blob: 5fbb90a80d2399b0cfcfbbbdddfbd688b494db69 [file] [log] [blame]
// SPDX-License-Identifier: GPL-2.0-or-later
/*
* Copyright (C) 2015-2017 Josh Poimboeuf <jpoimboe@redhat.com>
*/
#include <string.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include "builtin.h"
#include "cfi.h"
#include "arch.h"
#include "check.h"
#include "special.h"
#include "warn.h"
#include <linux/hashtable.h>
#include <linux/kernel.h>
#define FAKE_JUMP_OFFSET -1
#define C_JUMP_TABLE_SECTION ".rodata..c_jump_table"
struct alternative {
struct list_head list;
struct instruction *insn;
bool skip_orig;
};
const char *objname;
struct cfi_init_state initial_func_cfi;
struct instruction *find_insn(struct objtool_file *file,
struct section *sec, unsigned long offset)
{
struct instruction *insn;
hash_for_each_possible(file->insn_hash, insn, hash, sec_offset_hash(sec, offset)) {
if (insn->sec == sec && insn->offset == offset)
return insn;
}
return NULL;
}
static struct instruction *next_insn_same_sec(struct objtool_file *file,
struct instruction *insn)
{
struct instruction *next = list_next_entry(insn, list);
if (!next || &next->list == &file->insn_list || next->sec != insn->sec)
return NULL;
return next;
}
static struct instruction *next_insn_same_func(struct objtool_file *file,
struct instruction *insn)
{
struct instruction *next = list_next_entry(insn, list);
struct symbol *func = insn->func;
if (!func)
return NULL;
if (&next->list != &file->insn_list && next->func == func)
return next;
/* Check if we're already in the subfunction: */
if (func == func->cfunc)
return NULL;
/* Move to the subfunction: */
return find_insn(file, func->cfunc->sec, func->cfunc->offset);
}
static struct instruction *prev_insn_same_sym(struct objtool_file *file,
struct instruction *insn)
{
struct instruction *prev = list_prev_entry(insn, list);
if (&prev->list != &file->insn_list && prev->func == insn->func)
return prev;
return NULL;
}
#define func_for_each_insn(file, func, insn) \
for (insn = find_insn(file, func->sec, func->offset); \
insn; \
insn = next_insn_same_func(file, insn))
#define sym_for_each_insn(file, sym, insn) \
for (insn = find_insn(file, sym->sec, sym->offset); \
insn && &insn->list != &file->insn_list && \
insn->sec == sym->sec && \
insn->offset < sym->offset + sym->len; \
insn = list_next_entry(insn, list))
#define sym_for_each_insn_continue_reverse(file, sym, insn) \
for (insn = list_prev_entry(insn, list); \
&insn->list != &file->insn_list && \
insn->sec == sym->sec && insn->offset >= sym->offset; \
insn = list_prev_entry(insn, list))
#define sec_for_each_insn_from(file, insn) \
for (; insn; insn = next_insn_same_sec(file, insn))
#define sec_for_each_insn_continue(file, insn) \
for (insn = next_insn_same_sec(file, insn); insn; \
insn = next_insn_same_sec(file, insn))
static bool is_static_jump(struct instruction *insn)
{
return insn->type == INSN_JUMP_CONDITIONAL ||
insn->type == INSN_JUMP_UNCONDITIONAL;
}
static bool is_sibling_call(struct instruction *insn)
{
/* An indirect jump is either a sibling call or a jump to a table. */
if (insn->type == INSN_JUMP_DYNAMIC)
return list_empty(&insn->alts);
if (!is_static_jump(insn))
return false;
/* add_jump_destinations() sets insn->call_dest for sibling calls. */
return !!insn->call_dest;
}
/*
* This checks to see if the given function is a "noreturn" function.
*
* For global functions which are outside the scope of this object file, we
* have to keep a manual list of them.
*
* For local functions, we have to detect them manually by simply looking for
* the lack of a return instruction.
*/
static bool __dead_end_function(struct objtool_file *file, struct symbol *func,
int recursion)
{
int i;
struct instruction *insn;
bool empty = true;
/*
* Unfortunately these have to be hard coded because the noreturn
* attribute isn't provided in ELF data.
