a
 	submodule's path to determine if the submodule is of interest to git
-	commands.
+	commands. See linkgit:gitsubmodules[7] for details.
 
 submodule.recurse::
 	Specifies if commands recurse into submodules by default. This
@@ -3379,6 +3509,40 @@
 	When `fetch.fsckObjects` or `receive.fsckObjects` are
 	not set, the value of this variable is used instead.
 	Defaults to false.
++
+When set, the fetch or receive will abort in the case of a malformed
+object or a link to a nonexistent object. In addition, various other
+issues are checked for, including legacy issues (see `fsck.<msg-id>`),
+and potential security issues like the existence of a `.GIT` directory
+or a malicious `.gitmodules` file (see the release notes for v2.2.1
+and v2.17.1 for details). Other sanity and security checks may be
+added in future releases.
++
+On the receiving side, failing fsckObjects will make those objects
+unreachable, see "QUARANTINE ENVIRONMENT" in
+linkgit:git-receive-pack[1]. On the fetch side, malformed objects will
+instead be left unreferenced in the repository.
++
+Due to the non-quarantine nature of the `fetch.fsckObjects`
+implementation it can not be relied upon to leave the object store
+clean like `receive.fsckObjects` can.
++
+As objects are unpacked they're written to the object store, so there
+can be cases where malicious objects get introduced even though the
+"fetch" failed, only to have a subsequent "fetch" succeed because only
+new incoming objects are checked, not those that have already been
+written to the object store. That difference in behavior should not be
+relied upon. In the future, such objects may be quarantined for
+"fetch" as well.
++
+For now, the paranoid need to find some way to emulate the quarantine
+environment if they'd like the same protection as "push". E.g. in the
+case of an internal mirror do the mirroring in two steps, one to fetch
+the untrusted objects, and then do a second "push" (which will use the
+quarantine) to another internal repo, and have internal clients
+consume this pushed-to repository, or embargo internal fetches and
+only allow them once a full "fsck" has run (and no new fetches have
+happened in the meantime).
 
 transfer.hideRefs::
 	String(s) `receive-pack` and `upload-pack` use to decide which
@@ -3470,15 +3634,22 @@
 	was run. I.e., `upload-pack` will feed input intended for
 	`pack-objects` to the hook, and expects a completed packfile on
 	stdout.
-
-uploadpack.allowFilter::
-	If this option is set, `upload-pack` will support partial
-	clone and partial fetch object filtering.
 +
 Note that this configuration variable is ignored if it is seen in the
 repository-level config (this is a safety measure against fetching from
 untrusted repositories).
 
+uploadpack.allowFilter::
+	If this option is set, `upload-pack` will support partial
+	clone and partial fetch object filtering.
+
+uploadpack.allowRefInWant::
+	If this option is set, `upload-pack` will support the `ref-in-want`
+	feature of the protocol version 2 `fetch` command.  This feature
+	is intended for the benefit of load-balanced servers which may
+	not have the same view of what OIDs their refs point to due to
+	replication delay.
+
 url.<base>.insteadOf::
 	Any URL that starts with this value will be rewritten to
 	start, instead, with <base>. In cases where some site serves a
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-config.txt b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
index 77caa66..85bca83 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
@@ -208,3 +208,15 @@
 	whitespace errors are colored with `color.diff.whitespace`.
 	The command line option `--ws-error-highlight=<kind>`
 	overrides this setting.
+
+diff.colorMoved::
+	If set to either a valid `<mode>` or a true value, moved lines
+	in a diff are colored differently, for details of valid modes
+	see '--color-moved' in linkgit:git-diff[1]. If simply set to
+	true the default color mode will be used. When set to false,
+	moved lines are not colored.
+
+diff.colorMovedWS::
+	When moved lines are colored using e.g. the `diff.colorMoved` setting,
+	this option controls the `<mode>` how spaces are treated
+	for details of valid modes see '--color-moved-ws' in linkgit:git-diff[1].
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index 4106490..0378cd5 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -276,16 +276,46 @@
 	that are added somewhere else in the diff. This mode picks up any
 	moved line, but it is not very useful in a review to determine
 	if a block of code was moved without permutation.
-zebra::
+blocks::
 	Blocks of moved text of at least 20 alphanumeric characters
 	are detected greedily. The detected blocks are
-	painted using either the 'color.diff.{old,new}Moved' color or
+	painted using either the 'color.diff.{old,new}Moved' color.
+	Adjacent blocks cannot be told apart.
+zebra::
+	Blocks of moved text are detected as in 'blocks' mode. The blocks
+	are painted using either the 'color.diff.{old,new}Moved' color or
 	'color.diff.{old,new}MovedAlternative'. The change between
 	the two colors indicates that a new block was detected.
-dimmed_zebra::
+dimmed-zebra::
 	Similar to 'zebra', but additional dimming of uninteresting parts
 	of moved code is performed. The bordering lines of two adjacent
 	blocks are considered interesting, the rest is uninteresting.
+	`dimmed_zebra` is a deprecated synonym.
+--
+
+--color-moved-ws=<modes>::
+	This configures how white spaces are ignored when performing the
+	move detection for `--color-moved`.
+ifdef::git-diff[]
+	It can be set by the `diff.colorMovedWS` configuration setting.
+endif::git-diff[]
+	These modes can be given as a comma separated list:
++
+--
+ignore-space-at-eol::
+	Ignore changes in whitespace at EOL.
+ignore-space-change::
+	Ignore changes in amount of whitespace.  This ignores whitespace
+	at line end, and considers all other sequences of one or
+	more whitespace characters to be equivalent.
+ignore-all-space::
+	Ignore whitespace when comparing lines. This ignores differences
+	even if one line has whitespace where the other line has none.
+allow-indentation-change::
+	Initially ignore any white spaces in the move detection, then
+	group the moved code blocks only into a block if the change in
+	whitespace is the same per line. This is incompatible with the
+	other modes.
 --
 
 --word-diff[=<mode>]::
diff --git a/Documentation/doc-diff b/Documentation/doc-diff
new file mode 100755
index 0000000..f483fe4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/doc-diff
@@ -0,0 +1,109 @@
+#!/bin/sh
+
+OPTIONS_SPEC="\
+doc-diff [options] <from> <to> [-- <diff-options>]
+--
+j=n	parallel argument to pass to make
+f	force rebuild; do not rely on cached results
+"
+SUBDIRECTORY_OK=1
+. "$(git --exec-path)/git-sh-setup"
+
+parallel=
+force=
+while test $# -gt 0
+do
+	case "$1" in
+	-j)
+		parallel=$2; shift ;;
+	-f)
+		force=t ;;
+	--)
+		shift; break ;;
+	*)
+		usage ;;
+	esac
+	shift
+done
+
+if test -z "$parallel"
+then
+	parallel=$(getconf _NPROCESSORS_ONLN 2>/dev/null)
+	if test $? != 0 || test -z "$parallel"
+	then
+		parallel=1
+	fi
+fi
+
+test $# -gt 1 || usage
+from=$1; shift
+to=$1; shift
+
+from_oid=$(git rev-parse --verify "$from") || exit 1
+to_oid=$(git rev-parse --verify "$to") || exit 1
+
+cd_to_toplevel
+tmp=Documentation/tmp-doc-diff
+
+if test -n "$force"
+then
+	rm -rf "$tmp"
+fi
+
+# We'll do both builds in a single worktree, which lets "make" reuse
+# results that don't differ between the two trees.
+if ! test -d "$tmp/worktree"
+then
+	git worktree add --detach "$tmp/worktree" "$from" &&
+	dots=$(echo "$tmp/worktree" | sed 's#[^/]*#..#g') &&
+	ln -s "$dots/config.mak" "$tmp/worktree/config.mak"
+fi
+
+# generate_render_makefile <srcdir> <dstdir>
+generate_render_makefile () {
+	find "$1" -type f |
+	while read src
+	do
+		dst=$2/${src#$1/}
+		printf 'all:: %s\n' "$dst"
+		printf '%s: %s\n' "$dst" "$src"
+		printf '\t@echo >&2 "  RENDER $(notdir $@)" && \\\n'
+		printf '\tmkdir -p $(dir $@) && \\\n'
+		printf '\tMANWIDTH=80 man -l $< >$@+ && \\\n'
+		printf '\tmv $@+ $@\n'
+	done
+}
+
+# render_tree <dirname> <committish>
+render_tree () {
+	# Skip install-man entirely if we already have an installed directory.
+	# We can't rely on make here, since "install-man" unconditionally
+	# copies the files (spending effort, but also updating timestamps that
+	# we then can't rely on during the render step). We use "mv" to make
+	# sure we don't get confused by a previous run that failed partway
+	# through.
+	if ! test -d "$tmp/installed/$1"
+	then
+		git -C "$tmp/worktree" checkout "$2" &&
+		make -j$parallel -C "$tmp/worktree" \
+			GIT_VERSION=omitted \
+			SOURCE_DATE_EPOCH=0 \
+			DESTDIR="$PWD/$tmp/installed/$1+" \
+			install-man &&
+		mv "$tmp/installed/$1+" "$tmp/installed/$1"
+	fi &&
+
+	# As with "installed" above, we skip the render if it's already been
+	# done.  So using make here is primarily just about running in
+	# parallel.
+	if ! test -d "$tmp/rendered/$1"
+	then
+		generate_render_makefile "$tmp/installed/$1" "$tmp/rendered/$1+" |
+		make -j$parallel -f - &&
+		mv "$tmp/rendered/$1+" "$tmp/rendered/$1"
+	fi
+}
+
+render_tree $from_oid "$from" &&
+render_tree $to_oid "$to" &&
+git -C $tmp/rendered diff --no-index "$@" $from_oid $to_oid
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index 97d3217..8bc36af 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -42,6 +42,25 @@
 	.git/shallow. This option updates .git/shallow and accept such
 	refs.
 
+--negotiation-tip=<commit|glob>::
+	By default, Git will report, to the server, commits reachable
+	from all local refs to find common commits in an attempt to
+	reduce the size of the to-be-received packfile. If specified,
+	Git will only report commits reachable from the given tips.
+	This is useful to speed up fetches when the user knows which
+	local ref is likely to have commits in common with the
+	upstream ref being fetched.
++
+This option may be specified more than once; if so, Git will report
+commits reachable from any of the given commits.
++
+The argument to this option may be a glob on ref names, a ref, or the (possibly
+abbreviated) SHA-1 of a commit. Specifying a glob is equivalent to specifying
+this option multiple times, one for each matching ref name.
++
+See also the `fetch.negotiationAlgorithm` configuration variable
+documented in linkgit:git-config[1].
+
 ifndef::git-pull[]
 --dry-run::
 	Show what would be done, without making any changes.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-apply.txt b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
index 6722849..b9aa390 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-apply.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git apply' [--stat] [--numstat] [--summary] [--check] [--index] [--3way]
+'git apply' [--stat] [--numstat] [--summary] [--check] [--index | --intent-to-add] [--3way]
 	  [--apply] [--no-add] [--build-fake-ancestor=<file>] [-R | --reverse]
 	  [--allow-binary-replacement | --binary] [--reject] [-z]
 	  [-p<n>] [-C<n>] [--inaccurate-eof] [--recount] [--cached]
@@ -74,6 +74,14 @@
 	cached data, apply the patch, and store the result in the index
 	without using the working tree. This implies `--index`.
 
+--intent-to-add::
+	When applying the patch only to the working tree, mark new
+	files to be added to the index later (see `--intent-to-add`
+	option in linkgit:git-add[1]). This option is ignored unless
+	running in a Git repository and `--index` is not specified.
+	Note that `--index` could be implied by other options such
+	as `--cached` or `--3way`.
+
 -3::
 --3way::
 	When the patch does not apply cleanly, fall back on 3-way merge if
diff --git a/Documentation/git-archimport.txt b/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
index ea70653..a595a0f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-archimport.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@
 
 NAME
 ----
-git-archimport - Import an Arch repository into Git
+git-archimport - Import a GNU Arch repository into Git
 
 
 SYNOPSIS
@@ -14,7 +14,8 @@
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
-Imports a project from one or more Arch repositories. It will follow branches
+Imports a project from one or more GNU Arch repositories.
+It will follow branches
 and repositories within the namespaces defined by the <archive/branch>
 parameters supplied. If it cannot find the remote branch a merge comes from
 it will just import it as a regular commit. If it can find it, it will mark it
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
index 78479b0..e999251 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
@@ -633,11 +633,11 @@
 Let's take the following graph as an example:
 
 -------------
-	    G-H-I-J
-	   /       \
+            G-H-I-J
+           /       \
 A-B-C-D-E-F         O
-	   \       /
-	    K-L-M-N
+           \       /
+            K-L-M-N
 -------------
 
 If we compute the following non optimal function on it:
@@ -649,25 +649,25 @@
 we get:
 
 -------------
-	    4 3 2 1
-	    G-H-I-J
+            4 3 2 1
+            G-H-I-J
 1 2 3 4 5 6/       \0
 A-B-C-D-E-F         O
-	   \       /
-	    K-L-M-N
-	    4 3 2 1
+           \       /
+            K-L-M-N
+            4 3 2 1
 -------------
 
 but with the algorithm used by git bisect we get:
 
 -------------
-	    7 7 6 5
-	    G-H-I-J
+            7 7 6 5
+            G-H-I-J
 1 2 3 4 5 6/       \0
 A-B-C-D-E-F         O
-	   \       /
-	    K-L-M-N
-	    7 7 6 5
+           \       /
+            K-L-M-N
+            7 7 6 5
 -------------
 
 So we chose G, H, K or L as the best bisection point, which is better
@@ -773,7 +773,7 @@
 -------------
 A-B-C-D-E-F-G  <--main
        \
-	H-I-J  <--dev
+        H-I-J  <--dev
 -------------
 
 The commit "D" is called a "merge base" for branch "main" and "dev"
@@ -1103,7 +1103,7 @@
 Combining test suites, git bisect and other systems together
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-We have seen that test suites an git bisect are very powerful when
+We have seen that test suites and git bisect are very powerful when
 used together. It can be even more powerful if you can combine them
 with other systems.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index 02eccbb..9767b2b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -91,7 +91,6 @@
 -D::
 	Shortcut for `--delete --force`.
 
--l::
 --create-reflog::
 	Create the branch's reflog.  This activates recording of
 	all changes made to the branch ref, enabling use of date
@@ -101,6 +100,8 @@
 	The negated form `--no-create-reflog` only overrides an earlier
 	`--create-reflog`, but currently does not negate the setting of
 	`core.logAllRefUpdates`.
++
+The `-l` option is a deprecated synonym for `--create-reflog`.
 
 -f::
 --force::
@@ -267,10 +268,11 @@
 	order of the value. You may use the --sort=<key> option
 	multiple times, in which case the last key becomes the primary
 	key. The keys supported are the same as those in `git
-	for-each-ref`. Sort order defaults to sorting based on the
+	for-each-ref`. Sort order defaults to the value configured for the
+	`branch.sort` variable if exists, or to sorting based on the
 	full refname (including `refs/...` prefix). This lists
 	detached HEAD (if present) first, then local branches and
-	finally remote-tracking branches.
+	finally remote-tracking branches. See linkgit:git-config[1].
 
 
 --points-at <object>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index f90f09b..7401333 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -104,6 +104,16 @@
 	buffering; this is much more efficient when invoking
 	`--batch-check` on a large number of objects.
 
+--unordered::
+	When `--batch-all-objects` is in use, visit objects in an
+	order which may be more efficient for accessing the object
+	contents than hash order. The exact details of the order are
+	unspecified, but if you do not require a specific order, this
+	should generally result in faster output, especially with
+	`--batch`.  Note that `cat-file` will still show each object
+	only once, even if it is stored multiple times in the
+	repository.
+
 --allow-unknown-type::
 	Allow -s or -t to query broken/corrupt objects of unknown type.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
index ca5fc9c..801de2f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -38,6 +38,15 @@
 $ git checkout -b <branch> --track <remote>/<branch>
 ------------
 +
+If the branch exists in multiple remotes and one of them is named by
+the `checkout.defaultRemote` configuration variable, we'll use that
+one for the purposes of disambiguation, even if the `<branch>` isn't
+unique across all remotes. Set it to
+e.g. `checkout.defaultRemote=origin` to always checkout remote
+branches from there if `<branch>` is ambiguous but exists on the
+'origin' remote. See also `checkout.defaultRemote` in
+linkgit:git-config[1].
++
 You could omit <branch>, in which case the command degenerates to
 "check out the current branch", which is a glorified no-op with
 rather expensive side-effects to show only the tracking information,
@@ -302,9 +311,9 @@
 commits, one of them tagged, and with branch 'master' checked out:
 
 ------------
-	   HEAD (refers to branch 'master')
-	    |
-	    v
+           HEAD (refers to branch 'master')
+            |
+            v
 a---b---c  branch 'master' (refers to commit 'c')
     ^
     |
@@ -320,9 +329,9 @@
 ------------
 $ edit; git add; git commit
 
-	       HEAD (refers to branch 'master')
-		|
-		v
+               HEAD (refers to branch 'master')
+                |
+                v
 a---b---c---d  branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
     ^
     |
@@ -389,7 +398,7 @@
 ------------
 $ git checkout master
 
-	       HEAD (refers to branch 'master')
+               HEAD (refers to branch 'master')
       e---f     |
      /          v
 a---b---c---d  branch 'master' (refers to commit 'd')
diff --git a/Documentation/git-column.txt b/Documentation/git-column.txt
index 03d1846..763afab 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-column.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-column.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,10 @@
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
-This command formats its input into multiple columns.
+This command formats the lines of its standard input into a table with
+multiple columns. Each input line occupies one cell of the table. It
+is used internally by other git commands to format output into
+columns.
 
 OPTIONS
 -------
@@ -23,7 +26,7 @@
 
 --mode=<mode>::
 	Specify layout mode. See configuration variable column.ui for option
-	syntax.
+	syntax in linkgit:git-config[1].
 
 --raw-mode=<n>::
 	Same as --mode but take mode encoded as a number. This is mainly used
@@ -43,6 +46,34 @@
 --padding=<N>::
 	The number of spaces between columns. One space by default.
 
+EXAMPLES
+------
+
+Format data by columns:
+------------
+$ seq 1 24 | git column --mode=column --padding=5
+1      4      7      10     13     16     19     22
+2      5      8      11     14     17     20     23
+3      6      9      12     15     18     21     24
+------------
+
+Format data by rows:
+------------
+$ seq 1 21 | git column --mode=row --padding=5
+1      2      3      4      5      6      7
+8      9      10     11     12     13     14
+15     16     17     18     19     20     21
+------------
+
+List some tags in a table with unequal column widths:
+------------
+$ git tag --list 'v2.4.*' --column=row,dense
+v2.4.0  v2.4.0-rc0  v2.4.0-rc1  v2.4.0-rc2  v2.4.0-rc3
+v2.4.1  v2.4.10     v2.4.11     v2.4.12     v2.4.2
+v2.4.3  v2.4.4      v2.4.5      v2.4.6      v2.4.7
+v2.4.8  v2.4.9
+------------
+
 GIT
 ---
 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
index 4c97b55..624470e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-graph.txt
@@ -3,80 +3,91 @@
 
 NAME
 ----
-git-commit-graph - Write and verify Git commit graph files
+git-commit-graph - Write and verify Git commit-graph files
 
 
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
 'git commit-graph read' [--object-dir <dir>]
+'git commit-graph verify' [--object-dir <dir>]
 'git commit-graph write' <options> [--object-dir <dir>]
 
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
 
-Manage the serialized commit graph file.
+Manage the serialized commit-graph file.
 
 
 OPTIONS
 -------
 --object-dir::
-	Use given directory for the location of packfiles and commit graph
+	Use given directory for the location of packfiles and commit-graph
 	file. This parameter exists to specify the location of an alternate
-	that only has the objects directory, not a full .git directory. The
-	commit graph file is expected to be at <dir>/info/commit-graph and
-	the packfiles are expected to be in <dir>/pack.
+	that only has the objects directory, not a full `.git` directory. The
+	commit-graph file is expected to be at `<dir>/info/commit-graph` and
+	the packfiles are expected to be in `<dir>/pack`.
 
 
 COMMANDS
 --------
 'write'::
 
-Write a commit graph file based on the commits found in packfiles.
+Write a commit-graph file based on the commits found in packfiles.
 +
 With the `--stdin-packs` option, generate the new commit graph by
 walking objects only in the specified pack-indexes. (Cannot be combined
-with --stdin-commits.)
+with `--stdin-commits` or `--reachable`.)
 +
 With the `--stdin-commits` option, generate the new commit graph by
 walking commits starting at the commits specified in stdin as a list
 of OIDs in hex, one OID per line. (Cannot be combined with
---stdin-packs.)
+`--stdin-packs` or `--reachable`.)
++
+With the `--reachable` option, generate the new commit graph by walking
+commits starting at all refs. (Cannot be combined with `--stdin-commits`
+or `--stdin-packs`.)
 +
 With the `--append` option, include all commits that are present in the
 existing commit-graph file.
 
 'read'::
 
-Read a graph file given by the commit-graph file and output basic
-details about the graph file. Used for debugging purposes.
+Read the commit-graph file and output basic details about it.
+Used for debugging purposes.
+
+'verify'::
+
+Read the commit-graph file and verify its contents against the object
+database. Used to check for corrupted data.
 
 
 EXAMPLES
 --------
 
-* Write a commit graph file for the packed commits in your local .git folder.
+* Write a commit-graph file for the packed commits in your local `.git`
+  directory.
 +
 ------------------------------------------------
 $ git commit-graph write
 ------------------------------------------------
 
-* Write a graph file, extending the current graph file using commits
-* in <pack-index>.
+* Write a commit-graph file, extending the current commit-graph file
+  using commits in `<pack-index>`.
 +
 ------------------------------------------------
 $ echo <pack-index> | git commit-graph write --stdin-packs
 ------------------------------------------------
 
-* Write a graph file containing all reachable commits.
+* Write a commit-graph file containing all reachable commits.
 +
 ------------------------------------------------
 $ git show-ref -s | git commit-graph write --stdin-commits
 ------------------------------------------------
 
-* Write a graph file containing all commits in the current
-* commit-graph file along with those reachable from HEAD.
+* Write a commit-graph file containing all commits in the current
+  commit-graph file along with those reachable from `HEAD`.
 +
 ------------------------------------------------
 $ git rev-parse HEAD | git commit-graph write --stdin-commits --append
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index 18ddc78..8e24043 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -453,6 +453,27 @@
 
 include::config.txt[]
 
+BUGS
+----
+When using the deprecated `[section.subsection]` syntax, changing a value
+will result in adding a multi-line key instead of a change, if the subsection
+is given with at least one uppercase character. For example when the config
+looks like
+
+--------
+  [section.subsection]
+    key = value1
+--------
+
+and running `git config section.Subsection.key value2` will result in
+
+--------
+  [section.subsection]
+    key = value1
+    key = value2
+--------
+
+
 GIT
 ---
 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-describe.txt b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
index e027fb8..ccdc5f8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-describe.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
@@ -18,7 +18,9 @@
 commit.  If the tag points to the commit, then only the tag is
 shown.  Otherwise, it suffixes the tag name with the number of
 additional commits on top of the tagged object and the
-abbreviated object name of the most recent commit.
+abbreviated object name of the most recent commit. The result
+is a "human-readable" object name which can also be used to
+identify the commit to other git commands.
 
 By default (without --all or --tags) `git describe` only shows
 annotated tags.  For more information about creating annotated tags
diff --git a/Documentation/git-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
index b180f1f..030f162 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-diff.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-diff.txt
@@ -72,10 +72,10 @@
 	This form is to view the changes on the branch containing
 	and up to the second <commit>, starting at a common ancestor
 	of both <commit>.  "git diff A\...B" is equivalent to
-	"git diff $(git-merge-base A B) B".  You can omit any one
+	"git diff $(git merge-base A B) B".  You can omit any one
 	of <commit>, which has the same effect as using HEAD instead.
 
-Just in case if you are doing something exotic, it should be
+Just in case you are doing something exotic, it should be
 noted that all of the <commit> in the above description, except
 in the last two forms that use ".." notations, can be any
 <tree>.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index 085d177..901faef 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -57,7 +57,7 @@
 	`xx`; for example `%00` interpolates to `\0` (NUL),
 	`%09` to `\t` (TAB) and `%0a` to `\n` (LF).
 
---color[=<when>]:
+--color[=<when>]::
 	Respect any colors specified in the `--format` option. The
 	`<when>` field must be one of `always`, `never`, or `auto` (if
 	`<when>` is absent, behave as if `always` was given).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
index b9f060e..ab9a93f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
@@ -110,6 +110,9 @@
 (i.e., you can just remove them and do an 'rsync' with some other site in
 the hopes that somebody else has the object you have corrupted).
 
+If core.commitGraph is true, the commit-graph file will also be inspected
+using 'git commit-graph verify'. See linkgit:git-commit-graph[1].
+
 Extracted Diagnostics
 ---------------------
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gc.txt b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
index 24b2dd4..f5bc98c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
@@ -136,6 +136,10 @@
 it within all non-bare repos or it can be set to a boolean value.
 This defaults to true.
 
+The optional configuration variable `gc.commitGraph` determines if
+'git gc' should run 'git commit-graph write'. This can be set to a
+boolean value. This defaults to false.
+
 The optional configuration variable `gc.aggressiveWindow` controls how
 much time is spent optimizing the delta compression of the objects in
 the repository when the --aggressive option is specified.  The larger
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
index 312409a..a3049af 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-grep.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -13,11 +13,11 @@
 	   [-v | --invert-match] [-h|-H] [--full-name]
 	   [-E | --extended-regexp] [-G | --basic-regexp]
 	   [-P | --perl-regexp]
-	   [-F | --fixed-strings] [-n | --line-number]
+	   [-F | --fixed-strings] [-n | --line-number] [--column]
 	   [-l | --files-with-matches] [-L | --files-without-match]
 	   [(-O | --open-files-in-pager) [<pager>]]
 	   [-z | --null]
-	   [-c | --count] [--all-match] [-q | --quiet]
+	   [ -o | --only-matching ] [-c | --count] [--all-match] [-q | --quiet]
 	   [--max-depth <depth>]
 	   [--color[=<when>] | --no-color]
 	   [--break] [--heading] [-p | --show-function]
@@ -44,6 +44,9 @@
 grep.lineNumber::
 	If set to true, enable `-n` option by default.
 
+grep.column::
+	If set to true, enable the `--column` option by default.
+
 grep.patternType::
 	Set the default matching behavior. Using a value of 'basic', 'extended',
 	'fixed', or 'perl' will enable the `--basic-regexp`, `--extended-regexp`,
@@ -169,6 +172,10 @@
 --line-number::
 	Prefix the line number to matching lines.
 
+--column::
+	Prefix the 1-indexed byte-offset of the first match from the start of the
+	matching line.
+
 -l::
 --files-with-matches::
 --name-only::
@@ -194,6 +201,11 @@
 	Output \0 instead of the character that normally follows a
 	file name.
 
+-o::
+--only-matching::
+	Print only the matched (non-empty) parts of a matching line, with each such
+	part on a separate output line.
+
 -c::
 --count::
 	Instead of showing every matched line, show the number of
diff --git a/Documentation/git-help.txt b/Documentation/git-help.txt
index a40fc38..83d25d8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-help.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-help.txt
@@ -45,6 +45,11 @@
 	When used with `--verbose` print description for all recognized
 	commands.
 
+-c::
+--config::
+	List all available configuration variables. This is a short
+	summary of the list in linkgit:git-config[1].
+
 -g::
 --guides::
 	Prints a list of useful guides on the standard output. This
diff --git a/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt b/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
index 032613c..7b15744 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-imap-send.txt
@@ -68,8 +68,8 @@
 	to the server. Required when imap.host is not set.
 
 imap.host::
-	A URL identifying the server. Use a `imap://` prefix for non-secure
-	connections and a `imaps://` prefix for secure connections.
+	A URL identifying the server. Use an `imap://` prefix for non-secure
+	connections and an `imaps://` prefix for secure connections.
 	Ignored when imap.tunnel is set, but required otherwise.
 
 imap.user::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
index 9111c47..a5e8b36 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
@@ -56,8 +56,9 @@
 least 25% trailers.
 The group must be preceded by one or more empty (or whitespace-only) lines.
 The group must either be at the end of the message or be the last
-non-whitespace lines before a line that starts with '---'. Such three
-minus signs start the patch part of the message.
+non-whitespace lines before a line that starts with '---' (followed by a
+space or the end of the line). Such three minus signs start the patch
+part of the message. See also `--no-divider` below.
 
 When reading trailers, there can be whitespaces after the
 token, the separator and the value. There can also be whitespaces
@@ -88,7 +89,8 @@
 	Specify where all new trailers will be added.  A setting
 	provided with '--where' overrides all configuration variables
 	and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
-	'--where' or '--no-where'.
+	'--where' or '--no-where'. Possible values are `after`, `before`,
+	`end` or `start`.
 
 --if-exists <action>::
 --no-if-exists::
@@ -96,7 +98,8 @@
 	least one trailer with the same <token> in the message.  A setting
 	provided with '--if-exists' overrides all configuration variables
 	and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
-	'--if-exists' or '--no-if-exists'.
+	'--if-exists' or '--no-if-exists'. Possible actions are `addIfDifferent`,
+	`addIfDifferentNeighbor`, `add`, `replace` and `doNothing`.
 
 --if-missing <action>::
 --no-if-missing::
@@ -104,7 +107,8 @@
 	trailer with the same <token> in the message.  A setting
 	provided with '--if-missing' overrides all configuration variables
 	and applies to all '--trailer' options until the next occurrence of
-	'--if-missing' or '--no-if-missing'.
+	'--if-missing' or '--no-if-missing'. Possible actions are `doNothing`
+	or `add`.
 
 --only-trailers::
 	Output only the trailers, not any other parts of the input.
@@ -122,6 +126,11 @@
 	A convenience alias for `--only-trailers --only-input
 	--unfold`.
 
+--no-divider::
+	Do not treat `---` as the end of the commit message. Use this
+	when you know your input contains just the commit message itself
+	(and not an email or the output of `git format-patch`).
+
 CONFIGURATION VARIABLES
 -----------------------
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
index 502e00e..9f07f4f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-base.txt
@@ -154,13 +154,13 @@
 `origin/master` may have been rewound and rebuilt, leading to a
 history of this shape:
 
-			 o---B2
+	                 o---B2
 	                /
 	---o---o---B1--o---o---o---B (origin/master)
 	        \
-		 B0
+	         B0
 	          \
-		   D0---D1---D (topic)
+	           D0---D1---D (topic)
 
 where `origin/master` used to point at commits B0, B1, B2 and now it
 points at B, and your `topic` branch was started on top of it back
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index 6a5c00e..eb36837 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@
 'git merge' [-n] [--stat] [--no-commit] [--squash] [--[no-]edit]
 	[-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>] [-S[<keyid>]]
 	[--[no-]allow-unrelated-histories]
-	[--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [<commit>...]
+	[--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [-F <file>] [<commit>...]
 'git merge' --abort
 'git merge' --continue
 
@@ -75,6 +75,14 @@
 used to give a good default for automated 'git merge'
 invocations. The automated message can include the branch description.
 
+-F <file>::
+--file=<file>::
+	Read the commit message to be used for the merge commit (in
+	case one is created).
++
+If `--log` is specified, a shortlog of the commits being merged
+will be appended to the specified message.
+
 --[no-]rerere-autoupdate::
 	Allow the rerere mechanism to update the index with the
 	result of auto-conflict resolution if possible.
@@ -122,9 +130,9 @@
 
 To avoid recording unrelated changes in the merge commit,
 'git pull' and 'git merge' will also abort if there are any changes
-registered in the index relative to the `HEAD` commit.  (One
-exception is when the changed index entries are in the state that
-would result from the merge already.)
+registered in the index relative to the `HEAD` commit.  (Special
+narrow exceptions to this rule may exist depending on which merge
+strategy is in use, but generally, the index must match HEAD.)
 
 If all named commits are already ancestors of `HEAD`, 'git merge'
 will exit early with the message "Already up to date."
diff --git a/Documentation/git-notes.txt b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
index e8dec1b..df2b64d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-notes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
@@ -199,7 +199,7 @@
 	.git/NOTES_MERGE_REF symref is updated to the resulting commit.
 
 --abort::
-	Abort/reset a in-progress 'git notes merge', i.e. a notes merge
+	Abort/reset an in-progress 'git notes merge', i.e. a notes merge
 	with conflicts. This simply removes all files related to the
 	notes merge.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-p4.txt b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
index f0de3b8..41780a5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-p4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
@@ -374,6 +374,14 @@
     been submitted. Implies --disable-rebase. Can also be set with
     git-p4.disableP4Sync. Sync with origin/master still goes ahead if possible.
 
+Hook for submit
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The `p4-pre-submit` hook is executed if it exists and is executable.
+The hook takes no parameters and nothing from standard input. Exiting with
+non-zero status from this script prevents `git-p4 submit` from launching.
+
+One usage scenario is to run unit tests in the hook.
+
 Rebase options
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 These options can be used to modify 'git p4 rebase' behavior.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-range-diff.txt b/Documentation/git-range-diff.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f693930
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-range-diff.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,252 @@
+git-range-diff(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-range-diff - Compare two commit ranges (e.g. two versions of a branch)
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git range-diff' [--color=[<when>]] [--no-color] [<diff-options>]
+	[--no-dual-color] [--creation-factor=<factor>]
+	( <range1> <range2> | <rev1>...<rev2> | <base> <rev1> <rev2> )
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+This command shows the differences between two versions of a patch
+series, or more generally, two commit ranges (ignoring merge commits).
+
+To that end, it first finds pairs of commits from both commit ranges
+that correspond with each other. Two commits are said to correspond when
+the diff between their patches (i.e. the author information, the commit
+message and the commit diff) is reasonably small compared to the
+patches' size. See ``Algorithm`` below for details.
+
+Finally, the list of matching commits is shown in the order of the
+second commit range, with unmatched commits being inserted just after
+all of their ancestors have been shown.
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--no-dual-color::
+	When the commit diffs differ, `git range-diff` recreates the
+	original diffs' coloring, and adds outer -/+ diff markers with
+	the *background* being red/green to make it easier to see e.g.
+	when there was a change in what exact lines were added.
++
+Additionally, the commit diff lines that are only present in the first commit
+range are shown "dimmed" (this can be overridden using the `color.diff.<slot>`
+config setting where `<slot>` is one of `contextDimmed`, `oldDimmed` and
+`newDimmed`), and the commit diff lines that are only present in the second
+commit range are shown in bold (which can be overridden using the config
+settings `color.diff.<slot>` with `<slot>` being one of `contextBold`,
+`oldBold` or `newBold`).
++
+This is known to `range-diff` as "dual coloring". Use `--no-dual-color`
+to revert to color all lines according to the outer diff markers
+(and completely ignore the inner diff when it comes to color).
+
+--creation-factor=<percent>::
+	Set the creation/deletion cost fudge factor to `<percent>`.
+	Defaults to 60. Try a larger value if `git range-diff` erroneously
+	considers a large change a total rewrite (deletion of one commit
+	and addition of another), and a smaller one in the reverse case.
+	See the ``Algorithm`` section below for an explanation why this is
+	needed.
+
+<range1> <range2>::
+	Compare the commits specified by the two ranges, where
+	`<range1>` is considered an older version of `<range2>`.
+
+<rev1>...<rev2>::
+	Equivalent to passing `<rev2>..<rev1>` and `<rev1>..<rev2>`.
+
+<base> <rev1> <rev2>::
+	Equivalent to passing `<base>..<rev1>` and `<base>..<rev2>`.
+	Note that `<base>` does not need to be the exact branch point
+	of the branches. Example: after rebasing a branch `my-topic`,
+	`git range-diff my-topic@{u} my-topic@{1} my-topic` would
+	show the differences introduced by the rebase.
+
+`git range-diff` also accepts the regular diff options (see
+linkgit:git-diff[1]), most notably the `--color=[<when>]` and
+`--no-color` options. These options are used when generating the "diff
+between patches", i.e. to compare the author, commit message and diff of
+corresponding old/new commits. There is currently no means to tweak the
+diff options passed to `git log` when generating those patches.
+
+
+CONFIGURATION
+-------------
+This command uses the `diff.color.*` and `pager.range-diff` settings
+(the latter is on by default).
+See linkgit:git-config[1].
+
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+
+When a rebase required merge conflicts to be resolved, compare the changes
+introduced by the rebase directly afterwards using:
+
+------------
+$ git range-diff @{u} @{1} @
+------------
+
+
+A typical output of `git range-diff` would look like this:
+
+------------
+-:  ------- > 1:  0ddba11 Prepare for the inevitable!
+1:  c0debee = 2:  cab005e Add a helpful message at the start
+2:  f00dbal ! 3:  decafe1 Describe a bug
+    @@ -1,3 +1,3 @@
+     Author: A U Thor <author@example.com>
+
+    -TODO: Describe a bug
+    +Describe a bug
+    @@ -324,5 +324,6
+      This is expected.
+
+    -+What is unexpected is that it will also crash.
+    ++Unexpectedly, it also crashes. This is a bug, and the jury is
+    ++still out there how to fix it best. See ticket #314 for details.
+
+      Contact
+3:  bedead < -:  ------- TO-UNDO
+------------
+
+In this example, there are 3 old and 3 new commits, where the developer
+removed the 3rd, added a new one before the first two, and modified the
+commit message of the 2nd commit as well its diff.
+
+When the output goes to a terminal, it is color-coded by default, just
+like regular `git diff`'s output. In addition, the first line (adding a
+commit) is green, the last line (deleting a commit) is red, the second
+line (with a perfect match) is yellow like the commit header of `git
+show`'s output, and the third line colors the old commit red, the new
+one green and the rest like `git show`'s commit header.
+
+A naive color-coded diff of diffs is actually a bit hard to read,
+though, as it colors the entire lines red or green. The line that added
+"What is unexpected" in the old commit, for example, is completely red,
+even if the intent of the old commit was to add something.
+
+To help with that, `range` uses the `--dual-color` mode by default. In
+this mode, the diff of diffs will retain the original diff colors, and
+prefix the lines with -/+ markers that have their *background* red or
+green, to make it more obvious that they describe how the diff itself
+changed.
+
+
+Algorithm
+---------
+
+The general idea is this: we generate a cost matrix between the commits
+in both commit ranges, then solve the least-cost assignment.
+
+The cost matrix is populated thusly: for each pair of commits, both
+diffs are generated and the "diff of diffs" is generated, with 3 context
+lines, then the number of lines in that diff is used as cost.
+
+To avoid false positives (e.g. when a patch has been removed, and an
+unrelated patch has been added between two iterations of the same patch
+series), the cost matrix is extended to allow for that, by adding
+fixed-cost entries for wholesale deletes/adds.
+
+Example: Let commits `1--2` be the first iteration of a patch series and
+`A--C` the second iteration. Let's assume that `A` is a cherry-pick of
+`2,` and `C` is a cherry-pick of `1` but with a small modification (say,
+a fixed typo). Visualize the commits as a bipartite graph:
+
+------------
+    1            A
+
+    2            B
+
+		 C
+------------
+
+We are looking for a "best" explanation of the new series in terms of
+the old one. We can represent an "explanation" as an edge in the graph:
+
+
+------------
+    1            A
+	       /
+    2 --------'  B
+
+		 C
+------------
+
+This explanation comes for "free" because there was no change. Similarly
+`C` could be explained using `1`, but that comes at some cost c>0
+because of the modification:
+
+------------
+    1 ----.      A
+	  |    /
+    2 ----+---'  B
+	  |
+	  `----- C
+	  c>0
+------------
+
+In mathematical terms, what we are looking for is some sort of a minimum
+cost bipartite matching; `1` is matched to `C` at some cost, etc. The
+underlying graph is in fact a complete bipartite graph; the cost we
+associate with every edge is the size of the diff between the two
+commits' patches. To explain also new commits, we introduce dummy nodes
+on both sides:
+
+------------
+    1 ----.      A
+	  |    /
+    2 ----+---'  B
+	  |
+    o     `----- C
+	  c>0
+    o            o
+
+    o            o
+------------
+
+The cost of an edge `o--C` is the size of `C`'s diff, modified by a
+fudge factor that should be smaller than 100%. The cost of an edge
+`o--o` is free. The fudge factor is necessary because even if `1` and
+`C` have nothing in common, they may still share a few empty lines and
+such, possibly making the assignment `1--C`, `o--o` slightly cheaper
+than `1--o`, `o--C` even if `1` and `C` have nothing in common. With the
+fudge factor we require a much larger common part to consider patches as
+corresponding.
+
+The overall time needed to compute this algorithm is the time needed to
+compute n+m commit diffs and then n*m diffs of patches, plus the time
+needed to compute the least-cost assigment between n and m diffs. Git
+uses an implementation of the Jonker-Volgenant algorithm to solve the
+assignment problem, which has cubic runtime complexity. The matching
+found in this case will look like this:
+
+------------
+    1 ----.      A
+	  |    /
+    2 ----+---'  B
+       .--+-----'
+    o -'  `----- C
+	  c>0
+    o ---------- o
+
+    o ---------- o
+------------
+
+
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:git-log[1]
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index 0e20a66..432baab 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -243,11 +243,15 @@
 --keep-empty::
 	Keep the commits that do not change anything from its
 	parents in the result.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
 
 --allow-empty-message::
 	By default, rebasing commits with an empty message will fail.
 	This option overrides that behavior, allowing commits with empty
 	messages to be rebased.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
 
 --skip::
 	Restart the rebasing process by skipping the current patch.
@@ -271,6 +275,8 @@
 conflict happens, the side reported as 'ours' is the so-far rebased
 series, starting with <upstream>, and 'theirs' is the working branch.  In
 other words, the sides are swapped.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
 
 -s <strategy>::
 --strategy=<strategy>::
@@ -280,8 +286,10 @@
 +
 Because 'git rebase' replays each commit from the working branch
 on top of the <upstream> branch using the given strategy, using
-the 'ours' strategy simply discards all patches from the <branch>,
+the 'ours' strategy simply empties all patches from the <branch>,
 which makes little sense.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
 
 -X <strategy-option>::
 --strategy-option=<strategy-option>::
@@ -289,6 +297,8 @@
 	This implies `--merge` and, if no strategy has been
 	specified, `-s recursive`.  Note the reversal of 'ours' and
 	'theirs' as noted above for the `-m` option.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
 
 -S[<keyid>]::
 --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
@@ -324,17 +334,21 @@
 	and after each change.  When fewer lines of surrounding
 	context exist they all must match.  By default no context is
 	ever ignored.
-
--f::
---force-rebase::
-	Force a rebase even if the current branch is up to date and
-	the command without `--force` would return without doing anything.
 +
-You may find this (or --no-ff with an interactive rebase) helpful after
-reverting a topic branch merge, as this option recreates the topic branch with
-fresh commits so it can be remerged successfully without needing to "revert
-the reversion" (see the
-link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for details).
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
+
+--no-ff::
+--force-rebase::
+-f::
+	Individually replay all rebased commits instead of fast-forwarding
+	over the unchanged ones.  This ensures that the entire history of
+	the rebased branch is composed of new commits.
++
+You may find this helpful after reverting a topic branch merge, as this option
+recreates the topic branch with fresh commits so it can be remerged
+successfully without needing to "revert the reversion" (see the
+link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for
+details).
 
 --fork-point::
 --no-fork-point::
@@ -355,19 +369,22 @@
 --whitespace=<option>::
 	These flag are passed to the 'git apply' program
 	(see linkgit:git-apply[1]) that applies the patch.
-	Incompatible with the --interactive option.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
 
 --committer-date-is-author-date::
 --ignore-date::
 	These flags are passed to 'git am' to easily change the dates
 	of the rebased commits (see linkgit:git-am[1]).
-	Incompatible with the --interactive option.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
 
 --signoff::
 	Add a Signed-off-by: trailer to all the rebased commits. Note
 	that if `--interactive` is given then only commits marked to be
-	picked, edited or reworded will have the trailer added. Incompatible
-	with the `--preserve-merges` option.
+	picked, edited or reworded will have the trailer added.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
 
 -i::
 --interactive::
@@ -378,6 +395,8 @@
 The commit list format can be changed by setting the configuration option
 rebase.instructionFormat.  A customized instruction format will automatically
 have the long commit hash prepended to the format.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
 
 -r::
 --rebase-merges[=(rebase-cousins|no-rebase-cousins)]::
@@ -404,7 +423,7 @@
 `recursive` merge strategy; Different merge strategies can be used only via
 explicit `exec git merge -s <strategy> [...]` commands.
 +
-See also REBASING MERGES below.
+See also REBASING MERGES and INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
 
 -p::
 --preserve-merges::
@@ -415,6 +434,8 @@
 This uses the `--interactive` machinery internally, but combining it
 with the `--interactive` option explicitly is generally not a good
 idea unless you know what you are doing (see BUGS below).
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
 
 -x <cmd>::
 --exec <cmd>::
@@ -437,6 +458,8 @@
 +
 This uses the `--interactive` machinery internally, but it can be run
 without an explicit `--interactive`.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
 
 --root::
 	Rebase all commits reachable from <branch>, instead of
@@ -447,6 +470,8 @@
 	When used together with both --onto and --preserve-merges,
 	'all' root commits will be rewritten to have <newbase> as parent
 	instead.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
 
 --autosquash::
 --no-autosquash::
@@ -461,11 +486,11 @@
 	too.  The recommended way to create fixup/squash commits is by using
 	the `--fixup`/`--squash` options of linkgit:git-commit[1].
 +
-This option is only valid when the `--interactive` option is used.
-+
 If the `--autosquash` option is enabled by default using the
 configuration variable `rebase.autoSquash`, this option can be
 used to override and disable this setting.
++
+See also INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS below.
 
 --autostash::
 --no-autostash::
@@ -475,17 +500,73 @@
 	with care: the final stash application after a successful
 	rebase might result in non-trivial conflicts.
 
---no-ff::
-	With --interactive, cherry-pick all rebased commits instead of
-	fast-forwarding over the unchanged ones.  This ensures that the
-	entire history of the rebased branch is composed of new commits.
-+
-Without --interactive, this is a synonym for --force-rebase.
-+
-You may find this helpful after reverting a topic branch merge, as this option
-recreates the topic branch with fresh commits so it can be remerged
-successfully without needing to "revert the reversion" (see the
-link:howto/revert-a-faulty-merge.html[revert-a-faulty-merge How-To] for details).
+INCOMPATIBLE OPTIONS
+--------------------
+
+git-rebase has many flags that are incompatible with each other,
+predominantly due to the fact that it has three different underlying
+implementations:
+
+ * one based on linkgit:git-am[1] (the default)
+ * one based on git-merge-recursive (merge backend)
+ * one based on linkgit:git-cherry-pick[1] (interactive backend)
+
+Flags only understood by the am backend:
+
+ * --committer-date-is-author-date
+ * --ignore-date
+ * --whitespace
+ * --ignore-whitespace
+ * -C
+
+Flags understood by both merge and interactive backends:
+
+ * --merge
+ * --strategy
+ * --strategy-option
+ * --allow-empty-message
+
+Flags only understood by the interactive backend:
+
+ * --[no-]autosquash
+ * --rebase-merges
+ * --preserve-merges
+ * --interactive
+ * --exec
+ * --keep-empty
+ * --autosquash
+ * --edit-todo
+ * --root when used in combination with --onto
+
+Other incompatible flag pairs:
+
+ * --preserve-merges and --interactive
+ * --preserve-merges and --signoff
+ * --preserve-merges and --rebase-merges
+ * --rebase-merges and --strategy
+ * --rebase-merges and --strategy-option
+
+BEHAVIORAL DIFFERENCES
+-----------------------
+
+ * empty commits:
+
+    am-based rebase will drop any "empty" commits, whether the
+    commit started empty (had no changes relative to its parent to
+    start with) or ended empty (all changes were already applied
+    upstream in other commits).
+
+    merge-based rebase does the same.
+
+    interactive-based rebase will by default drop commits that
+    started empty and halt if it hits a commit that ended up empty.
+    The `--keep-empty` option exists for interactive rebases to allow
+    it to keep commits that started empty.
+
+  * directory rename detection:
+
+    merge-based and interactive-based rebases work fine with
+    directory rename detection.  am-based rebases sometimes do not.
 
 include::merge-strategies.txt[]
 
@@ -804,7 +885,7 @@
 case" recovery too!
 
 REBASING MERGES
------------------
+---------------
 
 The interactive rebase command was originally designed to handle
 individual patch series. As such, it makes sense to exclude merge
@@ -873,14 +954,14 @@
 to proceed.
 
 The `reset` command resets the HEAD, index and worktree to the specified
-revision. It is isimilar to an `exec git reset --hard <label>`, but
+revision. It is similar to an `exec git reset --hard <label>`, but
 refuses to overwrite untracked files. If the `reset` command fails, it is
 rescheduled immediately, with a helpful message how to edit the todo list
 (this typically happens when a `reset` command was inserted into the todo
 list manually and contains a typo).
 
-The `merge` command will merge the specified revision into whatever is
-HEAD at that time. With `-C <original-commit>`, the commit message of
+The `merge` command will merge the specified revision(s) into whatever
+is HEAD at that time. With `-C <original-commit>`, the commit message of
 the specified merge commit will be used. When the `-C` is changed to
 a lower-case `-c`, the message will be opened in an editor after a
 successful merge so that the user can edit the message.
@@ -889,7 +970,8 @@
 when the merge operation did not even start), it is rescheduled immediately.
 
 At this time, the `merge` command will *always* use the `recursive`
-merge strategy, with no way to choose a different one. To work around
+merge strategy for regular merges, and `octopus` for octopus merges,
+strategy, with no way to choose a different one. To work around
 this, an `exec` command can be used to call `git merge` explicitly,
 using the fact that the labels are worktree-local refs (the ref
 `refs/rewritten/onto` would correspond to the label `onto`, for example).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-repack.txt b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
index d90e790..d056250 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-repack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-repack.txt
@@ -40,6 +40,11 @@
 Note that users fetching over dumb protocols will have to fetch the
 whole new pack in order to get any contained object, no matter how many
 other objects in that pack they already have locally.
++
+Promisor packfiles are repacked separately: if there are packfiles that
+have an associated ".promisor" file, these packfiles will be repacked
+into another separate pack, and an empty ".promisor" file corresponding
+to the new separate pack will be written.
 
 -A::
 	Same as `-a`, unless `-d` is used.  Then any unreachable
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index 4f3efde..465a4ec 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -137,15 +137,17 @@
 	Specify encoding of compose message. Default is the value of the
 	'sendemail.composeencoding'; if that is unspecified, UTF-8 is assumed.
 
---transfer-encoding=(7bit|8bit|quoted-printable|base64)::
+--transfer-encoding=(7bit|8bit|quoted-printable|base64|auto)::
 	Specify the transfer encoding to be used to send the message over SMTP.
 	7bit will fail upon encountering a non-ASCII message.  quoted-printable
 	can be useful when the repository contains files that contain carriage
 	returns, but makes the raw patch email file (as saved from a MUA) much
 	harder to inspect manually.  base64 is even more fool proof, but also
-	even more opaque.  Default is the value of the `sendemail.transferEncoding`
-	configuration value; if that is unspecified, git will use 8bit and not
-	add a Content-Transfer-Encoding header.
+	even more opaque.  auto will use 8bit when possible, and quoted-printable
+	otherwise.
++
+Default is the value of the `sendemail.transferEncoding` configuration
+value; if that is unspecified, default to `auto`.
 
 --xmailer::
 --no-xmailer::
@@ -398,8 +400,11 @@
 +
 --
 		*	Invoke the sendemail-validate hook if present (see linkgit:githooks[5]).
-		*	Warn of patches that contain lines longer than 998 characters; this
-			is due to SMTP limits as described by http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2821.txt.
+		*	Warn of patches that contain lines longer than
+			998 characters unless a suitable transfer encoding
+			('auto', 'base64', or 'quoted-printable') is used;
+			this is due to SMTP limits as described by
+			http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc5322.txt.
 --
 +
 Default is the value of `sendemail.validate`; if this is not set,
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
index 262db04..4a01371 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-branch.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@
 -----------
 
 Shows the commit ancestry graph starting from the commits named
-with <rev>s or <globs>s (or all refs under refs/heads
+with <rev>s or <glob>s (or all refs under refs/heads
 and/or refs/tags) semi-visually.
 
 It cannot show more than 29 branches and commits at a time.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-index.txt b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
index a8a9509..424e4ba 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
@@ -14,13 +14,27 @@
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
-Read the idx file for a Git packfile created with
-'git pack-objects' command from the standard input, and
-dump its contents.
+Read the `.idx` file for a Git packfile (created with
+linkgit:git-pack-objects[1] or linkgit:git-index-pack[1]) from the
+standard input, and dump its contents. The output consists of one object
+per line, with each line containing two or three space-separated
+columns:
 
-The information it outputs is subset of what you can get from
-'git verify-pack -v'; this command only shows the packfile
-offset and SHA-1 of each object.
+  - the first column is the offset in bytes of the object within the
+    corresponding packfile
+
+  - the second column is the object id of the object
+
+  - if the index version is 2 or higher, the third column contains the
+    CRC32 of the object data
+
+The objects are output in the order in which they are found in the index
+file, which should be (in a correctly constructed file) sorted by object
+id.
+
+Note that you can get more information on a packfile by calling
+linkgit:git-verify-pack[1]. However, as this command considers only the
+index file itself, it's both faster and more flexible.
 
 GIT
 ---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
index c4467ff..d9f422d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -106,7 +106,7 @@
 The possible options are:
 +
 	- 'traditional' - Shows ignored files and directories, unless
-			  --untracked-files=all is specifed, in which case
+			  --untracked-files=all is specified, in which case
 			  individual files in ignored directories are
 			  displayed.
 	- 'no'	        - Show no ignored files.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index ef9d9d2..ba3c4df 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -183,12 +183,17 @@
 
 foreach [--recursive] <command>::
 	Evaluates an arbitrary shell command in each checked out submodule.
-	The command has access to the variables $name, $path, $sha1 and
-	$toplevel:
+	The command has access to the variables $name, $sm_path, $displaypath,
+	$sha1 and $toplevel:
 	$name is the name of the relevant submodule section in `.gitmodules`,
-	$path is the name of the submodule directory relative to the
-	superproject, $sha1 is the commit as recorded in the superproject,
-	and $toplevel is the absolute path to the top-level of the superproject.
+	$sm_path is the path of the submodule as recorded in the immediate
+	superproject, $displaypath contains the relative path from the
+	current working directory to the submodules root directory,
+	$sha1 is the commit as recorded in the immediate
+	superproject, and $toplevel is the absolute path to the top-level
+	of the immediate superproject.
+	Note that to avoid conflicts with '$PATH' on Windows, the '$path'
+	variable is now a deprecated synonym of '$sm_path' variable.
 	Any submodules defined in the superproject but not checked out are
 	ignored by this command. Unless given `--quiet`, foreach prints the name
 	of each submodule before evaluating the command.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index 7ea24fc..b990295 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -452,7 +452,7 @@
 
 'commit-diff'::
 	Commits the diff of two tree-ish arguments from the
-	command-line.  This command does not rely on being inside an `git svn
+	command-line.  This command does not rely on being inside a `git svn
 	init`-ed repository.  This command takes three arguments, (a) the
 	original tree to diff against, (b) the new tree result, (c) the
 	URL of the target Subversion repository.  The final argument
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
index 87c4288..f2d644e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -115,7 +115,7 @@
 	variable if it exists, or lexicographic order otherwise. See
 	linkgit:git-config[1].
 
---color[=<when>]:
+--color[=<when>]::
 	Respect any colors specified in the `--format` option. The
 	`<when>` field must be one of `always`, `never`, or `auto` (if
 	`<when>` is absent, behave as if `always` was given).
@@ -187,6 +187,12 @@
 	`--create-reflog`, but currently does not negate the setting of
 	`core.logAllRefUpdates`.
 
+--format=<format>::
+	A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from a tag ref being shown
+	and the object it points at.  The format is the same as
+	that of linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1].  When unspecified,
+	defaults to `%(refname:strip=2)`.
+
 <tagname>::
 	The name of the tag to create, delete, or describe.
 	The new tag name must pass all checks defined by
@@ -198,12 +204,6 @@
 	The object that the new tag will refer to, usually a commit.
 	Defaults to HEAD.
 
-<format>::
-	A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from a tag ref being shown
-	and the object it points at.  The format is the same as
-	that of linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1].  When unspecified,
-	defaults to `%(refname:strip=2)`.
-
 CONFIGURATION
 -------------
 By default, 'git tag' in sign-with-default mode (-s) will use your
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index 4e8e762..1c4d146 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -245,10 +245,10 @@
 current working directory.  This is useful for minimum-checkout
 merging.
 
-To pretend you have a file with mode and sha1 at path, say:
+To pretend you have a file at path with mode and sha1, say:
 
 ----------------
-$ git update-index --cacheinfo <mode>,<sha1>,<path>
+$ git update-index --add --cacheinfo <mode>,<sha1>,<path>
 ----------------
 
 `--info-only` is used to register files without placing them in the object
@@ -268,23 +268,20 @@
 multiple entry definitions from the standard input, and designed
 specifically for scripts.  It can take inputs of three formats:
 
-    . mode         SP sha1          TAB path
-+
-The first format is what "git-apply --index-info"
-reports, and used to reconstruct a partial tree
-that is used for phony merge base tree when falling
-back on 3-way merge.
-
     . mode SP type SP sha1          TAB path
 +
-The second format is to stuff 'git ls-tree' output
-into the index file.
+This format is to stuff `git ls-tree` output into the index.
 
     . mode         SP sha1 SP stage TAB path
 +
 This format is to put higher order stages into the
 index file and matches 'git ls-files --stage' output.
 
+    . mode         SP sha1          TAB path
++
+This format is no longer produced by any Git command, but is
+and will continue to be supported by `update-index --index-info`.
+
 To place a higher stage entry to the index, the path should
 first be removed by feeding a mode=0 entry for the path, and
 then feeding necessary input lines in the third format.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
index bc8fdfd..9671423 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git update-ref' [-m <reason>] (-d <ref> [<oldvalue>] | [--no-deref] [--create-reflog] <ref> <newvalue> [<oldvalue>] | --stdin [-z])
+'git update-ref' [-m <reason>] [--no-deref] (-d <ref> [<oldvalue>] | [--create-reflog] <ref> <newvalue> [<oldvalue>] | --stdin [-z])
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -129,8 +129,8 @@
 symbolic refs before creating the log name) describing the change
 in ref value.  Log lines are formatted as:
 
-    . oldsha1 SP newsha1 SP committer LF
-+
+    oldsha1 SP newsha1 SP committer LF
+
 Where "oldsha1" is the 40 character hexadecimal value previously
 stored in <ref>, "newsha1" is the 40 character hexadecimal value of
 <newvalue> and "committer" is the committer's name, email address
@@ -138,8 +138,8 @@
 
 Optionally with -m:
 
-    . oldsha1 SP newsha1 SP committer TAB message LF
-+
+    oldsha1 SP newsha1 SP committer TAB message LF
+
 Where all fields are as described above and "message" is the
 value supplied to the -m option.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
index 822ad59..998f52d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-upload-pack.txt
@@ -11,6 +11,7 @@
 [verse]
 'git-upload-pack' [--[no-]strict] [--timeout=<n>] [--stateless-rpc]
 		  [--advertise-refs] <directory>
+
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
 Invoked by 'git fetch-pack', learns what
diff --git a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
index afc6576..d707e61 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
@@ -60,6 +60,15 @@
 $ git worktree add --track -b <branch> <path> <remote>/<branch>
 ------------
 +
+If the branch exists in multiple remotes and one of them is named by
+the `checkout.defaultRemote` configuration variable, we'll use that
+one for the purposes of disambiguation, even if the `<branch>` isn't
+unique across all remotes. Set it to
+e.g. `checkout.defaultRemote=origin` to always checkout remote
+branches from there if `<branch>` is ambiguous but exists on the
+'origin' remote. See also `checkout.defaultRemote` in
+linkgit:git-config[1].
++
 If `<commit-ish>` is omitted and neither `-b` nor `-B` nor `--detach` used,
 then, as a convenience, the new worktree is associated with a branch
 (call it `<branch>`) named after `$(basename <path>)`.  If `<branch>`
@@ -164,6 +173,10 @@
 	This format will remain stable across Git versions and regardless of user
 	configuration.  See below for details.
 
