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Error reporting in git
`die`, `usage`, `error`, and `warning` report errors of various
- `die` is for fatal application errors. It prints a message to
the user and exits with status 128.
- `usage` is for errors in command line usage. After printing its
message, it exits with status 129. (See also `usage_with_options`
in the link:api-parse-options.html[parse-options API].)
- `error` is for non-fatal library errors. It prints a message
to the user and returns -1 for convenience in signaling the error
to the caller.
- `warning` is for reporting situations that probably should not
occur but which the user (and Git) can continue to work around
without running into too many problems. Like `error`, it
returns -1 after reporting the situation to the caller.
Customizable error handlers
The default behavior of `die` and `error` is to write a message to
stderr and then exit or return as appropriate. This behavior can be
overridden using `set_die_routine` and `set_error_routine`. For
example, "git daemon" uses set_die_routine to write the reason `die`
was called to syslog before exiting.
Library errors
Functions return a negative integer on error. Details beyond that
vary from function to function:
- Some functions return -1 for all errors. Others return a more
specific value depending on how the caller might want to react
to the error.
- Some functions report the error to stderr with `error`,
while others leave that for the caller to do.
- errno is not meaningful on return from most functions (except
for thin wrappers for system calls).
Check the function's API documentation to be sure.
Caller-handled errors
An increasing number of functions take a parameter 'struct strbuf *err'.
On error, such functions append a message about what went wrong to the
'err' strbuf. The message is meant to be complete enough to be passed
to `die` or `error` as-is. For example:
if (ref_transaction_commit(transaction, &err))
die("%s", err.buf);
The 'err' parameter will be untouched if no error occurred, so multiple
function calls can be chained:
t = ref_transaction_begin(&err);
if (!t ||
ref_transaction_update(t, "HEAD", ..., &err) ||
ret_transaction_commit(t, &err))
die("%s", err.buf);
The 'err' parameter must be a pointer to a valid strbuf. To silence
a message, pass a strbuf that is explicitly ignored:
if (thing_that_can_fail_in_an_ignorable_way(..., &err))
/* This failure is okay. */