+-q::
+--quiet::
+	With 'add', suppress feedback messages.
+
 -v::
 --verbose::
 	With `prune`, report all removals.
@@ -249,8 +262,8 @@
 The porcelain format has a line per attribute.  Attributes are listed with a
 label and value separated by a single space.  Boolean attributes (like 'bare'
 and 'detached') are listed as a label only, and are only present if and only
-if the value is true.  An empty line indicates the end of a worktree.  For
-example:
+if the value is true.  The first attribute of a worktree is always `worktree`,
+an empty line indicates the end of the record.  For example:
 
 ------------
 $ git worktree list --porcelain
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index dba7f0c..254f063 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -402,11 +402,11 @@
 	of Git object directories which can be used to search for Git
 	objects. New objects will not be written to these directories.
 +
-	Entries that begin with `"` (double-quote) will be interpreted
-	as C-style quoted paths, removing leading and trailing
-	double-quotes and respecting backslash escapes. E.g., the value
-	`"path-with-\"-and-:-in-it":vanilla-path` has two paths:
-	`path-with-"-and-:-in-it` and `vanilla-path`.
+Entries that begin with `"` (double-quote) will be interpreted
+as C-style quoted paths, removing leading and trailing
+double-quotes and respecting backslash escapes. E.g., the value
+`"path-with-\"-and-:-in-it":vanilla-path` has two paths:
+`path-with-"-and-:-in-it` and `vanilla-path`.
 
 `GIT_DIR`::
 	If the `GIT_DIR` environment variable is set then it
@@ -599,8 +599,8 @@
 +
 Alternatively, if the variable is set to an absolute path
 (starting with a '/' character), Git will interpret this
-as a file path and will try to write the trace messages
-into it.
+as a file path and will try to append the trace messages
+to it.
 +
 Unsetting the variable, or setting it to empty, "0" or
 "false" (case insensitive) disables trace messages.
@@ -858,7 +858,9 @@
 
 Report bugs to the Git mailing list <git@vger.kernel.org> where the
 development and maintenance is primarily done.  You do not have to be
-subscribed to the list to send a message there.
+subscribed to the list to send a message there.  See the list archive
+at https://public-inbox.org/git for previous bug reports and other
+discussions.
 
 Issues which are security relevant should be disclosed privately to
 the Git Security mailing list <git-security@googlegroups.com>.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
index 92010b0..b8392fc 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
@@ -303,21 +303,21 @@
   attribute. If you decide to use the `working-tree-encoding` attribute
   in your repository, then it is strongly recommended to ensure that all
   clients working with the repository support it.
-
-  For example, Microsoft Visual Studio resources files (`*.rc`) or
-  PowerShell script files (`*.ps1`) are sometimes encoded in UTF-16.
-  If you declare `*.ps1` as files as UTF-16 and you add `foo.ps1` with
-  a `working-tree-encoding` enabled Git client, then `foo.ps1` will be
-  stored as UTF-8 internally. A client without `working-tree-encoding`
-  support will checkout `foo.ps1` as UTF-8 encoded file. This will
-  typically cause trouble for the users of this file.
-
-  If a Git client, that does not support the `working-tree-encoding`
-  attribute, adds a new file `bar.ps1`, then `bar.ps1` will be
-  stored "as-is" internally (in this example probably as UTF-16).
-  A client with `working-tree-encoding` support will interpret the
-  internal contents as UTF-8 and try to convert it to UTF-16 on checkout.
-  That operation will fail and cause an error.
++
+For example, Microsoft Visual Studio resources files (`*.rc`) or
+PowerShell script files (`*.ps1`) are sometimes encoded in UTF-16.
+If you declare `*.ps1` as files as UTF-16 and you add `foo.ps1` with
+a `working-tree-encoding` enabled Git client, then `foo.ps1` will be
+stored as UTF-8 internally. A client without `working-tree-encoding`
+support will checkout `foo.ps1` as UTF-8 encoded file. This will
+typically cause trouble for the users of this file.
++
+If a Git client, that does not support the `working-tree-encoding`
+attribute, adds a new file `bar.ps1`, then `bar.ps1` will be
+stored "as-is" internally (in this example probably as UTF-16).
+A client with `working-tree-encoding` support will interpret the
+internal contents as UTF-8 and try to convert it to UTF-16 on checkout.
+That operation will fail and cause an error.
 
 - Reencoding content to non-UTF encodings can cause errors as the
   conversion might not be UTF-8 round trip safe. If you suspect your
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt b/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
index f970196..adc7596 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcredentials.txt
@@ -133,6 +133,12 @@
 the same domain. Likewise, a config entry for `http://example.com` would not
 match: Git compares the protocols exactly.
 
+If the "pattern" URL does include a path component, then this too must match
+exactly: the context `https://example.com/bar/baz.git` will match a config
+entry for `https://example.com/bar/baz.git` (in addition to matching the config
+entry for `https://example.com`) but will not match a config entry for
+`https://example.com/bar`.
+
 
 CONFIGURATION OPTIONS
 ---------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/giteveryday.txt b/Documentation/giteveryday.txt
index 10c8ff9..9f2528f 100644
--- a/Documentation/giteveryday.txt
+++ b/Documentation/giteveryday.txt
@@ -244,7 +244,7 @@
 
 This section can also be used by those who respond to `git
 request-pull` or pull-request on GitHub (www.github.com) to
-integrate the work of others into their history. An sub-area
+integrate the work of others into their history. A sub-area
 lieutenant for a repository will act both as a participant and
 as an integrator.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/githooks.txt b/Documentation/githooks.txt
index e3c283a..9590443 100644
--- a/Documentation/githooks.txt
+++ b/Documentation/githooks.txt
@@ -485,6 +485,13 @@
 hook to limit its search.  On error, it will fall back to verifying
 all files and folders.
 
+p4-pre-submit
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+This hook is invoked by `git-p4 submit`. It takes no parameters and nothing
+from standard input. Exiting with non-zero status from this script prevent
+`git-p4 submit` from launching. Run `git-p4 submit --help` for details.
+
 GIT
 ---
 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/gitignore.txt b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
index ff5d7f9..d107daa 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitignore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@
 
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
-$HOME/.config/git/ignore, $GIT_DIR/info/exclude, .gitignore
+$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/ignore, $GIT_DIR/info/exclude, .gitignore
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
index 4caf5d8..164995d 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitmodules.txt
@@ -66,7 +66,8 @@
 submodule.<name>.ignore::
 	Defines under what circumstances "git status" and the diff family show
 	a submodule as modified. The following values are supported:
-
++
+--
 	all;; The submodule will never be considered modified (but will
 	    nonetheless show up in the output of status and commit when it has
 	    been staged).
@@ -83,12 +84,14 @@
 	    differences, and modifications to tracked and untracked files are
 	    shown. This is the default option.
 
-	If this option is also present in the submodules entry in .git/config
-	of the superproject, the setting there will override the one found in
-	.gitmodules.
-	Both settings can be overridden on the command line by using the
-	"--ignore-submodule" option. The 'git submodule' commands are not
-	affected by this setting.
+If this option is also present in the submodules entry in .git/config
+of the superproject, the setting there will override the one found in
+.gitmodules.
+
+Both settings can be overridden on the command line by using the
+"--ignore-submodule" option. The 'git submodule' commands are not
+affected by this setting.
+--
 
 submodule.<name>.shallow::
 	When set to true, a clone of this submodule will be performed as a
diff --git a/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt b/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt
index 3b9faab..57999e9 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitsubmodules.txt
@@ -169,11 +169,15 @@
 
 A submodule is considered active,
 
-  (a) if `submodule.<name>.active` is set to `true`
-     or
-  (b) if the submodule's path matches the pathspec in `submodule.active`
-     or
-  (c) if `submodule.<name>.url` is set.
+  a. if `submodule.<name>.active` is set to `true`
++
+or
+
+  b. if the submodule's path matches the pathspec in `submodule.active`
++
+or
+
+  c. if `submodule.<name>.url` is set.
 
 and these are evaluated in this order.
 
@@ -194,7 +198,7 @@
 
 Note that (c) is a historical artefact and will be ignored if the
 (a) and (b) specify that the submodule is not active. In other words,
-if we have an `submodule.<name>.active` set to `false` or if the
+if we have a `submodule.<name>.active` set to `false` or if the
 submodule's path is excluded in the pathspec in `submodule.active`, the
 url doesn't matter whether it is present or not. This is illustrated in
 the example that follows.
diff --git a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
index 9c8982e..c0a326e 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
@@ -19,10 +19,12 @@
 
 An example:
 
-    # gitweb configuration file for http://git.example.org
-    #
-    our $projectroot = "/srv/git"; # FHS recommendation
-    our $site_name = 'Example.org >> Repos';
+------------------------------------------------
+# gitweb configuration file for http://git.example.org
+#
+our $projectroot = "/srv/git"; # FHS recommendation
+our $site_name = 'Example.org >> Repos';
+------------------------------------------------
 
 
 The configuration file is used to override the default settings that
@@ -357,6 +359,7 @@
 +
 For example, the following setting produces a breadcrumb trail like
 "home / dev / projects / ..." where "projects" is the home link.
++
 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------
     our @extra_breadcrumbs = (
       [ 'home' => 'https://www.example.org/' ],
@@ -901,14 +904,16 @@
 "zip" snapshots), while allowing individual projects to turn them off, put
 the following in your GITWEB_CONFIG file:
 
-	$feature{'blame'}{'default'} = [1];
-	$feature{'blame'}{'override'} = 1;
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
+$feature{'blame'}{'default'} = [1];
+$feature{'blame'}{'override'} = 1;
 
-	$feature{'pickaxe'}{'default'} = [1];
-	$feature{'pickaxe'}{'override'} = 1;
+$feature{'pickaxe'}{'default'} = [1];
+$feature{'pickaxe'}{'override'} = 1;
 
-	$feature{'snapshot'}{'default'} = ['zip', 'tgz'];
-	$feature{'snapshot'}{'override'} = 1;
+$feature{'snapshot'}{'default'} = ['zip', 'tgz'];
+$feature{'snapshot'}{'override'} = 1;
+--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
 
 If you allow overriding for the snapshot feature, you can specify which
 snapshot formats are globally disabled. You can also add any command-line
diff --git a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
index 6c2d23d..0d2aa48 100644
--- a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
+++ b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
@@ -334,7 +334,7 @@
 omitted if the pattern begins with a character that does not belong to
 "magic signature" symbol set and is not a colon.
 +
-In the long form, the leading colon `:` is followed by a open
+In the long form, the leading colon `:` is followed by an open
 parenthesis `(`, a comma-separated list of zero or more "magic words",
 and a close parentheses `)`, and the remainder is the pattern to match
 against the path.
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/update-hook-example.txt b/Documentation/howto/update-hook-example.txt
index a5193b1..89821ec 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/update-hook-example.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/update-hook-example.txt
@@ -80,7 +80,7 @@
       info "The branch '$1' is new..."
     else
       # updating -- make sure it is a fast-forward
-      mb=$(git-merge-base "$2" "$3")
+      mb=$(git merge-base "$2" "$3")
       case "$mb,$2" in
         "$2,$mb") info "Update is fast-forward" ;;
 	*)	  noff=y; info "This is not a fast-forward update.";;
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/using-merge-subtree.txt b/Documentation/howto/using-merge-subtree.txt
index 1ae8d12..a499a94 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/using-merge-subtree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/using-merge-subtree.txt
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@
 
 ----------------
 $ git remote add -f Bproject /path/to/B <1>
-$ git merge -s ours --no-commit Bproject/master <2>
+$ git merge -s ours --no-commit --allow-unrelated-histories Bproject/master <2>
 $ git read-tree --prefix=dir-B/ -u Bproject/master <3>
 $ git commit -m "Merge B project as our subdirectory" <4>
 
diff --git a/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt b/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
index c579793..f1fb08d 100644
--- a/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@
 it requests fetching everything up to the given tag.
 +
 The remote ref that matches <src>
-is fetched, and if <dst> is not empty string, the local
+is fetched, and if <dst> is not an empty string, the local
 ref that matches it is fast-forwarded using <src>.
 If the optional plus `+` is used, the local ref
 is updated even if it does not result in a fast-forward
diff --git a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
index 7b27363..21978eb 100644
--- a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
@@ -756,7 +756,6 @@
 +
 The form '--missing=print' is like 'allow-any', but will also print a
 list of the missing objects.  Object IDs are prefixed with a ``?'' character.
-endif::git-rev-list[]
 
 --exclude-promisor-objects::
 	(For internal use only.)  Prefilter object traversal at
@@ -764,6 +763,7 @@
 	stronger than `--missing=allow-promisor` because it limits the
 	traversal, rather than just silencing errors about missing
 	objects.
+endif::git-rev-list[]
 
 --no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]::
 	Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
diff --git a/Documentation/revisions.txt b/Documentation/revisions.txt
index 7d1bd44..72daa20 100644
--- a/Documentation/revisions.txt
+++ b/Documentation/revisions.txt
@@ -184,7 +184,8 @@
   A colon, followed by a slash, followed by a text, names
   a commit whose commit message matches the specified regular expression.
   This name returns the youngest matching commit which is
-  reachable from any ref. The regular expression can match any part of the
+  reachable from any ref, including HEAD.
+  The regular expression can match any part of the
   commit message. To match messages starting with a string, one can use
   e.g. ':/^foo'. The special sequence ':/!' is reserved for modifiers to what
   is matched. ':/!-foo' performs a negative match, while ':/!!foo' matches a
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
index 4f44ca2..5abb8e8 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-directory-listing.txt
@@ -54,7 +54,7 @@
 	this case, the contents are returned as individual entries.
 +
 If this is set, files and directories that explicitly match an ignore
-pattern are reported. Implicity ignored directories (directories that
+pattern are reported. Implicitly ignored directories (directories that
 do not match an ignore pattern, but whose contents are all ignored)
 are not reported, instead all of the contents are reported.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt
index e7cbb7c..45f0df6 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-gitattributes.txt
@@ -146,7 +146,7 @@
 
 * Iterate over the `attr_check.items[]` array to examine
   the attribute names and values.  The name of the attribute
-  described by a  `attr_check.items[]` object can be retrieved via
+  described by an `attr_check.items[]` object can be retrieved via
   `git_attr_name(check->items[i].attr)`.  (Please note that no items
   will be returned for unset attributes, so `ATTR_UNSET()` will return
   false for all returned `attr_check.items[]` objects.)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-history-graph.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-history-graph.txt
index 18142b6..d0d1707 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-history-graph.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-history-graph.txt
@@ -80,7 +80,7 @@
   it is invoked.
 
 * For each commit, call `graph_next_line()` repeatedly, until
-  `graph_is_commit_finished()` returns non-zero.  Each call go
+  `graph_is_commit_finished()` returns non-zero.  Each call to
   `graph_next_line()` will output a single line of the graph.  The resulting
   lines will not contain any newlines.  `graph_next_line()` returns 1 if the
   resulting line contains the current commit, or 0 if this is merely a line
@@ -115,7 +115,6 @@
 struct git_graph *graph = graph_init(opts);
 
 while ((commit = get_revision(opts)) != NULL) {
-	graph_update(graph, commit);
 	while (!graph_is_commit_finished(graph))
 	{
 		struct strbuf sb;
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt
index ad6af81..cc0474b 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph-format.txt
@@ -18,9 +18,9 @@
   the graph file.
 
 These positional references are stored as unsigned 32-bit integers
-corresponding to the array position withing the list of commit OIDs. We
-use the most-significant bit for special purposes, so we can store at most
-(1 << 31) - 1 (around 2 billion) commits.
+corresponding to the array position within the list of commit OIDs. Due
+to some special constants we use to track parents, we can store at most
+(1 << 30) + (1 << 29) + (1 << 28) - 1 (around 1.8 billion) commits.
 
 == Commit graph files have the following format:
 
@@ -70,10 +70,10 @@
   OID Lookup (ID: {'O', 'I', 'D', 'L'}) (N * H bytes)
       The OIDs for all commits in the graph, sorted in ascending order.
 
-  Commit Data (ID: {'C', 'G', 'E', 'T' }) (N * (H + 16) bytes)
+  Commit Data (ID: {'C', 'D', 'A', 'T' }) (N * (H + 16) bytes)
     * The first H bytes are for the OID of the root tree.
     * The next 8 bytes are for the positions of the first two parents
-      of the ith commit. Stores value 0xffffffff if no parent in that
+      of the ith commit. Stores value 0x7000000 if no parent in that
       position. If there are more than two parents, the second value
       has its most-significant bit on and the other bits store an array
       position into the Large Edge List chunk.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt
index 0550c6d..7805b09 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/commit-graph.txt
@@ -15,13 +15,13 @@
 1. Decompressing and parsing commits.
 2. Walking the entire graph to satisfy topological order constraints.
 
-The commit graph file is a supplemental data structure that accelerates
+The commit-graph file is a supplemental data structure that accelerates
 commit graph walks. If a user downgrades or disables the 'core.commitGraph'
 config setting, then the existing ODB is sufficient. The file is stored
 as "commit-graph" either in the .git/objects/info directory or in the info
 directory of an alternate.
 
-The commit graph file stores the commit graph structure along with some
+The commit-graph file stores the commit graph structure along with some
 extra metadata to speed up graph walks. By listing commit OIDs in lexi-
 cographic order, we can identify an integer position for each commit and
 refer to the parents of a commit using those integer positions. We use
@@ -77,10 +77,33 @@
 generation number and walk until reaching commits with known generation
 number.
 
+We use the macro GENERATION_NUMBER_INFINITY = 0xFFFFFFFF to mark commits not
+in the commit-graph file. If a commit-graph file was written by a version
+of Git that did not compute generation numbers, then those commits will
+have generation number represented by the macro GENERATION_NUMBER_ZERO = 0.
+
+Since the commit-graph file is closed under reachability, we can guarantee
+the following weaker condition on all commits:
+
+    If A and B are commits with generation numbers N amd M, respectively,
+    and N < M, then A cannot reach B.
+
+Note how the strict inequality differs from the inequality when we have
+fully-computed generation numbers. Using strict inequality may result in
+walking a few extra commits, but the simplicity in dealing with commits
+with generation number *_INFINITY or *_ZERO is valuable.
+
+We use the macro GENERATION_NUMBER_MAX = 0x3FFFFFFF to for commits whose
+generation numbers are computed to be at least this value. We limit at
+this value since it is the largest value that can be stored in the
+commit-graph file using the 30 bits available to generation numbers. This
+presents another case where a commit can have generation number equal to
+that of a parent.
+
 Design Details
 --------------
 
-- The commit graph file is stored in a file named 'commit-graph' in the
+- The commit-graph file is stored in a file named 'commit-graph' in the
   .git/objects/info directory. This could be stored in the info directory
   of an alternate.
 
@@ -89,48 +112,34 @@
 - The file format includes parameters for the object ID hash function,
   so a future change of hash algorithm does not require a change in format.
 
+- Commit grafts and replace objects can change the shape of the commit
+  history. The latter can also be enabled/disabled on the fly using
+  `--no-replace-objects`. This leads to difficultly storing both possible
+  interpretations of a commit id, especially when computing generation
+  numbers. The commit-graph will not be read or written when
+  replace-objects or grafts are present.
+
+- Shallow clones create grafts of commits by dropping their parents. This
+  leads the commit-graph to think those commits have generation number 1.
+  If and when those commits are made unshallow, those generation numbers
+  become invalid. Since shallow clones are intended to restrict the commit
+  history to a very small set of commits, the commit-graph feature is less
+  helpful for these clones, anyway. The commit-graph will not be read or
+  written when shallow commits are present.
+
 Future Work
 -----------
 
-- The commit graph feature currently does not honor commit grafts. This can
-  be remedied by duplicating or refactoring the current graft logic.
-
-- The 'commit-graph' subcommand does not have a "verify" mode that is
-  necessary for integration with fsck.
-
-- The file format includes room for precomputed generation numbers. These
-  are not currently computed, so all generation numbers will be marked as
-  0 (or "uncomputed"). A later patch will include this calculation.
-
 - After computing and storing generation numbers, we must make graph
   walks aware of generation numbers to gain the performance benefits they
   enable. This will mostly be accomplished by swapping a commit-date-ordered
   priority queue with one ordered by generation number. The following
   operations are important candidates:
 
-    - paint_down_to_common()
     - 'log --topo-order'
+    - 'tag --merged'
 
-- Currently, parse_commit_gently() requires filling in the root tree
-  object for a commit. This passes through lookup_tree() and consequently
-  lookup_object(). Also, it calls lookup_commit() when loading the parents.
-  These method calls check the ODB for object existence, even if the
-  consumer does not need the content. For example, we do not need the
-  tree contents when computing merge bases. Now that commit parsing is
-  removed from the computation time, these lookup operations are the
-  slowest operations keeping graph walks from being fast. Consider
-  loading these objects without verifying their existence in the ODB and
-  only loading them fully when consumers need them. Consider a method
-  such as "ensure_tree_loaded(commit)" that fully loads a tree before
-  using commit->tree.
-
-- The current design uses the 'commit-graph' subcommand to generate the graph.
-  When this feature stabilizes enough to recommend to most users, we should
-  add automatic graph writes to common operations that create many commits.
-  For example, one could compute a graph on 'clone', 'fetch', or 'repack'
-  commands.
-
-- A server could provide a commit graph file as part of the network protocol
+- A server could provide a commit-graph file as part of the network protocol
   to avoid extra calculations by clients. This feature is only of benefit if
   the user is willing to trust the file, because verifying the file is correct
   is as hard as computing it from scratch.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/directory-rename-detection.txt b/Documentation/technical/directory-rename-detection.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1c0086e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/directory-rename-detection.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,115 @@
+Directory rename detection
+==========================
+
+Rename detection logic in diffcore-rename that checks for renames of
+individual files is aggregated and analyzed in merge-recursive for cases
+where combinations of renames indicate that a full directory has been
+renamed.
+
+Scope of abilities
+------------------
+
+It is perhaps easiest to start with an example:
+
+  * When all of x/a, x/b and x/c have moved to z/a, z/b and z/c, it is
+    likely that x/d added in the meantime would also want to move to z/d by
+    taking the hint that the entire directory 'x' moved to 'z'.
+
+More interesting possibilities exist, though, such as:
+
+  * one side of history renames x -> z, and the other renames some file to
+    x/e, causing the need for the merge to do a transitive rename.
+
+  * one side of history renames x -> z, but also renames all files within
+    x.  For example, x/a -> z/alpha, x/b -> z/bravo, etc.
+
+  * both 'x' and 'y' being merged into a single directory 'z', with a
+    directory rename being detected for both x->z and y->z.
+
+  * not all files in a directory being renamed to the same location;
+    i.e. perhaps most the files in 'x' are now found under 'z', but a few
+    are found under 'w'.
+
+  * a directory being renamed, which also contained a subdirectory that was
+    renamed to some entirely different location.  (And perhaps the inner
+    directory itself contained inner directories that were renamed to yet
+    other locations).
+
+  * combinations of the above; see t/t6043-merge-rename-directories.sh for
+    various interesting cases.
+
+Limitations -- applicability of directory renames
+-------------------------------------------------
+
+In order to prevent edge and corner cases resulting in either conflicts
+that cannot be represented in the index or which might be too complex for
+users to try to understand and resolve, a couple basic rules limit when
+directory rename detection applies:
+
+  1) If a given directory still exists on both sides of a merge, we do
+     not consider it to have been renamed.
+
+  2) If a subset of to-be-renamed files have a file or directory in the
+     way (or would be in the way of each other), "turn off" the directory
+     rename for those specific sub-paths and report the conflict to the
+     user.
+
+  3) If the other side of history did a directory rename to a path that
+     your side of history renamed away, then ignore that particular
+     rename from the other side of history for any implicit directory
+     renames (but warn the user).
+
+Limitations -- detailed rules and testcases
+-------------------------------------------
+
+t/t6043-merge-rename-directories.sh contains extensive tests and commentary
+which generate and explore the rules listed above.  It also lists a few
+additional rules:
+
+  a) If renames split a directory into two or more others, the directory
+     with the most renames, "wins".
+
+  b) Avoid directory-rename-detection for a path, if that path is the
+     source of a rename on either side of a merge.
+
+  c) Only apply implicit directory renames to directories if the other side
+     of history is the one doing the renaming.
+
+Limitations -- support in different commands
+--------------------------------------------
+
+Directory rename detection is supported by 'merge' and 'cherry-pick'.
+Other git commands which users might be surprised to see limited or no
+directory rename detection support in:
+
+  * diff
+
+    Folks have requested in the past that `git diff` detect directory
+    renames and somehow simplify its output.  It is not clear whether this
+    would be desirable or how the output should be simplified, so this was
+    simply not implemented.  Further, to implement this, directory rename
+    detection logic would need to move from merge-recursive to
+    diffcore-rename.
+
+  * am
+
+    git-am tries to avoid a full three way merge, instead calling
+    git-apply.  That prevents us from detecting renames at all, which may
+    defeat the directory rename detection.  There is a fallback, though; if
+    the initial git-apply fails and the user has specified the -3 option,
+    git-am will fall back to a three way merge.  However, git-am lacks the
+    necessary information to do a "real" three way merge.  Instead, it has
+    to use build_fake_ancestor() to get a merge base that is missing files
+    whose rename may have been important to detect for directory rename
+    detection to function.
+
+  * rebase
+
+    Since am-based rebases work by first generating a bunch of patches
+    (which no longer record what the original commits were and thus don't
+    have the necessary info from which we can find a real merge-base), and
+    then calling git-am, this implies that am-based rebases will not always
+    successfully detect directory renames either (see the 'am' section
+    above).  merged-based rebases (rebase -m) and cherry-pick-based rebases
+    (rebase -i) are not affected by this shortcoming, and fully support
+    directory rename detection.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt b/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
index 4ab6cd1..bc2ace2 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/hash-function-transition.txt
@@ -59,14 +59,11 @@
 
 Goals
 -----
-Where NewHash is a strong 256-bit hash function to replace SHA-1 (see
-"Selection of a New Hash", below):
-
-1. The transition to NewHash can be done one local repository at a time.
+1. The transition to SHA-256 can be done one local repository at a time.
    a. Requiring no action by any other party.
-   b. A NewHash repository can communicate with SHA-1 Git servers
+   b. A SHA-256 repository can communicate with SHA-1 Git servers
       (push/fetch).
-   c. Users can use SHA-1 and NewHash identifiers for objects
+   c. Users can use SHA-1 and SHA-256 identifiers for objects
       interchangeably (see "Object names on the command line", below).
    d. New signed objects make use of a stronger hash function than
       SHA-1 for their security guarantees.
@@ -79,7 +76,7 @@
 
 Non-Goals
 ---------
-1. Add NewHash support to Git protocol. This is valuable and the
+1. Add SHA-256 support to Git protocol. This is valuable and the
    logical next step but it is out of scope for this initial design.
 2. Transparently improving the security of existing SHA-1 signed
    objects.
@@ -87,26 +84,26 @@
    repository.
 4. Taking the opportunity to fix other bugs in Git's formats and
    protocols.
-5. Shallow clones and fetches into a NewHash repository. (This will
-   change when we add NewHash support to Git protocol.)
-6. Skip fetching some submodules of a project into a NewHash
-   repository. (This also depends on NewHash support in Git
+5. Shallow clones and fetches into a SHA-256 repository. (This will
+   change when we add SHA-256 support to Git protocol.)
+6. Skip fetching some submodules of a project into a SHA-256
+   repository. (This also depends on SHA-256 support in Git
    protocol.)
 
 Overview
 --------
 We introduce a new repository format extension. Repositories with this
-extension enabled use NewHash instead of SHA-1 to name their objects.
+extension enabled use SHA-256 instead of SHA-1 to name their objects.
 This affects both object names and object content --- both the names
 of objects and all references to other objects within an object are
 switched to the new hash function.
 
-NewHash repositories cannot be read by older versions of Git.
+SHA-256 repositories cannot be read by older versions of Git.
 
-Alongside the packfile, a NewHash repository stores a bidirectional
-mapping between NewHash and SHA-1 object names. The mapping is generated
+Alongside the packfile, a SHA-256 repository stores a bidirectional
+mapping between SHA-256 and SHA-1 object names. The mapping is generated
 locally and can be verified using "git fsck". Object lookups use this
-mapping to allow naming objects using either their SHA-1 and NewHash names
+mapping to allow naming objects using either their SHA-1 and SHA-256 names
 interchangeably.
 
 "git cat-file" and "git hash-object" gain options to display an object
@@ -116,7 +113,7 @@
 (using the bidirectional hash mapping).
 
 Fetches from a SHA-1 based server convert the fetched objects into
-NewHash form and record the mapping in the bidirectional mapping table
+SHA-256 form and record the mapping in the bidirectional mapping table
 (see below for details). Pushes to a SHA-1 based server convert the
 objects being pushed into sha1 form so the server does not have to be
 aware of the hash function the client is using.
@@ -125,19 +122,19 @@
 ---------------
 Repository format extension
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-A NewHash repository uses repository format version `1` (see
+A SHA-256 repository uses repository format version `1` (see
 Documentation/technical/repository-version.txt) with extensions
 `objectFormat` and `compatObjectFormat`:
 
 	[core]
 		repositoryFormatVersion = 1
 	[extensions]
-		objectFormat = newhash
+		objectFormat = sha256
 		compatObjectFormat = sha1
 
 The combination of setting `core.repositoryFormatVersion=1` and
 populating `extensions.*` ensures that all versions of Git later than
-`v0.99.9l` will die instead of trying to operate on the NewHash
+`v0.99.9l` will die instead of trying to operate on the SHA-256
 repository, instead producing an error message.
 
 	# Between v0.99.9l and v2.7.0
@@ -155,36 +152,36 @@
 Object names
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~
 Objects can be named by their 40 hexadecimal digit sha1-name or 64
-hexadecimal digit newhash-name, plus names derived from those (see
+hexadecimal digit sha256-name, plus names derived from those (see
 gitrevisions(7)).
 
 The sha1-name of an object is the SHA-1 of the concatenation of its
 type, length, a nul byte, and the object's sha1-content. This is the
 traditional <sha1> used in Git to name objects.
 
-The newhash-name of an object is the NewHash of the concatenation of its
-type, length, a nul byte, and the object's newhash-content.
+The sha256-name of an object is the SHA-256 of the concatenation of its
+type, length, a nul byte, and the object's sha256-content.
 
 Object format
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 The content as a byte sequence of a tag, commit, or tree object named
-by sha1 and newhash differ because an object named by newhash-name refers to
-other objects by their newhash-names and an object named by sha1-name
+by sha1 and sha256 differ because an object named by sha256-name refers to
+other objects by their sha256-names and an object named by sha1-name
 refers to other objects by their sha1-names.
 
-The newhash-content of an object is the same as its sha1-content, except
-that objects referenced by the object are named using their newhash-names
+The sha256-content of an object is the same as its sha1-content, except
+that objects referenced by the object are named using their sha256-names
 instead of sha1-names. Because a blob object does not refer to any
-other object, its sha1-content and newhash-content are the same.
+other object, its sha1-content and sha256-content are the same.
 
-The format allows round-trip conversion between newhash-content and
+The format allows round-trip conversion between sha256-content and
 sha1-content.
 
 Object storage
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 Loose objects use zlib compression and packed objects use the packed
 format described in Documentation/technical/pack-format.txt, just like
-today. The content that is compressed and stored uses newhash-content
+today. The content that is compressed and stored uses sha256-content
 instead of sha1-content.
 
 Pack index
@@ -255,10 +252,10 @@
   up to and not including the table of CRC32 values.
 - Zero or more NUL bytes.
 - The trailer consists of the following:
-  - A copy of the 20-byte NewHash checksum at the end of the
+  - A copy of the 20-byte SHA-256 checksum at the end of the
     corresponding packfile.
 
-  - 20-byte NewHash checksum of all of the above.
+  - 20-byte SHA-256 checksum of all of the above.
 
 Loose object index
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -266,7 +263,7 @@
 all loose objects. Its format is
 
   # loose-object-idx
-  (newhash-name SP sha1-name LF)*
+  (sha256-name SP sha1-name LF)*
 
 where the object names are in hexadecimal format. The file is not
 sorted.
@@ -292,8 +289,8 @@
 Translation table
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 The index files support a bidirectional mapping between sha1-names
-and newhash-names. The lookup proceeds similarly to ordinary object
-lookups. For example, to convert a sha1-name to a newhash-name:
+and sha256-names. The lookup proceeds similarly to ordinary object
+lookups. For example, to convert a sha1-name to a sha256-name:
 
  1. Look for the object in idx files. If a match is present in the
     idx's sorted list of truncated sha1-names, then:
@@ -301,8 +298,8 @@
        name order mapping.
     b. Read the corresponding entry in the full sha1-name table to
        verify we found the right object. If it is, then
-    c. Read the corresponding entry in the full newhash-name table.
-       That is the object's newhash-name.
+    c. Read the corresponding entry in the full sha256-name table.
+       That is the object's sha256-name.
  2. Check for a loose object. Read lines from loose-object-idx until
     we find a match.
 
@@ -318,25 +315,25 @@
 
 Reading an object's sha1-content
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-The sha1-content of an object can be read by converting all newhash-names
-its newhash-content references to sha1-names using the translation table.
+The sha1-content of an object can be read by converting all sha256-names
+its sha256-content references to sha1-names using the translation table.
 
 Fetch
 ~~~~~
 Fetching from a SHA-1 based server requires translating between SHA-1
-and NewHash based representations on the fly.
+and SHA-256 based representations on the fly.
 
 SHA-1s named in the ref advertisement that are present on the client
-can be translated to NewHash and looked up as local objects using the
+can be translated to SHA-256 and looked up as local objects using the
 translation table.
 
 Negotiation proceeds as today. Any "have"s generated locally are
 converted to SHA-1 before being sent to the server, and SHA-1s
-mentioned by the server are converted to NewHash when looking them up
+mentioned by the server are converted to SHA-256 when looking them up
 locally.
 
 After negotiation, the server sends a packfile containing the
-requested objects. We convert the packfile to NewHash format using
+requested objects. We convert the packfile to SHA-256 format using
 the following steps:
 
 1. index-pack: inflate each object in the packfile and compute its
@@ -351,12 +348,12 @@
    (This list only contains objects reachable from the "wants". If the
    pack from the server contained additional extraneous objects, then
    they will be discarded.)
-3. convert to newhash: open a new (newhash) packfile. Read the topologically
+3. convert to sha256: open a new (sha256) packfile. Read the topologically
    sorted list just generated. For each object, inflate its
-   sha1-content, convert to newhash-content, and write it to the newhash
-   pack. Record the new sha1<->newhash mapping entry for use in the idx.
+   sha1-content, convert to sha256-content, and write it to the sha256
+   pack. Record the new sha1<->sha256 mapping entry for use in the idx.
 4. sort: reorder entries in the new pack to match the order of objects
-   in the pack the server generated and include blobs. Write a newhash idx
+   in the pack the server generated and include blobs. Write a sha256 idx
    file
 5. clean up: remove the SHA-1 based pack file, index, and
    topologically sorted list obtained from the server in steps 1
@@ -388,16 +385,16 @@
 
 Signed Commits
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-We add a new field "gpgsig-newhash" to the commit object format to allow
+We add a new field "gpgsig-sha256" to the commit object format to allow
 signing commits without relying on SHA-1. It is similar to the
-existing "gpgsig" field. Its signed payload is the newhash-content of the
-commit object with any "gpgsig" and "gpgsig-newhash" fields removed.
+existing "gpgsig" field. Its signed payload is the sha256-content of the
+commit object with any "gpgsig" and "gpgsig-sha256" fields removed.
 
 This means commits can be signed
 1. using SHA-1 only, as in existing signed commit objects
-2. using both SHA-1 and NewHash, by using both gpgsig-newhash and gpgsig
+2. using both SHA-1 and SHA-256, by using both gpgsig-sha256 and gpgsig
    fields.
-3. using only NewHash, by only using the gpgsig-newhash field.
+3. using only SHA-256, by only using the gpgsig-sha256 field.
 
 Old versions of "git verify-commit" can verify the gpgsig signature in
 cases (1) and (2) without modifications and view case (3) as an
@@ -405,24 +402,24 @@
 
 Signed Tags
 ~~~~~~~~~~~
-We add a new field "gpgsig-newhash" to the tag object format to allow
+We add a new field "gpgsig-sha256" to the tag object format to allow
 signing tags without relying on SHA-1. Its signed payload is the
-newhash-content of the tag with its gpgsig-newhash field and "-----BEGIN PGP
+sha256-content of the tag with its gpgsig-sha256 field and "-----BEGIN PGP
 SIGNATURE-----" delimited in-body signature removed.
 
 This means tags can be signed
 1. using SHA-1 only, as in existing signed tag objects
-2. using both SHA-1 and NewHash, by using gpgsig-newhash and an in-body
+2. using both SHA-1 and SHA-256, by using gpgsig-sha256 and an in-body
    signature.
-3. using only NewHash, by only using the gpgsig-newhash field.
+3. using only SHA-256, by only using the gpgsig-sha256 field.
 
 Mergetag embedding
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 The mergetag field in the sha1-content of a commit contains the
 sha1-content of a tag that was merged by that commit.
 
-The mergetag field in the newhash-content of the same commit contains the
-newhash-content of the same tag.
+The mergetag field in the sha256-content of the same commit contains the
+sha256-content of the same tag.
 
 Submodules
 ~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -497,7 +494,7 @@
 -------
 Invalid objects
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-The conversion from sha1-content to newhash-content retains any
+The conversion from sha1-content to sha256-content retains any
 brokenness in the original object (e.g., tree entry modes encoded with
 leading 0, tree objects whose paths are not sorted correctly, and
 commit objects without an author or committer). This is a deliberate
@@ -516,7 +513,7 @@
 
 Alternates
 ~~~~~~~~~~
-For the same reason, a newhash repository cannot borrow objects from a
+For the same reason, a sha256 repository cannot borrow objects from a
 sha1 repository using objects/info/alternates or
 $GIT_ALTERNATE_OBJECT_REPOSITORIES.
 
@@ -524,20 +521,20 @@
 ~~~~~~~~~
 The "git notes" tool annotates objects using their sha1-name as key.
 This design does not describe a way to migrate notes trees to use
-newhash-names. That migration is expected to happen separately (for
+sha256-names. That migration is expected to happen separately (for
 example using a file at the root of the notes tree to describe which
 hash it uses).
 
 Server-side cost
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-Until Git protocol gains NewHash support, using NewHash based storage
+Until Git protocol gains SHA-256 support, using SHA-256 based storage
 on public-facing Git servers is strongly discouraged. Once Git
-protocol gains NewHash support, NewHash based servers are likely not
+protocol gains SHA-256 support, SHA-256 based servers are likely not
 to support SHA-1 compatibility, to avoid what may be a very expensive
 hash reencode during clone and to encourage peers to modernize.
 
 The design described here allows fetches by SHA-1 clients of a
-personal NewHash repository because it's not much more difficult than
+personal SHA-256 repository because it's not much more difficult than
 allowing pushes from that repository. This support needs to be guarded
 by a configuration option --- servers like git.kernel.org that serve a
 large number of clients would not be expected to bear that cost.
@@ -547,7 +544,7 @@
 The signed payload for signed commits and tags does not explicitly
 name the hash used to identify objects. If some day Git adopts a new
 hash function with the same length as the current SHA-1 (40
-hexadecimal digit) or NewHash (64 hexadecimal digit) objects then the
+hexadecimal digit) or SHA-256 (64 hexadecimal digit) objects then the
 intent behind the PGP signed payload in an object signature is
 unclear:
 
@@ -562,7 +559,7 @@
 e7e07d5a4fcc2a203d9873968ad3e6bd4d7419d7 or the commit with
 new-40-digit-hash-name e7e07d5a4fcc2a203d9873968ad3e6bd4d7419d7?
 
-Fortunately NewHash and SHA-1 have different lengths. If Git starts
+Fortunately SHA-256 and SHA-1 have different lengths. If Git starts
 using another hash with the same length to name objects, then it will
 need to change the format of signed payloads using that hash to
 address this issue.
@@ -574,24 +571,24 @@
 
  1. ("dark launch") Treat object names input by the user as SHA-1 and
     convert any object names written to output to SHA-1, but store
-    objects using NewHash.  This allows users to test the code with no
+    objects using SHA-256.  This allows users to test the code with no
     visible behavior change except for performance.  This allows
     allows running even tests that assume the SHA-1 hash function, to
     sanity-check the behavior of the new mode.
 
- 2. ("early transition") Allow both SHA-1 and NewHash object names in
+ 2. ("early transition") Allow both SHA-1 and SHA-256 object names in
     input. Any object names written to output use SHA-1. This allows
     users to continue to make use of SHA-1 to communicate with peers
     (e.g. by email) that have not migrated yet and prepares for mode 3.
 
- 3. ("late transition") Allow both SHA-1 and NewHash object names in
-    input. Any object names written to output use NewHash. In this
+ 3. ("late transition") Allow both SHA-1 and SHA-256 object names in
+    input. Any object names written to output use SHA-256. In this
     mode, users are using a more secure object naming method by
     default.  The disruption is minimal as long as most of their peers
     are in mode 2 or mode 3.
 
  4. ("post-transition") Treat object names input by the user as
-    NewHash and write output using NewHash. This is safer than mode 3
+    SHA-256 and write output using SHA-256. This is safer than mode 3
     because there is less risk that input is incorrectly interpreted
     using the wrong hash function.
 
@@ -601,27 +598,31 @@
 particular revision specifier and for output, overriding the mode. For
 example:
 
-git --output-format=sha1 log abac87a^{sha1}..f787cac^{newhash}
+git --output-format=sha1 log abac87a^{sha1}..f787cac^{sha256}
 
-Selection of a New Hash
------------------------
+Choice of Hash
+--------------
 In early 2005, around the time that Git was written,  Xiaoyun Wang,
 Yiqun Lisa Yin, and Hongbo Yu announced an attack finding SHA-1
 collisions in 2^69 operations. In August they published details.
 Luckily, no practical demonstrations of a collision in full SHA-1 were
 published until 10 years later, in 2017.
 
-The hash function NewHash to replace SHA-1 should be stronger than
-SHA-1 was: we would like it to be trustworthy and useful in practice
-for at least 10 years.
+Git v2.13.0 and later subsequently moved to a hardened SHA-1
+implementation by default that mitigates the SHAttered attack, but
+SHA-1 is still believed to be weak.
+
+The hash to replace this hardened SHA-1 should be stronger than SHA-1
+was: we would like it to be trustworthy and useful in practice for at
+least 10 years.
 
 Some other relevant properties:
 
 1. A 256-bit hash (long enough to match common security practice; not
    excessively long to hurt performance and disk usage).
 
-2. High quality implementations should be widely available (e.g. in
-   OpenSSL).
+2. High quality implementations should be widely available (e.g., in
+   OpenSSL and Apple CommonCrypto).
 
 3. The hash function's properties should match Git's needs (e.g. Git
    requires collision and 2nd preimage resistance and does not require
@@ -630,14 +631,13 @@
 4. As a tiebreaker, the hash should be fast to compute (fortunately
    many contenders are faster than SHA-1).
 
-Some hashes under consideration are SHA-256, SHA-512/256, SHA-256x16,
-K12, and BLAKE2bp-256.
+We choose SHA-256.
 
 Transition plan
 ---------------
 Some initial steps can be implemented independently of one another:
 - adding a hash function API (vtable)
-- teaching fsck to tolerate the gpgsig-newhash field
+- teaching fsck to tolerate the gpgsig-sha256 field
 - excluding gpgsig-* from the fields copied by "git commit --amend"
 - annotating tests that depend on SHA-1 values with a SHA1 test
   prerequisite
@@ -664,7 +664,7 @@
 - adding appropriate index entries when adding a new object to the
   object store
 - --output-format option
-- ^{sha1} and ^{newhash} revision notation
+- ^{sha1} and ^{sha256} revision notation
 - configuration to specify default input and output format (see
   "Object names on the command line" above)
 
@@ -672,7 +672,7 @@
 - allow pushes to a repository using the compat format
 - generate a topologically sorted list of the SHA-1 names of fetched
   objects
-- convert the fetched packfile to newhash format and generate an idx
+- convert the fetched packfile to sha256 format and generate an idx
   file
 - re-sort to match the order of objects in the fetched packfile
 
@@ -680,30 +680,30 @@
 repository. In converted repositories and new clones, end users can
 gain support for the new hash function without any visible change in
 behavior (see "dark launch" in the "Object names on the command line"
-section). In particular this allows users to verify NewHash signatures
+section). In particular this allows users to verify SHA-256 signatures
 on objects in the repository, and it should ensure the transition code
 is stable in production in preparation for using it more widely.
 
 Over time projects would encourage their users to adopt the "early
 transition" and then "late transition" modes to take advantage of the
-new, more futureproof NewHash object names.
+new, more futureproof SHA-256 object names.
 
 When objectFormat and compatObjectFormat are both set, commands
-generating signatures would generate both SHA-1 and NewHash signatures
+generating signatures would generate both SHA-1 and SHA-256 signatures
 by default to support both new and old users.
 
-In projects using NewHash heavily, users could be encouraged to adopt
+In projects using SHA-256 heavily, users could be encouraged to adopt
 the "post-transition" mode to avoid accidentally making implicit use
 of SHA-1 object names.
 
 Once a critical mass of users have upgraded to a version of Git that
-can verify NewHash signatures and have converted their existing
+can verify SHA-256 signatures and have converted their existing
 repositories to support verifying them, we can add support for a
-setting to generate only NewHash signatures. This is expected to be at
+setting to generate only SHA-256 signatures. This is expected to be at
 least a year later.
 
 That is also a good moment to advertise the ability to convert
-repositories to use NewHash only, stripping out all SHA-1 related
+repositories to use SHA-256 only, stripping out all SHA-1 related
 metadata. This improves performance by eliminating translation
 overhead and security by avoiding the possibility of accidentally
 relying on the safety of SHA-1.
@@ -742,16 +742,16 @@
 
 Signed objects with multiple hashes
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-Instead of introducing the gpgsig-newhash field in commit and tag objects
-for newhash-content based signatures, an earlier version of this design
-added "hash newhash <newhash-name>" fields to strengthen the existing
+Instead of introducing the gpgsig-sha256 field in commit and tag objects
+for sha256-content based signatures, an earlier version of this design
+added "hash sha256 <sha256-name>" fields to strengthen the existing
 sha1-content based signatures.
 
 In other words, a single signature was used to attest to the object
 content using both hash functions. This had some advantages:
 * Using one signature instead of two speeds up the signing process.
 * Having one signed payload with both hashes allows the signer to
-  attest to the sha1-name and newhash-name referring to the same object.
+  attest to the sha1-name and sha256-name referring to the same object.
 * All users consume the same signature. Broken signatures are likely
   to be detected quickly using current versions of git.
 
@@ -760,11 +760,11 @@
   objects it references, even after the transition is complete and
   translation table is no longer needed for anything else. To support
   this, the design added fields such as "hash sha1 tree <sha1-name>"
-  and "hash sha1 parent <sha1-name>" to the newhash-content of a signed
+  and "hash sha1 parent <sha1-name>" to the sha256-content of a signed
   commit, complicating the conversion process.
 * Allowing signed objects without a sha1 (for after the transition is
   complete) complicated the design further, requiring a "nohash sha1"
-  field to suppress including "hash sha1" fields in the newhash-content
+  field to suppress including "hash sha1" fields in the sha256-content
   and signed payload.
 
 Lazily populated translation table
@@ -772,7 +772,7 @@
 Some of the work of building the translation table could be deferred to
 push time, but that would significantly complicate and slow down pushes.
 Calculating the sha1-name at object creation time at the same time it is
-being streamed to disk and having its newhash-name calculated should be
+being streamed to disk and having its sha256-name calculated should be
 an acceptable cost.
 
 Document History
@@ -814,6 +814,12 @@
 * avoid loose object overhead by packing more aggressively in
   "git gc --auto"
 
+Later history:
+
+ See the history of this file in git.git for the history of subsequent
+ edits. This document history is no longer being maintained as it
+ would now be superfluous to the commit log
+
 [1] http://public-inbox.org/git/CA+55aFzJtejiCjV0e43+9oR3QuJK2PiFiLQemytoLpyJWe6P9w@mail.gmail.com/
 [2] http://public-inbox.org/git/CA+55aFz+gkAsDZ24zmePQuEs1XPS9BP_s8O7Q4wQ7LV7X5-oDA@mail.gmail.com/
 [3] http://public-inbox.org/git/20170306084353.nrns455dvkdsfgo5@sigill.intra.peff.net/
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt b/Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt
index 64f49d0..9c5b6f0 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/http-protocol.txt
@@ -338,11 +338,11 @@
 		       request_end
   request_end       =  "0000" / "done"
 
-  want_list         =  PKT-LINE(want NUL cap_list LF)
+  want_list         =  PKT-LINE(want SP cap_list LF)
 		       *(want_pkt)
   want_pkt          =  PKT-LINE(want LF)
   want              =  "want" SP id
-  cap_list          =  *(SP capability) SP
+  cap_list          =  capability *(SP capability)
 
   have_list         =  *PKT-LINE("have" SP id LF)
 
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
index 7fee6b7..6ac774d 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
@@ -50,7 +50,8 @@
 
 Servers that receive any such Extra Parameters MUST ignore all
 unrecognized keys. Currently, the only Extra Parameter recognized is
-"version=1".
+"version" with a value of '1' or '2'.  See protocol-v2.txt for more
+information on protocol version 2.
 
 Git Transport
 -------------
@@ -284,7 +285,9 @@
 The client can optionally request that pack-objects omit various
 objects from the packfile using one of several filtering techniques.
 These are intended for use with partial clone and partial fetch
-operations.  See `rev-list` for possible "filter-spec" values.
+operations. An object that does not meet a filter-spec value is
+omitted unless explicitly requested in a 'want' line. See `rev-list`
+for possible filter-spec values.
 
 Once all the 'want's and 'shallow's (and optional 'deepen') are
 transferred, clients MUST send a flush-pkt, to tell the server side
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt b/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt
index 0bed247..1ef66bd 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/partial-clone.txt
@@ -69,24 +69,24 @@
 
 - A new pack-protocol capability "filter" is added to the fetch-pack and
   upload-pack negotiation.
-
-  This uses the existing capability discovery mechanism.
-  See "filter" in Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt.
++
+This uses the existing capability discovery mechanism.
+See "filter" in Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt.
 
 - Clients pass a "filter-spec" to clone and fetch which is passed to the
   server to request filtering during packfile construction.
-
-  There are various filters available to accommodate different situations.
-  See "--filter=<filter-spec>" in Documentation/rev-list-options.txt.
++
+There are various filters available to accommodate different situations.
+See "--filter=<filter-spec>" in Documentation/rev-list-options.txt.
 
 - On the server pack-objects applies the requested filter-spec as it
   creates "filtered" packfiles for the client.
-
-  These filtered packfiles are *incomplete* in the traditional sense because
-  they may contain objects that reference objects not contained in the
-  packfile and that the client doesn't already have.  For example, the
-  filtered packfile may contain trees or tags that reference missing blobs
-  or commits that reference missing trees.
++
+These filtered packfiles are *incomplete* in the traditional sense because
+they may contain objects that reference objects not contained in the
+packfile and that the client doesn't already have.  For example, the
+filtered packfile may contain trees or tags that reference missing blobs
+or commits that reference missing trees.
 
 - On the client these incomplete packfiles are marked as "promisor packfiles"
   and treated differently by various commands.
@@ -104,47 +104,47 @@
   to repository corruption.  To differentiate these cases, the local
   repository specially indicates such filtered packfiles obtained from the
   promisor remote as "promisor packfiles".
-
-  These promisor packfiles consist of a "<name>.promisor" file with
-  arbitrary contents (like the "<name>.keep" files), in addition to
-  their "<name>.pack" and "<name>.idx" files.
++
+These promisor packfiles consist of a "<name>.promisor" file with
+arbitrary contents (like the "<name>.keep" files), in addition to
+their "<name>.pack" and "<name>.idx" files.
 
 - The local repository considers a "promisor object" to be an object that
   it knows (to the best of its ability) that the promisor remote has promised
   that it has, either because the local repository has that object in one of
   its promisor packfiles, or because another promisor object refers to it.
-
-  When Git encounters a missing object, Git can see if it a promisor object
-  and handle it appropriately.  If not, Git can report a corruption.
-
-  This means that there is no need for the client to explicitly maintain an
-  expensive-to-modify list of missing objects.[a]
++
+When Git encounters a missing object, Git can see if it a promisor object
+and handle it appropriately.  If not, Git can report a corruption.
++
+This means that there is no need for the client to explicitly maintain an
+expensive-to-modify list of missing objects.[a]
 
 - Since almost all Git code currently expects any referenced object to be
   present locally and because we do not want to force every command to do
   a dry-run first, a fallback mechanism is added to allow Git to attempt
   to dynamically fetch missing objects from the promisor remote.
-
-  When the normal object lookup fails to find an object, Git invokes
-  fetch-object to try to get the object from the server and then retry
-  the object lookup.  This allows objects to be "faulted in" without
-  complicated prediction algorithms.
-
-  For efficiency reasons, no check as to whether the missing object is
-  actually a promisor object is performed.
-
-  Dynamic object fetching tends to be slow as objects are fetched one at
-  a time.
++
+When the normal object lookup fails to find an object, Git invokes
+fetch-object to try to get the object from the server and then retry
+the object lookup.  This allows objects to be "faulted in" without
+complicated prediction algorithms.
++
+For efficiency reasons, no check as to whether the missing object is
+actually a promisor object is performed.
++
+Dynamic object fetching tends to be slow as objects are fetched one at
+a time.
 
 - `checkout` (and any other command using `unpack-trees`) has been taught
   to bulk pre-fetch all required missing blobs in a single batch.
 
 - `rev-list` has been taught to print missing objects.
-
-  This can be used by other commands to bulk prefetch objects.
-  For example, a "git log -p A..B" may internally want to first do
-  something like "git rev-list --objects --quiet --missing=print A..B"
-  and prefetch those objects in bulk.
++
+This can be used by other commands to bulk prefetch objects.
+For example, a "git log -p A..B" may internally want to first do
+something like "git rev-list --objects --quiet --missing=print A..B"
+and prefetch those objects in bulk.
 
 - `fsck` has been updated to be fully aware of promisor objects.
 
@@ -154,11 +154,11 @@
 - The global variable "fetch_if_missing" is used to control whether an
   object lookup will attempt to dynamically fetch a missing object or
   report an error.
-
-  We are not happy with this global variable and would like to remove it,
-  but that requires significant refactoring of the object code to pass an
-  additional flag.  We hope that concurrent efforts to add an ODB API can
-  encompass this.
++
+We are not happy with this global variable and would like to remove it,
+but that requires significant refactoring of the object code to pass an
+additional flag.  We hope that concurrent efforts to add an ODB API can
+encompass this.
 
 
 Fetching Missing Objects
@@ -168,10 +168,10 @@
   transport_fetch_refs(), setting a new transport option
   TRANS_OPT_NO_DEPENDENTS to indicate that only the objects themselves are
   desired, not any object that they refer to.
-
-  Because some transports invoke fetch_pack() in the same process, fetch_pack()
-  has been updated to not use any object flags when the corresponding argument
-  (no_dependents) is set.
++
+Because some transports invoke fetch_pack() in the same process, fetch_pack()
+has been updated to not use any object flags when the corresponding argument
+(no_dependents) is set.
 
 - The local repository sends a request with the hashes of all requested
   objects as "want" lines, and does not perform any packfile negotiation.
@@ -187,13 +187,13 @@
 
 - The remote used for a partial clone (or the first partial fetch
   following a regular clone) is marked as the "promisor remote".
-
-  We are currently limited to a single promisor remote and only that
-  remote may be used for subsequent partial fetches.
-
-  We accept this limitation because we believe initial users of this
-  feature will be using it on repositories with a strong single central
-  server.
++
+We are currently limited to a single promisor remote and only that
+remote may be used for subsequent partial fetches.
++
+We accept this limitation because we believe initial users of this
+feature will be using it on repositories with a strong single central
+server.
 
 - Dynamic object fetching will only ask the promisor remote for missing
   objects.  We assume that the promisor remote has a complete view of the
@@ -221,13 +221,13 @@
 - Allow more than one promisor remote and define a strategy for fetching
   missing objects from specific promisor remotes or of iterating over the
   set of promisor remotes until a missing object is found.
-
-  A user might want to have multiple geographically-close cache servers
-  for fetching missing blobs while continuing to do filtered `git-fetch`
-  commands from the central server, for example.
-
-  Or the user might want to work in a triangular work flow with multiple
-  promisor remotes that each have an incomplete view of the repository.
++
+A user might want to have multiple geographically-close cache servers
+for fetching missing blobs while continuing to do filtered `git-fetch`
+commands from the central server, for example.
++
+Or the user might want to work in a triangular work flow with multiple
+promisor remotes that each have an incomplete view of the repository.
 
 - Allow repack to work on promisor packfiles (while keeping them distinct
   from non-promisor packfiles).
@@ -238,25 +238,25 @@
 - Investigate use of a long-running process to dynamically fetch a series
   of objects, such as proposed in [5,6] to reduce process startup and
   overhead costs.
-
-  It would be nice if pack protocol V2 could allow that long-running
-  process to make a series of requests over a single long-running
-  connection.
++
+It would be nice if pack protocol V2 could allow that long-running
+process to make a series of requests over a single long-running
+connection.
 
 - Investigate pack protocol V2 to avoid the info/refs broadcast on
   each connection with the server to dynamically fetch missing objects.
 
 - Investigate the need to handle loose promisor objects.
-
-  Objects in promisor packfiles are allowed to reference missing objects
-  that can be dynamically fetched from the server.  An assumption was
-  made that loose objects are only created locally and therefore should
-  not reference a missing object.  We may need to revisit that assumption
-  if, for example, we dynamically fetch a missing tree and store it as a
-  loose object rather than a single object packfile.
-
-  This does not necessarily mean we need to mark loose objects as promisor;
-  it may be sufficient to relax the object lookup or is-promisor functions.
++
+Objects in promisor packfiles are allowed to reference missing objects
+that can be dynamically fetched from the server.  An assumption was
+made that loose objects are only created locally and therefore should
+not reference a missing object.  We may need to revisit that assumption
+if, for example, we dynamically fetch a missing tree and store it as a
+loose object rather than a single object packfile.
++
+This does not necessarily mean we need to mark loose objects as promisor;
+it may be sufficient to relax the object lookup or is-promisor functions.
 
 
 Non-Tasks
@@ -265,13 +265,13 @@
 - Every time the subject of "demand loading blobs" comes up it seems
   that someone suggests that the server be allowed to "guess" and send
   additional objects that may be related to the requested objects.
-
-  No work has gone into actually doing that; we're just documenting that
-  it is a common suggestion.  We're not sure how it would work and have
-  no plans to work on it.
-
-  It is valid for the server to send more objects than requested (even
-  for a dynamic object fetch), but we are not building on that.
++
+No work has gone into actually doing that; we're just documenting that
+it is a common suggestion.  We're not sure how it would work and have
+no plans to work on it.
++
+It is valid for the server to send more objects than requested (even
+for a dynamic object fetch), but we are not building on that.
 
 
 Footnotes
@@ -282,43 +282,43 @@
     This would essentially be a sorted linear list of OIDs that the were
     omitted by the server during a clone or subsequent fetches.
 
-    This file would need to be loaded into memory on every object lookup.
-    It would need to be read, updated, and re-written (like the .git/index)
-    on every explicit "git fetch" command *and* on any dynamic object fetch.
+This file would need to be loaded into memory on every object lookup.
+It would need to be read, updated, and re-written (like the .git/index)
+on every explicit "git fetch" command *and* on any dynamic object fetch.
 
-    The cost to read, update, and write this file could add significant
-    overhead to every command if there are many missing objects.  For example,
-    if there are 100M missing blobs, this file would be at least 2GiB on disk.
+The cost to read, update, and write this file could add significant
+overhead to every command if there are many missing objects.  For example,
+if there are 100M missing blobs, this file would be at least 2GiB on disk.
 
-    With the "promisor" concept, we *infer* a missing object based upon the
-    type of packfile that references it.
+With the "promisor" concept, we *infer* a missing object based upon the
+type of packfile that references it.
 
 
 Related Links
 -------------
-[0] https://bugs.chromium.org/p/git/issues/detail?id=2
-    Chromium work item for: Partial Clone
+[0] https://crbug.com/git/2
+    Bug#2: Partial Clone
 
-[1] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170113155253.1644-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/
-    Subject: [RFC] Add support for downloading blobs on demand
+[1] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170113155253.1644-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/ +
+    Subject: [RFC] Add support for downloading blobs on demand +
     Date: Fri, 13 Jan 2017 10:52:53 -0500
 
-[2] https://public-inbox.org/git/cover.1506714999.git.jonathantanmy@google.com/
-    Subject: [PATCH 00/18] Partial clone (from clone to lazy fetch in 18 patches)
+[2] https://public-inbox.org/git/cover.1506714999.git.jonathantanmy@google.com/ +
+    Subject: [PATCH 00/18] Partial clone (from clone to lazy fetch in 18 patches) +
     Date: Fri, 29 Sep 2017 13:11:36 -0700
 
-[3] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170426221346.25337-1-jonathantanmy@google.com/
-    Subject: Proposal for missing blob support in Git repos
+[3] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170426221346.25337-1-jonathantanmy@google.com/ +
+    Subject: Proposal for missing blob support in Git repos +
     Date: Wed, 26 Apr 2017 15:13:46 -0700
 
-[4] https://public-inbox.org/git/1488999039-37631-1-git-send-email-git@jeffhostetler.com/
-    Subject: [PATCH 00/10] RFC Partial Clone and Fetch
+[4] https://public-inbox.org/git/1488999039-37631-1-git-send-email-git@jeffhostetler.com/ +
+    Subject: [PATCH 00/10] RFC Partial Clone and Fetch +
     Date: Wed,  8 Mar 2017 18:50:29 +0000
 
-[5] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170505152802.6724-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/
-    Subject: [PATCH v7 00/10] refactor the filter process code into a reusable module
+[5] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170505152802.6724-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/ +
+    Subject: [PATCH v7 00/10] refactor the filter process code into a reusable module +
     Date: Fri,  5 May 2017 11:27:52 -0400
 
-[6] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170714132651.170708-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/
-    Subject: [RFC/PATCH v2 0/1] Add support for downloading blobs on demand
+[6] https://public-inbox.org/git/20170714132651.170708-1-benpeart@microsoft.com/ +
+    Subject: [RFC/PATCH v2 0/1] Add support for downloading blobs on demand +
     Date: Fri, 14 Jul 2017 09:26:50 -0400
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt b/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
index 49bda76..09e4e02 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/protocol-v2.txt
@@ -64,9 +64,8 @@
 info/refs request as described in `http-protocol.txt` and requests that
 v2 be used by supplying "version=2" in the `Git-Protocol` header.
 
-   C: Git-Protocol: version=2
-   C:
    C: GET $GIT_URL/info/refs?service=git-upload-pack HTTP/1.0
+   C: Git-Protocol: version=2
 
 A v2 server would reply:
 
@@ -299,12 +298,21 @@
 	for use with partial clone and partial fetch operations. See
 	`rev-list` for possible "filter-spec" values.
 
+If the 'ref-in-want' feature is advertised, the following argument can
+be included in the client's request as well as the potential addition of
+the 'wanted-refs' section in the server's response as explained below.
+
+    want-ref <ref>
+	Indicates to the server that the client wants to retrieve a
+	particular ref, where <ref> is the full name of a ref on the
+	server.
+
 The response of `fetch` is broken into a number of sections separated by
 delimiter packets (0001), with each section beginning with its section
 header.
 
     output = *section
-    section = (acknowledgments | shallow-info | packfile)
+    section = (acknowledgments | shallow-info | wanted-refs | packfile)
 	      (flush-pkt | delim-pkt)
 
     acknowledgments = PKT-LINE("acknowledgments" LF)
@@ -319,6 +327,10 @@
     shallow = "shallow" SP obj-id
     unshallow = "unshallow" SP obj-id
 
+    wanted-refs = PKT-LINE("wanted-refs" LF)
+		  *PKT-LINE(wanted-ref LF)
+    wanted-ref = obj-id SP refname
+
     packfile = PKT-LINE("packfile" LF)
 	       *PKT-LINE(%x01-03 *%x00-ff)
 
@@ -379,6 +391,19 @@
 	* This section is only included if a packfile section is also
 	  included in the response.
 
+    wanted-refs section
+	* This section is only included if the client has requested a
+	  ref using a 'want-ref' line and if a packfile section is also
+	  included in the response.
+
+	* Always begins with the section header "wanted-refs".
+
+	* The server will send a ref listing ("<oid> <refname>") for
+	  each reference requested using 'want-ref' lines.
+
+	* The server MUST NOT send any refs which were not requested
+	  using 'want-ref' lines.
+
     packfile section
 	* This section is only included if the client has sent 'want'
 	  lines in its request and either requested that no more
diff --git a/GIT-VERSION-GEN b/GIT-VERSION-GEN
index fd9e5b8..6f302a1 100755
--- a/GIT-VERSION-GEN
+++ b/GIT-VERSION-GEN
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
 #!/bin/sh
 
 GVF=GIT-VERSION-FILE
-DEF_VER=v2.18.3
+DEF_VER=v2.19.4
 
 LF='
 '
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index e4b503d..02a452b 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -484,6 +484,11 @@
 #        The DEVELOPER mode enables -Wextra with a few exceptions. By
 #        setting this flag the exceptions are removed, and all of
 #        -Wextra is used.
+#
+#    pedantic:
+#
+#        Enable -pedantic compilation. This also disables
+#        USE_PARENS_AROUND_GETTEXT_N to produce only relevant warnings.
 
 GIT-VERSION-FILE: FORCE
 	@$(SHELL_PATH) ./GIT-VERSION-GEN
@@ -564,7 +569,7 @@
 export TCL_PATH TCLTK_PATH
 
 SPARSE_FLAGS =
-SPATCH_FLAGS = --all-includes
+SPATCH_FLAGS = --all-includes --patch .
 
 
 
@@ -620,6 +625,7 @@
 SCRIPT_LIB += git-parse-remote
 SCRIPT_LIB += git-rebase--am
 SCRIPT_LIB += git-rebase--interactive
+SCRIPT_LIB += git-rebase--preserve-merges
 SCRIPT_LIB += git-rebase--merge
 SCRIPT_LIB += git-sh-setup
 SCRIPT_LIB += git-sh-i18n
@@ -689,7 +695,6 @@
 PROGRAM_OBJS += imap-send.o
 PROGRAM_OBJS += sh-i18n--envsubst.o
 PROGRAM_OBJS += shell.o
-PROGRAM_OBJS += show-index.o
 PROGRAM_OBJS += remote-testsvn.o
 
 # Binary suffix, set to .exe for Windows builds
@@ -709,6 +714,7 @@
 TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-genrandom.o
 TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-hashmap.o
 TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-index-version.o
+TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-json-writer.o
 TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-lazy-init-name-hash.o
 TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-match-trees.o
 TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-mergesort.o
@@ -719,6 +725,7 @@
 TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-read-cache.o
 TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-ref-store.o
 TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-regex.o
+TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-repository.o
 TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-revision-walking.o
 TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-run-command.o
 TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-scrap-cache-tree.o
@@ -731,6 +738,7 @@
 TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-subprocess.o
 TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-urlmatch-normalization.o
 TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-wildmatch.o
+TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-windows-named-pipe.o
 TEST_BUILTINS_OBJS += test-write-cache.o
 
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-dump-fsmonitor
@@ -859,6 +867,7 @@
 LIB_OBJS += ewah/ewah_io.o
 LIB_OBJS += ewah/ewah_rlw.o
 LIB_OBJS += exec-cmd.o
+LIB_OBJS += fetch-negotiator.o
 LIB_OBJS += fetch-object.o
 LIB_OBJS += fetch-pack.o
 LIB_OBJS += fsck.o
@@ -868,9 +877,11 @@
 LIB_OBJS += graph.o
 LIB_OBJS += grep.o
 LIB_OBJS += hashmap.o
+LIB_OBJS += linear-assignment.o
 LIB_OBJS += help.o
 LIB_OBJS += hex.o
 LIB_OBJS += ident.o
+LIB_OBJS += json-writer.o
 LIB_OBJS += kwset.o
 LIB_OBJS += levenshtein.o
 LIB_OBJS += line-log.o
@@ -891,6 +902,8 @@
 LIB_OBJS += merge-recursive.o
 LIB_OBJS += mergesort.o
 LIB_OBJS += name-hash.o
+LIB_OBJS += negotiator/default.o
+LIB_OBJS += negotiator/skipping.o
 LIB_OBJS += notes.o
 LIB_OBJS += notes-cache.o
 LIB_OBJS += notes-merge.o
@@ -920,6 +933,7 @@
 LIB_OBJS += prompt.o
 LIB_OBJS += protocol.o
 LIB_OBJS += quote.o
+LIB_OBJS += range-diff.o
 LIB_OBJS += reachable.o
 LIB_OBJS += read-cache.o
 LIB_OBJS += reflog-walk.o
@@ -1058,6 +1072,7 @@
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/prune.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/pull.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/push.o
+BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/range-diff.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/read-tree.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/rebase--helper.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/receive-pack.o
@@ -1077,6 +1092,7 @@
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/serve.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/shortlog.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/show-branch.o
+BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/show-index.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/show-ref.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/stripspace.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/submodule--helper.o
@@ -2020,8 +2036,9 @@
 version.sp version.s version.o: EXTRA_CPPFLAGS = \
 	'-DGIT_VERSION="$(GIT_VERSION)"' \
 	'-DGIT_USER_AGENT=$(GIT_USER_AGENT_CQ_SQ)' \
-	'-DGIT_BUILT_FROM_COMMIT="$(shell GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES=\"$(CURDIR)/..\" \
-		git rev-parse -q --verify HEAD || :)"'
+	'-DGIT_BUILT_FROM_COMMIT="$(shell \
+		GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES="$(CURDIR)/.." \
+		git rev-parse -q --verify HEAD 2>/dev/null)"'
 
 $(BUILT_INS): git$X
 	$(QUIET_BUILT_IN)$(RM) $@ && \
@@ -2031,7 +2048,7 @@
 
 command-list.h: generate-cmdlist.sh command-list.txt
 
-command-list.h: $(wildcard Documentation/git*.txt)
+command-list.h: $(wildcard Documentation/git*.txt) Documentation/*config.txt
 	$(QUIET_GEN)$(SHELL_PATH) ./generate-cmdlist.sh command-list.txt >$@+ && mv $@+ $@
 
 SCRIPT_DEFINES = $(SHELL_PATH_SQ):$(DIFF_SQ):$(GIT_VERSION):\
@@ -2109,7 +2126,7 @@
 	$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ $@+ && \
 	sed -e '1{' \
 	    -e '	s|#!.*perl|#!$(PERL_PATH_SQ)|' \
-	    -e '	rGIT-PERL-HEADER' \
+	    -e '	r GIT-PERL-HEADER' \
 	    -e '	G' \
 	    -e '}' \
 	    -e 's/@@GIT_VERSION@@/$(GIT_VERSION)/g' \
@@ -2397,6 +2414,7 @@
 LOCALIZED_SH = $(SCRIPT_SH)
 LOCALIZED_SH += git-parse-remote.sh
 LOCALIZED_SH += git-rebase--interactive.sh
+LOCALIZED_SH += git-rebase--preserve-merges.sh
 LOCALIZED_SH += git-sh-setup.sh
 LOCALIZED_PERL = $(SCRIPT_PERL)
 
@@ -2666,10 +2684,16 @@
 	fi
 
 C_SOURCES = $(patsubst %.o,%.c,$(C_OBJ))
-%.cocci.patch: %.cocci $(C_SOURCES)
+ifdef DC_SHA1_SUBMODULE
+COCCI_SOURCES = $(filter-out sha1collisiondetection/%,$(C_SOURCES))
+else
+COCCI_SOURCES = $(filter-out sha1dc/%,$(C_SOURCES))
+endif
+
+%.cocci.patch: %.cocci $(COCCI_SOURCES)
 	@echo '    ' SPATCH $<; \
 	ret=0; \
-	for f in $(C_SOURCES); do \
+	for f in $(COCCI_SOURCES); do \
 		$(SPATCH) --sp-file $< $$f $(SPATCH_FLAGS) || \
 			{ ret=$$?; break; }; \
 	done >$@+ 2>$@.log; \
@@ -2683,7 +2707,9 @@
 	then \
 		echo '    ' SPATCH result: $@; \
 	fi
-coccicheck: $(patsubst %.cocci,%.cocci.patch,$(wildcard contrib/coccinelle/*.cocci))
+coccicheck: $(addsuffix .patch,$(wildcard contrib/coccinelle/*.cocci))
+
+.PHONY: coccicheck
 
 ### Installation rules
 
@@ -2895,7 +2921,10 @@
 	$(RM) $(addsuffix *.gcda,$(addprefix $(PROFILE_DIR)/, $(object_dirs)))
 	$(RM) $(addsuffix *.gcno,$(addprefix $(PROFILE_DIR)/, $(object_dirs)))
 
-clean: profile-clean coverage-clean
+cocciclean:
+	$(RM) contrib/coccinelle/*.cocci.patch*
+
+clean: profile-clean coverage-clean cocciclean
 	$(RM) *.res
 	$(RM) $(OBJECTS)
 	$(RM) $(LIB_FILE) $(XDIFF_LIB) $(VCSSVN_LIB)
@@ -2907,7 +2936,6 @@
 	$(RM) -r $(GIT_TARNAME) .doc-tmp-dir
 	$(RM) $(GIT_TARNAME).tar.gz git-core_$(GIT_VERSION)-*.tar.gz
 	$(RM) $(htmldocs).tar.gz $(manpages).tar.gz
-	$(RM) contrib/coccinelle/*.cocci.patch*
 	$(MAKE) -C Documentation/ clean
 ifndef NO_PERL
 	$(MAKE) -C gitweb clean
@@ -2923,7 +2951,7 @@
 	$(RM) GIT-USER-AGENT GIT-PREFIX
 	$(RM) GIT-SCRIPT-DEFINES GIT-PERL-DEFINES GIT-PERL-HEADER GIT-PYTHON-VARS
 
-.PHONY: all install profile-clean clean strip
+.PHONY: all install profile-clean cocciclean clean strip
 .PHONY: shell_compatibility_test please_set_SHELL_PATH_to_a_more_modern_shell
 .PHONY: FORCE cscope
 
diff --git a/RelNotes b/RelNotes
index 1811ee1..d13adb9 120000
--- a/RelNotes
+++ b/RelNotes
@@ -1 +1 @@
-Documentation/RelNotes/2.18.3.txt
\ No newline at end of file
+Documentation/RelNotes/2.19.4.txt
\ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/advice.c b/advice.c
index 370a56d..3561cd6 100644
--- a/advice.c
+++ b/advice.c
@@ -1,6 +1,7 @@
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "config.h"
 #include "color.h"
+#include "help.h"
 
 int advice_push_update_rejected = 1;
 int advice_push_non_ff_current = 1;
@@ -16,11 +17,13 @@
 int advice_detached_head = 1;
 int advice_set_upstream_failure = 1;
 int advice_object_name_warning = 1;
+int advice_amworkdir = 1;
 int advice_rm_hints = 1;
 int advice_add_embedded_repo = 1;
 int advice_ignored_hook = 1;
 int advice_waiting_for_editor = 1;
 int advice_graft_file_deprecated = 1;
+int advice_checkout_ambiguous_remote_branch_name = 1;
 
 static int advice_use_color = -1;
 static char advice_colors[][COLOR_MAXLEN] = {
@@ -53,28 +56,30 @@
 	const char *name;
 	int *preference;
 } advice_config[] = {
-	{ "pushupdaterejected", &advice_push_update_rejected },
-	{ "pushnonffcurrent", &advice_push_non_ff_current },
-	{ "pushnonffmatching", &advice_push_non_ff_matching },
-	{ "pushalreadyexists", &advice_push_already_exists },
-	{ "pushfetchfirst", &advice_push_fetch_first },
-	{ "pushneedsforce", &advice_push_needs_force },
-	{ "statushints", &advice_status_hints },
-	{ "statusuoption", &advice_status_u_option },
-	{ "commitbeforemerge", &advice_commit_before_merge },
-	{ "resolveconflict", &advice_resolve_conflict },
-	{ "implicitidentity", &advice_implicit_identity },
-	{ "detachedhead", &advice_detached_head },
-	{ "setupstreamfailure", &advice_set_upstream_failure },
-	{ "objectnamewarning", &advice_object_name_warning },
-	{ "rmhints", &advice_rm_hints },
-	{ "addembeddedrepo", &advice_add_embedded_repo },
-	{ "ignoredhook", &advice_ignored_hook },
-	{ "waitingforeditor", &advice_waiting_for_editor },
-	{ "graftfiledeprecated", &advice_graft_file_deprecated },
+	{ "pushUpdateRejected", &advice_push_update_rejected },
+	{ "pushNonFFCurrent", &advice_push_non_ff_current },
+	{ "pushNonFFMatching", &advice_push_non_ff_matching },
+	{ "pushAlreadyExists", &advice_push_already_exists },
+	{ "pushFetchFirst", &advice_push_fetch_first },
+	{ "pushNeedsForce", &advice_push_needs_force },
+	{ "statusHints", &advice_status_hints },
+	{ "statusUoption", &advice_status_u_option },
+	{ "commitBeforeMerge", &advice_commit_before_merge },
+	{ "resolveConflict", &advice_resolve_conflict },
+	{ "implicitIdentity", &advice_implicit_identity },
+	{ "detachedHead", &advice_detached_head },
+	{ "setupStreamFailure", &advice_set_upstream_failure },
+	{ "objectNameWarning", &advice_object_name_warning },
+	{ "amWorkDir", &advice_amworkdir },
+	{ "rmHints", &advice_rm_hints },
+	{ "addEmbeddedRepo", &advice_add_embedded_repo },
+	{ "ignoredHook", &advice_ignored_hook },
+	{ "waitingForEditor", &advice_waiting_for_editor },
+	{ "graftFileDeprecated", &advice_graft_file_deprecated },
+	{ "checkoutAmbiguousRemoteBranchName", &advice_checkout_ambiguous_remote_branch_name },
 
 	/* make this an alias for backward compatibility */
-	{ "pushnonfastforward", &advice_push_update_rejected }
+	{ "pushNonFastForward", &advice_push_update_rejected }
 };
 
 void advise(const char *advice, ...)
@@ -122,7 +127,7 @@
 		return 0;
 
 	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(advice_config); i++) {
-		if (strcmp(k, advice_config[i].name))
+		if (strcasecmp(k, advice_config[i].name))
 			continue;
 		*advice_config[i].preference = git_config_bool(var, value);
 		return 0;
@@ -131,6 +136,14 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+void list_config_advices(struct string_list *list, const char *prefix)
+{
+	int i;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(advice_config); i++)
+		list_config_item(list, prefix, advice_config[i].name);
+}
+
 int error_resolve_conflict(const char *me)
 {
 	if (!strcmp(me, "cherry-pick"))
diff --git a/advice.h b/advice.h
index 9f5064e..ab24df0 100644
--- a/advice.h
+++ b/advice.h
@@ -17,11 +17,13 @@
 extern int advice_detached_head;
 extern int advice_set_upstream_failure;
 extern int advice_object_name_warning;
+extern int advice_amworkdir;
 extern int advice_rm_hints;
 extern int advice_add_embedded_repo;
 extern int advice_ignored_hook;
 extern int advice_waiting_for_editor;
 extern int advice_graft_file_deprecated;
+extern int advice_checkout_ambiguous_remote_branch_name;
 
 int git_default_advice_config(const char *var, const char *value);
 __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)))
diff --git a/alloc.c b/alloc.c
index cf4f8b6..e7aa81b 100644
--- a/alloc.c
+++ b/alloc.c
@@ -4,8 +4,7 @@
  * Copyright (C) 2006 Linus Torvalds
  *
  * The standard malloc/free wastes too much space for objects, partly because
- * it maintains all the allocation infrastructure (which isn't needed, since
- * we never free an object descriptor anyway), but even more because it ends
+ * it maintains all the allocation infrastructure, but even more because it ends
  * up with maximal alignment because it doesn't know what the object alignment
  * for the new allocation is.
  */
@@ -15,6 +14,7 @@
 #include "tree.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "tag.h"
+#include "alloc.h"
 
 #define BLOCKING 1024
 
@@ -30,8 +30,27 @@
 	int count; /* total number of nodes allocated */
 	int nr;    /* number of nodes left in current allocation */
 	void *p;   /* first free node in current allocation */
+
+	/* bookkeeping of allocations */
+	void **slabs;
+	int slab_nr, slab_alloc;
 };
 
+struct alloc_state *allocate_alloc_state(void)
+{
+	return xcalloc(1, sizeof(struct alloc_state));
+}
+
+void clear_alloc_state(struct alloc_state *s)
+{
+	while (s->slab_nr > 0) {
+		s->slab_nr--;
+		free(s->slabs[s->slab_nr]);
+	}
+
+	FREE_AND_NULL(s->slabs);
+}
+
 static inline void *alloc_node(struct alloc_state *s, size_t node_size)
 {
 	void *ret;
@@ -39,61 +58,59 @@
 	if (!s->nr) {
 		s->nr = BLOCKING;
 		s->p = xmalloc(BLOCKING * node_size);
+
+		ALLOC_GROW(s->slabs, s->slab_nr + 1, s->slab_alloc);
+		s->slabs[s->slab_nr++] = s->p;
 	}
 	s->nr--;
 	s->count++;
 	ret = s->p;
 	s->p = (char *)s->p + node_size;
 	memset(ret, 0, node_size);
+
 	return ret;
 }
 
-static struct alloc_state blob_state;
-void *alloc_blob_node(void)
+void *alloc_blob_node(struct repository *r)
 {
-	struct blob *b = alloc_node(&blob_state, sizeof(struct blob));
+	struct blob *b = alloc_node(r->parsed_objects->blob_state, sizeof(struct blob));
 	b->object.type = OBJ_BLOB;
 	return b;
 }
 
-static struct alloc_state tree_state;
-void *alloc_tree_node(void)
+void *alloc_tree_node(struct repository *r)
 {
-	struct tree *t = alloc_node(&tree_state, sizeof(struct tree));
+	struct tree *t = alloc_node(r->parsed_objects->tree_state, sizeof(struct tree));
 	t->object.type = OBJ_TREE;
 	return t;
 }
 
-static struct alloc_state tag_state;
-void *alloc_tag_node(void)
+void *alloc_tag_node(struct repository *r)
 {
-	struct tag *t = alloc_node(&tag_state, sizeof(struct tag));
+	struct tag *t = alloc_node(r->parsed_objects->tag_state, sizeof(struct tag));
 	t->object.type = OBJ_TAG;
 	return t;
 }
 
-static struct alloc_state object_state;
-void *alloc_object_node(void)
+void *alloc_object_node(struct repository *r)
 {
-	struct object *obj = alloc_node(&object_state, sizeof(union any_object));
+	struct object *obj = alloc_node(r->parsed_objects->object_state, sizeof(union any_object));
 	obj->type = OBJ_NONE;
 	return obj;
 }
 
-static struct alloc_state commit_state;
-
-unsigned int alloc_commit_index(void)
+unsigned int alloc_commit_index(struct repository *r)
 {
-	static unsigned int count;
-	return count++;
+	return r->parsed_objects->commit_count++;
 }
 
-void *alloc_commit_node(void)
+void *alloc_commit_node(struct repository *r)
 {
-	struct commit *c = alloc_node(&commit_state, sizeof(struct commit));
+	struct commit *c = alloc_node(r->parsed_objects->commit_state, sizeof(struct commit));
 	c->object.type = OBJ_COMMIT;
-	c->index = alloc_commit_index();
+	c->index = alloc_commit_index(r);
 	c->graph_pos = COMMIT_NOT_FROM_GRAPH;
+	c->generation = GENERATION_NUMBER_INFINITY;
 	return c;
 }
 
@@ -104,9 +121,10 @@
 }
 
 #define REPORT(name, type)	\
-    report(#name, name##_state.count, name##_state.count * sizeof(type) >> 10)
+    report(#name, r->parsed_objects->name##_state->count, \
+		  r->parsed_objects->name##_state->count * sizeof(type) >> 10)
 
-void alloc_report(void)
+void alloc_report(struct repository *r)
 {
 	REPORT(blob, struct blob);
 	REPORT(tree, struct tree);
diff --git a/alloc.h b/alloc.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ba356ed
--- /dev/null
+++ b/alloc.h
@@ -0,0 +1,21 @@
+#ifndef ALLOC_H
+#define ALLOC_H
+
+struct alloc_state;
+struct tree;
+struct commit;
+struct tag;
+struct repository;
+
+void *alloc_blob_node(struct repository *r);
+void *alloc_tree_node(struct repository *r);
+void *alloc_commit_node(struct repository *r);
+void *alloc_tag_node(struct repository *r);
+void *alloc_object_node(struct repository *r);
+void alloc_report(struct repository *r);
+unsigned int alloc_commit_index(struct repository *r);
+
+struct alloc_state *allocate_alloc_state(void);
+void clear_alloc_state(struct alloc_state *s);
+
+#endif
diff --git a/apply.c b/apply.c
index d79e615..e485fbc 100644
--- a/apply.c
+++ b/apply.c
@@ -9,6 +9,7 @@
 
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "config.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "blob.h"
 #include "delta.h"
 #include "diff.h"
@@ -75,10 +76,12 @@
 }
 
 int init_apply_state(struct apply_state *state,
+		     struct repository *repo,
 		     const char *prefix)
 {
 	memset(state, 0, sizeof(*state));
 	state->prefix = prefix;
+	state->repo = repo;
 	state->apply = 1;
 	state->line_termination = '\n';
 	state->p_value = 1;
@@ -141,6 +144,8 @@
 			return error(_("--cached outside a repository"));
 		state->check_index = 1;
 	}
+	if (state->ita_only && (state->check_index || is_not_gitdir))
+		state->ita_only = 0;
 	if (state->check_index)
 		state->unsafe_paths = 0;
 
@@ -3371,14 +3376,17 @@
 	return previous;
 }
 
-static int verify_index_match(const struct cache_entry *ce, struct stat *st)
+static int verify_index_match(struct apply_state *state,
+			      const struct cache_entry *ce,
+			      struct stat *st)
 {
 	if (S_ISGITLINK(ce->ce_mode)) {
 		if (!S_ISDIR(st->st_mode))
 			return -1;
 		return 0;
 	}
-	return ce_match_stat(ce, st, CE_MATCH_IGNORE_VALID|CE_MATCH_IGNORE_SKIP_WORKTREE);
+	return ie_match_stat(state->repo->index, ce, st,
+			     CE_MATCH_IGNORE_VALID | CE_MATCH_IGNORE_SKIP_WORKTREE);
 }
 
 #define SUBMODULE_PATCH_WITHOUT_INDEX 1
@@ -3511,17 +3519,17 @@
 	if (!patch->is_new)
 		BUG("patch to %s is not a creation", patch->old_name);
 
-	pos = cache_name_pos(name, strlen(name));
+	pos = index_name_pos(state->repo->index, name, strlen(name));
 	if (pos < 0)
 		return error(_("%s: does not exist in index"), name);
-	ce = active_cache[pos];
+	ce = state->repo->index->cache[pos];
 	if (lstat(name, &st)) {
 		if (errno != ENOENT)
 			return error_errno("%s", name);
-		if (checkout_target(&the_index, ce, &st))
+		if (checkout_target(state->repo->index, ce, &st))
 			return -1;
 	}
-	if (verify_index_match(ce, &st))
+	if (verify_index_match(state, ce, &st))
 		return error(_("%s: does not match index"), name);
 
 	status = load_patch_target(state, &buf, ce, &st, patch, name, mode);
@@ -3680,18 +3688,19 @@
 	}
 
 	if (state->check_index && !previous) {
-		int pos = cache_name_pos(old_name, strlen(old_name));
+		int pos = index_name_pos(state->repo->index, old_name,
+					 strlen(old_name));
 		if (pos < 0) {
 			if (patch->is_new < 0)
 				goto is_new;
 			return error(_("%s: does not exist in index"), old_name);
 		}
-		*ce = active_cache[pos];
+		*ce = state->repo->index->cache[pos];
 		if (stat_ret < 0) {
-			if (checkout_target(&the_index, *ce, st))
+			if (checkout_target(state->repo->index, *ce, st))
 				return -1;
 		}
-		if (!state->cached && verify_index_match(*ce, st))
+		if (!state->cached && verify_index_match(state, *ce, st))
 			return error(_("%s: does not match index"), old_name);
 		if (state->cached)
 			st_mode = (*ce)->ce_mode;
@@ -3735,7 +3744,7 @@
 	struct stat nst;
 
 	if (state->check_index &&
-	    cache_name_pos(new_name, strlen(new_name)) >= 0 &&
+	    index_name_pos(state->repo->index, new_name, strlen(new_name)) >= 0 &&
 	    !ok_if_exists)
 		return EXISTS_IN_INDEX;
 	if (state->cached)
@@ -3824,7 +3833,8 @@
 		if (state->check_index) {
 			struct cache_entry *ce;
 
-			ce = cache_file_exists(name->buf, name->len, ignore_case);
+			ce = index_file_exists(state->repo->index, name->buf,
+					       name->len, ignore_case);
 			if (ce && S_ISLNK(ce->ce_mode))
 				return 1;
 		} else {
@@ -3999,9 +4009,10 @@
 static int read_apply_cache(struct apply_state *state)
 {
 	if (state->index_file)
-		return read_cache_from(state->index_file);
+		return read_index_from(state->repo->index, state->index_file,
+				       get_git_dir());
 	else
-		return read_cache();
+		return read_index(state->repo->index);
 }
 
 /* This function tries to read the object name from the current index */
@@ -4012,10 +4023,10 @@
 
 	if (read_apply_cache(state) < 0)
 		return -1;
-	pos = cache_name_pos(path, strlen(path));
+	pos = index_name_pos(state->repo->index, path, strlen(path));
 	if (pos < 0)
 		return -1;
-	oidcpy(oid, &active_cache[pos]->oid);
+	oidcpy(oid, &state->repo->index->cache[pos]->oid);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -4053,7 +4064,7 @@
 	return get_oid_hex(p->old_sha1_prefix, oid);
 }
 
-/* Build an index that contains the just the files needed for a 3way merge */
+/* Build an index that contains just the files needed for a 3way merge */
 static int build_fake_ancestor(struct apply_state *state, struct patch *list)
 {
 	struct patch *patch;
@@ -4090,12 +4101,12 @@
 			return error(_("sha1 information is lacking or useless "
 				       "(%s)."), name);
 
-		ce = make_cache_entry(patch->old_mode, oid.hash, name, 0, 0);
+		ce = make_cache_entry(&result, patch->old_mode, &oid, name, 0, 0);
 		if (!ce)
 			return error(_("make_cache_entry failed for path '%s'"),
 				     name);
 		if (add_index_entry(&result, ce, ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD)) {
-			free(ce);
+			discard_cache_entry(ce);
 			return error(_("could not add %s to temporary index"),
 				     name);
 		}
@@ -4242,8 +4253,8 @@
 
 static int remove_file(struct apply_state *state, struct patch *patch, int rmdir_empty)
 {
-	if (state->update_index) {
-		if (remove_file_from_cache(patch->old_name) < 0)
+	if (state->update_index && !state->ita_only) {
+		if (remove_file_from_index(state->repo->index, patch->old_name) < 0)
 			return error(_("unable to remove %s from index"), patch->old_name);
 	}
 	if (!state->cached) {
@@ -4263,28 +4274,27 @@
 	struct stat st;
 	struct cache_entry *ce;
 	int namelen = strlen(path);
-	unsigned ce_size = cache_entry_size(namelen);
 
-	if (!state->update_index)
-		return 0;
-
-	ce = xcalloc(1, ce_size);
+	ce = make_empty_cache_entry(state->repo->index, namelen);
 	memcpy(ce->name, path, namelen);
 	ce->ce_mode = create_ce_mode(mode);
 	ce->ce_flags = create_ce_flags(0);
 	ce->ce_namelen = namelen;
-	if (S_ISGITLINK(mode)) {
+	if (state->ita_only) {
+		ce->ce_flags |= CE_INTENT_TO_ADD;
+		set_object_name_for_intent_to_add_entry(ce);
+	} else if (S_ISGITLINK(mode)) {
 		const char *s;
 
 		if (!skip_prefix(buf, "Subproject commit ", &s) ||
 		    get_oid_hex(s, &ce->oid)) {
-			free(ce);
-		       return error(_("corrupt patch for submodule %s"), path);
+			discard_cache_entry(ce);
+			return error(_("corrupt patch for submodule %s"), path);
 		}
 	} else {
 		if (!state->cached) {
 			if (lstat(path, &st) < 0) {
-				free(ce);
+				discard_cache_entry(ce);
 				return error_errno(_("unable to stat newly "
 						     "created file '%s'"),
 						   path);
@@ -4292,13 +4302,13 @@
 			fill_stat_cache_info(ce, &st);
 		}
 		if (write_object_file(buf, size, blob_type, &ce->oid) < 0) {
-			free(ce);
+			discard_cache_entry(ce);
 			return error(_("unable to create backing store "
 				       "for newly created file %s"), path);
 		}
 	}
-	if (add_cache_entry(ce, ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD) < 0) {
-		free(ce);
+	if (add_index_entry(state->repo->index, ce, ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD) < 0) {
+		discard_cache_entry(ce);
 		return error(_("unable to add cache entry for %s"), path);
 	}
 
@@ -4311,7 +4321,9 @@
  *   0 if everything went well
  *   1 if a recoverable error happened
  */
-static int try_create_file(const char *path, unsigned int mode, const char *buf, unsigned long size)
+static int try_create_file(struct apply_state *state, const char *path,
+			   unsigned int mode, const char *buf,
+			   unsigned long size)
 {
 	int fd, res;
 	struct strbuf nbuf = STRBUF_INIT;
@@ -4333,7 +4345,7 @@
 	if (fd < 0)
 		return 1;
 
-	if (convert_to_working_tree(path, buf, size, &nbuf)) {
+	if (convert_to_working_tree(state->repo->index, path, buf, size, &nbuf)) {
 		size = nbuf.len;
 		buf  = nbuf.buf;
 	}
@@ -4369,7 +4381,7 @@
 	if (state->cached)
 		return 0;
 
-	res = try_create_file(path, mode, buf, size);
+	res = try_create_file(state, path, mode, buf, size);
 	if (res < 0)
 		return -1;
 	if (!res)
@@ -4378,7 +4390,7 @@
 	if (errno == ENOENT) {
 		if (safe_create_leading_directories(path))
 			return 0;
-		res = try_create_file(path, mode, buf, size);
+		res = try_create_file(state, path, mode, buf, size);
 		if (res < 0)
 			return -1;
 		if (!res)
@@ -4400,7 +4412,7 @@
 		for (;;) {
 			char newpath[PATH_MAX];
 			mksnpath(newpath, sizeof(newpath), "%s~%u", path, nr);
-			res = try_create_file(newpath, mode, buf, size);
+			res = try_create_file(state, newpath, mode, buf, size);
 			if (res < 0)
 				return -1;
 			if (!res) {
@@ -4422,27 +4434,26 @@
 				       struct patch *patch)
 {
 	int stage, namelen;
-	unsigned ce_size, mode;
+	unsigned mode;
 	struct cache_entry *ce;
 
 	if (!state->update_index)
 		return 0;
 	namelen = strlen(patch->new_name);
-	ce_size = cache_entry_size(namelen);
 	mode = patch->new_mode ? patch->new_mode : (S_IFREG | 0644);
 
-	remove_file_from_cache(patch->new_name);
+	remove_file_from_index(state->repo->index, patch->new_name);
 	for (stage = 1; stage < 4; stage++) {
 		if (is_null_oid(&patch->threeway_stage[stage - 1]))
 			continue;
-		ce = xcalloc(1, ce_size);
+		ce = make_empty_cache_entry(state->repo->index, namelen);
 		memcpy(ce->name, patch->new_name, namelen);
 		ce->ce_mode = create_ce_mode(mode);
 		ce->ce_flags = create_ce_flags(stage);
 		ce->ce_namelen = namelen;
 		oidcpy(&ce->oid, &patch->threeway_stage[stage - 1]);
-		if (add_cache_entry(ce, ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD) < 0) {
-			free(ce);
+		if (add_index_entry(state->repo->index, ce, ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD) < 0) {
+			discard_cache_entry(ce);
 			return error(_("unable to add cache entry for %s"),
 				     patch->new_name);
 		}
@@ -4465,8 +4476,9 @@
 
 	if (patch->conflicted_threeway)
 		return add_conflicted_stages_file(state, patch);
-	else
+	else if (state->update_index)
 		return add_index_file(state, path, mode, buf, size);
+	return 0;
 }
 
 /* phase zero is to remove, phase one is to create */
@@ -4686,7 +4698,7 @@
 	if (state->whitespace_error && (state->ws_error_action == die_on_ws_error))
 		state->apply = 0;
 
-	state->update_index = state->check_index && state->apply;
+	state->update_index = (state->check_index || state->ita_only) && state->apply;
 	if (state->update_index && !is_lock_file_locked(&state->lock_file)) {
 		if (state->index_file)
 			hold_lock_file_for_update(&state->lock_file,
@@ -4889,7 +4901,7 @@
 	}
 
 	if (state->update_index) {
-		res = write_locked_index(&the_index, &state->lock_file, COMMIT_LOCK);
+		res = write_locked_index(state->repo->index, &state->lock_file, COMMIT_LOCK);
 		if (res) {
 			error(_("Unable to write new index file"));
 			res = -128;
@@ -4941,6 +4953,8 @@
 			N_("instead of applying the patch, see if the patch is applicable")),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "index", &state->check_index,
 			N_("make sure the patch is applicable to the current index")),
+		OPT_BOOL('N', "intent-to-add", &state->ita_only,
+			N_("mark new files with `git add --intent-to-add`")),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "cached", &state->cached,
 			N_("apply a patch without touching the working tree")),
 		OPT_BOOL_F(0, "unsafe-paths", &state->unsafe_paths,
diff --git a/apply.h b/apply.h
index dc4a019..5948348 100644
--- a/apply.h
+++ b/apply.h
@@ -1,6 +1,11 @@
 #ifndef APPLY_H
 #define APPLY_H
 
+#include "lockfile.h"
+#include "string-list.h"
+
+struct repository;
+
 enum apply_ws_error_action {
 	nowarn_ws_error,
 	warn_on_ws_error,
@@ -45,6 +50,7 @@
 	int check; /* preimage must match working tree, don't actually apply */
 	int check_index; /* preimage must match the indexed version */
 	int update_index; /* check_index && apply */
+	int ita_only;	  /* add intent-to-add entries to the index */
 
 	/* These control cosmetic aspect of the output */
 	int diffstat; /* just show a diffstat, and don't actually apply */
@@ -61,6 +67,7 @@
 	int unsafe_paths;
 
 	/* Other non boolean parameters */
+	struct repository *repo;
 	const char *index_file;
 	enum apply_verbosity apply_verbosity;
 	const char *fake_ancestor;
@@ -110,14 +117,15 @@
 	int applied_after_fixing_ws;
 };
 
-extern int apply_parse_options(int argc, const char **argv,
-			       struct apply_state *state,
-			       int *force_apply, int *options,
-			       const char * const *apply_usage);
-extern int init_apply_state(struct apply_state *state,
-			    const char *prefix);
-extern void clear_apply_state(struct apply_state *state);
-extern int check_apply_state(struct apply_state *state, int force_apply);
+int apply_parse_options(int argc, const char **argv,
+			struct apply_state *state,
+			int *force_apply, int *options,
+			const char * const *apply_usage);
+int init_apply_state(struct apply_state *state,
+		     struct repository *repo,
+		     const char *prefix);
+void clear_apply_state(struct apply_state *state);
+int check_apply_state(struct apply_state *state, int force_apply);
 
 /*
  * Some aspects of the apply behavior are controlled by the following
@@ -126,9 +134,8 @@
 #define APPLY_OPT_INACCURATE_EOF	(1<<0) /* accept inaccurate eof */
 #define APPLY_OPT_RECOUNT		(1<<1) /* accept inaccurate line count */
 
-extern int apply_all_patches(struct apply_state *state,
-			     int argc,
-			     const char **argv,
-			     int options);
+int apply_all_patches(struct apply_state *state,
+		      int argc, const char **argv,
+		      int options);
 
 #endif
diff --git a/archive-tar.c b/archive-tar.c
index b6f58dd..7a535cb 100644
--- a/archive-tar.c
+++ b/archive-tar.c
@@ -5,6 +5,7 @@
 #include "config.h"
 #include "tar.h"
 #include "archive.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "streaming.h"
 #include "run-command.h"
 
@@ -121,7 +122,7 @@
 
 	st = open_istream(oid, &type, &sz, NULL);
 	if (!st)
-		return error("cannot stream blob %s", oid_to_hex(oid));
+		return error(_("cannot stream blob %s"), oid_to_hex(oid));
 	for (;;) {
 		readlen = read_istream(st, buf, sizeof(buf));
 		if (readlen <= 0)
@@ -256,7 +257,7 @@
 		*header.typeflag = TYPEFLAG_REG;
 		mode = (mode | ((mode & 0100) ? 0777 : 0666)) & ~tar_umask;
 	} else {
-		return error("unsupported file mode: 0%o (SHA1: %s)",
+		return error(_("unsupported file mode: 0%o (SHA1: %s)"),
 			     mode, oid_to_hex(oid));
 	}
 	if (pathlen > sizeof(header.name)) {
@@ -276,14 +277,14 @@
 		memcpy(header.name, path, pathlen);
 
 	if (S_ISREG(mode) && !args->convert &&
-	    oid_object_info(the_repository, oid, &size) == OBJ_BLOB &&
+	    oid_object_info(args->repo, oid, &size) == OBJ_BLOB &&
 	    size > big_file_threshold)
 		buffer = NULL;
 	else if (S_ISLNK(mode) || S_ISREG(mode)) {
 		enum object_type type;
 		buffer = object_file_to_archive(args, path, oid, old_mode, &type, &size);
 		if (!buffer)
-			return error("cannot read %s", oid_to_hex(oid));
+			return error(_("cannot read %s"), oid_to_hex(oid));
 	} else {
 		buffer = NULL;
 		size = 0;
@@ -454,17 +455,17 @@
 	filter.in = -1;
 
 	if (start_command(&filter) < 0)
-		die_errno("unable to start '%s' filter", argv[0]);
+		die_errno(_("unable to start '%s' filter"), argv[0]);
 	close(1);
 	if (dup2(filter.in, 1) < 0)
-		die_errno("unable to redirect descriptor");
+		die_errno(_("unable to redirect descriptor"));
 	close(filter.in);
 
 	r = write_tar_archive(ar, args);
 
 	close(1);
 	if (finish_command(&filter) != 0)
-		die("'%s' filter reported error", argv[0]);
+		die(_("'%s' filter reported error"), argv[0]);
 
 	strbuf_release(&cmd);
 	return r;
diff --git a/archive-zip.c b/archive-zip.c
index 74f3fe9..5a62351 100644
--- a/archive-zip.c
+++ b/archive-zip.c
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
 #include "archive.h"
 #include "streaming.h"
 #include "utf8.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "userdiff.h"
 #include "xdiff-interface.h"
 
@@ -309,11 +310,11 @@
 		if (is_utf8(path))
 			flags |= ZIP_UTF8;
 		else
-			warning("Path is not valid UTF-8: %s", path);
+			warning(_("path is not valid UTF-8: %s"), path);
 	}
 
 	if (pathlen > 0xffff) {
-		return error("path too long (%d chars, SHA1: %s): %s",
+		return error(_("path too long (%d chars, SHA1: %s): %s"),
 				(int)pathlen, oid_to_hex(oid), path);
 	}
 
@@ -325,7 +326,7 @@
 		compressed_size = 0;
 		buffer = NULL;
 	} else if (S_ISREG(mode) || S_ISLNK(mode)) {
-		enum object_type type = oid_object_info(the_repository, oid,
+		enum object_type type = oid_object_info(args->repo, oid,
 							&size);
 
 		method = 0;
@@ -340,7 +341,7 @@
 		    size > big_file_threshold) {
 			stream = open_istream(oid, &type, &size, NULL);
 			if (!stream)
-				return error("cannot stream blob %s",
+				return error(_("cannot stream blob %s"),
 					     oid_to_hex(oid));
 			flags |= ZIP_STREAM;
 			out = buffer = NULL;
@@ -348,7 +349,7 @@
 			buffer = object_file_to_archive(args, path, oid, mode,
 							&type, &size);
 			if (!buffer)
-				return error("cannot read %s",
+				return error(_("cannot read %s"),
 					     oid_to_hex(oid));
 			crc = crc32(crc, buffer, size);
 			is_binary = entry_is_binary(path_without_prefix,
@@ -357,7 +358,7 @@
 		}
 		compressed_size = (method == 0) ? size : 0;
 	} else {
-		return error("unsupported file mode: 0%o (SHA1: %s)", mode,
+		return error(_("unsupported file mode: 0%o (SHA1: %s)"), mode,
 				oid_to_hex(oid));
 	}
 
@@ -466,7 +467,7 @@
 			zstream.avail_in = readlen;
 			result = git_deflate(&zstream, 0);
 			if (result != Z_OK)
-				die("deflate error (%d)", result);
+				die(_("deflate error (%d)"), result);
 			out_len = zstream.next_out - compressed;
 
 			if (out_len > 0) {
@@ -601,7 +602,7 @@
 	struct tm *t;
 
 	if (date_overflows(*timestamp))
-		die("timestamp too large for this system: %"PRItime,
+		die(_("timestamp too large for this system: %"PRItime),
 		    *timestamp);
 	time = (time_t)*timestamp;
 	t = localtime(&time);
diff --git a/archive.c b/archive.c
index 4fe7bec..c187010 100644
--- a/archive.c
+++ b/archive.c
@@ -1,6 +1,7 @@
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "config.h"
 #include "refs.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "tree-walk.h"
 #include "attr.h"
@@ -78,7 +79,7 @@
 		size_t size = 0;
 
 		strbuf_attach(&buf, buffer, *sizep, *sizep + 1);
-		convert_to_working_tree(path, buf.buf, buf.len, &buf);
+		convert_to_working_tree(args->repo->index, path, buf.buf, buf.len, &buf);
 		if (commit)
 			format_subst(commit, buf.buf, buf.len, &buf);
 		buffer = strbuf_detach(&buf, &size);
@@ -103,12 +104,14 @@
 	struct directory *bottom;
 };
 
-static const struct attr_check *get_archive_attrs(const char *path)
+static const struct attr_check *get_archive_attrs(struct index_state *istate,
+						  const char *path)
 {
 	static struct attr_check *check;
 	if (!check)
 		check = attr_check_initl("export-ignore", "export-subst", NULL);
-	return git_check_attr(path, check) ? NULL : check;
+	git_check_attr(istate, path, check);
+	return check;
 }
 
 static int check_attr_export_ignore(const struct attr_check *check)
@@ -144,7 +147,7 @@
 
 	if (!S_ISDIR(mode)) {
 		const struct attr_check *check;
-		check = get_archive_attrs(path_without_prefix);
+		check = get_archive_attrs(args->repo->index, path_without_prefix);
 		if (check_attr_export_ignore(check))
 			return 0;
 		args->convert = check_attr_export_subst(check);
@@ -219,7 +222,7 @@
 		/* Borrow base, but restore its original value when done. */
 		strbuf_addstr(base, filename);
 		strbuf_addch(base, '/');
-		check = get_archive_attrs(base->buf);
+		check = get_archive_attrs(c->args->repo->index, base->buf);
 		strbuf_setlen(base, baselen);
 
 		if (check_attr_export_ignore(check))
@@ -267,13 +270,13 @@
 		memset(&opts, 0, sizeof(opts));
 		opts.index_only = 1;
 		opts.head_idx = -1;
-		opts.src_index = &the_index;
-		opts.dst_index = &the_index;
+		opts.src_index = args->repo->index;
+		opts.dst_index = args->repo->index;
 		opts.fn = oneway_merge;
 		init_tree_desc(&t, args->tree->buffer, args->tree->size);
 		if (unpack_trees(1, &t, &opts))
 			return -1;
-		git_attr_set_direction(GIT_ATTR_INDEX, &the_index);
+		git_attr_set_direction(GIT_ATTR_INDEX);
 	}
 
 	err = read_tree_recursive(args->tree, "", 0, 0, &args->pathspec,
@@ -303,33 +306,43 @@
 	return NULL;
 }
 
+struct path_exists_context {
+	struct pathspec pathspec;
+	struct archiver_args *args;
+};
+
 static int reject_entry(const struct object_id *oid, struct strbuf *base,
 			const char *filename, unsigned mode,
 			int stage, void *context)
 {
 	int ret = -1;
+	struct path_exists_context *ctx = context;
+
 	if (S_ISDIR(mode)) {
 		struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
 		strbuf_addbuf(&sb, base);
 		strbuf_addstr(&sb, filename);
-		if (!match_pathspec(context, sb.buf, sb.len, 0, NULL, 1))
+		if (!match_pathspec(ctx->args->repo->index,
+				    &ctx->pathspec,
+				    sb.buf, sb.len, 0, NULL, 1))
 			ret = READ_TREE_RECURSIVE;
 		strbuf_release(&sb);
 	}
 	return ret;
 }
 
-static int path_exists(struct tree *tree, const char *path)
+static int path_exists(struct archiver_args *args, const char *path)
 {
 	const char *paths[] = { path, NULL };
-	struct pathspec pathspec;
+	struct path_exists_context ctx;
 	int ret;
 
-	parse_pathspec(&pathspec, 0, 0, "", paths);
-	pathspec.recursive = 1;
-	ret = read_tree_recursive(tree, "", 0, 0, &pathspec,
-				  reject_entry, &pathspec);
-	clear_pathspec(&pathspec);
+	ctx.args = args;
+	parse_pathspec(&ctx.pathspec, 0, 0, "", paths);
+	ctx.pathspec.recursive = 1;
+	ret = read_tree_recursive(args->tree, "", 0, 0, &ctx.pathspec,
+				  reject_entry, &ctx);
+	clear_pathspec(&ctx.pathspec);
 	return ret != 0;
 }
 
@@ -347,7 +360,7 @@
 	ar_args->pathspec.recursive = 1;
 	if (pathspec) {
 		while (*pathspec) {
-			if (**pathspec && !path_exists(ar_args->tree, *pathspec))
+			if (**pathspec && !path_exists(ar_args, *pathspec))
 				die(_("pathspec '%s' did not match any files"), *pathspec);
 			pathspec++;
 		}
@@ -379,7 +392,7 @@
 	if (get_oid(name, &oid))
 		die("Not a valid object name");
 
-	commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(&oid, 1);
+	commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(the_repository, &oid, 1);
 	if (commit) {
 		commit_sha1 = commit->object.oid.hash;
 		archive_time = commit->date;
@@ -509,6 +522,7 @@
 }
 
 int write_archive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix,
+		  struct repository *repo,
 		  const char *name_hint, int remote)
 {
 	const struct archiver *ar = NULL;
@@ -520,6 +534,7 @@
 	init_tar_archiver();
 	init_zip_archiver();
 
+	args.repo = repo;
 	argc = parse_archive_args(argc, argv, &ar, &args, name_hint, remote);
 	if (!startup_info->have_repository) {
 		/*
diff --git a/archive.h b/archive.h
index 1f9954f..d4f97a0 100644
--- a/archive.h
+++ b/archive.h
@@ -1,9 +1,13 @@
 #ifndef ARCHIVE_H
 #define ARCHIVE_H
 
+#include "cache.h"
 #include "pathspec.h"
 
+struct repository;
+
 struct archiver_args {
+	struct repository *repo;
 	const char *base;
 	size_t baselen;
 	struct tree *tree;
@@ -17,6 +21,16 @@
 	int compression_level;
 };
 
+/* main api */
+
+extern int write_archive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix,
+			 struct repository *repo,
+			 const char *name_hint, int remote);
+
+const char *archive_format_from_filename(const char *filename);
+
+/* archive backend stuff */
+
 #define ARCHIVER_WANT_COMPRESSION_LEVELS 1
 #define ARCHIVER_REMOTE 2
 struct archiver {
@@ -36,9 +50,6 @@
 					unsigned int mode);
 
 extern int write_archive_entries(struct archiver_args *args, write_archive_entry_fn_t write_entry);
-extern int write_archive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix, const char *name_hint, int remote);
-
-const char *archive_format_from_filename(const char *filename);
 extern void *object_file_to_archive(const struct archiver_args *args,
 				    const char *path, const struct object_id *oid,
 				    unsigned int mode, enum object_type *type,
diff --git a/attr.c b/attr.c
index 067fb9e..60d2847 100644
--- a/attr.c
+++ b/attr.c
@@ -708,10 +708,8 @@
  * another thread could potentially be calling into the attribute system.
  */
 static enum git_attr_direction direction;
-static struct index_state *use_index;
 
-void git_attr_set_direction(enum git_attr_direction new_direction,
-			    struct index_state *istate)
+void git_attr_set_direction(enum git_attr_direction new_direction)
 {
 	if (is_bare_repository() && new_direction != GIT_ATTR_INDEX)
 		BUG("non-INDEX attr direction in a bare repo");
@@ -720,7 +718,6 @@
 		drop_all_attr_stacks();
 
 	direction = new_direction;
-	use_index = istate;
 }
 
 static struct attr_stack *read_attr_from_file(const char *path, int macro_ok)
@@ -743,13 +740,18 @@
 	return res;
 }
 
-static struct attr_stack *read_attr_from_index(const char *path, int macro_ok)
+static struct attr_stack *read_attr_from_index(const struct index_state *istate,
+					       const char *path,
+					       int macro_ok)
 {
 	struct attr_stack *res;
 	char *buf, *sp;
 	int lineno = 0;
 
-	buf = read_blob_data_from_index(use_index ? use_index : &the_index, path, NULL);
+	if (!istate)
+		return NULL;
+
+	buf = read_blob_data_from_index(istate, path, NULL);
 	if (!buf)
 		return NULL;
 
@@ -768,15 +770,16 @@
 	return res;
 }
 
-static struct attr_stack *read_attr(const char *path, int macro_ok)
+static struct attr_stack *read_attr(const struct index_state *istate,
+				    const char *path, int macro_ok)
 {
 	struct attr_stack *res = NULL;
 
 	if (direction == GIT_ATTR_INDEX) {
-		res = read_attr_from_index(path, macro_ok);
+		res = read_attr_from_index(istate, path, macro_ok);
 	} else if (!is_bare_repository()) {
 		if (direction == GIT_ATTR_CHECKOUT) {
-			res = read_attr_from_index(path, macro_ok);
+			res = read_attr_from_index(istate, path, macro_ok);
 			if (!res)
 				res = read_attr_from_file(path, macro_ok);
 		} else if (direction == GIT_ATTR_CHECKIN) {
@@ -788,7 +791,7 @@
 				 * We allow operation in a sparsely checked out
 				 * work tree, so read from it.
 				 */
-				res = read_attr_from_index(path, macro_ok);
+				res = read_attr_from_index(istate, path, macro_ok);
 		}
 	}
 
@@ -859,7 +862,8 @@
 	}
 }
 
-static void bootstrap_attr_stack(struct attr_stack **stack)
+static void bootstrap_attr_stack(const struct index_state *istate,
+				 struct attr_stack **stack)
 {
 	struct attr_stack *e;
 
@@ -883,7 +887,7 @@
 	}
 
 	/* root directory */
-	e = read_attr(GITATTRIBUTES_FILE, 1);
+	e = read_attr(istate, GITATTRIBUTES_FILE, 1);
 	push_stack(stack, e, xstrdup(""), 0);
 
 	/* info frame */
@@ -896,7 +900,8 @@
 	push_stack(stack, e, NULL, 0);
 }
 
-static void prepare_attr_stack(const char *path, int dirlen,
+static void prepare_attr_stack(const struct index_state *istate,
+			       const char *path, int dirlen,
 			       struct attr_stack **stack)
 {
 	struct attr_stack *info;
@@ -917,7 +922,7 @@
 	 * .gitattributes in deeper directories to shallower ones,
 	 * and finally use the built-in set as the default.
 	 */
-	bootstrap_attr_stack(stack);
+	bootstrap_attr_stack(istate, stack);
 
 	/*
 	 * Pop the "info" one that is always at the top of the stack.
@@ -973,7 +978,7 @@
 		strbuf_add(&pathbuf, path + pathbuf.len, (len - pathbuf.len));
 		strbuf_addf(&pathbuf, "/%s", GITATTRIBUTES_FILE);
 
-		next = read_attr(pathbuf.buf, 0);
+		next = read_attr(istate, pathbuf.buf, 0);
 
 		/* reset the pathbuf to not include "/.gitattributes" */
 		strbuf_setlen(&pathbuf, len);
@@ -1095,7 +1100,9 @@
  * If check->check_nr is non-zero, only attributes in check[] are collected.
  * Otherwise all attributes are collected.
  */
-static void collect_some_attrs(const char *path, struct attr_check *check)
+static void collect_some_attrs(const struct index_state *istate,
+			       const char *path,
+			       struct attr_check *check)
 {
 	int i, pathlen, rem, dirlen;
 	const char *cp, *last_slash = NULL;
@@ -1114,7 +1121,7 @@
 		dirlen = 0;
 	}
 
-	prepare_attr_stack(path, dirlen, &check->stack);
+	prepare_attr_stack(istate, path, dirlen, &check->stack);
 	all_attrs_init(&g_attr_hashmap, check);
 	determine_macros(check->all_attrs, check->stack);
 
@@ -1136,11 +1143,13 @@
 	fill(path, pathlen, basename_offset, check->stack, check->all_attrs, rem);
 }
 
-int git_check_attr(const char *path, struct attr_check *check)
+void git_check_attr(const struct index_state *istate,
+		    const char *path,
+		    struct attr_check *check)
 {
 	int i;
 
-	collect_some_attrs(path, check);
+	collect_some_attrs(istate, path, check);
 
 	for (i = 0; i < check->nr; i++) {
 		size_t n = check->items[i].attr->attr_nr;
@@ -1149,16 +1158,15 @@
 			value = ATTR__UNSET;
 		check->items[i].value = value;
 	}
-
-	return 0;
 }
 
-void git_all_attrs(const char *path, struct attr_check *check)
+void git_all_attrs(const struct index_state *istate,
+		   const char *path, struct attr_check *check)
 {
 	int i;
 
 	attr_check_reset(check);
-	collect_some_attrs(path, check);
+	collect_some_attrs(istate, path, check);
 
 	for (i = 0; i < check->all_attrs_nr; i++) {
 		const char *name = check->all_attrs[i].attr->name;
diff --git a/attr.h b/attr.h
index 442d464..b0378bf 100644
--- a/attr.h
+++ b/attr.h
@@ -1,12 +1,15 @@
 #ifndef ATTR_H
 #define ATTR_H
 
+struct index_state;
+
 /* An attribute is a pointer to this opaque structure */
 struct git_attr;
 
 /* opaque structures used internally for attribute collection */
 struct all_attrs_item;
 struct attr_stack;
+struct index_state;
 
 /*
  * Given a string, return the gitattribute object that
@@ -42,40 +45,41 @@
 	struct attr_stack *stack;
 };
 
-extern struct attr_check *attr_check_alloc(void);
-extern struct attr_check *attr_check_initl(const char *, ...);
-extern struct attr_check *attr_check_dup(const struct attr_check *check);
+struct attr_check *attr_check_alloc(void);
+struct attr_check *attr_check_initl(const char *, ...);
+struct attr_check *attr_check_dup(const struct attr_check *check);
 
-extern struct attr_check_item *attr_check_append(struct attr_check *check,
-						 const struct git_attr *attr);
+struct attr_check_item *attr_check_append(struct attr_check *check,
+					  const struct git_attr *attr);
 
-extern void attr_check_reset(struct attr_check *check);
-extern void attr_check_clear(struct attr_check *check);
-extern void attr_check_free(struct attr_check *check);
+void attr_check_reset(struct attr_check *check);
+void attr_check_clear(struct attr_check *check);
+void attr_check_free(struct attr_check *check);
 
 /*
  * Return the name of the attribute represented by the argument.  The
  * return value is a pointer to a null-delimited string that is part
  * of the internal data structure; it should not be modified or freed.
  */
-extern const char *git_attr_name(const struct git_attr *);
+const char *git_attr_name(const struct git_attr *);
 
-extern int git_check_attr(const char *path, struct attr_check *check);
+void git_check_attr(const struct index_state *istate,
+		    const char *path, struct attr_check *check);
 
 /*
  * Retrieve all attributes that apply to the specified path.
  * check holds the attributes and their values.
  */
-extern void git_all_attrs(const char *path, struct attr_check *check);
+void git_all_attrs(const struct index_state *istate,
+		   const char *path, struct attr_check *check);
 
 enum git_attr_direction {
 	GIT_ATTR_CHECKIN,
 	GIT_ATTR_CHECKOUT,
 	GIT_ATTR_INDEX
 };
-void git_attr_set_direction(enum git_attr_direction new_direction,
-			    struct index_state *istate);
+void git_attr_set_direction(enum git_attr_direction new_direction);
 
-extern void attr_start(void);
+void attr_start(void);
 
 #endif /* ATTR_H */
diff --git a/banned.h b/banned.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..28f5937
--- /dev/null
+++ b/banned.h
@@ -0,0 +1,30 @@
+#ifndef BANNED_H
+#define BANNED_H
+
+/*
+ * This header lists functions that have been banned from our code base,
+ * because they're too easy to misuse (and even if used correctly,
+ * complicate audits). Including this header turns them into compile-time
+ * errors.
+ */
+
+#define BANNED(func) sorry_##func##_is_a_banned_function
+
+#undef strcpy
+#define strcpy(x,y) BANNED(strcpy)
+#undef strcat
+#define strcat(x,y) BANNED(strcat)
+#undef strncpy
+#define strncpy(x,y,n) BANNED(strncpy)
+
+#undef sprintf
+#undef vsprintf
+#ifdef HAVE_VARIADIC_MACROS
+#define sprintf(...) BANNED(sprintf)
+#define vsprintf(...) BANNED(vsprintf)
+#else
+#define sprintf(buf,fmt,arg) BANNED(sprintf)
+#define vsprintf(buf,fmt,arg) BANNED(sprintf)
+#endif
+
+#endif /* BANNED_H */
diff --git a/bisect.c b/bisect.c
index a579b50..e1275ba 100644
--- a/bisect.c
+++ b/bisect.c
@@ -12,6 +12,7 @@
 #include "bisect.h"
 #include "sha1-array.h"
 #include "argv-array.h"
+#include "commit-slab.h"
 
 static struct oid_array good_revs;
 static struct oid_array skipped_revs;
@@ -70,16 +71,19 @@
 	}
 }
 
+define_commit_slab(commit_weight, int *);
+static struct commit_weight commit_weight;
+
 #define DEBUG_BISECT 0
 
 static inline int weight(struct commit_list *elem)
 {
-	return *((int*)(elem->item->util));
+	return **commit_weight_at(&commit_weight, elem->item);
 }
 
 static inline void weight_set(struct commit_list *elem, int weight)
 {
-	*((int*)(elem->item->util)) = weight;
+	**commit_weight_at(&commit_weight, elem->item) = weight;
 }
 
 static int count_interesting_parents(struct commit *commit)
@@ -265,7 +269,7 @@
 		struct commit *commit = p->item;
 		unsigned flags = commit->object.flags;
 
-		p->item->util = &weights[n++];
+		*commit_weight_at(&commit_weight, p->item) = &weights[n++];
 		switch (count_interesting_parents(commit)) {
 		case 0:
 			if (!(flags & TREESAME)) {
@@ -372,6 +376,7 @@
 	int *weights;
 
 	show_list("bisection 2 entry", 0, 0, *commit_list);
+	init_commit_weight(&commit_weight);
 
 	/*
 	 * Count the number of total and tree-changing items on the
@@ -412,6 +417,7 @@
 	}
 	free(weights);
 	*commit_list = best;
+	clear_commit_weight(&commit_weight);
 }
 
 static int register_ref(const char *refname, const struct object_id *oid,
@@ -718,7 +724,7 @@
 
 static struct commit *get_commit_reference(const struct object_id *oid)
 {
-	struct commit *r = lookup_commit_reference(oid);
+	struct commit *r = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, oid);
 	if (!r)
 		die(_("Not a valid commit name %s"), oid_to_hex(oid));
 	return r;
diff --git a/bisect.h b/bisect.h
index a5d9248..34df209 100644
--- a/bisect.h
+++ b/bisect.h
@@ -1,6 +1,8 @@
 #ifndef BISECT_H
 #define BISECT_H
 
+struct commit_list;
+
 /*
  * Find bisection. If something is found, `reaches` will be the number of
  * commits that the best commit reaches. `all` will be the count of
diff --git a/blame.c b/blame.c
index 14d0e0b..aca06f4 100644
--- a/blame.c
+++ b/blame.c
@@ -1,11 +1,31 @@
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "refs.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "cache-tree.h"
 #include "mergesort.h"
 #include "diff.h"
 #include "diffcore.h"
 #include "tag.h"
 #include "blame.h"
+#include "alloc.h"
+#include "commit-slab.h"
+
+define_commit_slab(blame_suspects, struct blame_origin *);
+static struct blame_suspects blame_suspects;
+
+struct blame_origin *get_blame_suspects(struct commit *commit)
+{
+	struct blame_origin **result;
+
+	result = blame_suspects_peek(&blame_suspects, commit);
+
+	return result ? *result : NULL;
+}
+
+static void set_blame_suspects(struct commit *commit, struct blame_origin *origin)
+{
+	*blame_suspects_at(&blame_suspects, commit) = origin;
+}
 
 void blame_origin_decref(struct blame_origin *o)
 {
@@ -15,12 +35,12 @@
 			blame_origin_decref(o->previous);
 		free(o->file.ptr);
 		/* Should be present exactly once in commit chain */
-		for (p = o->commit->util; p; l = p, p = p->next) {
+		for (p = get_blame_suspects(o->commit); p; l = p, p = p->next) {
 			if (p == o) {
 				if (l)
 					l->next = p->next;
 				else
-					o->commit->util = p->next;
+					set_blame_suspects(o->commit, p->next);
 				free(o);
 				return;
 			}
@@ -41,8 +61,8 @@
 	FLEX_ALLOC_STR(o, path, path);
 	o->commit = commit;
 	o->refcnt = 1;
-	o->next = commit->util;
-	commit->util = o;
+	o->next = get_blame_suspects(commit);
+	set_blame_suspects(commit, o);
 	return o;
 }
 
@@ -54,13 +74,13 @@
 {
 	struct blame_origin *o, *l;
 
-	for (o = commit->util, l = NULL; o; l = o, o = o->next) {
+	for (o = get_blame_suspects(commit), l = NULL; o; l = o, o = o->next) {
 		if (!strcmp(o->path, path)) {
 			/* bump to front */
 			if (l) {
 				l->next = o->next;
-				o->next = commit->util;
-				commit->util = o;
+				o->next = get_blame_suspects(commit);
+				set_blame_suspects(commit, o);
 			}
 			return blame_origin_incref(o);
 		}
@@ -70,7 +90,8 @@
 
 
 
-static void verify_working_tree_path(struct commit *work_tree, const char *path)
+static void verify_working_tree_path(struct repository *repo,
+				     struct commit *work_tree, const char *path)
 {
 	struct commit_list *parents;
 	int pos;
@@ -81,15 +102,15 @@
 		unsigned mode;
 
 		if (!get_tree_entry(commit_oid, path, &blob_oid, &mode) &&
-		    oid_object_info(the_repository, &blob_oid, NULL) == OBJ_BLOB)
+		    oid_object_info(repo, &blob_oid, NULL) == OBJ_BLOB)
 			return;
 	}
 
-	pos = cache_name_pos(path, strlen(path));
+	pos = index_name_pos(repo->index, path, strlen(path));
 	if (pos >= 0)
 		; /* path is in the index */
-	else if (-1 - pos < active_nr &&
-		 !strcmp(active_cache[-1 - pos]->name, path))
+	else if (-1 - pos < repo->index->cache_nr &&
+		 !strcmp(repo->index->cache[-1 - pos]->name, path))
 		; /* path is in the index, unmerged */
 	else
 		die("no such path '%s' in HEAD", path);
@@ -99,7 +120,7 @@
 {
 	struct commit *parent;
 
-	parent = lookup_commit_reference(oid);
+	parent = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, oid);
 	if (!parent)
 		die("no such commit %s", oid_to_hex(oid));
 	return &commit_list_insert(parent, tail)->next;
@@ -110,17 +131,19 @@
 	int merge_head;
 	struct strbuf line = STRBUF_INIT;
 
-	merge_head = open(git_path_merge_head(), O_RDONLY);
+	merge_head = open(git_path_merge_head(the_repository), O_RDONLY);
 	if (merge_head < 0) {
 		if (errno == ENOENT)
 			return;
-		die("cannot open '%s' for reading", git_path_merge_head());
+		die("cannot open '%s' for reading",
+		    git_path_merge_head(the_repository));
 	}
 
 	while (!strbuf_getwholeline_fd(&line, merge_head, '\n')) {
 		struct object_id oid;
 		if (line.len < GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ || get_oid_hex(line.buf, &oid))
-			die("unknown line in '%s': %s", git_path_merge_head(), line.buf);
+			die("unknown line in '%s': %s",
+			    git_path_merge_head(the_repository), line.buf);
 		tail = append_parent(tail, &oid);
 	}
 	close(merge_head);
@@ -136,14 +159,15 @@
 {
 	size_t len;
 	void *buf = strbuf_detach(sb, &len);
-	set_commit_buffer(c, buf, len);
+	set_commit_buffer(the_repository, c, buf, len);
 }
 
 /*
  * Prepare a dummy commit that represents the work tree (or staged) item.
  * Note that annotating work tree item never works in the reverse.
  */
-static struct commit *fake_working_tree_commit(struct diff_options *opt,
+static struct commit *fake_working_tree_commit(struct repository *repo,
+					       struct diff_options *opt,
 					       const char *path,
 					       const char *contents_from)
 {
@@ -154,14 +178,14 @@
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 	const char *ident;
 	time_t now;
-	int size, len;
+	int len;
 	struct cache_entry *ce;
 	unsigned mode;
 	struct strbuf msg = STRBUF_INIT;
 
-	read_cache();
+	read_index(repo->index);
 	time(&now);
-	commit = alloc_commit_node();
+	commit = alloc_commit_node(the_repository);
 	commit->object.parsed = 1;
 	commit->date = now;
 	parent_tail = &commit->parents;
@@ -171,7 +195,7 @@
 
 	parent_tail = append_parent(parent_tail, &head_oid);
 	append_merge_parents(parent_tail);
-	verify_working_tree_path(commit, path);
+	verify_working_tree_path(repo, commit, path);
 
 	origin = make_origin(commit, path);
 
@@ -229,7 +253,7 @@
 		if (strbuf_read(&buf, 0, 0) < 0)
 			die_errno("failed to read from stdin");
 	}
-	convert_to_git(&the_index, path, buf.buf, buf.len, &buf, 0);
+	convert_to_git(repo->index, path, buf.buf, buf.len, &buf, 0);
 	origin->file.ptr = buf.buf;
 	origin->file.size = buf.len;
 	pretend_object_file(buf.buf, buf.len, OBJ_BLOB, &origin->blob_oid);
@@ -240,28 +264,28 @@
 	 * bits; we are not going to write this index out -- we just
 	 * want to run "diff-index --cached".
 	 */
-	discard_cache();
-	read_cache();
+	discard_index(repo->index);
+	read_index(repo->index);
 
 	len = strlen(path);
 	if (!mode) {
-		int pos = cache_name_pos(path, len);
+		int pos = index_name_pos(repo->index, path, len);
 		if (0 <= pos)
-			mode = active_cache[pos]->ce_mode;
+			mode = repo->index->cache[pos]->ce_mode;
 		else
 			/* Let's not bother reading from HEAD tree */
 			mode = S_IFREG | 0644;
 	}
-	size = cache_entry_size(len);
-	ce = xcalloc(1, size);
+	ce = make_empty_cache_entry(repo->index, len);
 	oidcpy(&ce->oid, &origin->blob_oid);
 	memcpy(ce->name, path, len);
 	ce->ce_flags = create_ce_flags(0);
 	ce->ce_namelen = len;
 	ce->ce_mode = create_ce_mode(mode);
-	add_cache_entry(ce, ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD|ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_REPLACE);
+	add_index_entry(repo->index, ce,
+			ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD | ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_REPLACE);
 
-	cache_tree_invalidate_path(&the_index, path);
+	cache_tree_invalidate_path(repo->index, path);
 
 	return commit;
 }
@@ -313,9 +337,7 @@
 
 static void drop_origin_blob(struct blame_origin *o)
 {
-	if (o->file.ptr) {
-		FREE_AND_NULL(o->file.ptr);
-	}
+	FREE_AND_NULL(o->file.ptr);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -478,7 +500,7 @@
 		porigin->suspects = blame_merge(porigin->suspects, sorted);
 	else {
 		struct blame_origin *o;
-		for (o = porigin->commit->util; o; o = o->next) {
+		for (o = get_blame_suspects(porigin->commit); o; o = o->next) {
 			if (o->suspects) {
 				porigin->suspects = sorted;
 				return;
@@ -498,13 +520,14 @@
  *
  * This also fills origin->mode for corresponding tree path.
  */
-static int fill_blob_sha1_and_mode(struct blame_origin *origin)
+static int fill_blob_sha1_and_mode(struct repository *repo,
+				   struct blame_origin *origin)
 {
 	if (!is_null_oid(&origin->blob_oid))
 		return 0;
 	if (get_tree_entry(&origin->commit->object.oid, origin->path, &origin->blob_oid, &origin->mode))
 		goto error_out;
-	if (oid_object_info(the_repository, &origin->blob_oid, NULL) != OBJ_BLOB)
+	if (oid_object_info(repo, &origin->blob_oid, NULL) != OBJ_BLOB)
 		goto error_out;
 	return 0;
  error_out:
@@ -525,7 +548,7 @@
 	const char *paths[2];
 
 	/* First check any existing origins */
-	for (porigin = parent->util; porigin; porigin = porigin->next)
+	for (porigin = get_blame_suspects(parent); porigin; porigin = porigin->next)
 		if (!strcmp(porigin->path, origin->path)) {
 			/*
 			 * The same path between origin and its parent
@@ -1550,7 +1573,7 @@
 
 	while (commit) {
 		struct blame_entry *ent;
-		struct blame_origin *suspect = commit->util;
+		struct blame_origin *suspect = get_blame_suspects(commit);
 
 		/* find one suspect to break down */
 		while (suspect && !suspect->suspects)
@@ -1652,7 +1675,7 @@
 		struct object *obj = revs->pending.objects[i].item;
 		if (obj->flags & UNINTERESTING)
 			continue;
-		obj = deref_tag(obj, NULL, 0);
+		obj = deref_tag(the_repository, obj, NULL, 0);
 		if (obj->type != OBJ_COMMIT)
 			die("Non commit %s?", revs->pending.objects[i].name);
 		if (found)
@@ -1683,14 +1706,15 @@
 
 	/* Is that sole rev a committish? */
 	obj = revs->pending.objects[0].item;
-	obj = deref_tag(obj, NULL, 0);
+	obj = deref_tag(the_repository, obj, NULL, 0);
 	if (obj->type != OBJ_COMMIT)
 		return NULL;
 
 	/* Do we have HEAD? */
 	if (!resolve_ref_unsafe("HEAD", RESOLVE_REF_READING, &head_oid, NULL))
 		return NULL;
-	head_commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(&head_oid, 1);
+	head_commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(the_repository,
+						     &head_oid, 1);
 	if (!head_commit)
 		return NULL;
 
@@ -1718,7 +1742,7 @@
 		struct object *obj = revs->pending.objects[i].item;
 		if (!(obj->flags & UNINTERESTING))
 			continue;
-		obj = deref_tag(obj, NULL, 0);
+		obj = deref_tag(the_repository, obj, NULL, 0);
 		if (obj->type != OBJ_COMMIT)
 			die("Non commit %s?", revs->pending.objects[i].name);
 		if (found)
@@ -1745,16 +1769,23 @@
 	sb->copy_score = BLAME_DEFAULT_COPY_SCORE;
 }
 
-void setup_scoreboard(struct blame_scoreboard *sb, const char *path, struct blame_origin **orig)
+void setup_scoreboard(struct blame_scoreboard *sb,
+		      const char *path,
+		      struct blame_origin **orig)
 {
 	const char *final_commit_name = NULL;
 	struct blame_origin *o;
 	struct commit *final_commit = NULL;
 	enum object_type type;
 
+	init_blame_suspects(&blame_suspects);
+
 	if (sb->reverse && sb->contents_from)
 		die(_("--contents and --reverse do not blend well."));
 
+	if (!sb->repo)
+		BUG("repo is NULL");
+
 	if (!sb->reverse) {
 		sb->final = find_single_final(sb->revs, &final_commit_name);
 		sb->commits.compare = compare_commits_by_commit_date;
@@ -1776,7 +1807,8 @@
 		 * or "--contents".
 		 */
 		setup_work_tree();
-		sb->final = fake_working_tree_commit(&sb->revs->diffopt,
+		sb->final = fake_working_tree_commit(sb->repo,
+						     &sb->revs->diffopt,
 						     path, sb->contents_from);
 		add_pending_object(sb->revs, &(sb->final->object), ":");
 	}
@@ -1815,13 +1847,13 @@
 	}
 
 	if (is_null_oid(&sb->final->object.oid)) {
-		o = sb->final->util;
+		o = get_blame_suspects(sb->final);
 		sb->final_buf = xmemdupz(o->file.ptr, o->file.size);
 		sb->final_buf_size = o->file.size;
 	}
 	else {
 		o = get_origin(sb->final, path);
-		if (fill_blob_sha1_and_mode(o))
+		if (fill_blob_sha1_and_mode(sb->repo, o))
 			die(_("no such path %s in %s"), path, final_commit_name);
 
 		if (sb->revs->diffopt.flags.allow_textconv &&
diff --git a/blame.h b/blame.h
index a6c915c..be3a895 100644
--- a/blame.h
+++ b/blame.h
@@ -102,6 +102,7 @@
 	struct commit *final;
 	/* Priority queue for commits with unassigned blame records */
 	struct prio_queue commits;
+	struct repository *repo;
 	struct rev_info *revs;
 	const char *path;
 
@@ -159,17 +160,23 @@
 		o->refcnt++;
 	return o;
 }
-extern void blame_origin_decref(struct blame_origin *o);
+void blame_origin_decref(struct blame_origin *o);
 
-extern void blame_coalesce(struct blame_scoreboard *sb);
-extern void blame_sort_final(struct blame_scoreboard *sb);
-extern unsigned blame_entry_score(struct blame_scoreboard *sb, struct blame_entry *e);
-extern void assign_blame(struct blame_scoreboard *sb, int opt);
-extern const char *blame_nth_line(struct blame_scoreboard *sb, long lno);
+void blame_coalesce(struct blame_scoreboard *sb);
+void blame_sort_final(struct blame_scoreboard *sb);
+unsigned blame_entry_score(struct blame_scoreboard *sb, struct blame_entry *e);
+void assign_blame(struct blame_scoreboard *sb, int opt);
+const char *blame_nth_line(struct blame_scoreboard *sb, long lno);
 
-extern void init_scoreboard(struct blame_scoreboard *sb);
-extern void setup_scoreboard(struct blame_scoreboard *sb, const char *path, struct blame_origin **orig);
+void init_scoreboard(struct blame_scoreboard *sb);
+void setup_scoreboard(struct blame_scoreboard *sb,
+		      const char *path,
+		      struct blame_origin **orig);
 
-extern struct blame_entry *blame_entry_prepend(struct blame_entry *head, long start, long end, struct blame_origin *o);
+struct blame_entry *blame_entry_prepend(struct blame_entry *head,
+					long start, long end,
+					struct blame_origin *o);
+
+extern struct blame_origin *get_blame_suspects(struct commit *commit);
 
 #endif /* BLAME_H */
diff --git a/blob.c b/blob.c
index fa2ab4f..342bdbb 100644
--- a/blob.c
+++ b/blob.c
@@ -1,14 +1,17 @@
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "blob.h"
+#include "repository.h"
+#include "alloc.h"
 
 const char *blob_type = "blob";
 
-struct blob *lookup_blob(const struct object_id *oid)
+struct blob *lookup_blob(struct repository *r, const struct object_id *oid)
 {
-	struct object *obj = lookup_object(oid->hash);
+	struct object *obj = lookup_object(r, oid->hash);
 	if (!obj)
-		return create_object(oid->hash, alloc_blob_node());
-	return object_as_type(obj, OBJ_BLOB, 0);
+		return create_object(r, oid->hash,
+				     alloc_blob_node(r));
+	return object_as_type(r, obj, OBJ_BLOB, 0);
 }
 
 int parse_blob_buffer(struct blob *item, void *buffer, unsigned long size)
diff --git a/blob.h b/blob.h
index 4460616..1664872 100644
--- a/blob.h
+++ b/blob.h
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
 	struct object object;
 };
 
-struct blob *lookup_blob(const struct object_id *oid);
+struct blob *lookup_blob(struct repository *r, const struct object_id *oid);
 
 int parse_blob_buffer(struct blob *item, void *buffer, unsigned long size);
 
diff --git a/branch.c b/branch.c
index f967c98..776f55f 100644
--- a/branch.c
+++ b/branch.c
@@ -25,9 +25,7 @@
 			tracking->remote = remote->name;
 		} else {
 			free(tracking->spec.src);
-			if (tracking->src) {
-				FREE_AND_NULL(tracking->src);
-			}
+			FREE_AND_NULL(tracking->src);
 		}
 		tracking->spec.src = NULL;
 	}
@@ -302,7 +300,7 @@
 		break;
 	}
 
-	if ((commit = lookup_commit_reference(&oid)) == NULL)
+	if ((commit = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, &oid)) == NULL)
 		die(_("Not a valid branch point: '%s'."), start_name);
 	oidcpy(&oid, &commit->object.oid);
 
@@ -340,13 +338,13 @@
 
 void remove_branch_state(void)
 {
-	unlink(git_path_cherry_pick_head());
-	unlink(git_path_revert_head());
-	unlink(git_path_merge_head());
-	unlink(git_path_merge_rr());
-	unlink(git_path_merge_msg());
-	unlink(git_path_merge_mode());
-	unlink(git_path_squash_msg());
+	unlink(git_path_cherry_pick_head(the_repository));
+	unlink(git_path_revert_head(the_repository));
+	unlink(git_path_merge_head(the_repository));
+	unlink(git_path_merge_rr(the_repository));
+	unlink(git_path_merge_msg(the_repository));
+	unlink(git_path_merge_mode(the_repository));
+	unlink(git_path_squash_msg(the_repository));
 }
 
 void die_if_checked_out(const char *branch, int ignore_current_worktree)
diff --git a/branch.h b/branch.h
index 473d0a9..5cace45 100644
--- a/branch.h
+++ b/branch.h
@@ -1,6 +1,19 @@
 #ifndef BRANCH_H
 #define BRANCH_H
 
+struct strbuf;
+
+enum branch_track {
+	BRANCH_TRACK_UNSPECIFIED = -1,
+	BRANCH_TRACK_NEVER = 0,
+	BRANCH_TRACK_REMOTE,
+	BRANCH_TRACK_ALWAYS,
+	BRANCH_TRACK_EXPLICIT,
+	BRANCH_TRACK_OVERRIDE
+};
+
+extern enum branch_track git_branch_track;
+
 /* Functions for acting on the information about branches. */
 
 /*
diff --git a/builtin.h b/builtin.h
index 4e0f647..99206df 100644
--- a/builtin.h
+++ b/builtin.h
@@ -201,6 +201,7 @@
 extern int cmd_prune_packed(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_pull(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_push(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+extern int cmd_range_diff(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_read_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_rebase__helper(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_receive_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
@@ -220,6 +221,7 @@
 extern int cmd_shortlog(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_show(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_show_branch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+extern int cmd_show_index(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_status(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_stripspace(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_submodule__helper(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
diff --git a/builtin/add.c b/builtin/add.c
index 8a155dd..0b64bcd 100644
--- a/builtin/add.c
+++ b/builtin/add.c
@@ -40,7 +40,7 @@
 	for (i = 0; i < active_nr; i++) {
 		struct cache_entry *ce = active_cache[i];
 
-		if (pathspec && !ce_path_match(ce, pathspec, NULL))
+		if (pathspec && !ce_path_match(&the_index, ce, pathspec, NULL))
 			continue;
 
 		if (chmod_cache_entry(ce, flip) < 0)
@@ -135,7 +135,7 @@
 			continue; /* do not touch unmerged paths */
 		if (!S_ISREG(ce->ce_mode) && !S_ISLNK(ce->ce_mode))
 			continue; /* do not touch non blobs */
-		if (pathspec && !ce_path_match(ce, pathspec, NULL))
+		if (pathspec && !ce_path_match(&the_index, ce, pathspec, NULL))
 			continue;
 		retval |= add_file_to_cache(ce->name, flags | HASH_RENORMALIZE);
 	}
@@ -155,7 +155,7 @@
 	i = dir->nr;
 	while (--i >= 0) {
 		struct dir_entry *entry = *src++;
-		if (dir_path_match(entry, pathspec, prefix, seen))
+		if (dir_path_match(&the_index, entry, pathspec, prefix, seen))
 			*dst++ = entry;
 	}
 	dir->nr = dst - dir->entries;
@@ -304,7 +304,8 @@
 	OPT_BOOL( 0 , "refresh", &refresh_only, N_("don't add, only refresh the index")),
 	OPT_BOOL( 0 , "ignore-errors", &ignore_add_errors, N_("just skip files which cannot be added because of errors")),
 	OPT_BOOL( 0 , "ignore-missing", &ignore_missing, N_("check if - even missing - files are ignored in dry run")),
-	OPT_STRING( 0 , "chmod", &chmod_arg, N_("(+/-)x"), N_("override the executable bit of the listed files")),
+	OPT_STRING(0, "chmod", &chmod_arg, "(+|-)x",
+		   N_("override the executable bit of the listed files")),
 	OPT_HIDDEN_BOOL(0, "warn-embedded-repo", &warn_on_embedded_repo,
 			N_("warn when adding an embedded repository")),
 	OPT_END(),
@@ -453,7 +454,7 @@
 	 * Check the "pathspec '%s' did not match any files" block
 	 * below before enabling new magic.
 	 */
-	parse_pathspec(&pathspec, 0,
+	parse_pathspec(&pathspec, PATHSPEC_ATTR,
 		       PATHSPEC_PREFER_FULL |
 		       PATHSPEC_SYMLINK_LEADING_PATH,
 		       prefix, argv);
diff --git a/builtin/am.c b/builtin/am.c
index 2fc2d1e..5e866d1 100644
--- a/builtin/am.c
+++ b/builtin/am.c
@@ -32,6 +32,7 @@
 #include "apply.h"
 #include "string-list.h"
 #include "packfile.h"
+#include "repository.h"
 
 /**
  * Returns 1 if the file is empty or does not exist, 0 otherwise.
@@ -1400,9 +1401,10 @@
 	FILE *fp;
 
 	if (!get_oid_tree("HEAD", &head))
-		tree = lookup_tree(&head);
+		tree = lookup_tree(the_repository, &head);
 	else
-		tree = lookup_tree(the_hash_algo->empty_tree);
+		tree = lookup_tree(the_repository,
+				   the_repository->hash_algo->empty_tree);
 
 	fp = xfopen(am_path(state, "patch"), "w");
 	init_revisions(&rev_info, NULL);
@@ -1462,7 +1464,7 @@
 	int force_apply = 0;
 	int options = 0;
 
-	if (init_apply_state(&apply_state, NULL))
+	if (init_apply_state(&apply_state, the_repository, NULL))
 		BUG("init_apply_state() failed");
 
 	argv_array_push(&apply_opts, "apply");
@@ -1596,6 +1598,7 @@
 	o.branch1 = "HEAD";
 	their_tree_name = xstrfmt("%.*s", linelen(state->msg), state->msg);
 	o.branch2 = their_tree_name;
+	o.detect_directory_renames = 0;
 
 	if (state->quiet)
 		o.verbosity = 0;
@@ -1631,7 +1634,8 @@
 
 	if (!get_oid_commit("HEAD", &parent)) {
 		old_oid = &parent;
-		commit_list_insert(lookup_commit(&parent), &parents);
+		commit_list_insert(lookup_commit(the_repository, &parent),
+				   &parents);
 	} else {
 		old_oid = NULL;
 		say(state, stderr, _("applying to an empty history"));
@@ -1763,7 +1767,7 @@
 
 	refresh_and_write_cache();
 
-	if (index_has_changes(&sb)) {
+	if (index_has_changes(&the_index, NULL, &sb)) {
 		write_state_bool(state, "dirtyindex", 1);
 		die(_("Dirty index: cannot apply patches (dirty: %s)"), sb.buf);
 	}
@@ -1820,22 +1824,19 @@
 			 * Applying the patch to an earlier tree and merging
 			 * the result may have produced the same tree as ours.
 			 */
-			if (!apply_status && !index_has_changes(NULL)) {
+			if (!apply_status &&
+			    !index_has_changes(&the_index, NULL, NULL)) {
 				say(state, stdout, _("No changes -- Patch already applied."));
 				goto next;
 			}
 		}
 
 		if (apply_status) {
-			int advice_amworkdir = 1;
-
 			printf_ln(_("Patch failed at %s %.*s"), msgnum(state),
 				linelen(state->msg), state->msg);
 
-			git_config_get_bool("advice.amworkdir", &advice_amworkdir);
-
 			if (advice_amworkdir)
-				printf_ln(_("Use 'git am --show-current-patch' to see the failed patch"));
+				advise(_("Use 'git am --show-current-patch' to see the failed patch"));
 
 			die_user_resolve(state);
 		}
@@ -1878,7 +1879,7 @@
 
 	say(state, stdout, _("Applying: %.*s"), linelen(state->msg), state->msg);
 
-	if (!index_has_changes(NULL)) {
+	if (!index_has_changes(&the_index, NULL, NULL)) {
 		printf_ln(_("No changes - did you forget to use 'git add'?\n"
 			"If there is nothing left to stage, chances are that something else\n"
 			"already introduced the same changes; you might want to skip this patch."));
diff --git a/builtin/apply.c b/builtin/apply.c
index 48d3989..3f099b9 100644
--- a/builtin/apply.c
+++ b/builtin/apply.c
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@
 	int ret;
 	struct apply_state state;
 
-	if (init_apply_state(&state, prefix))
+	if (init_apply_state(&state, the_repository, prefix))
 		exit(128);
 
 	argc = apply_parse_options(argc, argv,
diff --git a/builtin/archive.c b/builtin/archive.c
index 73971d0..e74f675 100644
--- a/builtin/archive.c
+++ b/builtin/archive.c
@@ -105,5 +105,5 @@
 
 	setvbuf(stderr, NULL, _IOLBF, BUFSIZ);
 
-	return write_archive(argc, argv, prefix, output, 0);
+	return write_archive(argc, argv, prefix, the_repository, output, 0);
 }
diff --git a/builtin/blame.c b/builtin/blame.c
index 3295718..c2da673 100644
--- a/builtin/blame.c
+++ b/builtin/blame.c
@@ -9,6 +9,7 @@
 #include "config.h"
 #include "color.h"
 #include "builtin.h"
+#include "repository.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "diff.h"
 #include "revision.h"
@@ -23,6 +24,7 @@
 #include "line-log.h"
 #include "dir.h"
 #include "progress.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "blame.h"
 #include "string-list.h"
 
@@ -408,7 +410,7 @@
 	}
 
 	if (next == EXPECT_COLOR)
-		die (_("must end with a color"));
+		die(_("must end with a color"));
 
 	colorfield[colorfield_nr].hop = TIME_MAX;
 	string_list_clear(&l, 0);
@@ -543,7 +545,7 @@
 			struct commit *commit = ent->suspect->commit;
 			if (commit->object.flags & MORE_THAN_ONE_PATH)
 				continue;
-			for (suspect = commit->util; suspect; suspect = suspect->next) {
+			for (suspect = get_blame_suspects(commit); suspect; suspect = suspect->next) {
 				if (suspect->guilty && count++) {
 					commit->object.flags |= MORE_THAN_ONE_PATH;
 					break;
@@ -576,7 +578,7 @@
 		/* The format is just "Commit Parent1 Parent2 ...\n" */
 		struct commit_graft *graft = read_graft_line(&buf);
 		if (graft)
-			register_commit_graft(graft, 0);
+			register_commit_graft(the_repository, graft, 0);
 	}
 	fclose(fp);
 	strbuf_release(&buf);
@@ -986,6 +988,7 @@
 	sb.revs = &revs;
 	sb.contents_from = contents_from;
 	sb.reverse = reverse;
+	sb.repo = the_repository;
 	setup_scoreboard(&sb, path, &o);
 	lno = sb.num_lines;
 
@@ -1000,13 +1003,13 @@
 				    nth_line_cb, &sb, lno, anchor,
 				    &bottom, &top, sb.path))
 			usage(blame_usage);
-		if (lno < top || ((lno || bottom) && lno < bottom))
+		if ((!lno && (top || bottom)) || lno < bottom)
 			die(Q_("file %s has only %lu line",
 			       "file %s has only %lu lines",
 			       lno), path, lno);
 		if (bottom < 1)
 			bottom = 1;
-		if (top < 1)
+		if (top < 1 || lno < top)
 			top = lno;
 		bottom--;
 		range_set_append_unsafe(&ranges, bottom, top);
@@ -1069,7 +1072,9 @@
 		find_alignment(&sb, &output_option);
 		if (!*repeated_meta_color &&
 		    (output_option & OUTPUT_COLOR_LINE))
-			strcpy(repeated_meta_color, GIT_COLOR_CYAN);
+			xsnprintf(repeated_meta_color,
+				  sizeof(repeated_meta_color),
+				  "%s", GIT_COLOR_CYAN);
 	}
 	if (output_option & OUTPUT_ANNOTATE_COMPAT)
 		output_option &= ~(OUTPUT_COLOR_LINE | OUTPUT_SHOW_AGE_WITH_COLOR);
diff --git a/builtin/branch.c b/builtin/branch.c
index 5217ba3..ca9ed0a 100644
--- a/builtin/branch.c
+++ b/builtin/branch.c
@@ -22,6 +22,7 @@
 #include "wt-status.h"
 #include "ref-filter.h"
 #include "worktree.h"
+#include "help.h"
 
 static const char * const builtin_branch_usage[] = {
 	N_("git branch [<options>] [-r | -a] [--merged | --no-merged]"),
@@ -36,6 +37,7 @@
 
 static const char *head;
 static struct object_id head_oid;
+static int used_deprecated_reflog_option;
 
 static int branch_use_color = -1;
 static char branch_colors[][COLOR_MAXLEN] = {
@@ -55,29 +57,31 @@
 	BRANCH_COLOR_UPSTREAM = 5
 };
 
+static const char *color_branch_slots[] = {
+	[BRANCH_COLOR_RESET]	= "reset",
+	[BRANCH_COLOR_PLAIN]	= "plain",
+	[BRANCH_COLOR_REMOTE]	= "remote",
+	[BRANCH_COLOR_LOCAL]	= "local",
+	[BRANCH_COLOR_CURRENT]	= "current",
+	[BRANCH_COLOR_UPSTREAM] = "upstream",
+};
+
 static struct string_list output = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
 static unsigned int colopts;
 
-static int parse_branch_color_slot(const char *slot)
-{
-	if (!strcasecmp(slot, "plain"))
-		return BRANCH_COLOR_PLAIN;
-	if (!strcasecmp(slot, "reset"))
-		return BRANCH_COLOR_RESET;
-	if (!strcasecmp(slot, "remote"))
-		return BRANCH_COLOR_REMOTE;
-	if (!strcasecmp(slot, "local"))
-		return BRANCH_COLOR_LOCAL;
-	if (!strcasecmp(slot, "current"))
-		return BRANCH_COLOR_CURRENT;
-	if (!strcasecmp(slot, "upstream"))
-		return BRANCH_COLOR_UPSTREAM;
-	return -1;
-}
+define_list_config_array(color_branch_slots);
 
 static int git_branch_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
 {
 	const char *slot_name;
+	struct ref_sorting **sorting_tail = (struct ref_sorting **)cb;
+
+	if (!strcmp(var, "branch.sort")) {
+		if (!value)
+			return config_error_nonbool(var);
+		parse_ref_sorting(sorting_tail, value);
+		return 0;
+	}
 
 	if (starts_with(var, "column."))
 		return git_column_config(var, value, "branch", &colopts);
@@ -86,7 +90,7 @@
 		return 0;
 	}
 	if (skip_prefix(var, "color.branch.", &slot_name)) {
-		int slot = parse_branch_color_slot(slot_name);
+		int slot = LOOKUP_CONFIG(color_branch_slots, slot_name);
 		if (slot < 0)
 			return 0;
 		if (!value)
@@ -126,7 +130,8 @@
 		    (reference_name = reference_name_to_free =
 		     resolve_refdup(upstream, RESOLVE_REF_READING,
 				    &oid, NULL)) != NULL)
-			reference_rev = lookup_commit_reference(&oid);
+			reference_rev = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository,
+								&oid);
 	}
 	if (!reference_rev)
 		reference_rev = head_rev;
@@ -159,7 +164,7 @@
 			       const struct object_id *oid, struct commit *head_rev,
 			       int kinds, int force)
 {
-	struct commit *rev = lookup_commit_reference(oid);
+	struct commit *rev = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, oid);
 	if (!rev) {
 		error(_("Couldn't look up commit object for '%s'"), refname);
 		return -1;
@@ -213,7 +218,7 @@
 	}
 
 	if (!force) {
-		head_rev = lookup_commit_reference(&head_oid);
+		head_rev = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, &head_oid);
 		if (!head_rev)
 			die(_("Couldn't look up commit object for HEAD"));
 	}
@@ -573,6 +578,14 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static int deprecated_reflog_option_cb(const struct option *opt,
+				       const char *arg, int unset)
+{
+	used_deprecated_reflog_option = 1;
+	*(int *)opt->value = !unset;
+	return 0;
+}
+
 int cmd_branch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
 	int delete = 0, rename = 0, copy = 0, force = 0, list = 0;
@@ -615,7 +628,13 @@
 		OPT_BIT('c', "copy", &copy, N_("copy a branch and its reflog"), 1),
 		OPT_BIT('C', NULL, &copy, N_("copy a branch, even if target exists"), 2),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "list", &list, N_("list branch names")),
-		OPT_BOOL('l', "create-reflog", &reflog, N_("create the branch's reflog")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "create-reflog", &reflog, N_("create the branch's reflog")),
+		{
+			OPTION_CALLBACK, 'l', NULL, &reflog, NULL,
+			N_("deprecated synonym for --create-reflog"),
+			PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN,
+			deprecated_reflog_option_cb
+		},
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "edit-description", &edit_description,
 			 N_("edit the description for the branch")),
 		OPT__FORCE(&force, N_("force creation, move/rename, deletion"), PARSE_OPT_NOCOMPLETE),
@@ -642,7 +661,7 @@
 	if (argc == 2 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-h"))
 		usage_with_options(builtin_branch_usage, options);
 
-	git_config(git_branch_config, NULL);
+	git_config(git_branch_config, sorting_tail);
 
 	track = git_branch_track;
 
@@ -688,6 +707,11 @@
 	if (list)
 		setup_auto_pager("branch", 1);
 
+	if (used_deprecated_reflog_option && !list) {
+		warning("the '-l' alias for '--create-reflog' is deprecated;");
+		warning("it will be removed in a future version of Git");
+	}
+
 	if (delete) {
 		if (!argc)
 			die(_("branch name required"));
@@ -711,8 +735,7 @@
 		print_columns(&output, colopts, NULL);
 		string_list_clear(&output, 0);
 		return 0;
-	}
-	else if (edit_description) {
+	} else if (edit_description) {
 		const char *branch_name;
 		struct strbuf branch_ref = STRBUF_INIT;
 
@@ -804,11 +827,6 @@
 		git_config_set_multivar(buf.buf, NULL, NULL, 1);
 		strbuf_release(&buf);
 	} else if (argc > 0 && argc <= 2) {
-		struct branch *branch = branch_get(argv[0]);
-
-		if (!branch)
-			die(_("no such branch '%s'"), argv[0]);
-
 		if (filter.kind != FILTER_REFS_BRANCHES)
 			die(_("-a and -r options to 'git branch' do not make sense with a branch name"));
 
diff --git a/builtin/cat-file.c b/builtin/cat-file.c
index 665b581..0520cec 100644
--- a/builtin/cat-file.c
+++ b/builtin/cat-file.c
@@ -13,6 +13,7 @@
 #include "tree-walk.h"
 #include "sha1-array.h"
 #include "packfile.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 
 struct batch_options {
 	int enabled;
@@ -20,6 +21,7 @@
 	int print_contents;
 	int buffer_output;
 	int all_objects;
+	int unordered;
 	int cmdmode; /* may be 'w' or 'c' for --filters or --textconv */
 	const char *format;
 };
@@ -38,7 +40,7 @@
 			     oid_to_hex(oid), path);
 	if ((type == OBJ_BLOB) && S_ISREG(mode)) {
 		struct strbuf strbuf = STRBUF_INIT;
-		if (convert_to_working_tree(path, *buf, *size, &strbuf)) {
+		if (convert_to_working_tree(&the_index, path, *buf, *size, &strbuf)) {
 			free(*buf);
 			*size = strbuf.len;
 			*buf = strbuf_detach(&strbuf, NULL);
@@ -48,6 +50,13 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static int stream_blob(const struct object_id *oid)
+{
+	if (stream_blob_to_fd(1, oid, NULL, 0))
+		die("unable to stream %s to stdout", oid_to_hex(oid));
+	return 0;
+}
+
 static int cat_one_file(int opt, const char *exp_type, const char *obj_name,
 			int unknown_type)
 {
@@ -129,7 +138,7 @@
 		}
 
 		if (type == OBJ_BLOB)
-			return stream_blob_to_fd(1, &oid, NULL, 0);
+			return stream_blob(&oid);
 		buf = read_object_file(&oid, &type, &size);
 		if (!buf)
 			die("Cannot read object %s", obj_name);
@@ -152,7 +161,7 @@
 				oidcpy(&blob_oid, &oid);
 
 			if (oid_object_info(the_repository, &blob_oid, NULL) == OBJ_BLOB)
-				return stream_blob_to_fd(1, &blob_oid, NULL, 0);
+				return stream_blob(&blob_oid);
 			/*
 			 * we attempted to dereference a tag to a blob
 			 * and failed; there may be new dereference
@@ -315,8 +324,9 @@
 				BUG("invalid cmdmode: %c", opt->cmdmode);
 			batch_write(opt, contents, size);
 			free(contents);
-		} else if (stream_blob_to_fd(1, oid, NULL, 0) < 0)
-			die("unable to stream %s to stdout", oid_to_hex(oid));
+		} else {
+			stream_blob(oid);
+		}
 	}
 	else {
 		enum object_type type;
@@ -336,11 +346,11 @@
 	}
 }
 
-static void batch_object_write(const char *obj_name, struct batch_options *opt,
+static void batch_object_write(const char *obj_name,
+			       struct strbuf *scratch,
+			       struct batch_options *opt,
 			       struct expand_data *data)
 {
-	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
-
 	if (!data->skip_object_info &&
 	    oid_object_info_extended(the_repository, &data->oid, &data->info,
 				     OBJECT_INFO_LOOKUP_REPLACE) < 0) {
@@ -350,10 +360,10 @@
 		return;
 	}
 
-	strbuf_expand(&buf, opt->format, expand_format, data);
-	strbuf_addch(&buf, '\n');
-	batch_write(opt, buf.buf, buf.len);
-	strbuf_release(&buf);
+	strbuf_reset(scratch);
+	strbuf_expand(scratch, opt->format, expand_format, data);
+	strbuf_addch(scratch, '\n');
+	batch_write(opt, scratch->buf, scratch->len);
 
 	if (opt->print_contents) {
 		print_object_or_die(opt, data);
@@ -361,7 +371,9 @@
 	}
 }
 
-static void batch_one_object(const char *obj_name, struct batch_options *opt,
+static void batch_one_object(const char *obj_name,
+			     struct strbuf *scratch,
+			     struct batch_options *opt,
 			     struct expand_data *data)
 {
 	struct object_context ctx;
@@ -403,42 +415,70 @@
 		return;
 	}
 
-	batch_object_write(obj_name, opt, data);
+	batch_object_write(obj_name, scratch, opt, data);
 }
 
 struct object_cb_data {
 	struct batch_options *opt;
 	struct expand_data *expand;
+	struct oidset *seen;
+	struct strbuf *scratch;
 };
 
 static int batch_object_cb(const struct object_id *oid, void *vdata)
 {
 	struct object_cb_data *data = vdata;
 	oidcpy(&data->expand->oid, oid);
-	batch_object_write(NULL, data->opt, data->expand);
+	batch_object_write(NULL, data->scratch, data->opt, data->expand);
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int batch_loose_object(const struct object_id *oid,
-			      const char *path,
-			      void *data)
+static int collect_loose_object(const struct object_id *oid,
+				const char *path,
+				void *data)
 {
 	oid_array_append(data, oid);
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int batch_packed_object(const struct object_id *oid,
-			       struct packed_git *pack,
-			       uint32_t pos,
-			       void *data)
+static int collect_packed_object(const struct object_id *oid,
+				 struct packed_git *pack,
+				 uint32_t pos,
+				 void *data)
 {
 	oid_array_append(data, oid);
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static int batch_unordered_object(const struct object_id *oid, void *vdata)
+{
+	struct object_cb_data *data = vdata;
+
+	if (oidset_insert(data->seen, oid))
+		return 0;
+
+	return batch_object_cb(oid, data);
+}
+
+static int batch_unordered_loose(const struct object_id *oid,
+				 const char *path,
+				 void *data)
+{
+	return batch_unordered_object(oid, data);
+}
+
+static int batch_unordered_packed(const struct object_id *oid,
+				  struct packed_git *pack,
+				  uint32_t pos,
+				  void *data)
+{
+	return batch_unordered_object(oid, data);
+}
+
 static int batch_objects(struct batch_options *opt)
 {
-	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct strbuf input = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct strbuf output = STRBUF_INIT;
 	struct expand_data data;
 	int save_warning;
 	int retval = 0;
@@ -453,8 +493,9 @@
 	 */
 	memset(&data, 0, sizeof(data));
 	data.mark_query = 1;
-	strbuf_expand(&buf, opt->format, expand_format, &data);
+	strbuf_expand(&output, opt->format, expand_format, &data);
 	data.mark_query = 0;
+	strbuf_release(&output);
 	if (opt->cmdmode)
 		data.split_on_whitespace = 1;
 
@@ -472,19 +513,37 @@
 		data.info.typep = &data.type;
 
 	if (opt->all_objects) {
-		struct oid_array sa = OID_ARRAY_INIT;
 		struct object_cb_data cb;
 
-		for_each_loose_object(batch_loose_object, &sa, 0);
-		for_each_packed_object(batch_packed_object, &sa, 0);
 		if (repository_format_partial_clone)
 			warning("This repository has extensions.partialClone set. Some objects may not be loaded.");
 
 		cb.opt = opt;
 		cb.expand = &data;
-		oid_array_for_each_unique(&sa, batch_object_cb, &cb);
+		cb.scratch = &output;
 
-		oid_array_clear(&sa);
+		if (opt->unordered) {
+			struct oidset seen = OIDSET_INIT;
+
+			cb.seen = &seen;
+
+			for_each_loose_object(batch_unordered_loose, &cb, 0);
+			for_each_packed_object(batch_unordered_packed, &cb,
+					       FOR_EACH_OBJECT_PACK_ORDER);
+
+			oidset_clear(&seen);
+		} else {
+			struct oid_array sa = OID_ARRAY_INIT;
+
+			for_each_loose_object(collect_loose_object, &sa, 0);
+			for_each_packed_object(collect_packed_object, &sa, 0);
+
+			oid_array_for_each_unique(&sa, batch_object_cb, &cb);
+
+			oid_array_clear(&sa);
+		}
+
+		strbuf_release(&output);
 		return 0;
 	}
 
@@ -498,14 +557,14 @@
 	save_warning = warn_on_object_refname_ambiguity;
 	warn_on_object_refname_ambiguity = 0;
 
-	while (strbuf_getline(&buf, stdin) != EOF) {
+	while (strbuf_getline(&input, stdin) != EOF) {
 		if (data.split_on_whitespace) {
 			/*
 			 * Split at first whitespace, tying off the beginning
 			 * of the string and saving the remainder (or NULL) in
 			 * data.rest.
 			 */
-			char *p = strpbrk(buf.buf, " \t");
+			char *p = strpbrk(input.buf, " \t");
 			if (p) {
 				while (*p && strchr(" \t", *p))
 					*p++ = '\0';
@@ -513,10 +572,11 @@
 			data.rest = p;
 		}
 
-		batch_one_object(buf.buf, opt, &data);
+		batch_one_object(input.buf, &output, opt, &data);
 	}
 
-	strbuf_release(&buf);
+	strbuf_release(&input);
+	strbuf_release(&output);
 	warn_on_object_refname_ambiguity = save_warning;
 	return retval;
 }
@@ -585,6 +645,8 @@
 			 N_("follow in-tree symlinks (used with --batch or --batch-check)")),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "batch-all-objects", &batch.all_objects,
 			 N_("show all objects with --batch or --batch-check")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "unordered", &batch.unordered,
+			 N_("do not order --batch-all-objects output")),
 		OPT_END()
 	};
 
diff --git a/builtin/check-attr.c b/builtin/check-attr.c
index 91444dc..30a2f84 100644
--- a/builtin/check-attr.c
+++ b/builtin/check-attr.c
@@ -63,10 +63,9 @@
 		prefix_path(prefix, prefix ? strlen(prefix) : 0, file);
 
 	if (collect_all) {
-		git_all_attrs(full_path, check);
+		git_all_attrs(&the_index, full_path, check);
 	} else {
-		if (git_check_attr(full_path, check))
-			die("git_check_attr died");
+		git_check_attr(&the_index, full_path, check);
 	}
 	output_attr(check, file);
 
@@ -120,7 +119,7 @@
 	}
 
 	if (cached_attrs)
-		git_attr_set_direction(GIT_ATTR_INDEX, NULL);
+		git_attr_set_direction(GIT_ATTR_INDEX);
 
 	doubledash = -1;
 	for (i = 0; doubledash < 0 && i < argc; i++) {
diff --git a/builtin/checkout-index.c b/builtin/checkout-index.c
index a730f6a..88b86c8 100644
--- a/builtin/checkout-index.c
+++ b/builtin/checkout-index.c
@@ -172,7 +172,7 @@
 			N_("write the content to temporary files")),
 		OPT_STRING(0, "prefix", &state.base_dir, N_("string"),
 			N_("when creating files, prepend <string>")),
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "stage", NULL, "1-3|all",
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "stage", NULL, "(1|2|3|all)",
 			N_("copy out the files from named stage"),
 			PARSE_OPT_NONEG, option_parse_stage },
 		OPT_END()
@@ -190,6 +190,7 @@
 
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, builtin_checkout_index_options,
 			builtin_checkout_index_usage, 0);
+	state.istate = &the_index;
 	state.force = force;
 	state.quiet = quiet;
 	state.not_new = not_new;
diff --git a/builtin/checkout.c b/builtin/checkout.c
index 2e1d237..29ef500 100644
--- a/builtin/checkout.c
+++ b/builtin/checkout.c
@@ -4,6 +4,7 @@
 #include "lockfile.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
 #include "refs.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "tree.h"
 #include "tree-walk.h"
@@ -22,6 +23,7 @@
 #include "resolve-undo.h"
 #include "submodule-config.h"
 #include "submodule.h"
+#include "advice.h"
 
 static const char * const checkout_usage[] = {
 	N_("git checkout [<options>] <branch>"),
@@ -77,7 +79,7 @@
 		return READ_TREE_RECURSIVE;
 
 	len = base->len + strlen(pathname);
-	ce = xcalloc(1, cache_entry_size(len));
+	ce = make_empty_cache_entry(&the_index, len);
 	oidcpy(&ce->oid, oid);
 	memcpy(ce->name, base->buf, base->len);
 	memcpy(ce->name + base->len, pathname, len - base->len);
@@ -96,7 +98,7 @@
 		if (ce->ce_mode == old->ce_mode &&
 		    !oidcmp(&ce->oid, &old->oid)) {
 			old->ce_flags |= CE_UPDATE;
-			free(ce);
+			discard_cache_entry(ce);
 			return 0;
 		}
 	}
@@ -230,11 +232,11 @@
 	if (write_object_file(result_buf.ptr, result_buf.size, blob_type, &oid))
 		die(_("Unable to add merge result for '%s'"), path);
 	free(result_buf.ptr);
-	ce = make_cache_entry(mode, oid.hash, path, 2, 0);
+	ce = make_transient_cache_entry(mode, &oid, path, 2);
 	if (!ce)
 		die(_("make_cache_entry failed for path '%s'"), path);
 	status = checkout_entry(ce, state, NULL);
-	free(ce);
+	discard_cache_entry(ce);
 	return status;
 }
 
@@ -316,7 +318,7 @@
 		 * match_pathspec() for _all_ entries when
 		 * opts->source_tree != NULL.
 		 */
-		if (ce_path_match(ce, &opts->pathspec, ps_matched))
+		if (ce_path_match(&the_index, ce, &opts->pathspec, ps_matched))
 			ce->ce_flags |= CE_MATCHED;
 	}
 
@@ -378,7 +380,7 @@
 		die(_("unable to write new index file"));
 
 	read_ref_full("HEAD", 0, &rev, NULL);
-	head = lookup_commit_reference_gently(&rev, 1);
+	head = lookup_commit_reference_gently(the_repository, &rev, 1);
 
 	errs |= post_checkout_hook(head, head, 0);
 	return errs;
@@ -829,7 +831,7 @@
 	memset(&old_branch_info, 0, sizeof(old_branch_info));
 	old_branch_info.path = path_to_free = resolve_refdup("HEAD", 0, &rev, &flag);
 	if (old_branch_info.path)
-		old_branch_info.commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(&rev, 1);
+		old_branch_info.commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(the_repository, &rev, 1);
 	if (!(flag & REF_ISSYMREF))
 		old_branch_info.path = NULL;
 
@@ -878,7 +880,8 @@
 				int dwim_new_local_branch_ok,
 				struct branch_info *new_branch_info,
 				struct checkout_opts *opts,
-				struct object_id *rev)
+				struct object_id *rev,
+				int *dwim_remotes_matched)
 {
 	struct tree **source_tree = &opts->source_tree;
 	const char **new_branch = &opts->new_branch;
@@ -910,8 +913,10 @@
 	 *   (b) If <something> is _not_ a commit, either "--" is present
 	 *       or <something> is not a path, no -t or -b was given, and
 	 *       and there is a tracking branch whose name is <something>
-	 *       in one and only one remote, then this is a short-hand to
-	 *       fork local <something> from that remote-tracking branch.
+	 *       in one and only one remote (or if the branch exists on the
+	 *       remote named in checkout.defaultRemote), then this is a
+	 *       short-hand to fork local <something> from that
+	 *       remote-tracking branch.
 	 *
 	 *   (c) Otherwise, if "--" is present, treat it like case (1).
 	 *
@@ -972,7 +977,8 @@
 			recover_with_dwim = 0;
 
 		if (recover_with_dwim) {
-			const char *remote = unique_tracking_name(arg, rev);
+			const char *remote = unique_tracking_name(arg, rev,
+								  dwim_remotes_matched);
 			if (remote) {
 				*new_branch = arg;
 				arg = remote;
@@ -1003,7 +1009,7 @@
 	else
 		new_branch_info->path = NULL; /* not an existing branch */
 
-	new_branch_info->commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(rev, 1);
+	new_branch_info->commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(the_repository, rev, 1);
 	if (!new_branch_info->commit) {
 		/* not a commit */
 		*source_tree = parse_tree_indirect(rev);
@@ -1109,6 +1115,7 @@
 	struct branch_info new_branch_info;
 	char *conflict_style = NULL;
 	int dwim_new_local_branch = 1;
+	int dwim_remotes_matched = 0;
 	struct option options[] = {
 		OPT__QUIET(&opts.quiet, N_("suppress progress reporting")),
 		OPT_STRING('b', NULL, &opts.new_branch, N_("branch"),
@@ -1120,10 +1127,12 @@
 		OPT_SET_INT('t', "track",  &opts.track, N_("set upstream info for new branch"),
 			BRANCH_TRACK_EXPLICIT),
 		OPT_STRING(0, "orphan", &opts.new_orphan_branch, N_("new-branch"), N_("new unparented branch")),
-		OPT_SET_INT('2', "ours", &opts.writeout_stage, N_("checkout our version for unmerged files"),
-			    2),
-		OPT_SET_INT('3', "theirs", &opts.writeout_stage, N_("checkout their version for unmerged files"),
-			    3),
+		OPT_SET_INT_F('2', "ours", &opts.writeout_stage,
+			      N_("checkout our version for unmerged files"),
+			      2, PARSE_OPT_NONEG),
+		OPT_SET_INT_F('3', "theirs", &opts.writeout_stage,
+			      N_("checkout their version for unmerged files"),
+			      3, PARSE_OPT_NONEG),
 		OPT__FORCE(&opts.force, N_("force checkout (throw away local modifications)"),
 			   PARSE_OPT_NOCOMPLETE),
 		OPT_BOOL('m', "merge", &opts.merge, N_("perform a 3-way merge with the new branch")),
@@ -1189,12 +1198,12 @@
 	if (opts.track != BRANCH_TRACK_UNSPECIFIED && !opts.new_branch) {
 		const char *argv0 = argv[0];
 		if (!argc || !strcmp(argv0, "--"))
-			die (_("--track needs a branch name"));
+			die(_("--track needs a branch name"));
 		skip_prefix(argv0, "refs/", &argv0);
 		skip_prefix(argv0, "remotes/", &argv0);
 		argv0 = strchr(argv0, '/');
 		if (!argv0 || !argv0[1])
-			die (_("Missing branch name; try -b"));
+			die(_("missing branch name; try -b"));
 		opts.new_branch = argv0 + 1;
 	}
 
@@ -1219,7 +1228,8 @@
 			opts.track == BRANCH_TRACK_UNSPECIFIED &&
 			!opts.new_branch;
 		int n = parse_branchname_arg(argc, argv, dwim_ok,
-					     &new_branch_info, &opts, &rev);
+					     &new_branch_info, &opts, &rev,
+					     &dwim_remotes_matched);
 		argv += n;
 		argc -= n;
 	}
@@ -1261,8 +1271,26 @@
 	}
 
 	UNLEAK(opts);
-	if (opts.patch_mode || opts.pathspec.nr)
-		return checkout_paths(&opts, new_branch_info.name);
-	else
+	if (opts.patch_mode || opts.pathspec.nr) {
+		int ret = checkout_paths(&opts, new_branch_info.name);
+		if (ret && dwim_remotes_matched > 1 &&
+		    advice_checkout_ambiguous_remote_branch_name)
+			advise(_("'%s' matched more than one remote tracking branch.\n"
+				 "We found %d remotes with a reference that matched. So we fell back\n"
+				 "on trying to resolve the argument as a path, but failed there too!\n"
+				 "\n"
+				 "If you meant to check out a remote tracking branch on, e.g. 'origin',\n"
+				 "you can do so by fully qualifying the name with the --track option:\n"
+				 "\n"
+				 "    git checkout --track origin/<name>\n"
+				 "\n"
+				 "If you'd like to always have checkouts of an ambiguous <name> prefer\n"
+				 "one remote, e.g. the 'origin' remote, consider setting\n"
+				 "checkout.defaultRemote=origin in your config."),
+			       argv[0],
+			       dwim_remotes_matched);
+		return ret;
+	} else {
 		return checkout_branch(&opts, &new_branch_info);
+	}
 }
diff --git a/builtin/clean.c b/builtin/clean.c
index fad533a..8d9a7dc 100644
--- a/builtin/clean.c
+++ b/builtin/clean.c
@@ -16,6 +16,7 @@
 #include "column.h"
 #include "color.h"
 #include "pathspec.h"
+#include "help.h"
 
 static int force = -1; /* unset */
 static int interactive;
@@ -42,6 +43,15 @@
 	CLEAN_COLOR_ERROR = 5
 };
 
+static const char *color_interactive_slots[] = {
+	[CLEAN_COLOR_ERROR]  = "error",
+	[CLEAN_COLOR_HEADER] = "header",
+	[CLEAN_COLOR_HELP]   = "help",
+	[CLEAN_COLOR_PLAIN]  = "plain",
+	[CLEAN_COLOR_PROMPT] = "prompt",
+	[CLEAN_COLOR_RESET]  = "reset",
+};
+
 static int clean_use_color = -1;
 static char clean_colors[][COLOR_MAXLEN] = {
 	[CLEAN_COLOR_ERROR] = GIT_COLOR_BOLD_RED,
@@ -82,22 +92,7 @@
 	void *stuff;
 };
 
-static int parse_clean_color_slot(const char *var)
-{
-	if (!strcasecmp(var, "reset"))
-		return CLEAN_COLOR_RESET;
-	if (!strcasecmp(var, "plain"))
-		return CLEAN_COLOR_PLAIN;
-	if (!strcasecmp(var, "prompt"))
-		return CLEAN_COLOR_PROMPT;
-	if (!strcasecmp(var, "header"))
-		return CLEAN_COLOR_HEADER;
-	if (!strcasecmp(var, "help"))
-		return CLEAN_COLOR_HELP;
-	if (!strcasecmp(var, "error"))
-		return CLEAN_COLOR_ERROR;
-	return -1;
-}
+define_list_config_array(color_interactive_slots);
 
 static int git_clean_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
 {
@@ -113,7 +108,7 @@
 		return 0;
 	}
 	if (skip_prefix(var, "color.interactive.", &slot_name)) {
-		int slot = parse_clean_color_slot(slot_name);
+		int slot = LOOKUP_CONFIG(color_interactive_slots, slot_name);
 		if (slot < 0)
 			return 0;
 		if (!value)
@@ -981,7 +976,7 @@
 			continue;
 
 		if (pathspec.nr)
-			matches = dir_path_match(ent, &pathspec, 0, NULL);
+			matches = dir_path_match(&the_index, ent, &pathspec, 0, NULL);
 
 		if (pathspec.nr && !matches)
 			continue;
diff --git a/builtin/clone.c b/builtin/clone.c
index d0e0ff1..4843c57 100644
--- a/builtin/clone.c
+++ b/builtin/clone.c
@@ -15,6 +15,7 @@
 #include "fetch-pack.h"
 #include "refs.h"
 #include "refspec.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "tree.h"
 #include "tree-walk.h"
 #include "unpack-trees.h"
@@ -695,7 +696,8 @@
 			install_branch_config(0, head, option_origin, our->name);
 		}
 	} else if (our) {
-		struct commit *c = lookup_commit_reference(&our->old_oid);
+		struct commit *c = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository,
+							   &our->old_oid);
 		/* --branch specifies a non-branch (i.e. tags), detach HEAD */
 		update_ref(msg, "HEAD", &c->object.oid, NULL, REF_NO_DEREF,
 			   UPDATE_REFS_DIE_ON_ERR);
@@ -895,7 +897,8 @@
 	int err = 0, complete_refs_before_fetch = 1;
 	int submodule_progress;
 
-	struct refspec_item refspec;
+	struct refspec rs = REFSPEC_INIT_FETCH;
+	struct argv_array ref_prefixes = ARGV_ARRAY_INIT;
 
 	fetch_if_missing = 0;
 
@@ -1077,7 +1080,7 @@
 	if (option_required_reference.nr || option_optional_reference.nr)
 		setup_reference();
 
-	refspec_item_init(&refspec, value.buf, REFSPEC_FETCH);
+	refspec_append(&rs, value.buf);
 
 	strbuf_reset(&value);
 
@@ -1134,10 +1137,18 @@
 	if (transport->smart_options && !deepen && !filter_options.choice)
 		transport->smart_options->check_self_contained_and_connected = 1;
 
-	refs = transport_get_remote_refs(transport, NULL);
+
+	argv_array_push(&ref_prefixes, "HEAD");
+	refspec_ref_prefixes(&rs, &ref_prefixes);
+	if (option_branch)
+		expand_ref_prefix(&ref_prefixes, option_branch);
+	if (!option_no_tags)
+		argv_array_push(&ref_prefixes, "refs/tags/");
+
+	refs = transport_get_remote_refs(transport, &ref_prefixes);
 
 	if (refs) {
-		mapped_refs = wanted_peer_refs(refs, &refspec);
+		mapped_refs = wanted_peer_refs(refs, &rs.items[0]);
 		/*
 		 * transport_get_remote_refs() may return refs with null sha-1
 		 * in mapped_refs (see struct transport->get_refs_list
@@ -1201,7 +1212,7 @@
 
 	update_remote_refs(refs, mapped_refs, remote_head_points_at,
 			   branch_top.buf, reflog_msg.buf, transport,
-			   !is_local && !filter_options.choice);
+			   !is_local);
 
 	update_head(our_head_points_at, remote_head, reflog_msg.buf);
 
@@ -1231,6 +1242,7 @@
 	strbuf_release(&value);
 	junk_mode = JUNK_LEAVE_ALL;
 
-	refspec_item_clear(&refspec);
+	refspec_clear(&rs);
+	argv_array_clear(&ref_prefixes);
 	return err;
 }
diff --git a/builtin/commit-graph.c b/builtin/commit-graph.c
index 37420ae..da737df 100644
--- a/builtin/commit-graph.c
+++ b/builtin/commit-graph.c
@@ -3,12 +3,19 @@
 #include "dir.h"
 #include "lockfile.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
+#include "repository.h"
 #include "commit-graph.h"
 
 static char const * const builtin_commit_graph_usage[] = {
 	N_("git commit-graph [--object-dir <objdir>]"),
 	N_("git commit-graph read [--object-dir <objdir>]"),
-	N_("git commit-graph write [--object-dir <objdir>] [--append] [--stdin-packs|--stdin-commits]"),
+	N_("git commit-graph verify [--object-dir <objdir>]"),
+	N_("git commit-graph write [--object-dir <objdir>] [--append] [--reachable|--stdin-packs|--stdin-commits]"),
+	NULL
+};
+
+static const char * const builtin_commit_graph_verify_usage[] = {
+	N_("git commit-graph verify [--object-dir <objdir>]"),
 	NULL
 };
 
@@ -18,17 +25,48 @@
 };
 
 static const char * const builtin_commit_graph_write_usage[] = {
-	N_("git commit-graph write [--object-dir <objdir>] [--append] [--stdin-packs|--stdin-commits]"),
+	N_("git commit-graph write [--object-dir <objdir>] [--append] [--reachable|--stdin-packs|--stdin-commits]"),
 	NULL
 };
 
 static struct opts_commit_graph {
 	const char *obj_dir;
+	int reachable;
 	int stdin_packs;
 	int stdin_commits;
 	int append;
 } opts;
 
+
+static int graph_verify(int argc, const char **argv)
+{
+	struct commit_graph *graph = NULL;
+	char *graph_name;
+
+	static struct option builtin_commit_graph_verify_options[] = {
+		OPT_STRING(0, "object-dir", &opts.obj_dir,
+			   N_("dir"),
+			   N_("The object directory to store the graph")),
+		OPT_END(),
+	};
+
+	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, NULL,
+			     builtin_commit_graph_verify_options,
+			     builtin_commit_graph_verify_usage, 0);
+
+	if (!opts.obj_dir)
+		opts.obj_dir = get_object_directory();
+
+	graph_name = get_commit_graph_filename(opts.obj_dir);
+	graph = load_commit_graph_one(graph_name);
+	FREE_AND_NULL(graph_name);
+
+	if (!graph)
+		return 0;
+
+	return verify_commit_graph(the_repository, graph);
+}
+
 static int graph_read(int argc, const char **argv)
 {
 	struct commit_graph *graph = NULL;
@@ -51,8 +89,11 @@
 	graph_name = get_commit_graph_filename(opts.obj_dir);
 	graph = load_commit_graph_one(graph_name);
 
-	if (!graph)
+	if (!graph) {
+		UNLEAK(graph_name);
 		die("graph file %s does not exist", graph_name);
+	}
+
 	FREE_AND_NULL(graph_name);
 
 	printf("header: %08x %d %d %d %d\n",
@@ -74,23 +115,25 @@
 		printf(" large_edges");
 	printf("\n");
 
+	free_commit_graph(graph);
+
 	return 0;
 }
 
+extern int read_replace_refs;
+
 static int graph_write(int argc, const char **argv)
 {
-	const char **pack_indexes = NULL;
-	int packs_nr = 0;
-	const char **commit_hex = NULL;
-	int commits_nr = 0;
-	const char **lines = NULL;
-	int lines_nr = 0;
-	int lines_alloc = 0;
+	struct string_list *pack_indexes = NULL;
+	struct string_list *commit_hex = NULL;
+	struct string_list lines;
 
 	static struct option builtin_commit_graph_write_options[] = {
 		OPT_STRING(0, "object-dir", &opts.obj_dir,
 			N_("dir"),
 			N_("The object directory to store the graph")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "reachable", &opts.reachable,
+			N_("start walk at all refs")),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "stdin-packs", &opts.stdin_packs,
 			N_("scan pack-indexes listed by stdin for commits")),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "stdin-commits", &opts.stdin_commits,
@@ -104,39 +147,37 @@
 			     builtin_commit_graph_write_options,
 			     builtin_commit_graph_write_usage, 0);
 
-	if (opts.stdin_packs && opts.stdin_commits)
-		die(_("cannot use both --stdin-commits and --stdin-packs"));
+	if (opts.reachable + opts.stdin_packs + opts.stdin_commits > 1)
+		die(_("use at most one of --reachable, --stdin-commits, or --stdin-packs"));
 	if (!opts.obj_dir)
 		opts.obj_dir = get_object_directory();
 
+	read_replace_refs = 0;
+
+	if (opts.reachable) {
+		write_commit_graph_reachable(opts.obj_dir, opts.append);
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	string_list_init(&lines, 0);
 	if (opts.stdin_packs || opts.stdin_commits) {
 		struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
-		lines_nr = 0;
-		lines_alloc = 128;
-		ALLOC_ARRAY(lines, lines_alloc);
 
-		while (strbuf_getline(&buf, stdin) != EOF) {
-			ALLOC_GROW(lines, lines_nr + 1, lines_alloc);
-			lines[lines_nr++] = strbuf_detach(&buf, NULL);
-		}
+		while (strbuf_getline(&buf, stdin) != EOF)
+			string_list_append(&lines, strbuf_detach(&buf, NULL));
 
-		if (opts.stdin_packs) {
-			pack_indexes = lines;
-			packs_nr = lines_nr;
-		}
-		if (opts.stdin_commits) {
-			commit_hex = lines;
-			commits_nr = lines_nr;
-		}
+		if (opts.stdin_packs)
+			pack_indexes = &lines;
+		if (opts.stdin_commits)
+			commit_hex = &lines;
 	}
 
 	write_commit_graph(opts.obj_dir,
 			   pack_indexes,
-			   packs_nr,
 			   commit_hex,
-			   commits_nr,
 			   opts.append);
 
+	string_list_clear(&lines, 0);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -162,6 +203,8 @@
 	if (argc > 0) {
 		if (!strcmp(argv[0], "read"))
 			return graph_read(argc, argv);
+		if (!strcmp(argv[0], "verify"))
+			return graph_verify(argc, argv);
 		if (!strcmp(argv[0], "write"))
 			return graph_write(argc, argv);
 	}
diff --git a/builtin/commit-tree.c b/builtin/commit-tree.c
index ecf4219..9ec36a8 100644
--- a/builtin/commit-tree.c
+++ b/builtin/commit-tree.c
@@ -5,6 +5,8 @@
  */
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "config.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
+#include "repository.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "tree.h"
 #include "builtin.h"
@@ -59,7 +61,8 @@
 			if (get_oid_commit(argv[i], &oid))
 				die("Not a valid object name %s", argv[i]);
 			assert_oid_type(&oid, OBJ_COMMIT);
-			new_parent(lookup_commit(&oid), &parents);
+			new_parent(lookup_commit(the_repository, &oid),
+						 &parents);
 			continue;
 		}
 
diff --git a/builtin/commit.c b/builtin/commit.c
index a842fea..83233ca 100644
--- a/builtin/commit.c
+++ b/builtin/commit.c
@@ -32,6 +32,7 @@
 #include "column.h"
 #include "sequencer.h"
 #include "mailmap.h"
+#include "help.h"
 
 static const char * const builtin_commit_usage[] = {
 	N_("git commit [<options>] [--] <pathspec>..."),
@@ -66,6 +67,18 @@
 "Then \"git cherry-pick --continue\" will resume cherry-picking\n"
 "the remaining commits.\n");
 
+static const char *color_status_slots[] = {
+	[WT_STATUS_HEADER]	  = "header",
+	[WT_STATUS_UPDATED]	  = "updated",
+	[WT_STATUS_CHANGED]	  = "changed",
+	[WT_STATUS_UNTRACKED]	  = "untracked",
+	[WT_STATUS_NOBRANCH]	  = "noBranch",
+	[WT_STATUS_UNMERGED]	  = "unmerged",
+	[WT_STATUS_LOCAL_BRANCH]  = "localBranch",
+	[WT_STATUS_REMOTE_BRANCH] = "remoteBranch",
+	[WT_STATUS_ONBRANCH]	  = "branch",
+};
+
 static const char *use_message_buffer;
 static struct lock_file index_lock; /* real index */
 static struct lock_file false_lock; /* used only for partial commits */
@@ -155,9 +168,9 @@
 
 static void determine_whence(struct wt_status *s)
 {
-	if (file_exists(git_path_merge_head()))
+	if (file_exists(git_path_merge_head(the_repository)))
 		whence = FROM_MERGE;
-	else if (file_exists(git_path_cherry_pick_head())) {
+	else if (file_exists(git_path_cherry_pick_head(the_repository))) {
 		whence = FROM_CHERRY_PICK;
 		if (file_exists(git_path_seq_dir()))
 			sequencer_in_use = 1;
@@ -238,7 +251,7 @@
 
 		if (ce->ce_flags & CE_UPDATE)
 			continue;
-		if (!ce_path_match(ce, pattern, m))
+		if (!ce_path_match(&the_index, ce, pattern, m))
 			continue;
 		item = string_list_insert(list, ce->name);
 		if (ce_skip_worktree(ce))
@@ -705,21 +718,21 @@
 		if (have_option_m)
 			strbuf_addbuf(&sb, &message);
 		hook_arg1 = "message";
-	} else if (!stat(git_path_merge_msg(), &statbuf)) {
+	} else if (!stat(git_path_merge_msg(the_repository), &statbuf)) {
 		/*
 		 * prepend SQUASH_MSG here if it exists and a
 		 * "merge --squash" was originally performed
 		 */
-		if (!stat(git_path_squash_msg(), &statbuf)) {
-			if (strbuf_read_file(&sb, git_path_squash_msg(), 0) < 0)
+		if (!stat(git_path_squash_msg(the_repository), &statbuf)) {
+			if (strbuf_read_file(&sb, git_path_squash_msg(the_repository), 0) < 0)
 				die_errno(_("could not read SQUASH_MSG"));
 			hook_arg1 = "squash";
 		} else
 			hook_arg1 = "merge";
-		if (strbuf_read_file(&sb, git_path_merge_msg(), 0) < 0)
+		if (strbuf_read_file(&sb, git_path_merge_msg(the_repository), 0) < 0)
 			die_errno(_("could not read MERGE_MSG"));
-	} else if (!stat(git_path_squash_msg(), &statbuf)) {
-		if (strbuf_read_file(&sb, git_path_squash_msg(), 0) < 0)
+	} else if (!stat(git_path_squash_msg(the_repository), &statbuf)) {
+		if (strbuf_read_file(&sb, git_path_squash_msg(the_repository), 0) < 0)
 			die_errno(_("could not read SQUASH_MSG"));
 		hook_arg1 = "squash";
 	} else if (template_file) {
@@ -800,8 +813,8 @@
 					"	%s\n"
 					"and try again.\n"),
 				whence == FROM_MERGE ?
-					git_path_merge_head() :
-					git_path_cherry_pick_head());
+					git_path_merge_head(the_repository) :
+					git_path_cherry_pick_head(the_repository));
 		}
 
 		fprintf(s->fp, "\n");
@@ -859,6 +872,7 @@
 		s->use_color = 0;
 		commitable = run_status(s->fp, index_file, prefix, 1, s);
 		s->use_color = saved_color_setting;
+		string_list_clear(&s->change, 1);
 	} else {
 		struct object_id oid;
 		const char *parent = "HEAD";
@@ -1183,27 +1197,14 @@
 	return commitable ? 0 : 1;
 }
 
+define_list_config_array_extra(color_status_slots, {"added"});
+
 static int parse_status_slot(const char *slot)
 {
-	if (!strcasecmp(slot, "header"))
-		return WT_STATUS_HEADER;
-	if (!strcasecmp(slot, "branch"))
-		return WT_STATUS_ONBRANCH;
-	if (!strcasecmp(slot, "updated") || !strcasecmp(slot, "added"))
+	if (!strcasecmp(slot, "added"))
 		return WT_STATUS_UPDATED;
-	if (!strcasecmp(slot, "changed"))
-		return WT_STATUS_CHANGED;
-	if (!strcasecmp(slot, "untracked"))
-		return WT_STATUS_UNTRACKED;
-	if (!strcasecmp(slot, "nobranch"))
-		return WT_STATUS_NOBRANCH;
-	if (!strcasecmp(slot, "unmerged"))
-		return WT_STATUS_UNMERGED;
-	if (!strcasecmp(slot, "localBranch"))
-		return WT_STATUS_LOCAL_BRANCH;
-	if (!strcasecmp(slot, "remoteBranch"))
-		return WT_STATUS_REMOTE_BRANCH;
-	return -1;
+
+	return LOOKUP_CONFIG(color_status_slots, slot);
 }
 
 static int git_status_config(const char *k, const char *v, void *cb)
@@ -1564,7 +1565,7 @@
 		if (!reflog_msg)
 			reflog_msg = "commit (merge)";
 		pptr = commit_list_append(current_head, pptr);
-		fp = xfopen(git_path_merge_head(), "r");
+		fp = xfopen(git_path_merge_head(the_repository), "r");
 		while (strbuf_getline_lf(&m, fp) != EOF) {
 			struct commit *parent;
 
@@ -1575,8 +1576,8 @@
 		}
 		fclose(fp);
 		strbuf_release(&m);
-		if (!stat(git_path_merge_mode(), &statbuf)) {
-			if (strbuf_read_file(&sb, git_path_merge_mode(), 0) < 0)
+		if (!stat(git_path_merge_mode(the_repository), &statbuf)) {
+			if (strbuf_read_file(&sb, git_path_merge_mode(the_repository), 0) < 0)
 				die_errno(_("could not read MERGE_MODE"));
 			if (!strcmp(sb.buf, "no-ff"))
 				allow_fast_forward = 0;
@@ -1639,17 +1640,17 @@
 		die("%s", err.buf);
 	}
 
-	unlink(git_path_cherry_pick_head());
-	unlink(git_path_revert_head());
-	unlink(git_path_merge_head());
-	unlink(git_path_merge_msg());
-	unlink(git_path_merge_mode());
-	unlink(git_path_squash_msg());
+	unlink(git_path_cherry_pick_head(the_repository));
+	unlink(git_path_revert_head(the_repository));
+	unlink(git_path_merge_head(the_repository));
+	unlink(git_path_merge_msg(the_repository));
+	unlink(git_path_merge_mode(the_repository));
+	unlink(git_path_squash_msg(the_repository));
 
 	if (commit_index_files())
-		die (_("Repository has been updated, but unable to write\n"
-		     "new_index file. Check that disk is not full and quota is\n"
-		     "not exceeded, and then \"git reset HEAD\" to recover."));
+		die(_("repository has been updated, but unable to write\n"
+		      "new_index file. Check that disk is not full and quota is\n"
+		      "not exceeded, and then \"git reset HEAD\" to recover."));
 
 	rerere(0);
 	run_command_v_opt(argv_gc_auto, RUN_GIT_CMD);
diff --git a/builtin/config.c b/builtin/config.c
index b29d26d..97b58c4 100644
--- a/builtin/config.c
+++ b/builtin/config.c
@@ -67,7 +67,7 @@
 	{ OPTION_CALLBACK, (s), (l), (v), NULL, (h), PARSE_OPT_NOARG | \
 	PARSE_OPT_NONEG, option_parse_type, (i) }
 
-static struct option builtin_config_options[];
+static NORETURN void usage_builtin_config(void);
 
 static int option_parse_type(const struct option *opt, const char *arg,
 			     int unset)
@@ -110,9 +110,8 @@
 		 * --int' and '--type=bool
 		 * --type=int'.
 		 */
-		error("only one type at a time.");
-		usage_with_options(builtin_config_usage,
-			builtin_config_options);
+		error(_("only one type at a time"));
+		usage_builtin_config();
 	}
 	*to_type = new_type;
 
@@ -157,11 +156,20 @@
 	OPT_END(),
 };
 
+static NORETURN void usage_builtin_config(void)
+{
+	usage_with_options(builtin_config_usage, builtin_config_options);
+}
+
 static void check_argc(int argc, int min, int max) {
 	if (argc >= min && argc <= max)
 		return;
-	error("wrong number of arguments");
-	usage_with_options(builtin_config_usage, builtin_config_options);
+	if (min == max)
+		error(_("wrong number of arguments, should be %d"), min);
+	else
+		error(_("wrong number of arguments, should be from %d to %d"),
+		      min, max);
+	usage_builtin_config();
 }
 
 static void show_config_origin(struct strbuf *buf)
@@ -293,7 +301,7 @@
 
 		key_regexp = (regex_t*)xmalloc(sizeof(regex_t));
 		if (regcomp(key_regexp, key, REG_EXTENDED)) {
-			error("invalid key pattern: %s", key_);
+			error(_("invalid key pattern: %s"), key_);
 			FREE_AND_NULL(key_regexp);
 			ret = CONFIG_INVALID_PATTERN;
 			goto free_strings;
@@ -313,7 +321,7 @@
 
 		regexp = (regex_t*)xmalloc(sizeof(regex_t));
 		if (regcomp(regexp, regex_, REG_EXTENDED)) {
-			error("invalid pattern: %s", regex_);
+			error(_("invalid pattern: %s"), regex_);
 			FREE_AND_NULL(regexp);
 			ret = CONFIG_INVALID_PATTERN;
 			goto free_strings;
@@ -386,7 +394,7 @@
 	if (type == TYPE_COLOR) {
 		char v[COLOR_MAXLEN];
 		if (git_config_color(v, key, value))
-			die("cannot parse color '%s'", value);
+			die(_("cannot parse color '%s'"), value);
 
 		/*
 		 * The contents of `v` now contain an ANSI escape
@@ -481,13 +489,13 @@
 static void check_write(void)
 {
 	if (!given_config_source.file && !startup_info->have_repository)
-		die("not in a git directory");
+		die(_("not in a git directory"));
 
 	if (given_config_source.use_stdin)
-		die("writing to stdin is not supported");
+		die(_("writing to stdin is not supported"));
 
 	if (given_config_source.blob)
-		die("writing config blobs is not supported");
+		die(_("writing config blobs is not supported"));
 }
 
 struct urlmatch_current_candidate_value {
@@ -595,8 +603,8 @@
 
 	if (use_global_config + use_system_config + use_local_config +
 	    !!given_config_source.file + !!given_config_source.blob > 1) {
-		error("only one config file at a time.");
-		usage_with_options(builtin_config_usage, builtin_config_options);
+		error(_("only one config file at a time"));
+		usage_builtin_config();
 	}
 
 	if (use_local_config && nongit)
@@ -622,7 +630,7 @@
 			 * location; error out even if XDG_CONFIG_HOME
 			 * is set and points at a sane location.
 			 */
-			die("$HOME not set");
+			die(_("$HOME not set"));
 
 		if (access_or_warn(user_config, R_OK, 0) &&
 		    xdg_config && !access_or_warn(xdg_config, R_OK, 0)) {
@@ -659,13 +667,13 @@
 	}
 
 	if ((actions & (ACTION_GET_COLOR|ACTION_GET_COLORBOOL)) && type) {
-		error("--get-color and variable type are incoherent");
-		usage_with_options(builtin_config_usage, builtin_config_options);
+		error(_("--get-color and variable type are incoherent"));
+		usage_builtin_config();
 	}
 
 	if (HAS_MULTI_BITS(actions)) {
-		error("only one action at a time.");
-		usage_with_options(builtin_config_usage, builtin_config_options);
+		error(_("only one action at a time"));
+		usage_builtin_config();
 	}
 	if (actions == 0)
 		switch (argc) {
@@ -673,25 +681,24 @@
 		case 2: actions = ACTION_SET; break;
 		case 3: actions = ACTION_SET_ALL; break;
 		default:
-			usage_with_options(builtin_config_usage, builtin_config_options);
+			usage_builtin_config();
 		}
 	if (omit_values &&
 	    !(actions == ACTION_LIST || actions == ACTION_GET_REGEXP)) {
-		error("--name-only is only applicable to --list or --get-regexp");
-		usage_with_options(builtin_config_usage, builtin_config_options);
+		error(_("--name-only is only applicable to --list or --get-regexp"));
+		usage_builtin_config();
 	}
 
 	if (show_origin && !(actions &
 		(ACTION_GET|ACTION_GET_ALL|ACTION_GET_REGEXP|ACTION_LIST))) {
-		error("--show-origin is only applicable to --get, --get-all, "
-			  "--get-regexp, and --list.");
-		usage_with_options(builtin_config_usage, builtin_config_options);
+		error(_("--show-origin is only applicable to --get, --get-all, "
+			"--get-regexp, and --list"));
+		usage_builtin_config();
 	}
 
 	if (default_value && !(actions & ACTION_GET)) {
-		error("--default is only applicable to --get");
-		usage_with_options(builtin_config_usage,
-			builtin_config_options);
+		error(_("--default is only applicable to --get"));
+		usage_builtin_config();
 	}
 
 	if (actions & PAGING_ACTIONS)
@@ -703,10 +710,10 @@
 					&given_config_source,
 					&config_options) < 0) {
 			if (given_config_source.file)
-				die_errno("unable to read config file '%s'",
+				die_errno(_("unable to read config file '%s'"),
 					  given_config_source.file);
 			else
-				die("error processing config file(s)");
+				die(_("error processing config file(s)"));
 		}
 	}
 	else if (actions == ACTION_EDIT) {
@@ -714,11 +721,11 @@
 
 		check_argc(argc, 0, 0);
 		if (!given_config_source.file && nongit)
-			die("not in a git directory");
+			die(_("not in a git directory"));
 		if (given_config_source.use_stdin)
-			die("editing stdin is not supported");
+			die(_("editing stdin is not supported"));
 		if (given_config_source.blob)
-			die("editing blobs is not supported");
+			die(_("editing blobs is not supported"));
 		git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
 		config_file = given_config_source.file ?
 				xstrdup(given_config_source.file) :
@@ -819,7 +826,7 @@
 		if (ret < 0)
 			return ret;
 		if (ret == 0)
-			die("No such section!");
+			die(_("no such section: %s"), argv[0]);
 	}
 	else if (actions == ACTION_REMOVE_SECTION) {
 		int ret;
@@ -830,7 +837,7 @@
 		if (ret < 0)
 			return ret;
 		if (ret == 0)
-			die("No such section!");
+			die(_("no such section: %s"), argv[0]);
 	}
 	else if (actions == ACTION_GET_COLOR) {
 		check_argc(argc, 1, 2);
diff --git a/builtin/describe.c b/builtin/describe.c
index cf1ae77..41606c8 100644
--- a/builtin/describe.c
+++ b/builtin/describe.c
@@ -13,11 +13,15 @@
 #include "hashmap.h"
 #include "argv-array.h"
 #include "run-command.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "revision.h"
 #include "list-objects.h"
+#include "commit-slab.h"
 
 #define MAX_TAGS	(FLAG_BITS - 1)
 
+define_commit_slab(commit_names, struct commit_name *);
+
 static const char * const describe_usage[] = {
 	N_("git describe [<options>] [<commit-ish>...]"),
 	N_("git describe [<options>] --dirty"),
@@ -37,6 +41,7 @@
 static struct string_list exclude_patterns = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
 static int always;
 static const char *suffix, *dirty, *broken;
+static struct commit_names commit_names;
 
 /* diff-index command arguments to check if working tree is dirty. */
 static const char *diff_index_args[] = {
@@ -88,13 +93,13 @@
 		struct tag *t;
 
 		if (!e->tag) {
-			t = lookup_tag(&e->oid);
+			t = lookup_tag(the_repository, &e->oid);
 			if (!t || parse_tag(t))
 				return 1;
 			e->tag = t;
 		}
 
-		t = lookup_tag(oid);
+		t = lookup_tag(the_repository, oid);
 		if (!t || parse_tag(t))
 			return 0;
 		*tag = t;
@@ -262,7 +267,7 @@
 static void append_name(struct commit_name *n, struct strbuf *dst)
 {
 	if (n->prio == 2 && !n->tag) {
-		n->tag = lookup_tag(&n->oid);
+		n->tag = lookup_tag(the_repository, &n->oid);
 		if (!n->tag || parse_tag(n->tag))
 			die(_("annotated tag %s not available"), n->path);
 	}
@@ -298,7 +303,7 @@
 	unsigned long seen_commits = 0;
 	unsigned int unannotated_cnt = 0;
 
-	cmit = lookup_commit_reference(oid);
+	cmit = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, oid);
 
 	n = find_commit_name(&cmit->object.oid);
 	if (n && (tags || all || n->prio == 2)) {
@@ -321,11 +326,15 @@
 	if (!have_util) {
 		struct hashmap_iter iter;
 		struct commit *c;
-		struct commit_name *n = hashmap_iter_first(&names, &iter);
+		struct commit_name *n;
+
+		init_commit_names(&commit_names);
+		n = hashmap_iter_first(&names, &iter);
 		for (; n; n = hashmap_iter_next(&iter)) {
-			c = lookup_commit_reference_gently(&n->peeled, 1);
+			c = lookup_commit_reference_gently(the_repository,
+							   &n->peeled, 1);
 			if (c)
-				c->util = n;
+				*commit_names_at(&commit_names, c) = n;
 		}
 		have_util = 1;
 	}
@@ -336,8 +345,11 @@
 	while (list) {
 		struct commit *c = pop_commit(&list);
 		struct commit_list *parents = c->parents;
+		struct commit_name **slot;
+
 		seen_commits++;
-		n = c->util;
+		slot = commit_names_peek(&commit_names, c);
+		n = slot ? *slot : NULL;
 		if (n) {
 			if (!tags && !all && n->prio < 2) {
 				unannotated_cnt++;
@@ -498,7 +510,7 @@
 
 	if (get_oid(arg, &oid))
 		die(_("Not a valid object name %s"), arg);
-	cmit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(&oid, 1);
+	cmit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(the_repository, &oid, 1);
 
 	if (cmit)
 		describe_commit(&oid, &sb);
diff --git a/builtin/diff-tree.c b/builtin/diff-tree.c
index 4736151..d07bf2e 100644
--- a/builtin/diff-tree.c
+++ b/builtin/diff-tree.c
@@ -5,12 +5,13 @@
 #include "log-tree.h"
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "submodule.h"
+#include "repository.h"
 
 static struct rev_info log_tree_opt;
 
 static int diff_tree_commit_oid(const struct object_id *oid)
 {
-	struct commit *commit = lookup_commit_reference(oid);
+	struct commit *commit = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, oid);
 	if (!commit)
 		return -1;
 	return log_tree_commit(&log_tree_opt, commit);
@@ -24,7 +25,7 @@
 
 	/* Graft the fake parents locally to the commit */
 	while (isspace(*p++) && !parse_oid_hex(p, &oid, &p)) {
-		struct commit *parent = lookup_commit(&oid);
+		struct commit *parent = lookup_commit(the_repository, &oid);
 		if (!pptr) {
 			/* Free the real parent list */
 			free_commit_list(commit->parents);
@@ -45,7 +46,7 @@
 	struct tree *tree2;
 	if (!isspace(*p++) || parse_oid_hex(p, &oid, &p) || *p)
 		return error("Need exactly two trees, separated by a space");
-	tree2 = lookup_tree(&oid);
+	tree2 = lookup_tree(the_repository, &oid);
 	if (!tree2 || parse_tree(tree2))
 		return -1;
 	printf("%s %s\n", oid_to_hex(&tree1->object.oid),
@@ -68,7 +69,7 @@
 	line[len-1] = 0;
 	if (parse_oid_hex(line, &oid, &p))
 		return -1;
-	obj = parse_object(&oid);
+	obj = parse_object(the_repository, &oid);
 	if (!obj)
 		return -1;
 	if (obj->type == OBJ_COMMIT)
@@ -162,9 +163,11 @@
 		int saved_nrl = 0;
 		int saved_dcctc = 0;
 
-		if (opt->diffopt.detect_rename)
-			opt->diffopt.setup |= (DIFF_SETUP_USE_SIZE_CACHE |
-					       DIFF_SETUP_USE_CACHE);
+		if (opt->diffopt.detect_rename) {
+			if (!the_index.cache)
+				read_index(&the_index);
+			opt->diffopt.setup |= DIFF_SETUP_USE_SIZE_CACHE;
+		}
 		while (fgets(line, sizeof(line), stdin)) {
 			struct object_id oid;
 
diff --git a/builtin/diff.c b/builtin/diff.c
index bfefff3..361a3c3 100644
--- a/builtin/diff.c
+++ b/builtin/diff.c
@@ -352,6 +352,13 @@
 	rev.diffopt.flags.allow_external = 1;
 	rev.diffopt.flags.allow_textconv = 1;
 
+	/*
+	 * Default to intent-to-add entries invisible in the
+	 * index. This makes them show up as new files in diff-files
+	 * and not at all in diff-cached.
+	 */
+	rev.diffopt.ita_invisible_in_index = 1;
+
 	if (nongit)
 		die(_("Not a git repository"));
 	argc = setup_revisions(argc, argv, &rev, NULL);
@@ -379,7 +386,8 @@
 				add_head_to_pending(&rev);
 				if (!rev.pending.nr) {
 					struct tree *tree;
-					tree = lookup_tree(the_hash_algo->empty_tree);
+					tree = lookup_tree(the_repository,
+							   the_repository->hash_algo->empty_tree);
 					add_pending_object(&rev, &tree->object, "HEAD");
 				}
 				break;
@@ -393,8 +401,8 @@
 		const char *name = entry->name;
 		int flags = (obj->flags & UNINTERESTING);
 		if (!obj->parsed)
-			obj = parse_object(&obj->oid);
-		obj = deref_tag(obj, NULL, 0);
+			obj = parse_object(the_repository, &obj->oid);
+		obj = deref_tag(the_repository, obj, NULL, 0);
 		if (!obj)
 			die(_("invalid object '%s' given."), name);
 		if (obj->type == OBJ_COMMIT)
diff --git a/builtin/difftool.c b/builtin/difftool.c
index bc97d4a..cdd585c 100644
--- a/builtin/difftool.c
+++ b/builtin/difftool.c
@@ -20,6 +20,7 @@
 #include "argv-array.h"
 #include "strbuf.h"
 #include "lockfile.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "dir.h"
 
 static char *diff_gui_tool;
@@ -321,10 +322,10 @@
 	struct cache_entry *ce;
 	int ret;
 
-	ce = make_cache_entry(mode, oid->hash, path, 0, 0);
+	ce = make_transient_cache_entry(mode, oid, path, 0);
 	ret = checkout_entry(ce, state, NULL);
 
-	free(ce);
+	discard_cache_entry(ce);
 	return ret;
 }
 
@@ -488,7 +489,7 @@
 				 * index.
 				 */
 				struct cache_entry *ce2 =
-					make_cache_entry(rmode, roid.hash,
+					make_cache_entry(&wtindex, rmode, &roid,
 							 dst_path, 0, 0);
 
 				add_index_entry(&wtindex, ce2,
@@ -702,7 +703,7 @@
 			1, PARSE_OPT_NONEG | PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "symlinks", &symlinks,
 			 N_("use symlinks in dir-diff mode")),
-		OPT_STRING('t', "tool", &difftool_cmd, N_("<tool>"),
+		OPT_STRING('t', "tool", &difftool_cmd, N_("tool"),
 			   N_("use the specified diff tool")),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "tool-help", &tool_help,
 			 N_("print a list of diff tools that may be used with "
@@ -710,7 +711,7 @@
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "trust-exit-code", &trust_exit_code,
 			 N_("make 'git-difftool' exit when an invoked diff "
 			    "tool returns a non - zero exit code")),
-		OPT_STRING('x', "extcmd", &extcmd, N_("<command>"),
+		OPT_STRING('x', "extcmd", &extcmd, N_("command"),
 			   N_("specify a custom command for viewing diffs")),
 		OPT_END()
 	};
diff --git a/builtin/fast-export.c b/builtin/fast-export.c
index 6c97687..9bd8a14 100644
--- a/builtin/fast-export.c
+++ b/builtin/fast-export.c
@@ -8,6 +8,7 @@
 #include "config.h"
 #include "refs.h"
 #include "refspec.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "object.h"
 #include "tag.h"
@@ -22,6 +23,7 @@
 #include "quote.h"
 #include "remote.h"
 #include "blob.h"
+#include "commit-slab.h"
 
 static const char *fast_export_usage[] = {
 	N_("git fast-export [rev-list-opts]"),
@@ -38,6 +40,7 @@
 static struct string_list extra_refs = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
 static struct refspec refspecs = REFSPEC_INIT_FETCH;
 static int anonymize;
+static struct revision_sources revision_sources;
 
 static int parse_opt_signed_tag_mode(const struct option *opt,
 				     const char *arg, int unset)
@@ -227,21 +230,22 @@
 	if (is_null_oid(oid))
 		return;
 
-	object = lookup_object(oid->hash);
+	object = lookup_object(the_repository, oid->hash);
 	if (object && object->flags & SHOWN)
 		return;
 
 	if (anonymize) {
 		buf = anonymize_blob(&size);
-		object = (struct object *)lookup_blob(oid);
+		object = (struct object *)lookup_blob(the_repository, oid);
 		eaten = 0;
 	} else {
 		buf = read_object_file(oid, &type, &size);
 		if (!buf)
-			die ("Could not read blob %s", oid_to_hex(oid));
+			die("could not read blob %s", oid_to_hex(oid));
 		if (check_object_signature(oid, buf, size, type_name(type)) < 0)
 			die("sha1 mismatch in blob %s", oid_to_hex(oid));
-		object = parse_object_buffer(oid, type, size, buf, &eaten);
+		object = parse_object_buffer(the_repository, oid, type,
+					     size, buf, &eaten);
 	}
 
 	if (!object)
@@ -251,7 +255,7 @@
 
 	printf("blob\nmark :%"PRIu32"\ndata %lu\n", last_idnum, size);
 	if (size && fwrite(buf, size, 1, stdout) != 1)
-		die_errno ("Could not write blob '%s'", oid_to_hex(oid));
+		die_errno("could not write blob '%s'", oid_to_hex(oid));
 	printf("\n");
 
 	show_progress();
@@ -399,7 +403,8 @@
 						   anonymize_sha1(&spec->oid) :
 						   spec->oid.hash));
 			else {
-				struct object *object = lookup_object(spec->oid.hash);
+				struct object *object = lookup_object(the_repository,
+								      spec->oid.hash);
 				printf("M %06o :%d ", spec->mode,
 				       get_object_mark(object));
 			}
@@ -558,14 +563,14 @@
 	commit_buffer = get_commit_buffer(commit, NULL);
 	author = strstr(commit_buffer, "\nauthor ");
 	if (!author)
-		die ("Could not find author in commit %s",
-		     oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid));
+		die("could not find author in commit %s",
+		    oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid));
 	author++;
 	author_end = strchrnul(author, '\n');
 	committer = strstr(author_end, "\ncommitter ");
 	if (!committer)
-		die ("Could not find committer in commit %s",
-		     oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid));
+		die("could not find committer in commit %s",
+		    oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid));
 	committer++;
 	committer_end = strchrnul(committer, '\n');
 	message = strstr(committer_end, "\n\n");
@@ -589,7 +594,7 @@
 		if (!S_ISGITLINK(diff_queued_diff.queue[i]->two->mode))
 			export_blob(&diff_queued_diff.queue[i]->two->oid);
 
-	refname = commit->util;
+	refname = *revision_sources_at(&revision_sources, commit);
 	if (anonymize) {
 		refname = anonymize_refname(refname);
 		anonymize_ident_line(&committer, &committer_end);
@@ -686,7 +691,7 @@
 
 	buf = read_object_file(&tag->object.oid, &type, &size);
 	if (!buf)
-		die ("Could not read tag %s", oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
+		die("could not read tag %s", oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
 	message = memmem(buf, size, "\n\n", 2);
 	if (message) {
 		message += 2;
@@ -723,18 +728,18 @@
 		if (signature)
 			switch(signed_tag_mode) {
 			case ABORT:
-				die ("Encountered signed tag %s; use "
-				     "--signed-tags=<mode> to handle it.",
-				     oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
+				die("encountered signed tag %s; use "
+				    "--signed-tags=<mode> to handle it",
+				    oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
 			case WARN:
-				warning ("Exporting signed tag %s",
-					 oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
+				warning("exporting signed tag %s",
+					oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
 				/* fallthru */
 			case VERBATIM:
 				break;
 			case WARN_STRIP:
-				warning ("Stripping signature from tag %s",
-					 oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
+				warning("stripping signature from tag %s",
+					oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
 				/* fallthru */
 			case STRIP:
 				message_size = signature + 1 - message;
@@ -748,18 +753,18 @@
 	if (!tagged_mark) {
 		switch(tag_of_filtered_mode) {
 		case ABORT:
-			die ("Tag %s tags unexported object; use "
-			     "--tag-of-filtered-object=<mode> to handle it.",
-			     oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
+			die("tag %s tags unexported object; use "
+			    "--tag-of-filtered-object=<mode> to handle it",
+			    oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
 		case DROP:
 			/* Ignore this tag altogether */
 			free(buf);
 			return;
 		case REWRITE:
 			if (tagged->type != OBJ_COMMIT) {
-				die ("Tag %s tags unexported %s!",
-				     oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid),
-				     type_name(tagged->type));
+				die("tag %s tags unexported %s!",
+				    oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid),
+				    type_name(tagged->type));
 			}
 			p = (struct commit *)tagged;
 			for (;;) {
@@ -770,7 +775,7 @@
 				if (!(p->object.flags & TREESAME))
 					break;
 				if (!p->parents)
-					die ("Can't find replacement commit for tag %s\n",
+					die("can't find replacement commit for tag %s",
 					     oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
 				p = p->parents->item;
 			}
@@ -798,7 +803,7 @@
 
 		/* handle nested tags */
 		while (tag && tag->object.type == OBJ_TAG) {
-			parse_object(&tag->object.oid);
+			parse_object(the_repository, &tag->object.oid);
 			string_list_append(&extra_refs, full_name)->util = tag;
 			tag = (struct tag *)tag->tagged;
 		}
@@ -861,10 +866,11 @@
 		 * This ref will not be updated through a commit, lets make
 		 * sure it gets properly updated eventually.
 		 */
-		if (commit->util || commit->object.flags & SHOWN)
+		if (*revision_sources_at(&revision_sources, commit) ||
+		    commit->object.flags & SHOWN)
 			string_list_append(&extra_refs, full_name)->util = commit;
-		if (!commit->util)
-			commit->util = full_name;
+		if (!*revision_sources_at(&revision_sources, commit))
+			*revision_sources_at(&revision_sources, commit) = full_name;
 	}
 }
 
@@ -957,7 +963,7 @@
 			/* only commits */
 			continue;
 
-		commit = lookup_commit(&oid);
+		commit = lookup_commit(the_repository, &oid);
 		if (!commit)
 			die("not a commit? can't happen: %s", oid_to_hex(&oid));
 
@@ -1028,8 +1034,9 @@
 	git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
 
 	init_revisions(&revs, prefix);
+	init_revision_sources(&revision_sources);
 	revs.topo_order = 1;
-	revs.show_source = 1;
+	revs.sources = &revision_sources;
 	revs.rewrite_parents = 1;
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options, fast_export_usage,
 			PARSE_OPT_KEEP_ARGV0 | PARSE_OPT_KEEP_UNKNOWN);
diff --git a/builtin/fetch.c b/builtin/fetch.c
index ea5b966..61bec5d 100644
--- a/builtin/fetch.c
+++ b/builtin/fetch.c
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
 #include "repository.h"
 #include "refs.h"
 #include "refspec.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "string-list.h"
@@ -63,6 +64,7 @@
 static struct refspec refmap = REFSPEC_INIT_FETCH;
 static struct list_objects_filter_options filter_options;
 static struct string_list server_options = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
+static struct string_list negotiation_tip = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
 
 static int git_fetch_config(const char *k, const char *v, void *cb)
 {
@@ -93,19 +95,6 @@
 	return git_default_config(k, v, cb);
 }
 
-static int gitmodules_fetch_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
-{
-	if (!strcmp(var, "submodule.fetchjobs")) {
-		max_children = parse_submodule_fetchjobs(var, value);
-		return 0;
-	} else if (!strcmp(var, "fetch.recursesubmodules")) {
-		recurse_submodules = parse_fetch_recurse_submodules_arg(var, value);
-		return 0;
-	}
-
-	return 0;
-}
-
 static int parse_refmap_arg(const struct option *opt, const char *arg, int unset)
 {
 	/*
@@ -174,6 +163,8 @@
 			TRANSPORT_FAMILY_IPV4),
 	OPT_SET_INT('6', "ipv6", &family, N_("use IPv6 addresses only"),
 			TRANSPORT_FAMILY_IPV6),
+	OPT_STRING_LIST(0, "negotiation-tip", &negotiation_tip, N_("revision"),
+			N_("report that we have only objects reachable from this object")),
 	OPT_PARSE_LIST_OBJECTS_FILTER(&filter_options),
 	OPT_END()
 };
@@ -254,9 +245,9 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static void find_non_local_tags(struct transport *transport,
-			struct ref **head,
-			struct ref ***tail)
+static void find_non_local_tags(const struct ref *refs,
+				struct ref **head,
+				struct ref ***tail)
 {
 	struct string_list existing_refs = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
 	struct string_list remote_refs = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
@@ -264,7 +255,7 @@
 	struct string_list_item *item = NULL;
 
 	for_each_ref(add_existing, &existing_refs);
-	for (ref = transport_get_remote_refs(transport, NULL); ref; ref = ref->next) {
+	for (ref = refs; ref; ref = ref->next) {
 		if (!starts_with(ref->name, "refs/tags/"))
 			continue;
 
@@ -338,7 +329,8 @@
 	string_list_clear(&remote_refs, 0);
 }
 
-static struct ref *get_ref_map(struct transport *transport,
+static struct ref *get_ref_map(struct remote *remote,
+			       const struct ref *remote_refs,
 			       struct refspec *rs,
 			       int tags, int *autotags)
 {
@@ -346,26 +338,11 @@
 	struct ref *rm;
 	struct ref *ref_map = NULL;
 	struct ref **tail = &ref_map;
-	struct argv_array ref_prefixes = ARGV_ARRAY_INIT;
 
 	/* opportunistically-updated references: */
 	struct ref *orefs = NULL, **oref_tail = &orefs;
 
-	const struct ref *remote_refs;
-
-	if (rs->nr)
-		refspec_ref_prefixes(rs, &ref_prefixes);
-	else if (transport->remote && transport->remote->fetch.nr)
-		refspec_ref_prefixes(&transport->remote->fetch, &ref_prefixes);
-
-	if (ref_prefixes.argc &&
-	    (tags == TAGS_SET || (tags == TAGS_DEFAULT && !rs->nr))) {
-		argv_array_push(&ref_prefixes, "refs/tags/");
-	}
-
-	remote_refs = transport_get_remote_refs(transport, &ref_prefixes);
-
-	argv_array_clear(&ref_prefixes);
+	struct string_list existing_refs = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
 
 	if (rs->nr) {
 		struct refspec *fetch_refspec;
@@ -402,7 +379,7 @@
 		if (refmap.nr)
 			fetch_refspec = &refmap;
 		else
-			fetch_refspec = &transport->remote->fetch;
+			fetch_refspec = &remote->fetch;
 
 		for (i = 0; i < fetch_refspec->nr; i++)
 			get_fetch_map(ref_map, &fetch_refspec->items[i], &oref_tail, 1);
@@ -410,7 +387,6 @@
 		die("--refmap option is only meaningful with command-line refspec(s).");
 	} else {
 		/* Use the defaults */
-		struct remote *remote = transport->remote;
 		struct branch *branch = branch_get(NULL);
 		int has_merge = branch_has_merge_config(branch);
 		if (remote &&
@@ -449,7 +425,7 @@
 		/* also fetch all tags */
 		get_fetch_map(remote_refs, tag_refspec, &tail, 0);
 	else if (tags == TAGS_DEFAULT && *autotags)
-		find_non_local_tags(transport, &ref_map, &tail);
+		find_non_local_tags(remote_refs, &ref_map, &tail);
 
 	/* Now append any refs to be updated opportunistically: */
 	*tail = orefs;
@@ -458,7 +434,23 @@
 		tail = &rm->next;
 	}
 
-	return ref_remove_duplicates(ref_map);
+	ref_map = ref_remove_duplicates(ref_map);
+
+	for_each_ref(add_existing, &existing_refs);
+	for (rm = ref_map; rm; rm = rm->next) {
+		if (rm->peer_ref) {
+			struct string_list_item *peer_item =
+				string_list_lookup(&existing_refs,
+						   rm->peer_ref->name);
+			if (peer_item) {
+				struct object_id *old_oid = peer_item->util;
+				oidcpy(&rm->peer_ref->old_oid, old_oid);
+			}
+		}
+	}
+	string_list_clear(&existing_refs, 1);
+
+	return ref_map;
 }
 
 #define STORE_REF_ERROR_OTHER 1
@@ -683,8 +675,10 @@
 		return r;
 	}
 
-	current = lookup_commit_reference_gently(&ref->old_oid, 1);
-	updated = lookup_commit_reference_gently(&ref->new_oid, 1);
+	current = lookup_commit_reference_gently(the_repository,
+						 &ref->old_oid, 1);
+	updated = lookup_commit_reference_gently(the_repository,
+						 &ref->new_oid, 1);
 	if (!current || !updated) {
 		const char *msg;
 		const char *what;
@@ -768,7 +762,7 @@
 }
 
 static int store_updated_refs(const char *raw_url, const char *remote_name,
-		struct ref *ref_map)
+			      int connectivity_checked, struct ref *ref_map)
 {
 	FILE *fp;
 	struct commit *commit;
@@ -777,7 +771,7 @@
 	const char *what, *kind;
 	struct ref *rm;
 	char *url;
-	const char *filename = dry_run ? "/dev/null" : git_path_fetch_head();
+	const char *filename = dry_run ? "/dev/null" : git_path_fetch_head(the_repository);
 	int want_status;
 	int summary_width = transport_summary_width(ref_map);
 
@@ -790,10 +784,12 @@
 	else
 		url = xstrdup("foreign");
 
-	rm = ref_map;
-	if (check_connected(iterate_ref_map, &rm, NULL)) {
-		rc = error(_("%s did not send all necessary objects\n"), url);
-		goto abort;
+	if (!connectivity_checked) {
+		rm = ref_map;
+		if (check_connected(iterate_ref_map, &rm, NULL)) {
+			rc = error(_("%s did not send all necessary objects\n"), url);
+			goto abort;
+		}
 	}
 
 	prepare_format_display(ref_map);
@@ -817,7 +813,8 @@
 				continue;
 			}
 
-			commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(&rm->old_oid,
+			commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(the_repository,
+								&rm->old_oid,
 								1);
 			if (!commit)
 				rm->fetch_head_status = FETCH_HEAD_NOT_FOR_MERGE;
@@ -951,9 +948,24 @@
 	if (ret)
 		ret = transport_fetch_refs(transport, ref_map);
 	if (!ret)
-		ret |= store_updated_refs(transport->url,
-				transport->remote->name,
-				ref_map);
+		/*
+		 * Keep the new pack's ".keep" file around to allow the caller
+		 * time to update refs to reference the new objects.
+		 */
+		return 0;
+	transport_unlock_pack(transport);
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/* Update local refs based on the ref values fetched from a remote */
+static int consume_refs(struct transport *transport, struct ref *ref_map)
+{
+	int connectivity_checked = transport->smart_options
+		? transport->smart_options->connectivity_checked : 0;
+	int ret = store_updated_refs(transport->url,
+				     transport->remote->name,
+				     connectivity_checked,
+				     ref_map);
 	transport_unlock_pack(transport);
 	return ret;
 }
@@ -1029,7 +1041,7 @@
 
 static int truncate_fetch_head(void)
 {
-	const char *filename = git_path_fetch_head();
+	const char *filename = git_path_fetch_head(the_repository);
 	FILE *fp = fopen_for_writing(filename);
 
 	if (!fp)
@@ -1049,6 +1061,40 @@
 			name, transport->url);
 }
 
+
+static int add_oid(const char *refname, const struct object_id *oid, int flags,
+		   void *cb_data)
+{
+	struct oid_array *oids = cb_data;
+
+	oid_array_append(oids, oid);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static void add_negotiation_tips(struct git_transport_options *smart_options)
+{
+	struct oid_array *oids = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*oids));
+	int i;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < negotiation_tip.nr; i++) {
+		const char *s = negotiation_tip.items[i].string;
+		int old_nr;
+		if (!has_glob_specials(s)) {
+			struct object_id oid;
+			if (get_oid(s, &oid))
+				die("%s is not a valid object", s);
+			oid_array_append(oids, &oid);
+			continue;
+		}
+		old_nr = oids->nr;
+		for_each_glob_ref(add_oid, s, oids);
+		if (old_nr == oids->nr)
+			warning("Ignoring --negotiation-tip=%s because it does not match any refs",
+				s);
+	}
+	smart_options->negotiation_tips = oids;
+}
+
 static struct transport *prepare_transport(struct remote *remote, int deepen)
 {
 	struct transport *transport;
@@ -1075,6 +1121,12 @@
 			   filter_options.filter_spec);
 		set_option(transport, TRANS_OPT_FROM_PROMISOR, "1");
 	}
+	if (negotiation_tip.nr) {
+		if (transport->smart_options)
+			add_negotiation_tips(transport->smart_options);
+		else
+			warning("Ignoring --negotiation-tip because the protocol does not support it.");
+	}
 	return transport;
 }
 
@@ -1099,7 +1151,8 @@
 	transport_set_option(transport, TRANS_OPT_FOLLOWTAGS, NULL);
 	transport_set_option(transport, TRANS_OPT_DEPTH, "0");
 	transport_set_option(transport, TRANS_OPT_DEEPEN_RELATIVE, NULL);
-	fetch_refs(transport, ref_map);
+	if (!fetch_refs(transport, ref_map))
+		consume_refs(transport, ref_map);
 
 	if (gsecondary) {
 		transport_disconnect(gsecondary);
@@ -1110,13 +1163,11 @@
 static int do_fetch(struct transport *transport,
 		    struct refspec *rs)
 {
-	struct string_list existing_refs = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
 	struct ref *ref_map;
-	struct ref *rm;
 	int autotags = (transport->remote->fetch_tags == 1);
 	int retcode = 0;
-
-	for_each_ref(add_existing, &existing_refs);
+	const struct ref *remote_refs;
+	struct argv_array ref_prefixes = ARGV_ARRAY_INIT;
 
 	if (tags == TAGS_DEFAULT) {
 		if (transport->remote->fetch_tags == 2)
@@ -1132,22 +1183,24 @@
 			goto cleanup;
 	}
 
-	ref_map = get_ref_map(transport, rs, tags, &autotags);
+	if (rs->nr)
+		refspec_ref_prefixes(rs, &ref_prefixes);
+	else if (transport->remote && transport->remote->fetch.nr)
+		refspec_ref_prefixes(&transport->remote->fetch, &ref_prefixes);
+
+	if (ref_prefixes.argc &&
+	    (tags == TAGS_SET || (tags == TAGS_DEFAULT))) {
+		argv_array_push(&ref_prefixes, "refs/tags/");
+	}
+
+	remote_refs = transport_get_remote_refs(transport, &ref_prefixes);
+	argv_array_clear(&ref_prefixes);
+
+	ref_map = get_ref_map(transport->remote, remote_refs, rs,
+			      tags, &autotags);
 	if (!update_head_ok)
 		check_not_current_branch(ref_map);
 
-	for (rm = ref_map; rm; rm = rm->next) {
-		if (rm->peer_ref) {
-			struct string_list_item *peer_item =
-				string_list_lookup(&existing_refs,
-						   rm->peer_ref->name);
-			if (peer_item) {
-				struct object_id *old_oid = peer_item->util;
-				oidcpy(&rm->peer_ref->old_oid, old_oid);
-			}
-		}
-	}
-
 	if (tags == TAGS_DEFAULT && autotags)
 		transport_set_option(transport, TRANS_OPT_FOLLOWTAGS, "1");
 	if (prune) {
@@ -1164,7 +1217,7 @@
 				   transport->url);
 		}
 	}
-	if (fetch_refs(transport, ref_map)) {
+	if (fetch_refs(transport, ref_map) || consume_refs(transport, ref_map)) {
 		free_refs(ref_map);
 		retcode = 1;
 		goto cleanup;
@@ -1176,14 +1229,13 @@
 	if (tags == TAGS_DEFAULT && autotags) {
 		struct ref **tail = &ref_map;
 		ref_map = NULL;
-		find_non_local_tags(transport, &ref_map, &tail);
+		find_non_local_tags(remote_refs, &ref_map, &tail);
 		if (ref_map)
 			backfill_tags(transport, ref_map);
 		free_refs(ref_map);
 	}
 
  cleanup:
-	string_list_clear(&existing_refs, 1);
 	return retcode;
 }
 
@@ -1433,7 +1485,7 @@
 	for (i = 1; i < argc; i++)
 		strbuf_addf(&default_rla, " %s", argv[i]);
 
-	config_from_gitmodules(gitmodules_fetch_config, NULL);
+	fetch_config_from_gitmodules(&max_children, &recurse_submodules);
 	git_config(git_fetch_config, NULL);
 
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix,
@@ -1449,7 +1501,7 @@
 	if (unshallow) {
 		if (depth)
 			die(_("--depth and --unshallow cannot be used together"));
-		else if (!is_repository_shallow())
+		else if (!is_repository_shallow(the_repository))
 			die(_("--unshallow on a complete repository does not make sense"));
 		else
 			depth = xstrfmt("%d", INFINITE_DEPTH);
diff --git a/builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c b/builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c
index bd680be..f35ff16 100644
--- a/builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c
+++ b/builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c
@@ -2,6 +2,7 @@
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "config.h"
 #include "refs.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "diff.h"
 #include "revision.h"
@@ -10,6 +11,7 @@
 #include "branch.h"
 #include "fmt-merge-msg.h"
 #include "gpg-interface.h"
+#include "repository.h"
 
 static const char * const fmt_merge_msg_usage[] = {
 	N_("git fmt-merge-msg [-m <message>] [--log[=<n>] | --no-log] [--file <file>]"),
@@ -108,14 +110,15 @@
 	struct string_list_item *item;
 	int pulling_head = 0;
 	struct object_id oid;
+	const unsigned hexsz = the_hash_algo->hexsz;
 
-	if (len < GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 3 || line[GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ] != '\t')
+	if (len < hexsz + 3 || line[hexsz] != '\t')
 		return 1;
 
-	if (starts_with(line + GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 1, "not-for-merge"))
+	if (starts_with(line + hexsz + 1, "not-for-merge"))
 		return 0;
 
-	if (line[GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 1] != '\t')
+	if (line[hexsz + 1] != '\t')
 		return 2;
 
 	i = get_oid_hex(line, &oid);
@@ -130,7 +133,7 @@
 
 	if (line[len - 1] == '\n')
 		line[len - 1] = 0;
-	line += GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 2;
+	line += hexsz + 2;
 
 	/*
 	 * At this point, line points at the beginning of comment e.g.
@@ -342,7 +345,9 @@
 	const struct object_id *oid = &origin_data->oid;
 	int limit = opts->shortlog_len;
 
-	branch = deref_tag(parse_object(oid), oid_to_hex(oid), GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ);
+	branch = deref_tag(the_repository, parse_object(the_repository, oid),
+			   oid_to_hex(oid),
+			   the_hash_algo->hexsz);
 	if (!branch || branch->type != OBJ_COMMIT)
 		return;
 
@@ -545,6 +550,7 @@
 		int len;
 		char *p = in->buf + pos;
 		char *newline = strchr(p, '\n');
+		const char *q;
 		struct object_id oid;
 		struct commit *parent;
 		struct object *obj;
@@ -552,24 +558,23 @@
 		len = newline ? newline - p : strlen(p);
 		pos += len + !!newline;
 
-		if (len < GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 3 ||
-		    get_oid_hex(p, &oid) ||
-		    p[GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ] != '\t' ||
-		    p[GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 1] != '\t')
+		if (parse_oid_hex(p, &oid, &q) ||
+		    q[0] != '\t' ||
+		    q[1] != '\t')
 			continue; /* skip not-for-merge */
 		/*
 		 * Do not use get_merge_parent() here; we do not have
 		 * "name" here and we do not want to contaminate its
 		 * util field yet.
 		 */
-		obj = parse_object(&oid);
+		obj = parse_object(the_repository, &oid);
 		parent = (struct commit *)peel_to_type(NULL, 0, obj, OBJ_COMMIT);
 		if (!parent)
 			continue;
 		commit_list_insert(parent, &parents);
 		add_merge_parent(result, &obj->oid, &parent->object.oid);
 	}
-	head_commit = lookup_commit(head);
+	head_commit = lookup_commit(the_repository, head);
 	if (head_commit)
 		commit_list_insert(head_commit, &parents);
 	reduce_heads_replace(&parents);
@@ -623,7 +628,7 @@
 		i++;
 		p[len] = 0;
 		if (handle_line(p, &merge_parents))
-			die ("Error in line %d: %.*s", i, len, p);
+			die("error in line %d: %.*s", i, len, p);
 	}
 
 	if (opts->add_title && srcs.nr)
diff --git a/builtin/fsck.c b/builtin/fsck.c
index 3ad4f16..250f5af 100644
--- a/builtin/fsck.c
+++ b/builtin/fsck.c
@@ -18,6 +18,7 @@
 #include "decorate.h"
 #include "packfile.h"
 #include "object-store.h"
+#include "run-command.h"
 
 #define REACHABLE 0x0001
 #define SEEN      0x0002
@@ -47,6 +48,7 @@
 #define ERROR_REACHABLE 02
 #define ERROR_PACK 04
 #define ERROR_REFS 010
+#define ERROR_COMMIT_GRAPH 020
 
 static const char *describe_object(struct object *obj)
 {
@@ -70,7 +72,7 @@
 		enum object_type type = oid_object_info(the_repository,
 							&obj->oid, NULL);
 		if (type > 0)
-			object_as_type(obj, type, 0);
+			object_as_type(the_repository, obj, type, 0);
 	}
 
 	ret = type_name(obj->type);
@@ -392,7 +394,8 @@
 	 * verify_packfile(), data_valid variable for details.
 	 */
 	struct object *obj;
-	obj = parse_object_buffer(oid, type, size, buffer, eaten);
+	obj = parse_object_buffer(the_repository, oid, type, size, buffer,
+				  eaten);
 	if (!obj) {
 		errors_found |= ERROR_OBJECT;
 		return error("%s: object corrupt or missing", oid_to_hex(oid));
@@ -410,7 +413,7 @@
 	struct object *obj;
 
 	if (!is_null_oid(oid)) {
-		obj = lookup_object(oid->hash);
+		obj = lookup_object(the_repository, oid->hash);
 		if (obj && (obj->flags & HAS_OBJ)) {
 			if (timestamp && name_objects)
 				add_decoration(fsck_walk_options.object_names,
@@ -452,7 +455,7 @@
 {
 	struct object *obj;
 
-	obj = parse_object(oid);
+	obj = parse_object(the_repository, oid);
 	if (!obj) {
 		if (is_promisor_object(oid)) {
 			/*
@@ -525,7 +528,9 @@
 	if (!contents && type != OBJ_BLOB)
 		BUG("read_loose_object streamed a non-blob");
 
-	obj = parse_object_buffer(oid, type, size, contents, &eaten);
+	obj = parse_object_buffer(the_repository, oid, type, size,
+				  contents, &eaten);
+
 	if (!obj) {
 		errors_found |= ERROR_OBJECT;
 		error("%s: object could not be parsed: %s",
@@ -614,7 +619,7 @@
 		fprintf(stderr, "Checking cache tree\n");
 
 	if (0 <= it->entry_count) {
-		struct object *obj = parse_object(&it->oid);
+		struct object *obj = parse_object(the_repository, &it->oid);
 		if (!obj) {
 			error("%s: invalid sha1 pointer in cache-tree",
 			      oid_to_hex(&it->oid));
@@ -689,7 +694,7 @@
 	fetch_if_missing = 0;
 
 	errors_found = 0;
-	check_replace_refs = 0;
+	read_replace_refs = 0;
 
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, fsck_opts, fsck_usage, 0);
 
@@ -763,7 +768,8 @@
 		const char *arg = argv[i];
 		struct object_id oid;
 		if (!get_oid(arg, &oid)) {
-			struct object *obj = lookup_object(oid.hash);
+			struct object *obj = lookup_object(the_repository,
+							   oid.hash);
 
 			if (!obj || !(obj->flags & HAS_OBJ)) {
 				if (is_promisor_object(&oid))
@@ -806,7 +812,8 @@
 			mode = active_cache[i]->ce_mode;
 			if (S_ISGITLINK(mode))
 				continue;
-			blob = lookup_blob(&active_cache[i]->oid);
+			blob = lookup_blob(the_repository,
+					   &active_cache[i]->oid);
 			if (!blob)
 				continue;
 			obj = &blob->object;
@@ -822,5 +829,24 @@
 	}
 
 	check_connectivity();
+
+	if (!git_config_get_bool("core.commitgraph", &i) && i) {
+		struct child_process commit_graph_verify = CHILD_PROCESS_INIT;
+		const char *verify_argv[] = { "commit-graph", "verify", NULL, NULL, NULL };
+
+		commit_graph_verify.argv = verify_argv;
+		commit_graph_verify.git_cmd = 1;
+		if (run_command(&commit_graph_verify))
+			errors_found |= ERROR_COMMIT_GRAPH;
+
+		prepare_alt_odb(the_repository);
+		for (alt =  the_repository->objects->alt_odb_list; alt; alt = alt->next) {
+			verify_argv[2] = "--object-dir";
+			verify_argv[3] = alt->path;
+			if (run_command(&commit_graph_verify))
+				errors_found |= ERROR_COMMIT_GRAPH;
+		}
+	}
+
 	return errors_found;
 }
diff --git a/builtin/gc.c b/builtin/gc.c
index ccfb1ce..5706944 100644
--- a/builtin/gc.c
+++ b/builtin/gc.c
@@ -20,6 +20,7 @@
 #include "sigchain.h"
 #include "argv-array.h"
 #include "commit.h"
+#include "commit-graph.h"
 #include "packfile.h"
 #include "object-store.h"
 #include "pack.h"
@@ -40,6 +41,7 @@
 static int aggressive_window = 250;
 static int gc_auto_threshold = 6700;
 static int gc_auto_pack_limit = 50;
+static int gc_write_commit_graph;
 static int detach_auto = 1;
 static timestamp_t gc_log_expire_time;
 static const char *gc_log_expire = "1.day.ago";
@@ -129,6 +131,7 @@
 	git_config_get_int("gc.aggressivedepth", &aggressive_depth);
 	git_config_get_int("gc.auto", &gc_auto_threshold);
 	git_config_get_int("gc.autopacklimit", &gc_auto_pack_limit);
+	git_config_get_bool("gc.writecommitgraph", &gc_write_commit_graph);
 	git_config_get_bool("gc.autodetach", &detach_auto);
 	git_config_get_expiry("gc.pruneexpire", &prune_expire);
 	git_config_get_expiry("gc.worktreepruneexpire", &prune_worktrees_expire);
@@ -612,6 +615,7 @@
 		return -1;
 
 	if (!repository_format_precious_objects) {
+		close_all_packs(the_repository->objects);
 		if (run_command_v_opt(repack.argv, RUN_GIT_CMD))
 			return error(FAILED_RUN, repack.argv[0]);
 
@@ -641,6 +645,9 @@
 	if (pack_garbage.nr > 0)
 		clean_pack_garbage();
 
+	if (gc_write_commit_graph)
+		write_commit_graph_reachable(get_object_directory(), 0);
+
 	if (auto_gc && too_many_loose_objects())
 		warning(_("There are too many unreachable loose objects; "
 			"run 'git prune' to remove them."));
diff --git a/builtin/grep.c b/builtin/grep.c
index ee753a4..601f801 100644
--- a/builtin/grep.c
+++ b/builtin/grep.c
@@ -489,7 +489,7 @@
 	}
 
 	if (repo_read_index(repo) < 0)
-		die("index file corrupt");
+		die(_("index file corrupt"));
 
 	for (nr = 0; nr < repo->index->cache_nr; nr++) {
 		const struct cache_entry *ce = repo->index->cache[nr];
@@ -497,7 +497,7 @@
 		strbuf_addstr(&name, ce->name);
 
 		if (S_ISREG(ce->ce_mode) &&
-		    match_pathspec(pathspec, name.buf, name.len, 0, NULL,
+		    match_pathspec(repo->index, pathspec, name.buf, name.len, 0, NULL,
 				   S_ISDIR(ce->ce_mode) ||
 				   S_ISGITLINK(ce->ce_mode))) {
 			/*
@@ -515,7 +515,7 @@
 				hit |= grep_file(opt, name.buf);
 			}
 		} else if (recurse_submodules && S_ISGITLINK(ce->ce_mode) &&
-			   submodule_path_match(pathspec, name.buf, NULL)) {
+			   submodule_path_match(repo->index, pathspec, name.buf, NULL)) {
 			hit |= grep_submodule(opt, repo, pathspec, NULL, ce->name, ce->name);
 		} else {
 			continue;
@@ -647,7 +647,8 @@
 
 	for (i = 0; i < nr; i++) {
 		struct object *real_obj;
-		real_obj = deref_tag(list->objects[i].item, NULL, 0);
+		real_obj = deref_tag(the_repository, list->objects[i].item,
+				     NULL, 0);
 
 		/* load the gitmodules file for this rev */
 		if (recurse_submodules) {
@@ -678,7 +679,7 @@
 
 	fill_directory(&dir, &the_index, pathspec);
 	for (i = 0; i < dir.nr; i++) {
-		if (!dir_path_match(dir.entries[i], pathspec, 0, NULL))
+		if (!dir_path_match(&the_index, dir.entries[i], pathspec, 0, NULL))
 			continue;
 		hit |= grep_file(opt, dir.entries[i]->name);
 		if (hit && opt->status_only)
@@ -828,6 +829,7 @@
 			    GREP_PATTERN_TYPE_PCRE),
 		OPT_GROUP(""),
 		OPT_BOOL('n', "line-number", &opt.linenum, N_("show line numbers")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "column", &opt.columnnum, N_("show column number of first match")),
 		OPT_NEGBIT('h', NULL, &opt.pathname, N_("don't show filenames"), 1),
 		OPT_BIT('H', NULL, &opt.pathname, N_("show filenames"), 1),
 		OPT_NEGBIT(0, "full-name", &opt.relative,
@@ -842,6 +844,8 @@
 		OPT_BOOL_F('z', "null", &opt.null_following_name,
 			   N_("print NUL after filenames"),
 			   PARSE_OPT_NOCOMPLETE),
+		OPT_BOOL('o', "only-matching", &opt.only_matching,
+			N_("show only matching parts of a line")),
 		OPT_BOOL('c', "count", &opt.count,
 			N_("show the number of matches instead of matching lines")),
 		OPT__COLOR(&opt.color, N_("highlight matches")),
@@ -959,7 +963,11 @@
 	}
 
 	if (!opt.pattern_list)
-		die(_("no pattern given."));
+		die(_("no pattern given"));
+
+	/* --only-matching has no effect with --invert. */
+	if (opt.invert)
+		opt.only_matching = 0;
 
 	/*
 	 * We have to find "--" in a separate pass, because its presence
@@ -1085,19 +1093,19 @@
 	}
 
 	if (recurse_submodules && (!use_index || untracked))
-		die(_("option not supported with --recurse-submodules."));
+		die(_("option not supported with --recurse-submodules"));
 
 	if (!show_in_pager && !opt.status_only)
 		setup_pager();
 
 	if (!use_index && (untracked || cached))
-		die(_("--cached or --untracked cannot be used with --no-index."));
+		die(_("--cached or --untracked cannot be used with --no-index"));
 
 	if (!use_index || untracked) {
 		int use_exclude = (opt_exclude < 0) ? use_index : !!opt_exclude;
 		hit = grep_directory(&opt, &pathspec, use_exclude, use_index);
 	} else if (0 <= opt_exclude) {
-		die(_("--[no-]exclude-standard cannot be used for tracked contents."));
+		die(_("--[no-]exclude-standard cannot be used for tracked contents"));
 	} else if (!list.nr) {
 		if (!cached)
 			setup_work_tree();
@@ -1105,7 +1113,7 @@
 		hit = grep_cache(&opt, the_repository, &pathspec, cached);
 	} else {
 		if (cached)
-			die(_("both --cached and trees are given."));
+			die(_("both --cached and trees are given"));
 
 		hit = grep_objects(&opt, &pathspec, &list);
 	}
diff --git a/builtin/hash-object.c b/builtin/hash-object.c
index a9a3a19..9ada4f4 100644
--- a/builtin/hash-object.c
+++ b/builtin/hash-object.c
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
  */
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "config.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "blob.h"
 #include "quote.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
diff --git a/builtin/help.c b/builtin/help.c
index 58e0a55..8d4f6dd 100644
--- a/builtin/help.c
+++ b/builtin/help.c
@@ -37,6 +37,7 @@
 
 static int show_all = 0;
 static int show_guides = 0;
+static int show_config;
 static int verbose;
 static unsigned int colopts;
 static enum help_format help_format = HELP_FORMAT_NONE;
@@ -45,6 +46,8 @@
 	OPT_BOOL('a', "all", &show_all, N_("print all available commands")),
 	OPT_HIDDEN_BOOL(0, "exclude-guides", &exclude_guides, N_("exclude guides")),
 	OPT_BOOL('g', "guides", &show_guides, N_("print list of useful guides")),
+	OPT_BOOL('c', "config", &show_config, N_("print all configuration variable names")),
+	OPT_SET_INT_F(0, "config-for-completion", &show_config, "", 2, PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN),
 	OPT_SET_INT('m', "man", &help_format, N_("show man page"), HELP_FORMAT_MAN),
 	OPT_SET_INT('w', "web", &help_format, N_("show manual in web browser"),
 			HELP_FORMAT_WEB),
@@ -444,6 +447,19 @@
 		list_commands(colopts, &main_cmds, &other_cmds);
 	}
 
+	if (show_config) {
+		int for_human = show_config == 1;
+
+		if (!for_human) {
+			list_config_help(for_human);
+			return 0;
+		}
+		setup_pager();
+		list_config_help(for_human);
+		printf("\n%s\n", _("'git help config' for more information"));
+		return 0;
+	}
+
 	if (show_guides)
 		list_common_guides_help();
 
diff --git a/builtin/index-pack.c b/builtin/index-pack.c
index 74fe297..9582ead 100644
--- a/builtin/index-pack.c
+++ b/builtin/index-pack.c
@@ -832,7 +832,7 @@
 	if (strict || do_fsck_object) {
 		read_lock();
 		if (type == OBJ_BLOB) {
-			struct blob *blob = lookup_blob(oid);
+			struct blob *blob = lookup_blob(the_repository, oid);
 			if (blob)
 				blob->object.flags |= FLAG_CHECKED;
 			else
@@ -851,7 +851,8 @@
 			 * we do not need to free the memory here, as the
 			 * buf is deleted by the caller.
 			 */
-			obj = parse_object_buffer(oid, type, size, buf,
+			obj = parse_object_buffer(the_repository, oid, type,
+						  size, buf,
 						  &eaten);
 			if (!obj)
 				die(_("invalid %s"), type_name(type));
@@ -1679,7 +1680,7 @@
 	if (argc == 2 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-h"))
 		usage(index_pack_usage);
 
-	check_replace_refs = 0;
+	read_replace_refs = 0;
 	fsck_options.walk = mark_link;
 
 	reset_pack_idx_option(&opts);
diff --git a/builtin/init-db.c b/builtin/init-db.c
index 4ecf909..12ddda7 100644
--- a/builtin/init-db.c
+++ b/builtin/init-db.c
@@ -73,7 +73,8 @@
 			continue;
 		else if (S_ISLNK(st_template.st_mode)) {
 			struct strbuf lnk = STRBUF_INIT;
-			if (strbuf_readlink(&lnk, template_path->buf, 0) < 0)
+			if (strbuf_readlink(&lnk, template_path->buf,
+					    st_template.st_size) < 0)
 				die_errno(_("cannot readlink '%s'"), template_path->buf);
 			if (symlink(lnk.buf, path->buf))
 				die_errno(_("cannot symlink '%s' '%s'"),
diff --git a/builtin/interpret-trailers.c b/builtin/interpret-trailers.c
index b742539..4b87e0d 100644
--- a/builtin/interpret-trailers.c
+++ b/builtin/interpret-trailers.c
@@ -104,6 +104,7 @@
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "unfold", &opts.unfold, N_("join whitespace-continued values")),
 		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "parse", &opts, NULL, N_("set parsing options"),
 			PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_NONEG, parse_opt_parse },
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "no-divider", &opts.no_divider, N_("do not treat --- specially")),
 		OPT_CALLBACK(0, "trailer", &trailers, N_("trailer"),
 				N_("trailer(s) to add"), option_parse_trailer),
 		OPT_END()
diff --git a/builtin/log.c b/builtin/log.c
index 4686f68..e094560 100644
--- a/builtin/log.c
+++ b/builtin/log.c
@@ -7,6 +7,7 @@
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "config.h"
 #include "refs.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "color.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "diff.h"
@@ -28,6 +29,8 @@
 #include "mailmap.h"
 #include "gpg-interface.h"
 #include "progress.h"
+#include "commit-slab.h"
+#include "repository.h"
 
 #define MAIL_DEFAULT_WRAP 72
 
@@ -148,6 +151,7 @@
 	static struct string_list decorate_refs_include = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
 	struct decoration_filter decoration_filter = {&decorate_refs_include,
 						      &decorate_refs_exclude};
+	static struct revision_sources revision_sources;
 
 	const struct option builtin_log_options[] = {
 		OPT__QUIET(&quiet, N_("suppress diff output")),
@@ -194,8 +198,10 @@
 	    rev->diffopt.filter || rev->diffopt.flags.follow_renames)
 		rev->always_show_header = 0;
 
-	if (source)
-		rev->show_source = 1;
+	if (source) {
+		init_revision_sources(&revision_sources);
+		rev->sources = &revision_sources;
+	}
 
 	if (mailmap) {
 		rev->mailmap = xcalloc(1, sizeof(struct string_list));
@@ -614,7 +620,7 @@
 			rev.shown_one = 1;
 			if (ret)
 				break;
-			o = parse_object(&t->tagged->oid);
+			o = parse_object(the_repository, &t->tagged->oid);
 			if (!o)
 				ret = error(_("Could not read object %s"),
 					    oid_to_hex(&t->tagged->oid));
@@ -901,8 +907,8 @@
 	o2 = rev->pending.objects[1].item;
 	flags1 = o1->flags;
 	flags2 = o2->flags;
-	c1 = lookup_commit_reference(&o1->oid);
-	c2 = lookup_commit_reference(&o2->oid);
+	c1 = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, &o1->oid);
+	c2 = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, &o2->oid);
 
 	if ((flags1 & UNINTERESTING) == (flags2 & UNINTERESTING))
 		die(_("Not a range."));
@@ -1337,6 +1343,8 @@
 	return base;
 }
 
+define_commit_slab(commit_base, int);
+
 static void prepare_bases(struct base_tree_info *bases,
 			  struct commit *base,
 			  struct commit **list,
@@ -1345,11 +1353,13 @@
 	struct commit *commit;
 	struct rev_info revs;
 	struct diff_options diffopt;
+	struct commit_base commit_base;
 	int i;
 
 	if (!base)
 		return;
 
+	init_commit_base(&commit_base);
 	diff_setup(&diffopt);
 	diffopt.flags.recursive = 1;
 	diff_setup_done(&diffopt);
@@ -1362,7 +1372,7 @@
 	for (i = 0; i < total; i++) {
 		list[i]->object.flags &= ~UNINTERESTING;
 		add_pending_object(&revs, &list[i]->object, "rev_list");
-		list[i]->util = (void *)1;
+		*commit_base_at(&commit_base, list[i]) = 1;
 	}
 	base->object.flags |= UNINTERESTING;
 	add_pending_object(&revs, &base->object, "base");
@@ -1376,7 +1386,7 @@
 	while ((commit = get_revision(&revs)) != NULL) {
 		struct object_id oid;
 		struct object_id *patch_id;
-		if (commit->util)
+		if (*commit_base_at(&commit_base, commit))
 			continue;
 		if (commit_patch_id(commit, &diffopt, &oid, 0))
 			die(_("cannot get patch id"));
@@ -1385,6 +1395,7 @@
 		oidcpy(patch_id, &oid);
 		bases->nr_patch_id++;
 	}
+	clear_commit_base(&commit_base);
 }
 
 static void print_bases(struct base_tree_info *bases, FILE *file)
@@ -1597,14 +1608,14 @@
 		numbered = 0;
 
 	if (numbered && keep_subject)
-		die (_("-n and -k are mutually exclusive."));
+		die(_("-n and -k are mutually exclusive"));
 	if (keep_subject && subject_prefix)
-		die (_("--subject-prefix/--rfc and -k are mutually exclusive."));
+		die(_("--subject-prefix/--rfc and -k are mutually exclusive"));
 	rev.preserve_subject = keep_subject;
 
 	argc = setup_revisions(argc, argv, &rev, &s_r_opt);
 	if (argc > 1)
-		die (_("unrecognized argument: %s"), argv[1]);
+		die(_("unrecognized argument: %s"), argv[1]);
 
 	if (rev.diffopt.output_format & DIFF_FORMAT_NAME)
 		die(_("--name-only does not make sense"));
@@ -1746,6 +1757,7 @@
 	if (base_commit || base_auto) {
 		struct commit *base = get_base_commit(base_commit, list, nr);
 		reset_revision_walk();
+		clear_object_flags(UNINTERESTING);
 		prepare_bases(&bases, base, list, nr);
 	}
 
@@ -1853,7 +1865,8 @@
 {
 	struct object_id oid;
 	if (get_oid(arg, &oid) == 0) {
-		struct commit *commit = lookup_commit_reference(&oid);
+		struct commit *commit = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository,
+								&oid);
 		if (commit) {
 			commit->object.flags |= flags;
 			add_pending_object(revs, &commit->object, arg);
diff --git a/builtin/ls-files.c b/builtin/ls-files.c
index 88bb201..7f9919a 100644
--- a/builtin/ls-files.c
+++ b/builtin/ls-files.c
@@ -63,7 +63,7 @@
 		struct stat st;
 		const char *i_txt = "";
 		const char *w_txt = "";
-		const char *a_txt = get_convert_attr_ascii(path);
+		const char *a_txt = get_convert_attr_ascii(istate, path);
 		if (ce && S_ISREG(ce->ce_mode))
 			i_txt = get_cached_convert_stats_ascii(istate,
 							       ce->name);
@@ -121,18 +121,19 @@
 	}
 }
 
-static void show_dir_entry(const char *tag, struct dir_entry *ent)
+static void show_dir_entry(const struct index_state *istate,
+			   const char *tag, struct dir_entry *ent)
 {
 	int len = max_prefix_len;
 
 	if (len > ent->len)
 		die("git ls-files: internal error - directory entry not superset of prefix");
 
-	if (!dir_path_match(ent, &pathspec, len, ps_matched))
+	if (!dir_path_match(istate, ent, &pathspec, len, ps_matched))
 		return;
 
 	fputs(tag, stdout);
-	write_eolinfo(NULL, NULL, ent->name);
+	write_eolinfo(istate, NULL, ent->name);
 	write_name(ent->name);
 }
 
@@ -145,7 +146,7 @@
 		struct dir_entry *ent = dir->entries[i];
 		if (!index_name_is_other(istate, ent->name, ent->len))
 			continue;
-		show_dir_entry(tag_other, ent);
+		show_dir_entry(istate, tag_other, ent);
 	}
 }
 
@@ -196,7 +197,7 @@
 			}
 		}
 		if (killed)
-			show_dir_entry(tag_killed, dir->entries[i]);
+			show_dir_entry(istate, tag_killed, dir->entries[i]);
 	}
 }
 
@@ -228,7 +229,7 @@
 	if (recurse_submodules && S_ISGITLINK(ce->ce_mode) &&
 	    is_submodule_active(repo, ce->name)) {
 		show_submodule(repo, dir, ce->name);
-	} else if (match_pathspec(&pathspec, fullname, strlen(fullname),
+	} else if (match_pathspec(repo->index, &pathspec, fullname, strlen(fullname),
 				  max_prefix_len, ps_matched,
 				  S_ISDIR(ce->ce_mode) ||
 				  S_ISGITLINK(ce->ce_mode))) {
@@ -264,7 +265,7 @@
 		len = strlen(path);
 		if (len < max_prefix_len)
 			continue; /* outside of the prefix */
-		if (!match_pathspec(&pathspec, path, len,
+		if (!match_pathspec(istate, &pathspec, path, len,
 				    max_prefix_len, ps_matched, 0))
 			continue; /* uninterested */
 		for (i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
diff --git a/builtin/ls-tree.c b/builtin/ls-tree.c
index 409da4e..fe3b952 100644
--- a/builtin/ls-tree.c
+++ b/builtin/ls-tree.c
@@ -5,6 +5,7 @@
  */
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "config.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "blob.h"
 #include "tree.h"
 #include "commit.h"
diff --git a/builtin/merge-base.c b/builtin/merge-base.c
index 3b76001..08d91b1 100644
--- a/builtin/merge-base.c
+++ b/builtin/merge-base.c
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
 #include "diff.h"
 #include "revision.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
+#include "repository.h"
 
 static int show_merge_base(struct commit **rev, int rev_nr, int show_all)
 {
@@ -42,7 +43,7 @@
 
 	if (get_oid(arg, &revkey))
 		die("Not a valid object name %s", arg);
-	r = lookup_commit_reference(&revkey);
+	r = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, &revkey);
 	if (!r)
 		die("Not a valid commit name %s", arg);
 
@@ -123,7 +124,7 @@
 	if (is_null_oid(oid))
 		return;
 
-	commit = lookup_commit(oid);
+	commit = lookup_commit(the_repository, oid);
 	if (!commit ||
 	    (commit->object.flags & TMP_MARK) ||
 	    parse_commit(commit))
@@ -171,7 +172,7 @@
 	if (get_oid(commitname, &oid))
 		die("Not a valid object name: '%s'", commitname);
 
-	derived = lookup_commit_reference(&oid);
+	derived = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, &oid);
 	memset(&revs, 0, sizeof(revs));
 	revs.initial = 1;
 	for_each_reflog_ent(refname, collect_one_reflog_ent, &revs);
diff --git a/builtin/merge-recursive.c b/builtin/merge-recursive.c
index 0dd9021..9b2f707 100644
--- a/builtin/merge-recursive.c
+++ b/builtin/merge-recursive.c
@@ -9,10 +9,10 @@
 
 static const char *better_branch_name(const char *branch)
 {
-	static char githead_env[8 + GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 1];
+	static char githead_env[8 + GIT_MAX_HEXSZ + 1];
 	char *name;
 
-	if (strlen(branch) != GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ)
+	if (strlen(branch) != the_hash_algo->hexsz)
 		return branch;
 	xsnprintf(githead_env, sizeof(githead_env), "GITHEAD_%s", branch);
 	name = getenv(githead_env);
diff --git a/builtin/merge-tree.c b/builtin/merge-tree.c
index bf01e05..f8023ba 100644
--- a/builtin/merge-tree.c
+++ b/builtin/merge-tree.c
@@ -1,6 +1,8 @@
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "tree-walk.h"
 #include "xdiff-interface.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
+#include "repository.h"
 #include "blob.h"
 #include "exec-cmd.h"
 #include "merge-blobs.h"
@@ -169,7 +171,7 @@
 	res->stage = stage;
 	res->path = path;
 	res->mode = mode;
-	res->blob = lookup_blob(oid);
+	res->blob = lookup_blob(the_repository, oid);
 	return res;
 }
 
diff --git a/builtin/merge.c b/builtin/merge.c
index b00d6f4..8f4a506 100644
--- a/builtin/merge.c
+++ b/builtin/merge.c
@@ -111,6 +111,35 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static int option_read_message(struct parse_opt_ctx_t *ctx,
+			       const struct option *opt, int unset)
+{
+	struct strbuf *buf = opt->value;
+	const char *arg;
+
+	if (unset)
+		BUG("-F cannot be negated");
+
+	if (ctx->opt) {
+		arg = ctx->opt;
+		ctx->opt = NULL;
+	} else if (ctx->argc > 1) {
+		ctx->argc--;
+		arg = *++ctx->argv;
+	} else
+		return opterror(opt, "requires a value", 0);
+
+	if (buf->len)
+		strbuf_addch(buf, '\n');
+	if (ctx->prefix && !is_absolute_path(arg))
+		arg = prefix_filename(ctx->prefix, arg);
+	if (strbuf_read_file(buf, arg, 0) < 0)
+		return error(_("could not read file '%s'"), arg);
+	have_message = 1;
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
 static struct strategy *get_strategy(const char *name)
 {
 	int i;
@@ -228,6 +257,9 @@
 	OPT_CALLBACK('m', "message", &merge_msg, N_("message"),
 		N_("merge commit message (for a non-fast-forward merge)"),
 		option_parse_message),
+	{ OPTION_LOWLEVEL_CALLBACK, 'F', "file", &merge_msg, N_("path"),
+		N_("read message from file"), PARSE_OPT_NONEG,
+		(parse_opt_cb *) option_read_message },
 	OPT__VERBOSITY(&verbosity),
 	OPT_BOOL(0, "abort", &abort_current_merge,
 		N_("abort the current in-progress merge")),
@@ -247,9 +279,9 @@
 /* Cleans up metadata that is uninteresting after a succeeded merge. */
 static void drop_save(void)
 {
-	unlink(git_path_merge_head());
-	unlink(git_path_merge_msg());
-	unlink(git_path_merge_mode());
+	unlink(git_path_merge_head(the_repository));
+	unlink(git_path_merge_msg(the_repository));
+	unlink(git_path_merge_mode(the_repository));
 }
 
 static int save_state(struct object_id *stash)
@@ -382,7 +414,7 @@
 			oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid));
 		pretty_print_commit(&ctx, commit, &out);
 	}
-	write_file_buf(git_path_squash_msg(), out.buf, out.len);
+	write_file_buf(git_path_squash_msg(the_repository), out.buf, out.len);
 	strbuf_release(&out);
 }
 
@@ -445,6 +477,7 @@
 	struct object_id branch_head;
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 	struct strbuf bname = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct merge_remote_desc *desc;
 	const char *ptr;
 	char *found_ref;
 	int len, early;
@@ -517,16 +550,13 @@
 		strbuf_release(&truname);
 	}
 
-	if (remote_head->util) {
-		struct merge_remote_desc *desc;
-		desc = merge_remote_util(remote_head);
-		if (desc && desc->obj && desc->obj->type == OBJ_TAG) {
-			strbuf_addf(msg, "%s\t\t%s '%s'\n",
-				    oid_to_hex(&desc->obj->oid),
-				    type_name(desc->obj->type),
-				    remote);
-			goto cleanup;
-		}
+	desc = merge_remote_util(remote_head);
+	if (desc && desc->obj && desc->obj->type == OBJ_TAG) {
+		strbuf_addf(msg, "%s\t\t%s '%s'\n",
+			    oid_to_hex(&desc->obj->oid),
+			    type_name(desc->obj->type),
+			    remote);
+		goto cleanup;
 	}
 
 	strbuf_addf(msg, "%s\t\tcommit '%s'\n",
@@ -695,7 +725,7 @@
 			exit(128);
 		if (write_locked_index(&the_index, &lock,
 				       COMMIT_LOCK | SKIP_IF_UNCHANGED))
-			die (_("unable to write %s"), get_index_file());
+			die(_("unable to write %s"), get_index_file());
 		return clean ? 0 : 1;
 	} else {
 		return try_merge_command(strategy, xopts_nr, xopts,
@@ -743,7 +773,7 @@
 
 static void read_merge_msg(struct strbuf *msg)
 {
-	const char *filename = git_path_merge_msg();
+	const char *filename = git_path_merge_msg(the_repository);
 	strbuf_reset(msg);
 	if (strbuf_read_file(msg, filename, 0) < 0)
 		die_errno(_("Could not read from '%s'"), filename);
@@ -780,18 +810,18 @@
 	if (signoff)
 		append_signoff(&msg, ignore_non_trailer(msg.buf, msg.len), 0);
 	write_merge_heads(remoteheads);
-	write_file_buf(git_path_merge_msg(), msg.buf, msg.len);
+	write_file_buf(git_path_merge_msg(the_repository), msg.buf, msg.len);
 	if (run_commit_hook(0 < option_edit, get_index_file(), "prepare-commit-msg",
-			    git_path_merge_msg(), "merge", NULL))
+			    git_path_merge_msg(the_repository), "merge", NULL))
 		abort_commit(remoteheads, NULL);
 	if (0 < option_edit) {
-		if (launch_editor(git_path_merge_msg(), NULL, NULL))
+		if (launch_editor(git_path_merge_msg(the_repository), NULL, NULL))
 			abort_commit(remoteheads, NULL);
 	}
 
 	if (verify_msg && run_commit_hook(0 < option_edit, get_index_file(),
 					  "commit-msg",
-					  git_path_merge_msg(), NULL))
+					  git_path_merge_msg(the_repository), NULL))
 		abort_commit(remoteheads, NULL);
 
 	read_merge_msg(&msg);
@@ -861,7 +891,7 @@
 	FILE *fp;
 	struct strbuf msgbuf = STRBUF_INIT;
 
-	filename = git_path_merge_msg();
+	filename = git_path_merge_msg(the_repository);
 	fp = xfopen(filename, "a");
 
 	append_conflicts_hint(&msgbuf);
@@ -934,19 +964,22 @@
 	for (j = remoteheads; j; j = j->next) {
 		struct object_id *oid;
 		struct commit *c = j->item;
-		if (c->util && merge_remote_util(c)->obj) {
-			oid = &merge_remote_util(c)->obj->oid;
+		struct merge_remote_desc *desc;
+
+		desc = merge_remote_util(c);
+		if (desc && desc->obj) {
+			oid = &desc->obj->oid;
 		} else {
 			oid = &c->object.oid;
 		}
 		strbuf_addf(&buf, "%s\n", oid_to_hex(oid));
 	}
-	write_file_buf(git_path_merge_head(), buf.buf, buf.len);
+	write_file_buf(git_path_merge_head(the_repository), buf.buf, buf.len);
 
 	strbuf_reset(&buf);
 	if (fast_forward == FF_NO)
 		strbuf_addstr(&buf, "no-ff");
-	write_file_buf(git_path_merge_mode(), buf.buf, buf.len);
+	write_file_buf(git_path_merge_mode(the_repository), buf.buf, buf.len);
 	strbuf_release(&buf);
 }
 
@@ -954,7 +987,8 @@
 {
 	write_merge_heads(remoteheads);
 	strbuf_addch(&merge_msg, '\n');
-	write_file_buf(git_path_merge_msg(), merge_msg.buf, merge_msg.len);
+	write_file_buf(git_path_merge_msg(the_repository), merge_msg.buf,
+		       merge_msg.len);
 }
 
 static int default_edit_option(void)
@@ -1033,11 +1067,12 @@
 	const char *filename;
 	int fd, pos, npos;
 	struct strbuf fetch_head_file = STRBUF_INIT;
+	const unsigned hexsz = the_hash_algo->hexsz;
 
 	if (!merge_names)
 		merge_names = &fetch_head_file;
 
-	filename = git_path_fetch_head();
+	filename = git_path_fetch_head(the_repository);
 	fd = open(filename, O_RDONLY);
 	if (fd < 0)
 		die_errno(_("could not open '%s' for reading"), filename);
@@ -1058,16 +1093,16 @@
 		else
 			npos = merge_names->len;
 
-		if (npos - pos < GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 2 ||
+		if (npos - pos < hexsz + 2 ||
 		    get_oid_hex(merge_names->buf + pos, &oid))
 			commit = NULL; /* bad */
-		else if (memcmp(merge_names->buf + pos + GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ, "\t\t", 2))
+		else if (memcmp(merge_names->buf + pos + hexsz, "\t\t", 2))
 			continue; /* not-for-merge */
 		else {
-			char saved = merge_names->buf[pos + GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ];
-			merge_names->buf[pos + GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ] = '\0';
+			char saved = merge_names->buf[pos + hexsz];
+			merge_names->buf[pos + hexsz] = '\0';
 			commit = get_merge_parent(merge_names->buf + pos);
-			merge_names->buf[pos + GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ] = saved;
+			merge_names->buf[pos + hexsz] = saved;
 		}
 		if (!commit) {
 			if (ptr)
@@ -1185,14 +1220,15 @@
 	branch = branch_to_free = resolve_refdup("HEAD", 0, &head_oid, NULL);
 	if (branch)
 		skip_prefix(branch, "refs/heads/", &branch);
+
+	init_diff_ui_defaults();
+	git_config(git_merge_config, NULL);
+
 	if (!branch || is_null_oid(&head_oid))
 		head_commit = NULL;
 	else
 		head_commit = lookup_commit_or_die(&head_oid, "HEAD");
 
-	init_diff_ui_defaults();
-	git_config(git_merge_config, NULL);
-
 	if (branch_mergeoptions)
 		parse_branch_merge_options(branch_mergeoptions);
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, builtin_merge_options,
@@ -1211,7 +1247,7 @@
 			usage_msg_opt(_("--abort expects no arguments"),
 			      builtin_merge_usage, builtin_merge_options);
 
-		if (!file_exists(git_path_merge_head()))
+		if (!file_exists(git_path_merge_head(the_repository)))
 			die(_("There is no merge to abort (MERGE_HEAD missing)."));
 
 		/* Invoke 'git reset --merge' */
@@ -1227,7 +1263,7 @@
 			usage_msg_opt(_("--continue expects no arguments"),
 			      builtin_merge_usage, builtin_merge_options);
 
-		if (!file_exists(git_path_merge_head()))
+		if (!file_exists(git_path_merge_head(the_repository)))
 			die(_("There is no merge in progress (MERGE_HEAD missing)."));
 
 		/* Invoke 'git commit' */
@@ -1238,7 +1274,7 @@
 	if (read_cache_unmerged())
 		die_resolve_conflict("merge");
 
-	if (file_exists(git_path_merge_head())) {
+	if (file_exists(git_path_merge_head(the_repository))) {
 		/*
 		 * There is no unmerged entry, don't advise 'git
 		 * add/rm <file>', just 'git commit'.
@@ -1249,7 +1285,7 @@
 		else
 			die(_("You have not concluded your merge (MERGE_HEAD exists)."));
 	}
-	if (file_exists(git_path_cherry_pick_head())) {
+	if (file_exists(git_path_cherry_pick_head(the_repository))) {
 		if (advice_resolve_conflict)
 			die(_("You have not concluded your cherry-pick (CHERRY_PICK_HEAD exists).\n"
 			    "Please, commit your changes before you merge."));
diff --git a/builtin/mktag.c b/builtin/mktag.c
index 82a6e86..6fb7dc8 100644
--- a/builtin/mktag.c
+++ b/builtin/mktag.c
@@ -1,6 +1,7 @@
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "tag.h"
 #include "replace-object.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 
 /*
  * A signature file has a very simple fixed format: four lines
diff --git a/builtin/mktree.c b/builtin/mktree.c
index bb76b46..2dc4ad6 100644
--- a/builtin/mktree.c
+++ b/builtin/mktree.c
@@ -7,6 +7,7 @@
 #include "quote.h"
 #include "tree.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 
 static struct treeent {
 	unsigned mode;
diff --git a/builtin/name-rev.c b/builtin/name-rev.c
index 387ddf8..f1cb45c 100644
--- a/builtin/name-rev.c
+++ b/builtin/name-rev.c
@@ -1,11 +1,13 @@
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "cache.h"
+#include "repository.h"
 #include "config.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "tag.h"
 #include "refs.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
 #include "sha1-lookup.h"
+#include "commit-slab.h"
 
 #define CUTOFF_DATE_SLOP 86400 /* one day */
 
@@ -17,11 +19,26 @@
 	int from_tag;
 } rev_name;
 
+define_commit_slab(commit_rev_name, struct rev_name *);
+
 static timestamp_t cutoff = TIME_MAX;
+static struct commit_rev_name rev_names;
 
 /* How many generations are maximally preferred over _one_ merge traversal? */
 #define MERGE_TRAVERSAL_WEIGHT 65535
 
+static struct rev_name *get_commit_rev_name(struct commit *commit)
+{
+	struct rev_name **slot = commit_rev_name_peek(&rev_names, commit);
+
+	return slot ? *slot : NULL;
+}
+
+static void set_commit_rev_name(struct commit *commit, struct rev_name *name)
+{
+	*commit_rev_name_at(&rev_names, commit) = name;
+}
+
 static int is_better_name(struct rev_name *name,
 			  const char *tip_name,
 			  timestamp_t taggerdate,
@@ -65,7 +82,7 @@
 		int generation, int distance, int from_tag,
 		int deref)
 {
-	struct rev_name *name = (struct rev_name *)commit->util;
+	struct rev_name *name = get_commit_rev_name(commit);
 	struct commit_list *parents;
 	int parent_number = 1;
 	char *to_free = NULL;
@@ -84,7 +101,7 @@
 
 	if (name == NULL) {
 		name = xmalloc(sizeof(rev_name));
-		commit->util = name;
+		set_commit_rev_name(commit, name);
 		goto copy_data;
 	} else if (is_better_name(name, tip_name, taggerdate,
 				  generation, distance, from_tag)) {
@@ -187,7 +204,7 @@
 
 static int name_ref(const char *path, const struct object_id *oid, int flags, void *cb_data)
 {
-	struct object *o = parse_object(oid);
+	struct object *o = parse_object(the_repository, oid);
 	struct name_ref_data *data = cb_data;
 	int can_abbreviate_output = data->tags_only && data->name_only;
 	int deref = 0;
@@ -245,7 +262,7 @@
 		struct tag *t = (struct tag *) o;
 		if (!t->tagged)
 			break; /* broken repository */
-		o = parse_object(&t->tagged->oid);
+		o = parse_object(the_repository, &t->tagged->oid);
 		deref = 1;
 		taggerdate = t->date;
 	}
@@ -296,7 +313,7 @@
 	if (o->type != OBJ_COMMIT)
 		return get_exact_ref_match(o);
 	c = (struct commit *) o;
-	n = c->util;
+	n = get_commit_rev_name(c);
 	if (!n)
 		return NULL;
 
@@ -362,7 +379,8 @@
 			*(p+1) = 0;
 			if (!get_oid(p - (GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ - 1), &oid)) {
 				struct object *o =
-					lookup_object(oid.hash);
+					lookup_object(the_repository,
+						      oid.hash);
 				if (o)
 					name = get_rev_name(o, &buf);
 			}
@@ -413,6 +431,7 @@
 		OPT_END(),
 	};
 
+	init_commit_rev_name(&rev_names);
 	git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, opts, name_rev_usage, 0);
 	if (all + transform_stdin + !!argc > 1) {
@@ -434,9 +453,10 @@
 		}
 
 		commit = NULL;
-		object = parse_object(&oid);
+		object = parse_object(the_repository, &oid);
 		if (object) {
-			struct object *peeled = deref_tag(object, *argv, 0);
+			struct object *peeled = deref_tag(the_repository,
+							  object, *argv, 0);
 			if (peeled && peeled->type == OBJ_COMMIT)
 				commit = (struct commit *)peeled;
 		}
diff --git a/builtin/notes.c b/builtin/notes.c
index 6981e2d..c05cd00 100644
--- a/builtin/notes.c
+++ b/builtin/notes.c
@@ -11,6 +11,8 @@
 #include "config.h"
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "notes.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
+#include "repository.h"
 #include "blob.h"
 #include "pretty.h"
 #include "refs.h"
@@ -710,7 +712,7 @@
 
 	if (get_oid("NOTES_MERGE_PARTIAL", &oid))
 		die(_("failed to read ref NOTES_MERGE_PARTIAL"));
-	else if (!(partial = lookup_commit_reference(&oid)))
+	else if (!(partial = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, &oid)))
 		die(_("could not find commit from NOTES_MERGE_PARTIAL."));
 	else if (parse_commit(partial))
 		die(_("could not parse commit from NOTES_MERGE_PARTIAL."));
diff --git a/builtin/pack-objects.c b/builtin/pack-objects.c
index 71056d8..2eba0a6 100644
--- a/builtin/pack-objects.c
+++ b/builtin/pack-objects.c
@@ -140,7 +140,7 @@
 
 	buf = read_object_file(&entry->idx.oid, &type, &size);
 	if (!buf)
-		die("unable to read %s", oid_to_hex(&entry->idx.oid));
+		die(_("unable to read %s"), oid_to_hex(&entry->idx.oid));
 	base_buf = read_object_file(&DELTA(entry)->idx.oid, &type,
 				    &base_size);
 	if (!base_buf)
@@ -148,8 +148,13 @@
 		    oid_to_hex(&DELTA(entry)->idx.oid));
 	delta_buf = diff_delta(base_buf, base_size,
 			       buf, size, &delta_size, 0);
+	/*
+	 * We succesfully computed this delta once but dropped it for
+	 * memory reasons. Something is very wrong if this time we
+	 * recompute and create a different delta.
+	 */
 	if (!delta_buf || delta_size != DELTA_SIZE(entry))
-		die("delta size changed");
+		BUG("delta size changed");
 	free(buf);
 	free(base_buf);
 	return delta_buf;
@@ -406,7 +411,7 @@
 	datalen = revidx[1].offset - offset;
 	if (!pack_to_stdout && p->index_version > 1 &&
 	    check_pack_crc(p, &w_curs, offset, datalen, revidx->nr)) {
-		error("bad packed object CRC for %s",
+		error(_("bad packed object CRC for %s"),
 		      oid_to_hex(&entry->idx.oid));
 		unuse_pack(&w_curs);
 		return write_no_reuse_object(f, entry, limit, usable_delta);
@@ -417,7 +422,7 @@
 
 	if (!pack_to_stdout && p->index_version == 1 &&
 	    check_pack_inflate(p, &w_curs, offset, datalen, entry_size)) {
-		error("corrupt packed object for %s",
+		error(_("corrupt packed object for %s"),
 		      oid_to_hex(&entry->idx.oid));
 		unuse_pack(&w_curs);
 		return write_no_reuse_object(f, entry, limit, usable_delta);
@@ -548,7 +553,7 @@
 	 */
 	recursing = (e->idx.offset == 1);
 	if (recursing) {
-		warning("recursive delta detected for object %s",
+		warning(_("recursive delta detected for object %s"),
 			oid_to_hex(&e->idx.oid));
 		return WRITE_ONE_RECURSIVE;
 	} else if (e->idx.offset || e->preferred_base) {
@@ -582,7 +587,7 @@
 
 	/* make sure off_t is sufficiently large not to wrap */
 	if (signed_add_overflows(*offset, size))
-		die("pack too large for current definition of off_t");
+		die(_("pack too large for current definition of off_t"));
 	*offset += size;
 	return WRITE_ONE_WRITTEN;
 }
@@ -748,7 +753,8 @@
 	}
 
 	if (wo_end != to_pack.nr_objects)
-		die("ordered %u objects, expected %"PRIu32, wo_end, to_pack.nr_objects);
+		die(_("ordered %u objects, expected %"PRIu32),
+		    wo_end, to_pack.nr_objects);
 
 	return wo;
 }
@@ -760,15 +766,15 @@
 	int fd;
 
 	if (!is_pack_valid(reuse_packfile))
-		die("packfile is invalid: %s", reuse_packfile->pack_name);
+		die(_("packfile is invalid: %s"), reuse_packfile->pack_name);
 
 	fd = git_open(reuse_packfile->pack_name);
 	if (fd < 0)
-		die_errno("unable to open packfile for reuse: %s",
+		die_errno(_("unable to open packfile for reuse: %s"),
 			  reuse_packfile->pack_name);
 
 	if (lseek(fd, sizeof(struct pack_header), SEEK_SET) == -1)
-		die_errno("unable to seek in reused packfile");
+		die_errno(_("unable to seek in reused packfile"));
 
 	if (reuse_packfile_offset < 0)
 		reuse_packfile_offset = reuse_packfile->pack_size - the_hash_algo->rawsz;
@@ -779,7 +785,7 @@
 		int read_pack = xread(fd, buffer, sizeof(buffer));
 
 		if (read_pack <= 0)
-			die_errno("unable to read from reused packfile");
+			die_errno(_("unable to read from reused packfile"));
 
 		if (read_pack > to_write)
 			read_pack = to_write;
@@ -882,7 +888,7 @@
 			 * to preserve this property.
 			 */
 			if (stat(pack_tmp_name, &st) < 0) {
-				warning_errno("failed to stat %s", pack_tmp_name);
+				warning_errno(_("failed to stat %s"), pack_tmp_name);
 			} else if (!last_mtime) {
 				last_mtime = st.st_mtime;
 			} else {
@@ -890,7 +896,7 @@
 				utb.actime = st.st_atime;
 				utb.modtime = --last_mtime;
 				if (utime(pack_tmp_name, &utb) < 0)
-					warning_errno("failed utime() on %s", pack_tmp_name);
+					warning_errno(_("failed utime() on %s"), pack_tmp_name);
 			}
 
 			strbuf_addf(&tmpname, "%s-", base_name);
@@ -935,8 +941,8 @@
 	free(write_order);
 	stop_progress(&progress_state);
 	if (written != nr_result)
-		die("wrote %"PRIu32" objects while expecting %"PRIu32,
-			written, nr_result);
+		die(_("wrote %"PRIu32" objects while expecting %"PRIu32),
+		    written, nr_result);
 }
 
 static int no_try_delta(const char *path)
@@ -945,8 +951,7 @@
 
 	if (!check)
 		check = attr_check_initl("delta", NULL);
-	if (git_check_attr(path, check))
-		return 0;
+	git_check_attr(&the_index, path, check);
 	if (ATTR_FALSE(check->items[0].value))
 		return 1;
 	return 0;
@@ -1480,7 +1485,7 @@
 			while (c & 128) {
 				ofs += 1;
 				if (!ofs || MSB(ofs, 7)) {
-					error("delta base offset overflow in pack for %s",
+					error(_("delta base offset overflow in pack for %s"),
 					      oid_to_hex(&entry->idx.oid));
 					goto give_up;
 				}
@@ -1489,7 +1494,7 @@
 			}
 			ofs = entry->in_pack_offset - ofs;
 			if (ofs <= 0 || ofs >= entry->in_pack_offset) {
-				error("delta base offset out of bound for %s",
+				error(_("delta base offset out of bound for %s"),
 				      oid_to_hex(&entry->idx.oid));
 				goto give_up;
 			}
@@ -1852,18 +1857,30 @@
 
 #ifndef NO_PTHREADS
 
+/* Protect access to object database */
 static pthread_mutex_t read_mutex;
 #define read_lock()		pthread_mutex_lock(&read_mutex)
 #define read_unlock()		pthread_mutex_unlock(&read_mutex)
 
+/* Protect delta_cache_size */
 static pthread_mutex_t cache_mutex;
 #define cache_lock()		pthread_mutex_lock(&cache_mutex)
 #define cache_unlock()		pthread_mutex_unlock(&cache_mutex)
 
+/*
+ * Protect object list partitioning (e.g. struct thread_param) and
+ * progress_state
+ */
 static pthread_mutex_t progress_mutex;
 #define progress_lock()		pthread_mutex_lock(&progress_mutex)
 #define progress_unlock()	pthread_mutex_unlock(&progress_mutex)
 
+/*
+ * Access to struct object_entry is unprotected since each thread owns
+ * a portion of the main object list. Just don't access object entries
+ * ahead in the list because they can be stolen and would need
+ * progress_mutex for protection.
+ */
 #else
 
 #define read_lock()		(void)0
@@ -1974,10 +1991,10 @@
 		trg->data = read_object_file(&trg_entry->idx.oid, &type, &sz);
 		read_unlock();
 		if (!trg->data)
-			die("object %s cannot be read",
+			die(_("object %s cannot be read"),
 			    oid_to_hex(&trg_entry->idx.oid));
 		if (sz != trg_size)
-			die("object %s inconsistent object length (%lu vs %lu)",
+			die(_("object %s inconsistent object length (%lu vs %lu)"),
 			    oid_to_hex(&trg_entry->idx.oid), sz,
 			    trg_size);
 		*mem_usage += sz;
@@ -1990,7 +2007,7 @@
 			if (src_entry->preferred_base) {
 				static int warned = 0;
 				if (!warned++)
-					warning("object %s cannot be read",
+					warning(_("object %s cannot be read"),
 						oid_to_hex(&src_entry->idx.oid));
 				/*
 				 * Those objects are not included in the
@@ -2000,11 +2017,11 @@
 				 */
 				return 0;
 			}
-			die("object %s cannot be read",
+			die(_("object %s cannot be read"),
 			    oid_to_hex(&src_entry->idx.oid));
 		}
 		if (sz != src_size)
-			die("object %s inconsistent object length (%lu vs %lu)",
+			die(_("object %s inconsistent object length (%lu vs %lu)"),
 			    oid_to_hex(&src_entry->idx.oid), sz,
 			    src_size);
 		*mem_usage += sz;
@@ -2014,7 +2031,7 @@
 		if (!src->index) {
 			static int warned = 0;
 			if (!warned++)
-				warning("suboptimal pack - out of memory");
+				warning(_("suboptimal pack - out of memory"));
 			return 0;
 		}
 		*mem_usage += sizeof_delta_index(src->index);
@@ -2023,10 +2040,6 @@
 	delta_buf = create_delta(src->index, trg->data, trg_size, &delta_size, max_size);
 	if (!delta_buf)
 		return 0;
-	if (delta_size >= (1U << OE_DELTA_SIZE_BITS)) {
-		free(delta_buf);
-		return 0;
-	}
 
 	if (DELTA(trg_entry)) {
 		/* Prefer only shallower same-sized deltas. */
@@ -2245,12 +2258,19 @@
 static try_to_free_t old_try_to_free_routine;
 
 /*
+ * The main object list is split into smaller lists, each is handed to
+ * one worker.
+ *
  * The main thread waits on the condition that (at least) one of the workers
  * has stopped working (which is indicated in the .working member of
  * struct thread_params).
+ *
  * When a work thread has completed its work, it sets .working to 0 and
  * signals the main thread and waits on the condition that .data_ready
  * becomes 1.
+ *
+ * The main thread steals half of the work from the worker that has
+ * most work left to hand it to the idle worker.
  */
 
 struct thread_params {
@@ -2341,8 +2361,8 @@
 		return;
 	}
 	if (progress > pack_to_stdout)
-		fprintf(stderr, "Delta compression using up to %d threads.\n",
-				delta_search_threads);
+		fprintf_ln(stderr, _("Delta compression using up to %d threads"),
+			   delta_search_threads);
 	p = xcalloc(delta_search_threads, sizeof(*p));
 
 	/* Partition the work amongst work threads. */
@@ -2382,7 +2402,7 @@
 		ret = pthread_create(&p[i].thread, NULL,
 				     threaded_find_deltas, &p[i]);
 		if (ret)
-			die("unable to create thread: %s", strerror(ret));
+			die(_("unable to create thread: %s"), strerror(ret));
 		active_threads++;
 	}
 
@@ -2474,10 +2494,10 @@
 	if (packlist_find(&to_pack, oid->hash, NULL))
 		return;
 
-	tag = lookup_tag(oid);
+	tag = lookup_tag(the_repository, oid);
 	while (1) {
 		if (!tag || parse_tag(tag) || !tag->tagged)
-			die("unable to pack objects reachable from tag %s",
+			die(_("unable to pack objects reachable from tag %s"),
 			    oid_to_hex(oid));
 
 		add_object_entry(&tag->object.oid, OBJ_TAG, NULL, 0);
@@ -2543,7 +2563,7 @@
 		if (!entry->preferred_base) {
 			nr_deltas++;
 			if (oe_type(entry) < 0)
-				die("unable to get type of object %s",
+				die(_("unable to get type of object %s"),
 				    oid_to_hex(&entry->idx.oid));
 		} else {
 			if (oe_type(entry) < 0) {
@@ -2567,7 +2587,7 @@
 		ll_find_deltas(delta_list, n, window+1, depth, &nr_done);
 		stop_progress(&progress_state);
 		if (nr_done != nr_deltas)
-			die("inconsistency with delta count");
+			die(_("inconsistency with delta count"));
 	}
 	free(delta_list);
 }
@@ -2607,11 +2627,11 @@
 	if (!strcmp(k, "pack.threads")) {
 		delta_search_threads = git_config_int(k, v);
 		if (delta_search_threads < 0)
-			die("invalid number of threads specified (%d)",
+			die(_("invalid number of threads specified (%d)"),
 			    delta_search_threads);
 #ifdef NO_PTHREADS
 		if (delta_search_threads != 1) {
-			warning("no threads support, ignoring %s", k);
+			warning(_("no threads support, ignoring %s"), k);
 			delta_search_threads = 0;
 		}
 #endif
@@ -2620,7 +2640,7 @@
 	if (!strcmp(k, "pack.indexversion")) {
 		pack_idx_opts.version = git_config_int(k, v);
 		if (pack_idx_opts.version > 2)
-			die("bad pack.indexversion=%"PRIu32,
+			die(_("bad pack.indexversion=%"PRIu32),
 			    pack_idx_opts.version);
 		return 0;
 	}
@@ -2638,7 +2658,7 @@
 			if (feof(stdin))
 				break;
 			if (!ferror(stdin))
-				die("fgets returned NULL, not EOF, not error!");
+				die("BUG: fgets returned NULL, not EOF, not error!");
 			if (errno != EINTR)
 				die_errno("fgets");
 			clearerr(stdin);
@@ -2646,13 +2666,13 @@
 		}
 		if (line[0] == '-') {
 			if (get_oid_hex(line+1, &oid))
-				die("expected edge object ID, got garbage:\n %s",
+				die(_("expected edge object ID, got garbage:\n %s"),
 				    line);
 			add_preferred_base(&oid);
 			continue;
 		}
 		if (parse_oid_hex(line, &oid, &p))
-			die("expected object ID, got garbage:\n %s", line);
+			die(_("expected object ID, got garbage:\n %s"), line);
 
 		add_preferred_base_object(p + 1);
 		add_object_entry(&oid, OBJ_NONE, p + 1, 0);
@@ -2791,7 +2811,7 @@
 		if (!p->pack_local || p->pack_keep || p->pack_keep_in_core)
 			continue;
 		if (open_pack_index(p))
-			die("cannot open pack index");
+			die(_("cannot open pack index"));
 
 		ALLOC_GROW(in_pack.array,
 			   in_pack.nr + p->num_objects,
@@ -2822,7 +2842,7 @@
 	enum object_type type = oid_object_info(the_repository, oid, NULL);
 
 	if (type < 0) {
-		warning("loose object at %s could not be examined", path);
+		warning(_("loose object at %s could not be examined"), path);
 		return 0;
 	}
 
@@ -2899,7 +2919,7 @@
 			continue;
 
 		if (open_pack_index(p))
-			die("cannot open pack index");
+			die(_("cannot open pack index"));
 
 		for (i = 0; i < p->num_objects; i++) {
 			nth_packed_object_oid(&oid, p, i);
@@ -2907,7 +2927,7 @@
 			    !has_sha1_pack_kept_or_nonlocal(&oid) &&
 			    !loosened_object_can_be_discarded(&oid, p->mtime))
 				if (force_object_loose(&oid, p->mtime))
-					die("unable to force loose object");
+					die(_("unable to force loose object"));
 		}
 	}
 }
@@ -2929,11 +2949,13 @@
 
 static int get_object_list_from_bitmap(struct rev_info *revs)
 {
-	if (prepare_bitmap_walk(revs) < 0)
+	struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git;
+	if (!(bitmap_git = prepare_bitmap_walk(revs)))
 		return -1;
 
 	if (pack_options_allow_reuse() &&
 	    !reuse_partial_packfile_from_bitmap(
+			bitmap_git,
 			&reuse_packfile,
 			&reuse_packfile_objects,
 			&reuse_packfile_offset)) {
@@ -2942,7 +2964,8 @@
 		display_progress(progress_state, nr_result);
 	}
 
-	traverse_bitmap_commit_list(&add_object_entry_from_bitmap);
+	traverse_bitmap_commit_list(bitmap_git, &add_object_entry_from_bitmap);
+	free_bitmap_index(bitmap_git);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -2966,10 +2989,11 @@
 
 	init_revisions(&revs, NULL);
 	save_commit_buffer = 0;
+	revs.allow_exclude_promisor_objects_opt = 1;
 	setup_revisions(ac, av, &revs, NULL);
 
 	/* make sure shallows are read */
-	is_repository_shallow();
+	is_repository_shallow(the_repository);
 
 	while (fgets(line, sizeof(line), stdin) != NULL) {
 		int len = strlen(line);
@@ -2987,21 +3011,21 @@
 				struct object_id oid;
 				if (get_oid_hex(line + 10, &oid))
 					die("not an SHA-1 '%s'", line + 10);
-				register_shallow(&oid);
+				register_shallow(the_repository, &oid);
 				use_bitmap_index = 0;
 				continue;
 			}
-			die("not a rev '%s'", line);
+			die(_("not a rev '%s'"), line);
 		}
 		if (handle_revision_arg(line, &revs, flags, REVARG_CANNOT_BE_FILENAME))
-			die("bad revision '%s'", line);
+			die(_("bad revision '%s'"), line);
 	}
 
 	if (use_bitmap_index && !get_object_list_from_bitmap(&revs))
 		return;
 
 	if (prepare_revision_walk(&revs))
-		die("revision walk setup failed");
+		die(_("revision walk setup failed"));
 	mark_edges_uninteresting(&revs, show_edge);
 
 	if (!fn_show_object)
@@ -3014,9 +3038,9 @@
 		revs.ignore_missing_links = 1;
 		if (add_unseen_recent_objects_to_traversal(&revs,
 				unpack_unreachable_expiration))
-			die("unable to add recent objects");
+			die(_("unable to add recent objects"));
 		if (prepare_revision_walk(&revs))
-			die("revision walk setup failed");
+			die(_("revision walk setup failed"));
 		traverse_commit_list(&revs, record_recent_commit,
 				     record_recent_object, NULL);
 	}
@@ -3107,7 +3131,7 @@
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "all-progress-implied",
 			 &all_progress_implied,
 			 N_("similar to --all-progress when progress meter is shown")),
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "index-version", NULL, N_("version[,offset]"),
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "index-version", NULL, N_("<version>[,<offset>]"),
 		  N_("write the pack index file in the specified idx format version"),
 		  0, option_parse_index_version },
 		OPT_MAGNITUDE(0, "max-pack-size", &pack_size_limit,
@@ -3185,7 +3209,7 @@
 	if (DFS_NUM_STATES > (1 << OE_DFS_STATE_BITS))
 		BUG("too many dfs states, increase OE_DFS_STATE_BITS");
 
-	check_replace_refs = 0;
+	read_replace_refs = 0;
 
 	reset_pack_idx_option(&pack_idx_opts);
 	git_config(git_pack_config, NULL);
@@ -3251,35 +3275,35 @@
 	if (pack_compression_level == -1)
 		pack_compression_level = Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION;
 	else if (pack_compression_level < 0 || pack_compression_level > Z_BEST_COMPRESSION)
-		die("bad pack compression level %d", pack_compression_level);
+		die(_("bad pack compression level %d"), pack_compression_level);
 
 	if (!delta_search_threads)	/* --threads=0 means autodetect */
 		delta_search_threads = online_cpus();
 
 #ifdef NO_PTHREADS
 	if (delta_search_threads != 1)
-		warning("no threads support, ignoring --threads");
+		warning(_("no threads support, ignoring --threads"));
 #endif
 	if (!pack_to_stdout && !pack_size_limit)
 		pack_size_limit = pack_size_limit_cfg;
 	if (pack_to_stdout && pack_size_limit)
-		die("--max-pack-size cannot be used to build a pack for transfer.");
+		die(_("--max-pack-size cannot be used to build a pack for transfer"));
 	if (pack_size_limit && pack_size_limit < 1024*1024) {
-		warning("minimum pack size limit is 1 MiB");
+		warning(_("minimum pack size limit is 1 MiB"));
 		pack_size_limit = 1024*1024;
 	}
 
 	if (!pack_to_stdout && thin)
-		die("--thin cannot be used to build an indexable pack.");
+		die(_("--thin cannot be used to build an indexable pack"));
 
 	if (keep_unreachable && unpack_unreachable)
-		die("--keep-unreachable and --unpack-unreachable are incompatible.");
+		die(_("--keep-unreachable and --unpack-unreachable are incompatible"));
 	if (!rev_list_all || !rev_list_reflog || !rev_list_index)
 		unpack_unreachable_expiration = 0;
 
 	if (filter_options.choice) {
 		if (!pack_to_stdout)
-			die("cannot use --filter without --stdout.");
+			die(_("cannot use --filter without --stdout"));
 		use_bitmap_index = 0;
 	}
 
@@ -3299,7 +3323,7 @@
 		use_bitmap_index = use_bitmap_index_default;
 
 	/* "hard" reasons not to use bitmaps; these just won't work at all */
-	if (!use_internal_rev_list || (!pack_to_stdout && write_bitmap_index) || is_repository_shallow())
+	if (!use_internal_rev_list || (!pack_to_stdout && write_bitmap_index) || is_repository_shallow(the_repository))
 		use_bitmap_index = 0;
 
 	if (pack_to_stdout || !rev_list_all)
@@ -3353,8 +3377,9 @@
 		prepare_pack(window, depth);
 	write_pack_file();
 	if (progress)
-		fprintf(stderr, "Total %"PRIu32" (delta %"PRIu32"),"
-			" reused %"PRIu32" (delta %"PRIu32")\n",
-			written, written_delta, reused, reused_delta);
+		fprintf_ln(stderr,
+			   _("Total %"PRIu32" (delta %"PRIu32"),"
+			     " reused %"PRIu32" (delta %"PRIu32")"),
+			   written, written_delta, reused, reused_delta);
 	return 0;
 }
diff --git a/builtin/prune-packed.c b/builtin/prune-packed.c
index 4ff525e..a9e7b55 100644
--- a/builtin/prune-packed.c
+++ b/builtin/prune-packed.c
@@ -3,6 +3,7 @@
 #include "progress.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
 #include "packfile.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 
 static const char * const prune_packed_usage[] = {
 	N_("git prune-packed [-n | --dry-run] [-q | --quiet]"),
diff --git a/builtin/prune.c b/builtin/prune.c
index 518ffbe..d356ad7 100644
--- a/builtin/prune.c
+++ b/builtin/prune.c
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
 #include "reachable.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
 #include "progress.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 
 static const char * const prune_usage[] = {
 	N_("git prune [-n] [-v] [--progress] [--expire <time>] [--] [<head>...]"),
@@ -39,7 +40,7 @@
 	 * Do we know about this object?
 	 * It must have been reachable
 	 */
-	if (lookup_object(oid->hash))
+	if (lookup_object(the_repository, oid->hash))
 		return 0;
 
 	if (lstat(fullpath, &st)) {
@@ -117,8 +118,9 @@
 
 	expire = TIME_MAX;
 	save_commit_buffer = 0;
-	check_replace_refs = 0;
+	read_replace_refs = 0;
 	ref_paranoia = 1;
+	revs.allow_exclude_promisor_objects_opt = 1;
 	init_revisions(&revs, prefix);
 
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options, prune_usage, 0);
@@ -159,8 +161,8 @@
 	remove_temporary_files(s);
 	free(s);
 
-	if (is_repository_shallow())
-		prune_shallow(show_only);
+	if (is_repository_shallow(the_repository))
+		prune_shallow(show_only ? PRUNE_SHOW_ONLY : 0);
 
 	return 0;
 }
diff --git a/builtin/pull.c b/builtin/pull.c
index 49cc3be..681c127 100644
--- a/builtin/pull.c
+++ b/builtin/pull.c
@@ -48,11 +48,11 @@
 		return REBASE_FALSE;
 	else if (v > 0)
 		return REBASE_TRUE;
-	else if (!strcmp(value, "preserve"))
+	else if (!strcmp(value, "preserve") || !strcmp(value, "p"))
 		return REBASE_PRESERVE;
-	else if (!strcmp(value, "merges"))
+	else if (!strcmp(value, "merges") || !strcmp(value, "m"))
 		return REBASE_MERGES;
-	else if (!strcmp(value, "interactive"))
+	else if (!strcmp(value, "interactive") || !strcmp(value, "i"))
 		return REBASE_INTERACTIVE;
 
 	if (fatal)
@@ -135,7 +135,7 @@
 	/* Options passed to git-merge or git-rebase */
 	OPT_GROUP(N_("Options related to merging")),
 	{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 'r', "rebase", &opt_rebase,
-	  "false|true|merges|preserve|interactive",
+	  "(false|true|merges|preserve|interactive)",
 	  N_("incorporate changes by rebasing rather than merging"),
 	  PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, parse_opt_rebase },
 	OPT_PASSTHRU('n', NULL, &opt_diffstat, NULL,
@@ -356,7 +356,7 @@
  */
 static void get_merge_heads(struct oid_array *merge_heads)
 {
-	const char *filename = git_path_fetch_head();
+	const char *filename = git_path_fetch_head(the_repository);
 	FILE *fp;
 	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
 	struct object_id oid;
@@ -684,7 +684,7 @@
 	const char *spec_src;
 	const char *merge_branch;
 
-	refspec_item_init(&spec, refspec, REFSPEC_FETCH);
+	refspec_item_init_or_die(&spec, refspec, REFSPEC_FETCH);
 	spec_src = spec.src;
 	if (!*spec_src || !strcmp(spec_src, "HEAD"))
 		spec_src = "HEAD";
@@ -765,10 +765,13 @@
 {
 	struct commit_list *revs = NULL, *result;
 
-	commit_list_insert(lookup_commit_reference(curr_head), &revs);
-	commit_list_insert(lookup_commit_reference(merge_head), &revs);
+	commit_list_insert(lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, curr_head),
+			   &revs);
+	commit_list_insert(lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, merge_head),
+			   &revs);
 	if (!is_null_oid(fork_point))
-		commit_list_insert(lookup_commit_reference(fork_point), &revs);
+		commit_list_insert(lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, fork_point),
+				   &revs);
 
 	result = get_octopus_merge_bases(revs);
 	free_commit_list(revs);
@@ -864,7 +867,7 @@
 	if (read_cache_unmerged())
 		die_resolve_conflict("pull");
 
-	if (file_exists(git_path_merge_head()))
+	if (file_exists(git_path_merge_head(the_repository)))
 		die_conclude_merge();
 
 	if (get_oid("HEAD", &orig_head))
@@ -944,9 +947,11 @@
 			struct commit_list *list = NULL;
 			struct commit *merge_head, *head;
 
-			head = lookup_commit_reference(&orig_head);
+			head = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository,
+						       &orig_head);
 			commit_list_insert(head, &list);
-			merge_head = lookup_commit_reference(&merge_heads.oid[0]);
+			merge_head = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository,
+							     &merge_heads.oid[0]);
 			if (is_descendant_of(merge_head, list)) {
 				/* we can fast-forward this without invoking rebase */
 				opt_ff = "--ff-only";
diff --git a/builtin/push.c b/builtin/push.c
index 9cd8e8c..d09a420 100644
--- a/builtin/push.c
+++ b/builtin/push.c
@@ -558,10 +558,10 @@
 		OPT_BIT( 0,  "porcelain", &flags, N_("machine-readable output"), TRANSPORT_PUSH_PORCELAIN),
 		OPT_BIT('f', "force", &flags, N_("force updates"), TRANSPORT_PUSH_FORCE),
 		{ OPTION_CALLBACK,
-		  0, CAS_OPT_NAME, &cas, N_("refname>:<expect"),
+		  0, CAS_OPT_NAME, &cas, N_("<refname>:<expect>"),
 		  N_("require old value of ref to be at this value"),
-		  PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, parseopt_push_cas_option },
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "recurse-submodules", &recurse_submodules, "check|on-demand|no",
+		  PARSE_OPT_OPTARG | PARSE_OPT_LITERAL_ARGHELP, parseopt_push_cas_option },
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "recurse-submodules", &recurse_submodules, "(check|on-demand|no)",
 			N_("control recursive pushing of submodules"),
 			PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, option_parse_recurse_submodules },
 		OPT_BOOL_F( 0 , "thin", &thin, N_("use thin pack"), PARSE_OPT_NOCOMPLETE),
@@ -576,7 +576,7 @@
 		OPT_BIT(0, "follow-tags", &flags, N_("push missing but relevant tags"),
 			TRANSPORT_PUSH_FOLLOW_TAGS),
 		{ OPTION_CALLBACK,
-		  0, "signed", &push_cert, "yes|no|if-asked", N_("GPG sign the push"),
+		  0, "signed", &push_cert, "(yes|no|if-asked)", N_("GPG sign the push"),
 		  PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, option_parse_push_signed },
 		OPT_BIT(0, "atomic", &flags, N_("request atomic transaction on remote side"), TRANSPORT_PUSH_ATOMIC),
 		OPT_STRING_LIST('o', "push-option", &push_options_cmdline, N_("server-specific"), N_("option to transmit")),
diff --git a/builtin/range-diff.c b/builtin/range-diff.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..0aa9bed
--- /dev/null
+++ b/builtin/range-diff.c
@@ -0,0 +1,116 @@
+#include "cache.h"
+#include "builtin.h"
+#include "parse-options.h"
+#include "range-diff.h"
+#include "config.h"
+
+static const char * const builtin_range_diff_usage[] = {
+N_("git range-diff [<options>] <old-base>..<old-tip> <new-base>..<new-tip>"),
+N_("git range-diff [<options>] <old-tip>...<new-tip>"),
+N_("git range-diff [<options>] <base> <old-tip> <new-tip>"),
+NULL
+};
+
+static struct strbuf *output_prefix_cb(struct diff_options *opt, void *data)
+{
+	return data;
+}
+
+int cmd_range_diff(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+	int creation_factor = 60;
+	struct diff_options diffopt = { NULL };
+	int simple_color = -1;
+	struct option options[] = {
+		OPT_INTEGER(0, "creation-factor", &creation_factor,
+			    N_("Percentage by which creation is weighted")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "no-dual-color", &simple_color,
+			    N_("use simple diff colors")),
+		OPT_END()
+	};
+	int i, j, res = 0;
+	struct strbuf four_spaces = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct strbuf range1 = STRBUF_INIT, range2 = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	git_config(git_diff_ui_config, NULL);
+
+	diff_setup(&diffopt);
+	diffopt.output_format = DIFF_FORMAT_PATCH;
+	diffopt.flags.suppress_diff_headers = 1;
+	diffopt.output_prefix = output_prefix_cb;
+	strbuf_addstr(&four_spaces, "    ");
+	diffopt.output_prefix_data = &four_spaces;
+
+	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, NULL, options,
+			     builtin_range_diff_usage, PARSE_OPT_KEEP_UNKNOWN |
+			     PARSE_OPT_KEEP_DASHDASH | PARSE_OPT_KEEP_ARGV0);
+
+	for (i = j = 1; i < argc && strcmp("--", argv[i]); ) {
+		int c = diff_opt_parse(&diffopt, argv + i, argc - i, prefix);
+
+		if (!c)
+			argv[j++] = argv[i++];
+		else
+			i += c;
+	}
+	while (i < argc)
+		argv[j++] = argv[i++];
+	argc = j;
+	diff_setup_done(&diffopt);
+
+	/* Make sure that there are no unparsed options */
+	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, NULL,
+			     options + ARRAY_SIZE(options) - 1, /* OPT_END */
+			     builtin_range_diff_usage, 0);
+
+	if (simple_color < 1) {
+		if (!simple_color)
+			/* force color when --dual-color was used */
+			diffopt.use_color = 1;
+		diffopt.flags.dual_color_diffed_diffs = 1;
+	}
+
+	if (argc == 2) {
+		if (!strstr(argv[0], ".."))
+			die(_("no .. in range: '%s'"), argv[0]);
+		strbuf_addstr(&range1, argv[0]);
+
+		if (!strstr(argv[1], ".."))
+			die(_("no .. in range: '%s'"), argv[1]);
+		strbuf_addstr(&range2, argv[1]);
+	} else if (argc == 3) {
+		strbuf_addf(&range1, "%s..%s", argv[0], argv[1]);
+		strbuf_addf(&range2, "%s..%s", argv[0], argv[2]);
+	} else if (argc == 1) {
+		const char *b = strstr(argv[0], "..."), *a = argv[0];
+		int a_len;
+
+		if (!b) {
+			error(_("single arg format must be symmetric range"));
+			usage_with_options(builtin_range_diff_usage, options);
+		}
+
+		a_len = (int)(b - a);
+		if (!a_len) {
+			a = "HEAD";
+			a_len = strlen(a);
+		}
+		b += 3;
+		if (!*b)
+			b = "HEAD";
+		strbuf_addf(&range1, "%s..%.*s", b, a_len, a);
+		strbuf_addf(&range2, "%.*s..%s", a_len, a, b);
+	} else {
+		error(_("need two commit ranges"));
+		usage_with_options(builtin_range_diff_usage, options);
+	}
+
+	res = show_range_diff(range1.buf, range2.buf, creation_factor,
+			      &diffopt);
+
+	strbuf_release(&range1);
+	strbuf_release(&range2);
+	strbuf_release(&four_spaces);
+
+	return res;
+}
diff --git a/builtin/read-tree.c b/builtin/read-tree.c
index ebc43eb..fbbc98e 100644
--- a/builtin/read-tree.c
+++ b/builtin/read-tree.c
@@ -133,7 +133,7 @@
 			 N_("same as -m, but discard unmerged entries")),
 		{ OPTION_STRING, 0, "prefix", &opts.prefix, N_("<subdirectory>/"),
 		  N_("read the tree into the index under <subdirectory>/"),
-		  PARSE_OPT_NONEG | PARSE_OPT_LITERAL_ARGHELP },
+		  PARSE_OPT_NONEG },
 		OPT_BOOL('u', NULL, &opts.update,
 			 N_("update working tree with merge result")),
 		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "exclude-per-directory", &opts,
diff --git a/builtin/receive-pack.c b/builtin/receive-pack.c
index 68d36e0..95eb700 100644
--- a/builtin/receive-pack.c
+++ b/builtin/receive-pack.c
@@ -25,6 +25,7 @@
 #include "tmp-objdir.h"
 #include "oidset.h"
 #include "packfile.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "protocol.h"
 
 static const char * const receive_pack_usage[] = {
@@ -464,7 +465,7 @@
 	unsigned char sha1[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ];
 
 	strbuf_addf(&buf, "%s:%"PRItime, path, stamp);
-	hmac_sha1(sha1, buf.buf, buf.len, cert_nonce_seed, strlen(cert_nonce_seed));;
+	hmac_sha1(sha1, buf.buf, buf.len, cert_nonce_seed, strlen(cert_nonce_seed));
 	strbuf_release(&buf);
 
 	/* RFC 2104 5. HMAC-SHA1-80 */
@@ -629,8 +630,6 @@
 		return;
 
 	if (!already_done) {
-		struct strbuf gpg_output = STRBUF_INIT;
-		struct strbuf gpg_status = STRBUF_INIT;
 		int bogs /* beginning_of_gpg_sig */;
 
 		already_done = 1;
@@ -639,22 +638,11 @@
 			oidclr(&push_cert_oid);
 
 		memset(&sigcheck, '\0', sizeof(sigcheck));
-		sigcheck.result = 'N';
 
 		bogs = parse_signature(push_cert.buf, push_cert.len);
-		if (verify_signed_buffer(push_cert.buf, bogs,
-					 push_cert.buf + bogs, push_cert.len - bogs,
-					 &gpg_output, &gpg_status) < 0) {
-			; /* error running gpg */
-		} else {
-			sigcheck.payload = push_cert.buf;
-			sigcheck.gpg_output = gpg_output.buf;
-			sigcheck.gpg_status = gpg_status.buf;
-			parse_gpg_output(&sigcheck);
-		}
+		check_signature(push_cert.buf, bogs, push_cert.buf + bogs,
+				push_cert.len - bogs, &sigcheck);
 
-		strbuf_release(&gpg_output);
-		strbuf_release(&gpg_status);
 		nonce_status = check_nonce(push_cert.buf, bogs);
 	}
 	if (!is_null_oid(&push_cert_oid)) {
@@ -905,7 +893,7 @@
 	 * not lose these new roots..
 	 */
 	for (i = 0; i < extra.nr; i++)
-		register_shallow(&extra.oid[i]);
+		register_shallow(the_repository, &extra.oid[i]);
 
 	si->shallow_ref[cmd->index] = 0;
 	oid_array_clear(&extra);
@@ -1037,6 +1025,7 @@
 	const char *ret;
 	struct object_id *old_oid = &cmd->old_oid;
 	struct object_id *new_oid = &cmd->new_oid;
+	int do_update_worktree = 0;
 
 	/* only refs/... are allowed */
 	if (!starts_with(name, "refs/") || check_refname_format(name + 5, 0)) {
@@ -1062,9 +1051,8 @@
 				refuse_unconfigured_deny();
 			return "branch is currently checked out";
 		case DENY_UPDATE_INSTEAD:
-			ret = update_worktree(new_oid->hash);
-			if (ret)
-				return ret;
+			/* pass -- let other checks intervene first */
+			do_update_worktree = 1;
 			break;
 		}
 	}
@@ -1107,8 +1095,8 @@
 		struct object *old_object, *new_object;
 		struct commit *old_commit, *new_commit;
 
-		old_object = parse_object(old_oid);
-		new_object = parse_object(new_oid);
+		old_object = parse_object(the_repository, old_oid);
+		new_object = parse_object(the_repository, new_oid);
 
 		if (!old_object || !new_object ||
 		    old_object->type != OBJ_COMMIT ||
@@ -1129,9 +1117,15 @@
 		return "hook declined";
 	}
 
+	if (do_update_worktree) {
+		ret = update_worktree(new_oid->hash);
+		if (ret)
+			return ret;
+	}
+
 	if (is_null_oid(new_oid)) {
 		struct strbuf err = STRBUF_INIT;
-		if (!parse_object(old_oid)) {
+		if (!parse_object(the_repository, old_oid)) {
 			old_oid = NULL;
 			if (ref_exists(name)) {
 				rp_warning("Allowing deletion of corrupt ref.");
@@ -1845,7 +1839,7 @@
 	/*
 	 * keep hooks happy by forcing a temporary shallow file via
 	 * env variable because we can't add --shallow-file to every
-	 * command. check_everything_connected() will be done with
+	 * command. check_connected() will be done with
 	 * true .git/shallow though.
 	 */
 	setenv(GIT_SHALLOW_FILE_ENVIRONMENT, alt_shallow_file, 1);
diff --git a/builtin/reflog.c b/builtin/reflog.c
index a48984d..3acef5a 100644
--- a/builtin/reflog.c
+++ b/builtin/reflog.c
@@ -1,6 +1,8 @@
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "config.h"
 #include "lockfile.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
+#include "repository.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "refs.h"
 #include "dir.h"
@@ -64,7 +66,7 @@
 	int complete;
 	struct tree *tree;
 
-	tree = lookup_tree(oid);
+	tree = lookup_tree(the_repository, oid);
 	if (!tree)
 		return 0;
 	if (tree->object.flags & SEEN)
@@ -128,7 +130,7 @@
 		struct commit_list *parent;
 
 		c = (struct commit *)object_array_pop(&study);
-		if (!c->object.parsed && !parse_object(&c->object.oid))
+		if (!c->object.parsed && !parse_object(the_repository, &c->object.oid))
 			c->object.flags |= INCOMPLETE;
 
 		if (c->object.flags & INCOMPLETE) {
@@ -194,7 +196,7 @@
 
 	if (is_null_oid(oid))
 		return 1;
-	commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(oid, 1);
+	commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(the_repository, oid, 1);
 	if (!commit)
 		return 0;
 
@@ -263,7 +265,8 @@
 		if (is_null_oid(oid))
 			return 0;
 
-		commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(oid, 1);
+		commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(the_repository, oid,
+							1);
 
 		/* Not a commit -- keep it */
 		if (!commit)
@@ -320,7 +323,7 @@
 	struct commit *tip_commit;
 	if (flags & REF_ISSYMREF)
 		return 0;
-	tip_commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(oid, 1);
+	tip_commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(the_repository, oid, 1);
 	if (!tip_commit)
 		return 0;
 	commit_list_insert(tip_commit, list);
@@ -337,7 +340,8 @@
 		cb->tip_commit = NULL;
 		cb->unreachable_expire_kind = UE_HEAD;
 	} else {
-		cb->tip_commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(oid, 1);
+		cb->tip_commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(the_repository,
+								oid, 1);
 		if (!cb->tip_commit)
 			cb->unreachable_expire_kind = UE_ALWAYS;
 		else
diff --git a/builtin/remote.c b/builtin/remote.c
index 1a82d85..5fd1012 100644
--- a/builtin/remote.c
+++ b/builtin/remote.c
@@ -8,6 +8,7 @@
 #include "run-command.h"
 #include "refs.h"
 #include "refspec.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "argv-array.h"
 
 static const char * const builtin_remote_usage[] = {
@@ -167,7 +168,7 @@
 		OPT_STRING_LIST('t', "track", &track, N_("branch"),
 				N_("branch(es) to track")),
 		OPT_STRING('m', "master", &master, N_("branch"), N_("master branch")),
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "mirror", &mirror, N_("push|fetch"),
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "mirror", &mirror, "(push|fetch)",
 			N_("set up remote as a mirror to push to or fetch from"),
 			PARSE_OPT_OPTARG | PARSE_OPT_COMP_ARG, parse_mirror_opt },
 		OPT_END()
@@ -565,7 +566,7 @@
 
 	strbuf_addf(&buf, "refs/remotes/%s/", rename->old_name);
 	if (starts_with(refname, buf.buf)) {
-		item = string_list_append(rename->remote_branches, xstrdup(refname));
+		item = string_list_append(rename->remote_branches, refname);
 		symref = resolve_ref_unsafe(refname, RESOLVE_REF_READING,
 					    NULL, &flag);
 		if (symref && (flag & REF_ISSYMREF))
@@ -611,7 +612,7 @@
 	struct remote *oldremote, *newremote;
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT, buf2 = STRBUF_INIT, buf3 = STRBUF_INIT,
 		old_remote_context = STRBUF_INIT;
-	struct string_list remote_branches = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
+	struct string_list remote_branches = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
 	struct rename_info rename;
 	int i, refspec_updated = 0;
 
@@ -624,7 +625,7 @@
 
 	oldremote = remote_get(rename.old_name);
 	if (!remote_is_configured(oldremote, 1))
-		die(_("No such remote: %s"), rename.old_name);
+		die(_("No such remote: '%s'"), rename.old_name);
 
 	if (!strcmp(rename.old_name, rename.new_name) && oldremote->origin != REMOTE_CONFIG)
 		return migrate_file(oldremote);
@@ -733,6 +734,7 @@
 		if (create_symref(buf.buf, buf2.buf, buf3.buf))
 			die(_("creating '%s' failed"), buf.buf);
 	}
+	string_list_clear(&remote_branches, 1);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -759,7 +761,7 @@
 
 	remote = remote_get(argv[1]);
 	if (!remote_is_configured(remote, 1))
-		die(_("No such remote: %s"), argv[1]);
+		die(_("No such remote: '%s'"), argv[1]);
 
 	known_remotes.to_delete = remote;
 	for_each_remote(add_known_remote, &known_remotes);
@@ -858,7 +860,7 @@
 
 	states->remote = remote_get(name);
 	if (!states->remote)
-		return error(_("No such remote: %s"), name);
+		return error(_("No such remote: '%s'"), name);
 
 	read_branches();
 
diff --git a/builtin/repack.c b/builtin/repack.c
index 6c636e1..3c30e16 100644
--- a/builtin/repack.c
+++ b/builtin/repack.c
@@ -8,6 +8,8 @@
 #include "strbuf.h"
 #include "string-list.h"
 #include "argv-array.h"
+#include "packfile.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 
 static int delta_base_offset = 1;
 static int pack_kept_objects = -1;
@@ -83,7 +85,7 @@
 
 /*
  * Adds all packs hex strings to the fname list, which do not
- * have a corresponding .keep or .promisor file. These packs are not to
+ * have a corresponding .keep file. These packs are not to
  * be kept if we are going to pack everything into one file.
  */
 static void get_non_kept_pack_filenames(struct string_list *fname_list,
@@ -111,8 +113,7 @@
 
 		fname = xmemdupz(e->d_name, len);
 
-		if (!file_exists(mkpath("%s/%s.keep", packdir, fname)) &&
-		    !file_exists(mkpath("%s/%s.promisor", packdir, fname)))
+		if (!file_exists(mkpath("%s/%s.keep", packdir, fname)))
 			string_list_append_nodup(fname_list, fname);
 		else
 			free(fname);
@@ -122,7 +123,7 @@
 
 static void remove_redundant_pack(const char *dir_name, const char *base_name)
 {
-	const char *exts[] = {".pack", ".idx", ".keep", ".bitmap"};
+	const char *exts[] = {".pack", ".idx", ".keep", ".bitmap", ".promisor"};
 	int i;
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 	size_t plen;
@@ -138,6 +139,117 @@
 	strbuf_release(&buf);
 }
 
+struct pack_objects_args {
+	const char *window;
+	const char *window_memory;
+	const char *depth;
+	const char *threads;
+	const char *max_pack_size;
+	int no_reuse_delta;
+	int no_reuse_object;
+	int quiet;
+	int local;
+};
+
+static void prepare_pack_objects(struct child_process *cmd,
+				 const struct pack_objects_args *args)
+{
+	argv_array_push(&cmd->args, "pack-objects");
+	if (args->window)
+		argv_array_pushf(&cmd->args, "--window=%s", args->window);
+	if (args->window_memory)
+		argv_array_pushf(&cmd->args, "--window-memory=%s", args->window_memory);
+	if (args->depth)
+		argv_array_pushf(&cmd->args, "--depth=%s", args->depth);
+	if (args->threads)
+		argv_array_pushf(&cmd->args, "--threads=%s", args->threads);
+	if (args->max_pack_size)
+		argv_array_pushf(&cmd->args, "--max-pack-size=%s", args->max_pack_size);
+	if (args->no_reuse_delta)
+		argv_array_pushf(&cmd->args, "--no-reuse-delta");
+	if (args->no_reuse_object)
+		argv_array_pushf(&cmd->args, "--no-reuse-object");
+	if (args->local)
+		argv_array_push(&cmd->args,  "--local");
+	if (args->quiet)
+		argv_array_push(&cmd->args,  "--quiet");
+	if (delta_base_offset)
+		argv_array_push(&cmd->args,  "--delta-base-offset");
+	argv_array_push(&cmd->args, packtmp);
+	cmd->git_cmd = 1;
+	cmd->out = -1;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Write oid to the given struct child_process's stdin, starting it first if
+ * necessary.
+ */
+static int write_oid(const struct object_id *oid, struct packed_git *pack,
+		     uint32_t pos, void *data)
+{
+	struct child_process *cmd = data;
+
+	if (cmd->in == -1) {
+		if (start_command(cmd))
+			die("Could not start pack-objects to repack promisor objects");
+	}
+
+	xwrite(cmd->in, oid_to_hex(oid), GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ);
+	xwrite(cmd->in, "\n", 1);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static void repack_promisor_objects(const struct pack_objects_args *args,
+				    struct string_list *names)
+{
+	struct child_process cmd = CHILD_PROCESS_INIT;
+	FILE *out;
+	struct strbuf line = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	prepare_pack_objects(&cmd, args);
+	cmd.in = -1;
+
+	/*
+	 * NEEDSWORK: Giving pack-objects only the OIDs without any ordering
+	 * hints may result in suboptimal deltas in the resulting pack. See if
+	 * the OIDs can be sent with fake paths such that pack-objects can use a
+	 * {type -> existing pack order} ordering when computing deltas instead
+	 * of a {type -> size} ordering, which may produce better deltas.
+	 */
+	for_each_packed_object(write_oid, &cmd,
+			       FOR_EACH_OBJECT_PROMISOR_ONLY);
+
+	if (cmd.in == -1)
+		/* No packed objects; cmd was never started */
+		return;
+
+	close(cmd.in);
+
+	out = xfdopen(cmd.out, "r");
+	while (strbuf_getline_lf(&line, out) != EOF) {
+		char *promisor_name;
+		int fd;
+		if (line.len != 40)
+			die("repack: Expecting 40 character sha1 lines only from pack-objects.");
+		string_list_append(names, line.buf);
+
+		/*
+		 * pack-objects creates the .pack and .idx files, but not the
+		 * .promisor file. Create the .promisor file, which is empty.
+		 */
+		promisor_name = mkpathdup("%s-%s.promisor", packtmp,
+					  line.buf);
+		fd = open(promisor_name, O_CREAT|O_EXCL|O_WRONLY, 0600);
+		if (fd < 0)
+			die_errno("unable to create '%s'", promisor_name);
+		close(fd);
+		free(promisor_name);
+	}
+	fclose(out);
+	if (finish_command(&cmd))
+		die("Could not finish pack-objects to repack promisor objects");
+}
+
 #define ALL_INTO_ONE 1
 #define LOOSEN_UNREACHABLE 2
 
@@ -150,6 +262,7 @@
 		{".pack"},
 		{".idx"},
 		{".bitmap", 1},
+		{".promisor", 1},
 	};
 	struct child_process cmd = CHILD_PROCESS_INIT;
 	struct string_list_item *item;
@@ -165,15 +278,9 @@
 	int delete_redundant = 0;
 	const char *unpack_unreachable = NULL;
 	int keep_unreachable = 0;
-	const char *window = NULL, *window_memory = NULL;
-	const char *depth = NULL;
-	const char *threads = NULL;
-	const char *max_pack_size = NULL;
 	struct string_list keep_pack_list = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
-	int no_reuse_delta = 0, no_reuse_object = 0;
 	int no_update_server_info = 0;
-	int quiet = 0;
-	int local = 0;
+	struct pack_objects_args po_args = {NULL};
 
 	struct option builtin_repack_options[] = {
 		OPT_BIT('a', NULL, &pack_everything,
@@ -183,14 +290,14 @@
 				   LOOSEN_UNREACHABLE | ALL_INTO_ONE),
 		OPT_BOOL('d', NULL, &delete_redundant,
 				N_("remove redundant packs, and run git-prune-packed")),
-		OPT_BOOL('f', NULL, &no_reuse_delta,
+		OPT_BOOL('f', NULL, &po_args.no_reuse_delta,
 				N_("pass --no-reuse-delta to git-pack-objects")),
-		OPT_BOOL('F', NULL, &no_reuse_object,
+		OPT_BOOL('F', NULL, &po_args.no_reuse_object,
 				N_("pass --no-reuse-object to git-pack-objects")),
 		OPT_BOOL('n', NULL, &no_update_server_info,
 				N_("do not run git-update-server-info")),
-		OPT__QUIET(&quiet, N_("be quiet")),
-		OPT_BOOL('l', "local", &local,
+		OPT__QUIET(&po_args.quiet, N_("be quiet")),
+		OPT_BOOL('l', "local", &po_args.local,
 				N_("pass --local to git-pack-objects")),
 		OPT_BOOL('b', "write-bitmap-index", &write_bitmaps,
 				N_("write bitmap index")),
@@ -198,15 +305,15 @@
 				N_("with -A, do not loosen objects older than this")),
 		OPT_BOOL('k', "keep-unreachable", &keep_unreachable,
 				N_("with -a, repack unreachable objects")),
-		OPT_STRING(0, "window", &window, N_("n"),
+		OPT_STRING(0, "window", &po_args.window, N_("n"),
 				N_("size of the window used for delta compression")),
-		OPT_STRING(0, "window-memory", &window_memory, N_("bytes"),
+		OPT_STRING(0, "window-memory", &po_args.window_memory, N_("bytes"),
 				N_("same as the above, but limit memory size instead of entries count")),
-		OPT_STRING(0, "depth", &depth, N_("n"),
+		OPT_STRING(0, "depth", &po_args.depth, N_("n"),
 				N_("limits the maximum delta depth")),
-		OPT_STRING(0, "threads", &threads, N_("n"),
+		OPT_STRING(0, "threads", &po_args.threads, N_("n"),
 				N_("limits the maximum number of threads")),
-		OPT_STRING(0, "max-pack-size", &max_pack_size, N_("bytes"),
+		OPT_STRING(0, "max-pack-size", &po_args.max_pack_size, N_("bytes"),
 				N_("maximum size of each packfile")),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "pack-kept-objects", &pack_kept_objects,
 				N_("repack objects in packs marked with .keep")),
@@ -238,7 +345,8 @@
 
 	sigchain_push_common(remove_pack_on_signal);
 
-	argv_array_push(&cmd.args, "pack-objects");
+	prepare_pack_objects(&cmd, &po_args);
+
 	argv_array_push(&cmd.args, "--keep-true-parents");
 	if (!pack_kept_objects)
 		argv_array_push(&cmd.args, "--honor-pack-keep");
@@ -251,26 +359,14 @@
 	argv_array_push(&cmd.args, "--indexed-objects");
 	if (repository_format_partial_clone)
 		argv_array_push(&cmd.args, "--exclude-promisor-objects");
-	if (window)
-		argv_array_pushf(&cmd.args, "--window=%s", window);
-	if (window_memory)
-		argv_array_pushf(&cmd.args, "--window-memory=%s", window_memory);
-	if (depth)
-		argv_array_pushf(&cmd.args, "--depth=%s", depth);
-	if (threads)
-		argv_array_pushf(&cmd.args, "--threads=%s", threads);
-	if (max_pack_size)
-		argv_array_pushf(&cmd.args, "--max-pack-size=%s", max_pack_size);
-	if (no_reuse_delta)
-		argv_array_pushf(&cmd.args, "--no-reuse-delta");
-	if (no_reuse_object)
-		argv_array_pushf(&cmd.args, "--no-reuse-object");
 	if (write_bitmaps)
 		argv_array_push(&cmd.args, "--write-bitmap-index");
 
 	if (pack_everything & ALL_INTO_ONE) {
 		get_non_kept_pack_filenames(&existing_packs, &keep_pack_list);
 
+		repack_promisor_objects(&po_args, &names);
+
 		if (existing_packs.nr && delete_redundant) {
 			if (unpack_unreachable) {
 				argv_array_pushf(&cmd.args,
@@ -292,17 +388,6 @@
 		argv_array_push(&cmd.args, "--incremental");
 	}
 
-	if (local)
-		argv_array_push(&cmd.args,  "--local");
-	if (quiet)
-		argv_array_push(&cmd.args,  "--quiet");
-	if (delta_base_offset)
-		argv_array_push(&cmd.args,  "--delta-base-offset");
-
-	argv_array_push(&cmd.args, packtmp);
-
-	cmd.git_cmd = 1;
-	cmd.out = -1;
 	cmd.no_stdin = 1;
 
 	ret = start_command(&cmd);
@@ -320,7 +405,7 @@
 	if (ret)
 		return ret;
 
-	if (!names.nr && !quiet)
+	if (!names.nr && !po_args.quiet)
 		printf("Nothing new to pack.\n");
 
 	/*
@@ -429,6 +514,8 @@
 
 	/* End of pack replacement. */
 
+	reprepare_packed_git(the_repository);
+
 	if (delete_redundant) {
 		int opts = 0;
 		string_list_sort(&names);
@@ -441,9 +528,15 @@
 			if (!string_list_has_string(&names, sha1))
 				remove_redundant_pack(packdir, item->string);
 		}
-		if (!quiet && isatty(2))
+		if (!po_args.quiet && isatty(2))
 			opts |= PRUNE_PACKED_VERBOSE;
 		prune_packed_objects(opts);
+
+		if (!keep_unreachable &&
+		    (!(pack_everything & LOOSEN_UNREACHABLE) ||
+		     unpack_unreachable) &&
+		    is_repository_shallow(the_repository))
+			prune_shallow(PRUNE_QUICK);
 	}
 
 	if (!no_update_server_info)
diff --git a/builtin/replace.c b/builtin/replace.c
index 6da2411..17868a9 100644
--- a/builtin/replace.c
+++ b/builtin/replace.c
@@ -39,7 +39,8 @@
 	enum replace_format format;
 };
 
-static int show_reference(const char *refname, const struct object_id *oid,
+static int show_reference(struct repository *r, const char *refname,
+			  const struct object_id *oid,
 			  int flag, void *cb_data)
 {
 	struct show_data *data = cb_data;
@@ -54,11 +55,10 @@
 			enum object_type obj_type, repl_type;
 
 			if (get_oid(refname, &object))
-				return error("Failed to resolve '%s' as a valid ref.", refname);
+				return error(_("failed to resolve '%s' as a valid ref"), refname);
 
-			obj_type = oid_object_info(the_repository, &object,
-						   NULL);
-			repl_type = oid_object_info(the_repository, oid, NULL);
+			obj_type = oid_object_info(r, &object, NULL);
+			repl_type = oid_object_info(r, oid, NULL);
 
 			printf("%s (%s) -> %s (%s)\n", refname, type_name(obj_type),
 			       oid_to_hex(oid), type_name(repl_type));
@@ -83,8 +83,8 @@
 	else if (!strcmp(format, "long"))
 		data.format = REPLACE_FORMAT_LONG;
 	else
-		return error("invalid replace format '%s'\n"
-			     "valid formats are 'short', 'medium' and 'long'\n",
+		return error(_("invalid replace format '%s'\n"
+			       "valid formats are 'short', 'medium' and 'long'"),
 			     format);
 
 	for_each_replace_ref(the_repository, show_reference, (void *)&data);
@@ -108,7 +108,7 @@
 
 	for (p = argv; *p; p++) {
 		if (get_oid(*p, &oid)) {
-			error("Failed to resolve '%s' as a valid ref.", *p);
+			error("failed to resolve '%s' as a valid ref", *p);
 			had_error = 1;
 			continue;
 		}
@@ -118,7 +118,7 @@
 		full_hex = ref.buf + base_len;
 
 		if (read_ref(ref.buf, &oid)) {
-			error("replace ref '%s' not found.", full_hex);
+			error(_("replace ref '%s' not found"), full_hex);
 			had_error = 1;
 			continue;
 		}
@@ -134,7 +134,7 @@
 {
 	if (delete_ref(NULL, ref, oid, 0))
 		return 1;
-	printf("Deleted replace ref '%s'\n", name);
+	printf_ln(_("Deleted replace ref '%s'"), name);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -146,12 +146,12 @@
 	strbuf_reset(ref);
 	strbuf_addf(ref, "%s%s", git_replace_ref_base, oid_to_hex(object));
 	if (check_refname_format(ref->buf, 0))
-		return error("'%s' is not a valid ref name.", ref->buf);
+		return error(_("'%s' is not a valid ref name"), ref->buf);
 
 	if (read_ref(ref->buf, prev))
 		oidclr(prev);
 	else if (!force)
-		return error("replace ref '%s' already exists", ref->buf);
+		return error(_("replace ref '%s' already exists"), ref->buf);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -171,10 +171,10 @@
 	obj_type = oid_object_info(the_repository, object, NULL);
 	repl_type = oid_object_info(the_repository, repl, NULL);
 	if (!force && obj_type != repl_type)
-		return error("Objects must be of the same type.\n"
-			     "'%s' points to a replaced object of type '%s'\n"
-			     "while '%s' points to a replacement object of "
-			     "type '%s'.",
+		return error(_("Objects must be of the same type.\n"
+			       "'%s' points to a replaced object of type '%s'\n"
+			       "while '%s' points to a replacement object of "
+			       "type '%s'."),
 			     object_ref, type_name(obj_type),
 			     replace_ref, type_name(repl_type));
 
@@ -200,10 +200,10 @@
 	struct object_id object, repl;
 
 	if (get_oid(object_ref, &object))
-		return error("Failed to resolve '%s' as a valid ref.",
+		return error(_("failed to resolve '%s' as a valid ref"),
 			     object_ref);
 	if (get_oid(replace_ref, &repl))
-		return error("Failed to resolve '%s' as a valid ref.",
+		return error(_("failed to resolve '%s' as a valid ref"),
 			     replace_ref);
 
 	return replace_object_oid(object_ref, &object, replace_ref, &repl, force);
@@ -222,7 +222,7 @@
 
 	fd = open(filename, O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC, 0666);
 	if (fd < 0)
-		return error_errno("unable to open %s for writing", filename);
+		return error_errno(_("unable to open %s for writing"), filename);
 
 	argv_array_push(&cmd.args, "--no-replace-objects");
 	argv_array_push(&cmd.args, "cat-file");
@@ -235,7 +235,7 @@
 	cmd.out = fd;
 
 	if (run_command(&cmd))
-		return error("cat-file reported failure");
+		return error(_("cat-file reported failure"));
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -251,7 +251,7 @@
 
 	fd = open(filename, O_RDONLY);
 	if (fd < 0)
-		return error_errno("unable to open %s for reading", filename);
+		return error_errno(_("unable to open %s for reading"), filename);
 
 	if (!raw && type == OBJ_TREE) {
 		const char *argv[] = { "mktree", NULL };
@@ -265,11 +265,11 @@
 
 		if (start_command(&cmd)) {
 			close(fd);
-			return error("unable to spawn mktree");
+			return error(_("unable to spawn mktree"));
 		}
 
 		if (strbuf_read(&result, cmd.out, 41) < 0) {
-			error_errno("unable to read from mktree");
+			error_errno(_("unable to read from mktree"));
 			close(fd);
 			close(cmd.out);
 			return -1;
@@ -278,11 +278,11 @@
 
 		if (finish_command(&cmd)) {
 			strbuf_release(&result);
-			return error("mktree reported failure");
+			return error(_("mktree reported failure"));
 		}
 		if (get_oid_hex(result.buf, oid) < 0) {
 			strbuf_release(&result);
-			return error("mktree did not return an object name");
+			return error(_("mktree did not return an object name"));
 		}
 
 		strbuf_release(&result);
@@ -291,12 +291,12 @@
 		int flags = HASH_FORMAT_CHECK | HASH_WRITE_OBJECT;
 
 		if (fstat(fd, &st) < 0) {
-			error_errno("unable to fstat %s", filename);
+			error_errno(_("unable to fstat %s"), filename);
 			close(fd);
 			return -1;
 		}
 		if (index_fd(oid, fd, &st, type, NULL, flags) < 0)
-			return error("unable to write object to database");
+			return error(_("unable to write object to database"));
 		/* index_fd close()s fd for us */
 	}
 
@@ -315,11 +315,11 @@
 	struct strbuf ref = STRBUF_INIT;
 
 	if (get_oid(object_ref, &old_oid) < 0)
-		return error("Not a valid object name: '%s'", object_ref);
+		return error(_("not a valid object name: '%s'"), object_ref);
 
 	type = oid_object_info(the_repository, &old_oid, NULL);
 	if (type < 0)
-		return error("unable to get object type for %s",
+		return error(_("unable to get object type for %s"),
 			     oid_to_hex(&old_oid));
 
 	if (check_ref_valid(&old_oid, &prev, &ref, force)) {
@@ -335,7 +335,7 @@
 	}
 	if (launch_editor(tmpfile, NULL, NULL) < 0) {
 		free(tmpfile);
-		return error("editing object file failed");
+		return error(_("editing object file failed"));
 	}
 	if (import_object(&new_oid, type, raw, tmpfile)) {
 		free(tmpfile);
@@ -344,7 +344,7 @@
 	free(tmpfile);
 
 	if (!oidcmp(&old_oid, &new_oid))
-		return error("new object is the same as the old one: '%s'", oid_to_hex(&old_oid));
+		return error(_("new object is the same as the old one: '%s'"), oid_to_hex(&old_oid));
 
 	return replace_object_oid(object_ref, &old_oid, "replacement", &new_oid, force);
 }
@@ -368,10 +368,10 @@
 		struct object_id oid;
 		if (get_oid(argv[i], &oid) < 0) {
 			strbuf_release(&new_parents);
-			return error(_("Not a valid object name: '%s'"),
+			return error(_("not a valid object name: '%s'"),
 				     argv[i]);
 		}
-		if (!lookup_commit_reference(&oid)) {
+		if (!lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, &oid)) {
 			strbuf_release(&new_parents);
 			return error(_("could not parse %s"), argv[i]);
 		}
@@ -402,17 +402,17 @@
 	int i;
 
 	hash_object_file(extra->value, extra->len, type_name(OBJ_TAG), &tag_oid);
-	tag = lookup_tag(&tag_oid);
+	tag = lookup_tag(the_repository, &tag_oid);
 	if (!tag)
 		return error(_("bad mergetag in commit '%s'"), ref);
-	if (parse_tag_buffer(tag, extra->value, extra->len))
+	if (parse_tag_buffer(the_repository, tag, extra->value, extra->len))
 		return error(_("malformed mergetag in commit '%s'"), ref);
 
 	/* iterate over new parents */
 	for (i = 1; i < mergetag_data->argc; i++) {
 		struct object_id oid;
 		if (get_oid(mergetag_data->argv[i], &oid) < 0)
-			return error(_("Not a valid object name: '%s'"),
+			return error(_("not a valid object name: '%s'"),
 				     mergetag_data->argv[i]);
 		if (!oidcmp(&tag->tagged->oid, &oid))
 			return 0; /* found */
@@ -442,8 +442,8 @@
 	unsigned long size;
 
 	if (get_oid(old_ref, &old_oid) < 0)
-		return error(_("Not a valid object name: '%s'"), old_ref);
-	commit = lookup_commit_reference(&old_oid);
+		return error(_("not a valid object name: '%s'"), old_ref);
+	commit = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, &old_oid);
 	if (!commit)
 		return error(_("could not parse %s"), old_ref);
 
@@ -457,7 +457,7 @@
 	}
 
 	if (remove_signature(&buf)) {
-		warning(_("the original commit '%s' has a gpg signature."), old_ref);
+		warning(_("the original commit '%s' has a gpg signature"), old_ref);
 		warning(_("the signature will be removed in the replacement commit!"));
 	}
 
@@ -476,10 +476,10 @@
 
 	if (!oidcmp(&old_oid, &new_oid)) {
 		if (gentle) {
-			warning("graft for '%s' unnecessary", oid_to_hex(&old_oid));
+			warning(_("graft for '%s' unnecessary"), oid_to_hex(&old_oid));
 			return 0;
 		}
-		return error("new commit is the same as the old one: '%s'", oid_to_hex(&old_oid));
+		return error(_("new commit is the same as the old one: '%s'"), oid_to_hex(&old_oid));
 	}
 
 	return replace_object_oid(old_ref, &old_oid, "replacement", &new_oid, force);
@@ -487,7 +487,7 @@
 
 static int convert_graft_file(int force)
 {
-	const char *graft_file = get_graft_file();
+	const char *graft_file = get_graft_file(the_repository);
 	FILE *fp = fopen_or_warn(graft_file, "r");
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT, err = STRBUF_INIT;
 	struct argv_array args = ARGV_ARRAY_INIT;
@@ -544,7 +544,7 @@
 		OPT_END()
 	};
 
-	check_replace_refs = 0;
+	read_replace_refs = 0;
 	git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
 
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options, git_replace_usage, 0);
@@ -553,7 +553,7 @@
 		cmdmode = argc ? MODE_REPLACE : MODE_LIST;
 
 	if (format && cmdmode != MODE_LIST)
-		usage_msg_opt("--format cannot be used when not listing",
+		usage_msg_opt(_("--format cannot be used when not listing"),
 			      git_replace_usage, options);
 
 	if (force &&
@@ -561,47 +561,47 @@
 	    cmdmode != MODE_EDIT &&
 	    cmdmode != MODE_GRAFT &&
 	    cmdmode != MODE_CONVERT_GRAFT_FILE)
-		usage_msg_opt("-f only makes sense when writing a replacement",
+		usage_msg_opt(_("-f only makes sense when writing a replacement"),
 			      git_replace_usage, options);
 
 	if (raw && cmdmode != MODE_EDIT)
-		usage_msg_opt("--raw only makes sense with --edit",
+		usage_msg_opt(_("--raw only makes sense with --edit"),
 			      git_replace_usage, options);
 
 	switch (cmdmode) {
 	case MODE_DELETE:
 		if (argc < 1)
-			usage_msg_opt("-d needs at least one argument",
+			usage_msg_opt(_("-d needs at least one argument"),
 				      git_replace_usage, options);
 		return for_each_replace_name(argv, delete_replace_ref);
 
 	case MODE_REPLACE:
 		if (argc != 2)
-			usage_msg_opt("bad number of arguments",
+			usage_msg_opt(_("bad number of arguments"),
 				      git_replace_usage, options);
 		return replace_object(argv[0], argv[1], force);
 
 	case MODE_EDIT:
 		if (argc != 1)
-			usage_msg_opt("-e needs exactly one argument",
+			usage_msg_opt(_("-e needs exactly one argument"),
 				      git_replace_usage, options);
 		return edit_and_replace(argv[0], force, raw);
 
 	case MODE_GRAFT:
 		if (argc < 1)
-			usage_msg_opt("-g needs at least one argument",
+			usage_msg_opt(_("-g needs at least one argument"),
 				      git_replace_usage, options);
 		return create_graft(argc, argv, force, 0);
 
 	case MODE_CONVERT_GRAFT_FILE:
 		if (argc != 0)
-			usage_msg_opt("--convert-graft-file takes no argument",
+			usage_msg_opt(_("--convert-graft-file takes no argument"),
 				      git_replace_usage, options);
 		return !!convert_graft_file(force);
 
 	case MODE_LIST:
 		if (argc > 1)
-			usage_msg_opt("only one pattern can be given with -l",
+			usage_msg_opt(_("only one pattern can be given with -l"),
 				      git_replace_usage, options);
 		return list_replace_refs(argv[0], format);
 
diff --git a/builtin/reset.c b/builtin/reset.c
index a862c70..11cd0dc 100644
--- a/builtin/reset.c
+++ b/builtin/reset.c
@@ -39,7 +39,7 @@
 
 static inline int is_merge(void)
 {
-	return !access(git_path_merge_head(), F_OK);
+	return !access(git_path_merge_head(the_repository), F_OK);
 }
 
 static int reset_index(const struct object_id *oid, int reset_type, int quiet)
@@ -134,7 +134,7 @@
 			continue;
 		}
 
-		ce = make_cache_entry(one->mode, one->oid.hash, one->path,
+		ce = make_cache_entry(&the_index, one->mode, &one->oid, one->path,
 				      0, 0);
 		if (!ce)
 			die(_("make_cache_entry failed for path '%s'"),
@@ -319,7 +319,7 @@
 		struct commit *commit;
 		if (get_oid_committish(rev, &oid))
 			die(_("Failed to resolve '%s' as a valid revision."), rev);
-		commit = lookup_commit_reference(&oid);
+		commit = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, &oid);
 		if (!commit)
 			die(_("Could not parse object '%s'."), rev);
 		oidcpy(&oid, &commit->object.oid);
@@ -396,7 +396,7 @@
 		update_ref_status = reset_refs(rev, &oid);
 
 		if (reset_type == HARD && !update_ref_status && !quiet)
-			print_new_head_line(lookup_commit_reference(&oid));
+			print_new_head_line(lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, &oid));
 	}
 	if (!pathspec.nr)
 		remove_branch_state();
diff --git a/builtin/rev-list.c b/builtin/rev-list.c
index fadd3ec..41dd33c 100644
--- a/builtin/rev-list.c
+++ b/builtin/rev-list.c
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
 #include "list-objects.h"
 #include "list-objects-filter.h"
 #include "list-objects-filter-options.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "pack.h"
 #include "pack-bitmap.h"
 #include "builtin.h"
@@ -16,6 +17,7 @@
 #include "reflog-walk.h"
 #include "oidset.h"
 #include "packfile.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 
 static const char rev_list_usage[] =
 "git rev-list [OPTION] <commit-id>... [ -- paths... ]\n"
@@ -238,7 +240,7 @@
 		return 1;
 	}
 	if (info->revs->verify_objects && !obj->parsed && obj->type != OBJ_COMMIT)
-		parse_object(&obj->oid);
+		parse_object(the_repository, &obj->oid);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -370,6 +372,7 @@
 	git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
 	init_revisions(&revs, prefix);
 	revs.abbrev = DEFAULT_ABBREV;
+	revs.allow_exclude_promisor_objects_opt = 1;
 	revs.commit_format = CMIT_FMT_UNSPECIFIED;
 
 	/*
@@ -514,17 +517,21 @@
 		if (revs.count && !revs.left_right && !revs.cherry_mark) {
 			uint32_t commit_count;
 			int max_count = revs.max_count;
-			if (!prepare_bitmap_walk(&revs)) {
-				count_bitmap_commit_list(&commit_count, NULL, NULL, NULL);
+			struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git;
+			if ((bitmap_git = prepare_bitmap_walk(&revs))) {
+				count_bitmap_commit_list(bitmap_git, &commit_count, NULL, NULL, NULL);
 				if (max_count >= 0 && max_count < commit_count)
 					commit_count = max_count;
 				printf("%d\n", commit_count);
+				free_bitmap_index(bitmap_git);
 				return 0;
 			}
 		} else if (revs.max_count < 0 &&
 			   revs.tag_objects && revs.tree_objects && revs.blob_objects) {
-			if (!prepare_bitmap_walk(&revs)) {
-				traverse_bitmap_commit_list(&show_object_fast);
+			struct bitmap_index *bitmap_git;
+			if ((bitmap_git = prepare_bitmap_walk(&revs))) {
+				traverse_bitmap_commit_list(bitmap_git, &show_object_fast);
+				free_bitmap_index(bitmap_git);
 				return 0;
 			}
 		}
diff --git a/builtin/rev-parse.c b/builtin/rev-parse.c
index 4f49e96..0f09bbb 100644
--- a/builtin/rev-parse.c
+++ b/builtin/rev-parse.c
@@ -280,8 +280,8 @@
 		if (symmetric) {
 			struct commit_list *exclude;
 			struct commit *a, *b;
-			a = lookup_commit_reference(&start_oid);
-			b = lookup_commit_reference(&end_oid);
+			a = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, &start_oid);
+			b = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, &end_oid);
 			if (!a || !b) {
 				*dotdot = '.';
 				return 0;
@@ -333,7 +333,7 @@
 
 	*dotdot = 0;
 	if (get_oid_committish(arg, &oid) ||
-	    !(commit = lookup_commit_reference(&oid))) {
+	    !(commit = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, &oid))) {
 		*dotdot = '^';
 		return 0;
 	}
@@ -883,7 +883,8 @@
 				continue;
 			}
 			if (!strcmp(arg, "--is-shallow-repository")) {
-				printf("%s\n", is_repository_shallow() ? "true"
+				printf("%s\n",
+						is_repository_shallow(the_repository) ? "true"
 						: "false");
 				continue;
 			}
diff --git a/builtin/revert.c b/builtin/revert.c
index 76f0a35..9a66720 100644
--- a/builtin/revert.c
+++ b/builtin/revert.c
@@ -7,6 +7,7 @@
 #include "rerere.h"
 #include "dir.h"
 #include "sequencer.h"
+#include "branch.h"
 
 /*
  * This implements the builtins revert and cherry-pick.
@@ -191,8 +192,12 @@
 	opts->gpg_sign = xstrdup_or_null(opts->gpg_sign);
 	opts->strategy = xstrdup_or_null(opts->strategy);
 
-	if (cmd == 'q')
-		return sequencer_remove_state(opts);
+	if (cmd == 'q') {
+		int ret = sequencer_remove_state(opts);
+		if (!ret)
+			remove_branch_state();
+		return ret;
+	}
 	if (cmd == 'c')
 		return sequencer_continue(opts);
 	if (cmd == 'a')
diff --git a/builtin/rm.c b/builtin/rm.c
index 65b448e..2cbe89e 100644
--- a/builtin/rm.c
+++ b/builtin/rm.c
@@ -278,14 +278,14 @@
 
 	for (i = 0; i < active_nr; i++) {
 		const struct cache_entry *ce = active_cache[i];
-		if (!ce_path_match(ce, &pathspec, seen))
+		if (!ce_path_match(&the_index, ce, &pathspec, seen))
 			continue;
 		ALLOC_GROW(list.entry, list.nr + 1, list.alloc);
 		list.entry[list.nr].name = xstrdup(ce->name);
 		list.entry[list.nr].is_submodule = S_ISGITLINK(ce->ce_mode);
 		if (list.entry[list.nr++].is_submodule &&
 		    !is_staging_gitmodules_ok(&the_index))
-			die (_("Please stage your changes to .gitmodules or stash them to proceed"));
+			die(_("please stage your changes to .gitmodules or stash them to proceed"));
 	}
 
 	if (pathspec.nr) {
diff --git a/builtin/send-pack.c b/builtin/send-pack.c
index 4923b10..8e3c749 100644
--- a/builtin/send-pack.c
+++ b/builtin/send-pack.c
@@ -121,7 +121,7 @@
 			}
 		}
 	}
-	return 0;
+	return git_default_config(k, v, cb);
 }
 
 int cmd_send_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
@@ -166,7 +166,7 @@
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "mirror", &send_mirror, N_("mirror all refs")),
 		OPT_BOOL('f', "force", &force_update, N_("force updates")),
 		{ OPTION_CALLBACK,
-		  0, "signed", &push_cert, "yes|no|if-asked", N_("GPG sign the push"),
+		  0, "signed", &push_cert, "(yes|no|if-asked)", N_("GPG sign the push"),
 		  PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, option_parse_push_signed },
 		OPT_STRING_LIST(0, "push-option", &push_options,
 				N_("server-specific"),
@@ -178,7 +178,7 @@
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "stdin", &from_stdin, N_("read refs from stdin")),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "helper-status", &helper_status, N_("print status from remote helper")),
 		{ OPTION_CALLBACK,
-		  0, CAS_OPT_NAME, &cas, N_("refname>:<expect"),
+		  0, CAS_OPT_NAME, &cas, N_("<refname>:<expect>"),
 		  N_("require old value of ref to be at this value"),
 		  PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, parseopt_push_cas_option },
 		OPT_END()
diff --git a/builtin/shortlog.c b/builtin/shortlog.c
index 608d6ba..3898a2c 100644
--- a/builtin/shortlog.c
+++ b/builtin/shortlog.c
@@ -268,8 +268,9 @@
 			 N_("Suppress commit descriptions, only provides commit count")),
 		OPT_BOOL('e', "email", &log.email,
 			 N_("Show the email address of each author")),
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 'w', NULL, &log, N_("w[,i1[,i2]]"),
-			N_("Linewrap output"), PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, &parse_wrap_args },
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 'w', NULL, &log, N_("<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]"),
+			N_("Linewrap output"), PARSE_OPT_OPTARG,
+			&parse_wrap_args },
 		OPT_END(),
 	};
 
diff --git a/builtin/show-branch.c b/builtin/show-branch.c
index 6c2148b..363cf85 100644
--- a/builtin/show-branch.c
+++ b/builtin/show-branch.c
@@ -7,6 +7,7 @@
 #include "argv-array.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
 #include "dir.h"
+#include "commit-slab.h"
 
 static const char* show_branch_usage[] = {
     N_("git show-branch [-a | --all] [-r | --remotes] [--topo-order | --date-order]\n"
@@ -21,6 +22,11 @@
 
 static struct argv_array default_args = ARGV_ARRAY_INIT;
 
+/*
+ * TODO: convert this use of commit->object.flags to commit-slab
+ * instead to store a pointer to ref name directly. Then use the same
+ * UNINTERESTING definition from revision.h here.
+ */
 #define UNINTERESTING	01
 
 #define REV_SHIFT	 2
@@ -59,15 +65,27 @@
 	int generation; /* how many parents away from head_name */
 };
 
+define_commit_slab(commit_name_slab, struct commit_name *);
+static struct commit_name_slab name_slab;
+
+static struct commit_name *commit_to_name(struct commit *commit)
+{
+	return *commit_name_slab_at(&name_slab, commit);
+}
+
+
 /* Name the commit as nth generation ancestor of head_name;
  * we count only the first-parent relationship for naming purposes.
  */
 static void name_commit(struct commit *commit, const char *head_name, int nth)
 {
 	struct commit_name *name;
-	if (!commit->util)
-		commit->util = xmalloc(sizeof(struct commit_name));
-	name = commit->util;
+
+	name = *commit_name_slab_at(&name_slab, commit);
+	if (!name) {
+		name = xmalloc(sizeof(*name));
+		*commit_name_slab_at(&name_slab, commit) = name;
+	}
 	name->head_name = head_name;
 	name->generation = nth;
 }
@@ -79,8 +97,8 @@
  */
 static void name_parent(struct commit *commit, struct commit *parent)
 {
-	struct commit_name *commit_name = commit->util;
-	struct commit_name *parent_name = parent->util;
+	struct commit_name *commit_name = commit_to_name(commit);
+	struct commit_name *parent_name = commit_to_name(parent);
 	if (!commit_name)
 		return;
 	if (!parent_name ||
@@ -94,12 +112,12 @@
 	int i = 0;
 	while (c) {
 		struct commit *p;
-		if (!c->util)
+		if (!commit_to_name(c))
 			break;
 		if (!c->parents)
 			break;
 		p = c->parents->item;
-		if (!p->util) {
+		if (!commit_to_name(p)) {
 			name_parent(c, p);
 			i++;
 		}
@@ -122,7 +140,7 @@
 	/* First give names to the given heads */
 	for (cl = list; cl; cl = cl->next) {
 		c = cl->item;
-		if (c->util)
+		if (commit_to_name(c))
 			continue;
 		for (i = 0; i < num_rev; i++) {
 			if (rev[i] == c) {
@@ -148,9 +166,9 @@
 			struct commit_name *n;
 			int nth;
 			c = cl->item;
-			if (!c->util)
+			if (!commit_to_name(c))
 				continue;
-			n = c->util;
+			n = commit_to_name(c);
 			parents = c->parents;
 			nth = 0;
 			while (parents) {
@@ -158,7 +176,7 @@
 				struct strbuf newname = STRBUF_INIT;
 				parents = parents->next;
 				nth++;
-				if (p->util)
+				if (commit_to_name(p))
 					continue;
 				switch (n->generation) {
 				case 0:
@@ -271,7 +289,7 @@
 {
 	struct strbuf pretty = STRBUF_INIT;
 	const char *pretty_str = "(unavailable)";
-	struct commit_name *name = commit->util;
+	struct commit_name *name = commit_to_name(commit);
 
 	if (commit->object.parsed) {
 		pp_commit_easy(CMIT_FMT_ONELINE, commit, &pretty);
@@ -360,7 +378,8 @@
 static int append_ref(const char *refname, const struct object_id *oid,
 		      int allow_dups)
 {
-	struct commit *commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(oid, 1);
+	struct commit *commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(the_repository,
+							       oid, 1);
 	int i;
 
 	if (!commit)
@@ -655,11 +674,13 @@
 		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 'g', "reflog", &reflog_base, N_("<n>[,<base>]"),
 			    N_("show <n> most recent ref-log entries starting at "
 			       "base"),
-			    PARSE_OPT_OPTARG | PARSE_OPT_LITERAL_ARGHELP,
+			    PARSE_OPT_OPTARG,
 			    parse_reflog_param },
 		OPT_END()
 	};
 
+	init_commit_name_slab(&name_slab);
+
 	git_config(git_show_branch_config, NULL);
 
 	/* If nothing is specified, try the default first */
@@ -810,7 +831,7 @@
 			       MAX_REVS), MAX_REVS);
 		if (get_oid(ref_name[num_rev], &revkey))
 			die(_("'%s' is not a valid ref."), ref_name[num_rev]);
-		commit = lookup_commit_reference(&revkey);
+		commit = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, &revkey);
 		if (!commit)
 			die(_("cannot find commit %s (%s)"),
 			    ref_name[num_rev], oid_to_hex(&revkey));
diff --git a/show-index.c b/builtin/show-index.c
similarity index 95%
rename from show-index.c
rename to builtin/show-index.c
index 1ead41e..a6e6788 100644
--- a/show-index.c
+++ b/builtin/show-index.c
@@ -1,10 +1,11 @@
+#include "builtin.h"
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "pack.h"
 
 static const char show_index_usage[] =
 "git show-index";
 
-int cmd_main(int argc, const char **argv)
+int cmd_show_index(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
 	int i;
 	unsigned nr;
diff --git a/builtin/show-ref.c b/builtin/show-ref.c
index f2eb1a7..2f13f13 100644
--- a/builtin/show-ref.c
+++ b/builtin/show-ref.c
@@ -1,6 +1,7 @@
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "refs.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "object.h"
 #include "tag.h"
 #include "string-list.h"
diff --git a/builtin/submodule--helper.c b/builtin/submodule--helper.c
index 05e5ed3..382e823 100644
--- a/builtin/submodule--helper.c
+++ b/builtin/submodule--helper.c
@@ -56,7 +56,7 @@
 
 static int print_default_remote(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
-	const char *remote;
+	char *remote;
 
 	if (argc != 1)
 		die(_("submodule--helper print-default-remote takes no arguments"));
@@ -65,6 +65,7 @@
 	if (remote)
 		printf("%s\n", remote);
 
+	free(remote);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -331,7 +332,7 @@
 	for (i = 0; i < active_nr; i++) {
 		const struct cache_entry *ce = active_cache[i];
 
-		if (!match_pathspec(pathspec, ce->name, ce_namelen(ce),
+		if (!match_pathspec(&the_index, pathspec, ce->name, ce_namelen(ce),
 				    0, ps_matched, 1) ||
 		    !S_ISGITLINK(ce->ce_mode))
 			continue;
@@ -441,6 +442,149 @@
 		fn(list->entries[i], cb_data);
 }
 
+struct cb_foreach {
+	int argc;
+	const char **argv;
+	const char *prefix;
+	int quiet;
+	int recursive;
+};
+#define CB_FOREACH_INIT { 0 }
+
+static void runcommand_in_submodule_cb(const struct cache_entry *list_item,
+				       void *cb_data)
+{
+	struct cb_foreach *info = cb_data;
+	const char *path = list_item->name;
+	const struct object_id *ce_oid = &list_item->oid;
+
+	const struct submodule *sub;
+	struct child_process cp = CHILD_PROCESS_INIT;
+	char *displaypath;
+
+	displaypath = get_submodule_displaypath(path, info->prefix);
+
+	sub = submodule_from_path(the_repository, &null_oid, path);
+
+	if (!sub)
+		die(_("No url found for submodule path '%s' in .gitmodules"),
+			displaypath);
+
+	if (!is_submodule_populated_gently(path, NULL))
+		goto cleanup;
+
+	prepare_submodule_repo_env(&cp.env_array);
+
+	/*
+	 * For the purpose of executing <command> in the submodule,
+	 * separate shell is used for the purpose of running the
+	 * child process.
+	 */
+	cp.use_shell = 1;
+	cp.dir = path;
+
+	/*
+	 * NEEDSWORK: the command currently has access to the variables $name,
+	 * $sm_path, $displaypath, $sha1 and $toplevel only when the command
+	 * contains a single argument. This is done for maintaining a faithful
+	 * translation from shell script.
+	 */
+	if (info->argc == 1) {
+		char *toplevel = xgetcwd();
+		struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+		argv_array_pushf(&cp.env_array, "name=%s", sub->name);
+		argv_array_pushf(&cp.env_array, "sm_path=%s", path);
+		argv_array_pushf(&cp.env_array, "displaypath=%s", displaypath);
+		argv_array_pushf(&cp.env_array, "sha1=%s",
+				oid_to_hex(ce_oid));
+		argv_array_pushf(&cp.env_array, "toplevel=%s", toplevel);
+
+		/*
+		 * Since the path variable was accessible from the script
+		 * before porting, it is also made available after porting.
+		 * The environment variable "PATH" has a very special purpose
+		 * on windows. And since environment variables are
+		 * case-insensitive in windows, it interferes with the
+		 * existing PATH variable. Hence, to avoid that, we expose
+		 * path via the args argv_array and not via env_array.
+		 */
+		sq_quote_buf(&sb, path);
+		argv_array_pushf(&cp.args, "path=%s; %s",
+				 sb.buf, info->argv[0]);
+		strbuf_release(&sb);
+		free(toplevel);
+	} else {
+		argv_array_pushv(&cp.args, info->argv);
+	}
+
+	if (!info->quiet)
+		printf(_("Entering '%s'\n"), displaypath);
+
+	if (info->argv[0] && run_command(&cp))
+		die(_("run_command returned non-zero status for %s\n."),
+			displaypath);
+
+	if (info->recursive) {
+		struct child_process cpr = CHILD_PROCESS_INIT;
+
+		cpr.git_cmd = 1;
+		cpr.dir = path;
+		prepare_submodule_repo_env(&cpr.env_array);
+
+		argv_array_pushl(&cpr.args, "--super-prefix", NULL);
+		argv_array_pushf(&cpr.args, "%s/", displaypath);
+		argv_array_pushl(&cpr.args, "submodule--helper", "foreach", "--recursive",
+				NULL);
+
+		if (info->quiet)
+			argv_array_push(&cpr.args, "--quiet");
+
+		argv_array_pushv(&cpr.args, info->argv);
+
+		if (run_command(&cpr))
+			die(_("run_command returned non-zero status while "
+				"recursing in the nested submodules of %s\n."),
+				displaypath);
+	}
+
+cleanup:
+	free(displaypath);
+}
+
+static int module_foreach(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+	struct cb_foreach info = CB_FOREACH_INIT;
+	struct pathspec pathspec;
+	struct module_list list = MODULE_LIST_INIT;
+
+	struct option module_foreach_options[] = {
+		OPT__QUIET(&info.quiet, N_("Suppress output of entering each submodule command")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "recursive", &info.recursive,
+			 N_("Recurse into nested submodules")),
+		OPT_END()
+	};
+
+	const char *const git_submodule_helper_usage[] = {
+		N_("git submodule--helper foreach [--quiet] [--recursive] <command>"),
+		NULL
+	};
+
+	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, module_foreach_options,
+			     git_submodule_helper_usage, PARSE_OPT_KEEP_UNKNOWN);
+
+	if (module_list_compute(0, NULL, prefix, &pathspec, &list) < 0)
+		return 1;
+
+	info.argc = argc;
+	info.argv = argv;
+	info.prefix = prefix;
+
+	for_each_listed_submodule(&list, runcommand_in_submodule_cb, &info);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
 struct init_cb {
 	const char *prefix;
 	unsigned int flags;
@@ -881,7 +1025,6 @@
 {
 	struct sync_cb *info = cb_data;
 	sync_submodule(list_item->name, info->prefix, info->flags);
-
 }
 
 static int module_sync(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
@@ -1575,8 +1718,8 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int gitmodules_update_clone_config(const char *var, const char *value,
-					  void *cb)
+static int git_update_clone_config(const char *var, const char *value,
+				   void *cb)
 {
 	int *max_jobs = cb;
 	if (!strcmp(var, "submodule.fetchjobs"))
@@ -1628,8 +1771,8 @@
 	};
 	suc.prefix = prefix;
 
-	config_from_gitmodules(gitmodules_update_clone_config, &max_jobs);
-	git_config(gitmodules_update_clone_config, &max_jobs);
+	update_clone_config_from_gitmodules(&max_jobs);
+	git_config(git_update_clone_config, &max_jobs);
 
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, module_update_clone_options,
 			     git_submodule_helper_usage, 0);
@@ -1891,6 +2034,7 @@
 	{"relative-path", resolve_relative_path, 0},
 	{"resolve-relative-url", resolve_relative_url, 0},
 	{"resolve-relative-url-test", resolve_relative_url_test, 0},
+	{"foreach", module_foreach, SUPPORT_SUPER_PREFIX},
 	{"init", module_init, SUPPORT_SUPER_PREFIX},
 	{"status", module_status, SUPPORT_SUPER_PREFIX},
 	{"print-default-remote", print_default_remote, 0},
diff --git a/builtin/tag.c b/builtin/tag.c
index 5d0dd11..9a19ffb 100644
--- a/builtin/tag.c
+++ b/builtin/tag.c
@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@
 #include "config.h"
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "refs.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "tag.h"
 #include "run-command.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
@@ -312,7 +313,7 @@
 		}
 		free(buf);
 
-		if ((c = lookup_commit_reference(oid)) != NULL)
+		if ((c = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository, oid)) != NULL)
 			strbuf_addf(sb, ", %s", show_date(c->date, 0, DATE_MODE(SHORT)));
 		break;
 	case OBJ_TREE:
diff --git a/builtin/unpack-file.c b/builtin/unpack-file.c
index 300eb59..5865222 100644
--- a/builtin/unpack-file.c
+++ b/builtin/unpack-file.c
@@ -1,5 +1,6 @@
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "config.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 
 static char *create_temp_file(struct object_id *oid)
 {
diff --git a/builtin/unpack-objects.c b/builtin/unpack-objects.c
index 6e81ca8..30d9413 100644
--- a/builtin/unpack-objects.c
+++ b/builtin/unpack-objects.c
@@ -1,6 +1,7 @@
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "config.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 #include "object.h"
 #include "delta.h"
 #include "pack.h"
@@ -253,7 +254,7 @@
 		added_object(nr, type, buf, size);
 		free(buf);
 
-		blob = lookup_blob(&obj_list[nr].oid);
+		blob = lookup_blob(the_repository, &obj_list[nr].oid);
 		if (blob)
 			blob->object.flags |= FLAG_WRITTEN;
 		else
@@ -264,7 +265,8 @@
 		int eaten;
 		hash_object_file(buf, size, type_name(type), &obj_list[nr].oid);
 		added_object(nr, type, buf, size);
-		obj = parse_object_buffer(&obj_list[nr].oid, type, size, buf,
+		obj = parse_object_buffer(the_repository, &obj_list[nr].oid,
+					  type, size, buf,
 					  &eaten);
 		if (!obj)
 			die("invalid %s", type_name(type));
@@ -330,7 +332,7 @@
 {
 	struct object *obj;
 	struct obj_buffer *obj_buffer;
-	obj = lookup_object(base->hash);
+	obj = lookup_object(the_repository, base->hash);
 	if (!obj)
 		return 0;
 	obj_buffer = lookup_object_buffer(obj);
@@ -512,7 +514,7 @@
 	int i;
 	struct object_id oid;
 
-	check_replace_refs = 0;
+	read_replace_refs = 0;
 
 	git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
 
diff --git a/builtin/update-index.c b/builtin/update-index.c
index a8709a2..fe84003 100644
--- a/builtin/update-index.c
+++ b/builtin/update-index.c
@@ -268,15 +268,14 @@
 
 static int add_one_path(const struct cache_entry *old, const char *path, int len, struct stat *st)
 {
-	int option, size;
+	int option;
 	struct cache_entry *ce;
 
 	/* Was the old index entry already up-to-date? */
 	if (old && !ce_stage(old) && !ce_match_stat(old, st, 0))
 		return 0;
 
-	size = cache_entry_size(len);
-	ce = xcalloc(1, size);
+	ce = make_empty_cache_entry(&the_index, len);
 	memcpy(ce->name, path, len);
 	ce->ce_flags = create_ce_flags(0);
 	ce->ce_namelen = len;
@@ -285,13 +284,13 @@
 
 	if (index_path(&ce->oid, path, st,
 		       info_only ? 0 : HASH_WRITE_OBJECT)) {
-		free(ce);
+		discard_cache_entry(ce);
 		return -1;
 	}
 	option = allow_add ? ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD : 0;
 	option |= allow_replace ? ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_REPLACE : 0;
 	if (add_cache_entry(ce, option)) {
-		free(ce);
+		discard_cache_entry(ce);
 		return error("%s: cannot add to the index - missing --add option?", path);
 	}
 	return 0;
@@ -402,15 +401,14 @@
 static int add_cacheinfo(unsigned int mode, const struct object_id *oid,
 			 const char *path, int stage)
 {
-	int size, len, option;
+	int len, option;
 	struct cache_entry *ce;
 
 	if (!verify_path(path, mode))
 		return error("Invalid path '%s'", path);
 
 	len = strlen(path);
-	size = cache_entry_size(len);
-	ce = xcalloc(1, size);
+	ce = make_empty_cache_entry(&the_index, len);
 
 	oidcpy(&ce->oid, oid);
 	memcpy(ce->name, path, len);
@@ -492,6 +490,7 @@
 
 static void read_index_info(int nul_term_line)
 {
+	const int hexsz = the_hash_algo->hexsz;
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 	struct strbuf uq = STRBUF_INIT;
 	strbuf_getline_fn getline_fn;
@@ -529,7 +528,7 @@
 		mode = ul;
 
 		tab = strchr(ptr, '\t');
-		if (!tab || tab - ptr < GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 1)
+		if (!tab || tab - ptr < hexsz + 1)
 			goto bad_line;
 
 		if (tab[-2] == ' ' && '0' <= tab[-1] && tab[-1] <= '3') {
@@ -542,8 +541,8 @@
 			ptr = tab + 1; /* point at the head of path */
 		}
 
-		if (get_oid_hex(tab - GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ, &oid) ||
-			tab[-(GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 1)] != ' ')
+		if (get_oid_hex(tab - hexsz, &oid) ||
+			tab[-(hexsz + 1)] != ' ')
 			goto bad_line;
 
 		path_name = ptr;
@@ -571,7 +570,7 @@
 			 * ptr[-1] points at tab,
 			 * ptr[-41] is at the beginning of sha1
 			 */
-			ptr[-(GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 2)] = ptr[-1] = 0;
+			ptr[-(hexsz + 2)] = ptr[-1] = 0;
 			if (add_cacheinfo(mode, &oid, path_name, stage))
 				die("git update-index: unable to update %s",
 				    path_name);
@@ -599,7 +598,6 @@
 {
 	unsigned mode;
 	struct object_id oid;
-	int size;
 	struct cache_entry *ce;
 
 	if (get_tree_entry(ent, path, &oid, &mode)) {
@@ -612,8 +610,7 @@
 			error("%s: not a blob in %s branch.", path, which);
 		return NULL;
 	}
-	size = cache_entry_size(namelen);
-	ce = xcalloc(1, size);
+	ce = make_empty_cache_entry(&the_index, namelen);
 
 	oidcpy(&ce->oid, &oid);
 	memcpy(ce->name, path, namelen);
@@ -690,8 +687,8 @@
 	error("%s: cannot add their version to the index.", path);
 	ret = -1;
  free_return:
-	free(ce_2);
-	free(ce_3);
+	discard_cache_entry(ce_2);
+	discard_cache_entry(ce_3);
 	return ret;
 }
 
@@ -751,14 +748,14 @@
 		int save_nr;
 		char *path;
 
-		if (ce_stage(ce) || !ce_path_match(ce, &pathspec, NULL))
+		if (ce_stage(ce) || !ce_path_match(&the_index, ce, &pathspec, NULL))
 			continue;
 		if (has_head)
 			old = read_one_ent(NULL, &head_oid,
 					   ce->name, ce_namelen(ce), 0);
 		if (old && ce->ce_mode == old->ce_mode &&
 		    !oidcmp(&ce->oid, &old->oid)) {
-			free(old);
+			discard_cache_entry(old);
 			continue; /* unchanged */
 		}
 		/* Be careful.  The working tree may not have the
@@ -769,7 +766,7 @@
 		path = xstrdup(ce->name);
 		update_one(path);
 		free(path);
-		free(old);
+		discard_cache_entry(old);
 		if (save_nr != active_nr)
 			goto redo;
 	}
@@ -826,6 +823,7 @@
 {
 	unsigned long ul;
 	char *endp;
+	const char *p;
 
 	if (!arg)
 		return -1;
@@ -836,9 +834,9 @@
 		return -1; /* not a new-style cacheinfo */
 	*mode = ul;
 	endp++;
-	if (get_oid_hex(endp, oid) || endp[GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ] != ',')
+	if (parse_oid_hex(endp, oid, &p) || *p != ',')
 		return -1;
-	*path = endp + GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 1;
+	*path = p + 1;
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -971,9 +969,9 @@
 			PARSE_OPT_NOARG | /* disallow --cacheinfo=<mode> form */
 			PARSE_OPT_NONEG | PARSE_OPT_LITERAL_ARGHELP,
 			(parse_opt_cb *) cacheinfo_callback},
-		{OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "chmod", &set_executable_bit, N_("(+/-)x"),
+		{OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "chmod", &set_executable_bit, "(+|-)x",
 			N_("override the executable bit of the listed files"),
-			PARSE_OPT_NONEG | PARSE_OPT_LITERAL_ARGHELP,
+			PARSE_OPT_NONEG,
 			chmod_callback},
 		{OPTION_SET_INT, 0, "assume-unchanged", &mark_valid_only, NULL,
 			N_("mark files as \"not changing\""),
diff --git a/builtin/update-ref.c b/builtin/update-ref.c
index 4b4714b..2d8f7f0 100644
--- a/builtin/update-ref.c
+++ b/builtin/update-ref.c
@@ -14,7 +14,8 @@
 };
 
 static char line_termination = '\n';
-static int update_flags;
+static unsigned int update_flags;
+static unsigned int default_flags;
 static unsigned create_reflog_flag;
 static const char *msg;
 
@@ -205,7 +206,7 @@
 				   msg, &err))
 		die("%s", err.buf);
 
-	update_flags = 0;
+	update_flags = default_flags;
 	free(refname);
 	strbuf_release(&err);
 
@@ -237,7 +238,7 @@
 				   msg, &err))
 		die("%s", err.buf);
 
-	update_flags = 0;
+	update_flags = default_flags;
 	free(refname);
 	strbuf_release(&err);
 
@@ -273,7 +274,7 @@
 				   update_flags, msg, &err))
 		die("%s", err.buf);
 
-	update_flags = 0;
+	update_flags = default_flags;
 	free(refname);
 	strbuf_release(&err);
 
@@ -302,7 +303,7 @@
 				   update_flags, &err))
 		die("%s", err.buf);
 
-	update_flags = 0;
+	update_flags = default_flags;
 	free(refname);
 	strbuf_release(&err);
 
@@ -311,11 +312,12 @@
 
 static const char *parse_cmd_option(struct strbuf *input, const char *next)
 {
-	if (!strncmp(next, "no-deref", 8) && next[8] == line_termination)
+	const char *rest;
+	if (skip_prefix(next, "no-deref", &rest) && *rest == line_termination)
 		update_flags |= REF_NO_DEREF;
 	else
 		die("option unknown: %s", next);
-	return next + 8;
+	return rest;
 }
 
 static void update_refs_stdin(struct ref_transaction *transaction)
@@ -332,16 +334,16 @@
 			die("empty command in input");
 		else if (isspace(*next))
 			die("whitespace before command: %s", next);
-		else if (starts_with(next, "update "))
-			next = parse_cmd_update(transaction, &input, next + 7);
-		else if (starts_with(next, "create "))
-			next = parse_cmd_create(transaction, &input, next + 7);
-		else if (starts_with(next, "delete "))
-			next = parse_cmd_delete(transaction, &input, next + 7);
-		else if (starts_with(next, "verify "))
-			next = parse_cmd_verify(transaction, &input, next + 7);
-		else if (starts_with(next, "option "))
-			next = parse_cmd_option(&input, next + 7);
+		else if (skip_prefix(next, "update ", &next))
+			next = parse_cmd_update(transaction, &input, next);
+		else if (skip_prefix(next, "create ", &next))
+			next = parse_cmd_create(transaction, &input, next);
+		else if (skip_prefix(next, "delete ", &next))
+			next = parse_cmd_delete(transaction, &input, next);
+		else if (skip_prefix(next, "verify ", &next))
+			next = parse_cmd_verify(transaction, &input, next);
+		else if (skip_prefix(next, "option ", &next))
+			next = parse_cmd_option(&input, next);
 		else
 			die("unknown command: %s", next);
 
@@ -356,7 +358,6 @@
 	const char *refname, *oldval;
 	struct object_id oid, oldoid;
 	int delete = 0, no_deref = 0, read_stdin = 0, end_null = 0;
-	unsigned int flags = 0;
 	int create_reflog = 0;
 	struct option options[] = {
 		OPT_STRING( 'm', NULL, &msg, N_("reason"), N_("reason of the update")),
@@ -377,6 +378,11 @@
 
 	create_reflog_flag = create_reflog ? REF_FORCE_CREATE_REFLOG : 0;
 
+	if (no_deref) {
+		default_flags = REF_NO_DEREF;
+		update_flags = default_flags;
+	}
+
 	if (read_stdin) {
 		struct strbuf err = STRBUF_INIT;
 		struct ref_transaction *transaction;
@@ -384,7 +390,7 @@
 		transaction = ref_transaction_begin(&err);
 		if (!transaction)
 			die("%s", err.buf);
-		if (delete || no_deref || argc > 0)
+		if (delete || argc > 0)
 			usage_with_options(git_update_ref_usage, options);
 		if (end_null)
 			line_termination = '\0';
@@ -426,8 +432,6 @@
 			die("%s: not a valid old SHA1", oldval);
 	}
 
-	if (no_deref)
-		flags = REF_NO_DEREF;
 	if (delete)
 		/*
 		 * For purposes of backwards compatibility, we treat
@@ -435,9 +439,9 @@
 		 */
 		return delete_ref(msg, refname,
 				  (oldval && !is_null_oid(&oldoid)) ? &oldoid : NULL,
-				  flags);
+				  default_flags);
 	else
 		return update_ref(msg, refname, &oid, oldval ? &oldoid : NULL,
-				  flags | create_reflog_flag,
+				  default_flags | create_reflog_flag,
 				  UPDATE_REFS_DIE_ON_ERR);
 }
diff --git a/builtin/upload-archive.c b/builtin/upload-archive.c
index 84532ae..25d9116 100644
--- a/builtin/upload-archive.c
+++ b/builtin/upload-archive.c
@@ -43,7 +43,8 @@
 	}
 
 	/* parse all options sent by the client */
-	return write_archive(sent_argv.argc, sent_argv.argv, prefix, NULL, 1);
+	return write_archive(sent_argv.argc, sent_argv.argv, prefix,
+			     the_repository, NULL, 1);
 }
 
 __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)))
diff --git a/builtin/upload-pack.c b/builtin/upload-pack.c
index decde5a..42dc4da 100644
--- a/builtin/upload-pack.c
+++ b/builtin/upload-pack.c
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@
 	};
 
 	packet_trace_identity("upload-pack");
-	check_replace_refs = 0;
+	read_replace_refs = 0;
 
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, NULL, options, upload_pack_usage, 0);
 
diff --git a/builtin/verify-commit.c b/builtin/verify-commit.c
index dcdaada..7772c07 100644
--- a/builtin/verify-commit.c
+++ b/builtin/verify-commit.c
@@ -8,6 +8,8 @@
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "config.h"
 #include "builtin.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
+#include "repository.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "run-command.h"
 #include <signal.h>
@@ -26,7 +28,8 @@
 
 	memset(&signature_check, 0, sizeof(signature_check));
 
-	ret = check_commit_signature(lookup_commit(oid), &signature_check);
+	ret = check_commit_signature(lookup_commit(the_repository, oid),
+				     &signature_check);
 	print_signature_buffer(&signature_check, flags);
 
 	signature_check_clear(&signature_check);
diff --git a/builtin/worktree.c b/builtin/worktree.c
index 5c7d2bb..41e7714 100644
--- a/builtin/worktree.c
+++ b/builtin/worktree.c
@@ -27,6 +27,7 @@
 struct add_opts {
 	int force;
 	int detach;
+	int quiet;
 	int checkout;
 	int keep_locked;
 };
@@ -303,9 +304,13 @@
 	if (!is_branch)
 		argv_array_pushl(&cp.args, "update-ref", "HEAD",
 				 oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid), NULL);
-	else
+	else {
 		argv_array_pushl(&cp.args, "symbolic-ref", "HEAD",
 				 symref.buf, NULL);
+		if (opts->quiet)
+			argv_array_push(&cp.args, "--quiet");
+	}
+
 	cp.env = child_env.argv;
 	ret = run_command(&cp);
 	if (ret)
@@ -315,6 +320,8 @@
 		cp.argv = NULL;
 		argv_array_clear(&cp.args);
 		argv_array_pushl(&cp.args, "reset", "--hard", NULL);
+		if (opts->quiet)
+			argv_array_push(&cp.args, "--quiet");
 		cp.env = child_env.argv;
 		ret = run_command(&cp);
 		if (ret)
@@ -412,7 +419,7 @@
 	if (guess_remote) {
 		struct object_id oid;
 		const char *remote =
-			unique_tracking_name(*new_branch, &oid);
+			unique_tracking_name(*new_branch, &oid, NULL);
 		return remote;
 	}
 	return NULL;
@@ -437,6 +444,7 @@
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "detach", &opts.detach, N_("detach HEAD at named commit")),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "checkout", &opts.checkout, N_("populate the new working tree")),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "lock", &opts.keep_locked, N_("keep the new working tree locked")),
+		OPT__QUIET(&opts.quiet, N_("suppress progress reporting")),
 		OPT_PASSTHRU(0, "track", &opt_track, NULL,
 			     N_("set up tracking mode (see git-branch(1))"),
 			     PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_OPTARG),
@@ -484,15 +492,15 @@
 
 		commit = lookup_commit_reference_by_name(branch);
 		if (!commit) {
-			remote = unique_tracking_name(branch, &oid);
+			remote = unique_tracking_name(branch, &oid, NULL);
 			if (remote) {
 				new_branch = branch;
 				branch = remote;
 			}
 		}
 	}
-
-	print_preparing_worktree_line(opts.detach, branch, new_branch, !!new_branch_force);
+	if (!opts.quiet)
+		print_preparing_worktree_line(opts.detach, branch, new_branch, !!new_branch_force);
 
 	if (new_branch) {
 		struct child_process cp = CHILD_PROCESS_INIT;
@@ -500,6 +508,8 @@
 		argv_array_push(&cp.args, "branch");
 		if (new_branch_force)
 			argv_array_push(&cp.args, "--force");
+		if (opts.quiet)
+			argv_array_push(&cp.args, "--quiet");
 		argv_array_push(&cp.args, new_branch);
 		argv_array_push(&cp.args, branch);
 		if (opt_track)
diff --git a/builtin/write-tree.c b/builtin/write-tree.c
index c9d3c54..cdcbf82 100644
--- a/builtin/write-tree.c
+++ b/builtin/write-tree.c
@@ -24,9 +24,8 @@
 	struct option write_tree_options[] = {
 		OPT_BIT(0, "missing-ok", &flags, N_("allow missing objects"),
 			WRITE_TREE_MISSING_OK),
-		{ OPTION_STRING, 0, "prefix", &prefix, N_("<prefix>/"),
-		  N_("write tree object for a subdirectory <prefix>") ,
-		  PARSE_OPT_LITERAL_ARGHELP },
+		OPT_STRING(0, "prefix", &prefix, N_("<prefix>/"),
+			   N_("write tree object for a subdirectory <prefix>")),
 		{ OPTION_BIT, 0, "ignore-cache-tree", &flags, NULL,
 		  N_("only useful for debugging"),
 		  PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN | PARSE_OPT_NOARG, NULL,
diff --git a/bulk-checkin.c b/bulk-checkin.c
index b7e131c..9f3b644 100644
--- a/bulk-checkin.c
+++ b/bulk-checkin.c
@@ -8,6 +8,7 @@
 #include "pack.h"
 #include "strbuf.h"
 #include "packfile.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 
 static struct bulk_checkin_state {
 	unsigned plugged:1;
diff --git a/bulk-checkin.h b/bulk-checkin.h
index a855273..f438f93 100644
--- a/bulk-checkin.h
+++ b/bulk-checkin.h
@@ -4,6 +4,8 @@
 #ifndef BULK_CHECKIN_H
 #define BULK_CHECKIN_H
 
+#include "cache.h"
+
 extern int index_bulk_checkin(struct object_id *oid,
 			      int fd, size_t size, enum object_type type,
 			      const char *path, unsigned flags);
diff --git a/bundle.c b/bundle.c
index 160bbfd..24cbe40 100644
--- a/bundle.c
+++ b/bundle.c
@@ -1,6 +1,8 @@
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "lockfile.h"
 #include "bundle.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
+#include "repository.h"
 #include "object.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "diff.h"
@@ -141,7 +143,7 @@
 	init_revisions(&revs, NULL);
 	for (i = 0; i < p->nr; i++) {
 		struct ref_list_entry *e = p->list + i;
-		struct object *o = parse_object(&e->oid);
+		struct object *o = parse_object(the_repository, &e->oid);
 		if (o) {
 			o->flags |= PREREQ_MARK;
 			add_pending_object(&revs, o, e->name);
@@ -166,7 +168,7 @@
 
 	for (i = 0; i < p->nr; i++) {
 		struct ref_list_entry *e = p->list + i;
-		struct object *o = parse_object(&e->oid);
+		struct object *o = parse_object(the_repository, &e->oid);
 		assert(o); /* otherwise we'd have returned early */
 		if (o->flags & SHOWN)
 			continue;
@@ -178,7 +180,7 @@
 	/* Clean up objects used, as they will be reused. */
 	for (i = 0; i < p->nr; i++) {
 		struct ref_list_entry *e = p->list + i;
-		commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(&e->oid, 1);
+		commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(the_repository, &e->oid, 1);
 		if (commit)
 			clear_commit_marks(commit, ALL_REV_FLAGS);
 	}
@@ -373,7 +375,8 @@
 			 * in terms of a tag (e.g. v2.0 from the range
 			 * "v1.0..v2.0")?
 			 */
-			struct commit *one = lookup_commit_reference(&oid);
+			struct commit *one = lookup_commit_reference(the_repository,
+								     &oid);
 			struct object *obj;
 
 			if (e->item == &(one->object)) {
diff --git a/cache-tree.c b/cache-tree.c
index 2566382..16ea022 100644
--- a/cache-tree.c
+++ b/cache-tree.c
@@ -3,6 +3,7 @@
 #include "tree.h"
 #include "tree-walk.h"
 #include "cache-tree.h"
+#include "object-store.h"
 
 #ifndef DEBUG
 #define DEBUG 0
@@ -651,11 +652,6 @@
 	return ret;
 }
 
-int write_cache_as_tree(struct object_id *oid, int flags, const char *prefix)
-{
-	return write_index_as_tree(oid, &the_index, get_index_file(), flags, prefix);
-}
-
 static void prime_cache_tree_rec(struct cache_tree *it, struct tree *tree)
 {
 	struct tree_desc desc;
@@ -670,7 +666,8 @@
 			cnt++;
 		else {
 			struct cache_tree_sub *sub;
-			struct tree *subtree = lookup_tree(entry.oid);
+			struct tree *subtree = lookup_tree(the_repository,
+							   entry.oid);
 			if (!subtree->object.parsed)
 				parse_tree(subtree);
 			sub = cache_tree_sub(it, entry.path);
@@ -721,10 +718,3 @@
 		return it->entry_count;
 	return 0;
 }
-
-int update_main_cache_tree(int flags)
-{
-	if (!the_index.cache_tree)
-		the_index.cache_tree = cache_tree();
-	return cache_tree_update(&the_index, flags);
-}
diff --git a/cache-tree.h b/cache-tree.h
index cfd5328..fc0c842 100644
--- a/cache-tree.h
+++ b/cache-tree.h
@@ -33,8 +33,6 @@
 int cache_tree_fully_valid(struct cache_tree *);
 int cache_tree_update(struct index_state *, int);
 
-int update_main_cache_tree(int);
-
 /* bitmasks to write_cache_as_tree flags */
 #define WRITE_TREE_MISSING_OK 1
 #define WRITE_TREE_IGNORE_CACHE_TREE 2
@@ -48,9 +46,22 @@
 #define WRITE_TREE_PREFIX_ERROR (-3)
 
 int write_index_as_tree(struct object_id *oid, struct index_state *index_state, const char *index_path, int flags, const char *prefix);
-int write_cache_as_tree(struct object_id *oid, int flags, const char *prefix);
 void prime_cache_tree(struct index_state *, struct tree *);
 
-extern int cache_tree_matches_traversal(struct cache_tree *, struct name_entry *ent, struct traverse_info *info);
+int cache_tree_matches_traversal(struct cache_tree *, struct name_entry *ent, struct traverse_info *info);
+
+#ifndef NO_THE_INDEX_COMPATIBILITY_MACROS
+static inline int write_cache_as_tree(struct object_id *oid, int flags, const char *prefix)
+{
+	return write_index_as_tree(oid, &the_index, get_index_file(), flags, prefix);
+}
+
+static inline int update_main_cache_tree(int flags)
+{
+	if (!the_index.cache_tree)
+		the_index.cache_tree = cache_tree();
+	return cache_tree_update(&the_index, flags);
+}
+#endif
 
 #endif
diff --git a/cache.h b/cache.h
index 89a107a..3f419b6 100644
--- a/cache.h
+++ b/cache.h
@@ -15,6 +15,7 @@
 #include "path.h"
 #include "sha1-array.h"
 #include "repository.h"
+#include "mem-pool.h"
 
 #include <zlib.h>
 typedef struct git_zstream {
@@ -156,6 +157,7 @@
 	struct stat_data ce_stat_data;
 	unsigned int ce_mode;
 	unsigned int ce_flags;
+	unsigned int mem_pool_allocated;
 	unsigned int ce_namelen;
 	unsigned int index;	/* for link extension */
 	struct object_id oid;
@@ -218,6 +220,7 @@
 /* Forward structure decls */
 struct pathspec;
 struct child_process;
+struct tree;
 
 /*
  * Copy the sha1 and stat state of a cache entry from one to
@@ -227,6 +230,7 @@
 				    const struct cache_entry *src)
 {
 	unsigned int state = dst->ce_flags & CE_HASHED;
+	int mem_pool_allocated = dst->mem_pool_allocated;
 
 	/* Don't copy hash chain and name */
 	memcpy(&dst->ce_stat_data, &src->ce_stat_data,
@@ -235,6 +239,9 @@
 
 	/* Restore the hash state */
 	dst->ce_flags = (dst->ce_flags & ~CE_HASHED) | state;
+
+	/* Restore the mem_pool_allocated flag */
+	dst->mem_pool_allocated = mem_pool_allocated;
 }
 
 static inline unsigned create_ce_flags(unsigned stage)
@@ -328,6 +335,7 @@
 	struct untracked_cache *untracked;
 	uint64_t fsmonitor_last_update;
 	struct ewah_bitmap *fsmonitor_dirty;
+	struct mem_pool *ce_mem_pool;
 };
 
 extern struct index_state the_index;
@@ -339,6 +347,60 @@
 extern void free_name_hash(struct index_state *istate);
 
 
+/* Cache entry creation and cleanup */
+
+/*
+ * Create cache_entry intended for use in the specified index. Caller
+ * is responsible for discarding the cache_entry with
+ * `discard_cache_entry`.
+ */
+struct cache_entry *make_cache_entry(struct index_state *istate,
+				     unsigned int mode,
+				     const struct object_id *oid,
+				     const char *path,
+				     int stage,
+				     unsigned int refresh_options);
+
+struct cache_entry *make_empty_cache_entry(struct index_state *istate,
+					   size_t name_len);
+
+/*
+ * Create a cache_entry that is not intended to be added to an index.
+ * Caller is responsible for discarding the cache_entry
+ * with `discard_cache_entry`.
+ */
+struct cache_entry *make_transient_cache_entry(unsigned int mode,
+					       const struct object_id *oid,
+					       const char *path,
+					       int stage);
+
+struct cache_entry *make_empty_transient_cache_entry(size_t name_len);
+
+/*
+ * Discard cache entry.
+ */
+void discard_cache_entry(struct cache_entry *ce);
+
+/*
+ * Check configuration if we should perform extra validation on cache
+ * entries.
+ */
+int should_validate_cache_entries(void);
+
+/*
+ * Duplicate a cache_entry. Allocate memory for the new entry from a
+ * memory_pool. Takes into account cache_entry fields that are meant
+ * for managing the underlying memory allocation of the cache_entry.
+ */
+struct cache_entry *dup_cache_entry(const struct cache_entry *ce, struct index_state *istate);
+
+/*
+ * Validate the cache entries in the index.  This is an internal
+ * consistency check that the cache_entry structs are allocated from
+ * the expected memory pool.
+ */
+void validate_cache_entries(const struct index_state *istate);
+
 #ifndef NO_THE_INDEX_COMPATIBILITY_MACROS
 #define active_cache (the_index.cache)
 #define active_nr (the_index.cache_nr)
@@ -484,7 +546,7 @@
 extern const char *get_git_common_dir(void);
 extern char *get_object_directory(void);
 extern char *get_index_file(void);
-extern char *get_graft_file(void);
+extern char *get_graft_file(struct repository *r);
 extern void set_git_dir(const char *path);
 extern int get_common_dir_noenv(struct strbuf *sb, const char *gitdir);
 extern int get_common_dir(struct strbuf *sb, const char *gitdir);
@@ -635,12 +697,15 @@
 extern int unmerged_index(const struct index_state *);
 
 /**
- * Returns 1 if the index differs from HEAD, 0 otherwise. When on an unborn
- * branch, returns 1 if there are entries in the index, 0 otherwise. If an
- * strbuf is provided, the space-separated list of files that differ will be
- * appended to it.
+ * Returns 1 if istate differs from tree, 0 otherwise.  If tree is NULL,
+ * compares istate to HEAD.  If tree is NULL and on an unborn branch,
+ * returns 1 if there are entries in istate, 0 otherwise.  If an strbuf is
+ * provided, the space-separated list of files that differ will be appended
+ * to it.
  */
-extern int index_has_changes(struct strbuf *sb);
+extern int index_has_changes(const struct index_state *istate,
+			     struct tree *tree,
+			     struct strbuf *sb);
 
 extern int verify_path(const char *path, unsigned mode);
 extern int strcmp_offset(const char *s1, const char *s2, size_t *first_change);
@@ -698,7 +763,6 @@
 extern int add_to_index(struct index_state *, const char *path, struct stat *, int flags);
 extern int add_file_to_index(struct index_state *, const char *path, int flags);
 
-extern struct cache_entry *make_cache_entry(unsigned int mode, const unsigned char *sha1, const char *path, int stage, unsigned int refresh_options);
 extern int chmod_index_entry(struct index_state *, struct cache_entry *ce, char flip);
 extern int ce_same_name(const struct cache_entry *a, const struct cache_entry *b);
 extern void set_object_name_for_intent_to_add_entry(struct cache_entry *ce);
@@ -717,6 +781,8 @@
 #define CE_MATCH_REFRESH		0x10
 /* don't refresh_fsmonitor state or do stat comparison even if CE_FSMONITOR_VALID is true */
 #define CE_MATCH_IGNORE_FSMONITOR 0X20
+extern int is_racy_timestamp(const struct index_state *istate,
+			     const struct cache_entry *ce);
 extern int ie_match_stat(struct index_state *, const struct cache_entry *, struct stat *, unsigned int);
 extern int ie_modified(struct index_state *, const struct cache_entry *, struct stat *, unsigned int);
 
@@ -751,7 +817,7 @@
 #define REFRESH_IGNORE_SUBMODULES	0x0010	/* ignore submodules */
 #define REFRESH_IN_PORCELAIN	0x0020	/* user friendly output, not "needs update" */
 extern int refresh_index(struct index_state *, unsigned int flags, const struct pathspec *pathspec, char *seen, const char *header_msg);
-extern struct cache_entry *refresh_cache_entry(struct cache_entry *, unsigned int);
+extern struct cache_entry *refresh_cache_entry(struct index_state *, struct cache_entry *, unsigned int);
 
 /*
  * Opportunistically update the index but do not complain if we can't.
@@ -804,16 +870,13 @@
  * Do replace refs need to be checked this run?  This variable is
  * initialized to true unless --no-replace-object is used or
  * $GIT_NO_REPLACE_OBJECTS is set, but is set to false by some
- * commands that do not want replace references to be active.  As an
- * optimization it is also set to false if replace references have
- * been sought but there were none.
+ * commands that do not want replace references to be active.
  */
-extern int check_replace_refs;
+extern int read_replace_refs;
 extern char *git_replace_ref_base;
 
 extern int fsync_object_files;
 extern int core_preload_index;
-extern int core_commit_graph;
 extern int core_apply_sparse_checkout;
 extern int precomposed_unicode;
 extern int protect_hfs;
@@ -856,15 +919,6 @@
 };
 extern enum log_refs_config log_all_ref_updates;
 
-enum branch_track {
-	BRANCH_TRACK_UNSPECIFIED = -1,
-	BRANCH_TRACK_NEVER = 0,
-	BRANCH_TRACK_REMOTE,
-	BRANCH_TRACK_ALWAYS,
-	BRANCH_TRACK_EXPLICIT,
-	BRANCH_TRACK_OVERRIDE
-};
-
 enum rebase_setup_type {
 	AUTOREBASE_NEVER = 0,
 	AUTOREBASE_LOCAL,
@@ -881,7 +935,6 @@
 	PUSH_DEFAULT_UNSPECIFIED
 };
 
-extern enum branch_track git_branch_track;
 extern enum rebase_setup_type autorebase;
 extern enum push_default_type push_default;
 
@@ -972,7 +1025,17 @@
 
 static inline int hashcmp(const unsigned char *sha1, const unsigned char *sha2)
 {
-	return memcmp(sha1, sha2, GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ);
+	/*
+	 * This is a temporary optimization hack. By asserting the size here,
+	 * we let the compiler know that it's always going to be 20, which lets
+	 * it turn this fixed-size memcmp into a few inline instructions.
+	 *
+	 * This will need to be extended or ripped out when we learn about
+	 * hashes of different sizes.
+	 */
+	if (the_hash_algo->rawsz != 20)
+		BUG("hash size not yet supported by hashcmp");
+	return memcmp(sha1, sha2, the_hash_algo->rawsz);
 }
 
 static inline int oidcmp(const struct object_id *oid1, const struct object_id *oid2)
@@ -992,7 +1055,7 @@
 
 static inline void hashcpy(unsigned char *sha_dst, const unsigned char *sha_src)
 {
-	memcpy(sha_dst, sha_src, GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ);
+	memcpy(sha_dst, sha_src, the_hash_algo->rawsz);
 }
 
 static inline void oidcpy(struct object_id *dst, const struct object_id *src)
@@ -1009,7 +1072,7 @@
 
 static inline void hashclr(unsigned char *hash)
 {
-	memset(hash, 0, GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ);
+	memset(hash, 0, the_hash_algo->rawsz);
 }
 
 static inline void oidclr(struct object_id *oid)
@@ -1192,32 +1255,6 @@
  */
 extern char *xdg_cache_home(const char *filename);
 
-extern void *read_object_file_extended(const struct object_id *oid,
-				       enum object_type *type,
-				       unsigned long *size, int lookup_replace);
-static inline void *read_object_file(const struct object_id *oid, enum object_type *type, unsigned long *size)
-{
-	return read_object_file_extended(oid, type, size, 1);
-}
-
-/* Read and unpack an object file into memory, write memory to an object file */
-int oid_object_info(struct repository *r, const struct object_id *, unsigned long *);
-
-extern int hash_object_file(const void *buf, unsigned long len,
-			    const char *type, struct object_id *oid);
-
-extern int write_object_file(const void *buf, unsigned long len,
-			     const char *type, struct object_id *oid);
-
-extern int hash_object_file_literally(const void *buf, unsigned long len,
-				      const char *type, struct object_id *oid,
-				      unsigned flags);
-
-extern int pretend_object_file(void *, unsigned long, enum object_type,
-			       struct object_id *oid);
-
-extern int force_object_loose(const struct object_id *oid, time_t mtime);
-
 extern int git_open_cloexec(const char *name, int flags);
 #define git_open(name) git_open_cloexec(name, O_RDONLY)
 extern int unpack_sha1_header(git_zstream *stream, unsigned char *map, unsigned long mapsize, void *buffer, unsigned long bufsiz);
@@ -1227,43 +1264,6 @@
 
 extern int finalize_object_file(const char *tmpfile, const char *filename);
 
-/*
- * Open the loose object at path, check its hash, and return the contents,
- * type, and size. If the object is a blob, then "contents" may return NULL,
- * to allow streaming of large blobs.
- *
- * Returns 0 on success, negative on error (details may be written to stderr).
- */
-int read_loose_object(const char *path,
-		      const struct object_id *expected_oid,
-		      enum object_type *type,
-		      unsigned long *size,
-		      void **contents);
-
-/*
- * Convenience for sha1_object_info_extended() with a NULL struct
- * object_info. OBJECT_INFO_SKIP_CACHED is automatically set; pass
- * nonzero flags to also set other flags.
- */
-extern int has_sha1_file_with_flags(const unsigned char *sha1, int flags);
-static inline int has_sha1_file(const unsigned char *sha1)
-{
-	return has_sha1_file_with_flags(sha1, 0);
-}
-
-/* Same as the above, except for struct object_id. */
-extern int has_object_file(const struct object_id *oid);
-extern int has_object_file_with_flags(const struct object_id *oid, int flags);
-
-/*
- * Return true iff an alternate object database has a loose object
- * with the specified name.  This function does not respect replace
- * references.
- */
-extern int has_loose_object_nonlocal(const struct object_id *oid);
-
-extern void assert_oid_type(const struct object_id *oid, enum object_type expect);
-
 /* Helper to check and "touch" a file */
 extern int check_and_freshen_file(const char *fn, int freshen);
 
@@ -1425,18 +1425,20 @@
 extern struct object *peel_to_type(const char *name, int namelen,
 				   struct object *o, enum object_type);
 
+enum date_mode_type {
+	DATE_NORMAL = 0,
+	DATE_RELATIVE,
+	DATE_SHORT,