*/
static const char * const global_noreturns[] = {
"__stack_chk_fail",
"panic",
"do_exit",
"do_task_dead",
"__module_put_and_exit",
"complete_and_exit",
"__reiserfs_panic",
"lbug_with_loc",
"fortify_panic",
"usercopy_abort",
"machine_real_restart",
"rewind_stack_do_exit",
"kunit_try_catch_throw",
};
if (!func)
return false;
if (func->bind == STB_WEAK)
return false;
if (func->bind == STB_GLOBAL)
for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(global_noreturns); i++)
if (!strcmp(func->name, global_noreturns[i]))
return true;
if (!func->len)
return false;
insn = find_insn(file, func->sec, func->offset);
if (!insn->func)
return false;
func_for_each_insn(file, func, insn) {
empty = false;
if (insn->type == INSN_RETURN)
return false;
}
if (empty)
return false;
/*
* A function can have a sibling call instead of a return. In that
* case, the function's dead-end status depends on whether the target
* of the sibling call returns.
*/
func_for_each_insn(file, func, insn) {
if (is_sibling_call(insn)) {
struct instruction *dest = insn->jump_dest;
if (!dest)
/* sibling call to another file */
return false;
/* local sibling call */
if (recursion == 5) {
/*
* Infinite recursion: two functions have
* sibling calls to each other. This is a very
* rare case. It means they aren't dead ends.
*/
return false;
}
return __dead_end_function(file, dest->func, recursion+1);
}
}
return true;
}
static bool dead_end_function(struct objtool_file *file, struct symbol *func)
{
return __dead_end_function(file, func, 0);
}
static void init_cfi_state(struct cfi_state *cfi)
{
int i;
for (i = 0; i < CFI_NUM_REGS; i++) {
cfi->regs[i].base = CFI_UNDEFINED;
cfi->vals[i].base = CFI_UNDEFINED;
}
cfi->cfa.base = CFI_UNDEFINED;
cfi->drap_reg = CFI_UNDEFINED;
cfi->drap_offset = -1;
}
static void init_insn_state(struct insn_state *state, struct section *sec)
{
memset(state, 0, sizeof(*state));
init_cfi_state(&state->cfi);
/*
* We need the full vmlinux for noinstr validation, otherwise we can
* not correctly determine insn->call_dest->sec (external symbols do
* not have a section).
*/
if (vmlinux && sec)
state->noinstr = sec->noinstr;
}
/*
* Call the arch-specific instruction decoder for all the instructions and add
* them to the global instruction list.
*/
static int decode_instructions(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct section *sec;
struct symbol *func;
unsigned long offset;
struct instruction *insn;
unsigned long nr_insns = 0;
int ret;
for_each_sec(file, sec) {
if (!(sec->sh.sh_flags & SHF_EXECINSTR))
continue;
if (strcmp(sec->name, ".altinstr_replacement") &&
strcmp(sec->name, ".altinstr_aux") &&
strncmp(sec->name, ".discard.", 9))
sec->text = true;
if (!strcmp(sec->name, ".noinstr.text") ||
!strcmp(sec->name, ".entry.text"))
sec->noinstr = true;
for (offset = 0; offset < sec->len; offset += insn->len) {
insn = malloc(sizeof(*insn));
if (!insn) {
WARN("malloc failed");
return -1;
}
memset(insn, 0, sizeof(*insn));
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&insn->alts);
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&insn->stack_ops);
init_cfi_state(&insn->cfi);
insn->sec = sec;
insn->offset = offset;
ret = arch_decode_instruction(file->elf, sec, offset,
sec->len - offset,
&insn->len, &insn->type,
&insn->immediate,
&insn->stack_ops);
if (ret)
goto err;
hash_add(file->insn_hash, &insn->hash, sec_offset_hash(sec, insn->offset));
list_add_tail(&insn->list, &file->insn_list);
nr_insns++;
}
list_for_each_entry(func, &sec->symbol_list, list) {
if (func->type != STT_FUNC || func->alias != func)
continue;
if (!find_insn(file, sec, func->offset)) {
WARN("%s(): can't find starting instruction",
func->name);
return -1;
}
sym_for_each_insn(file, func, insn)
insn->func = func;
}
}
if (stats)
printf("nr_insns: %lu\n", nr_insns);
return 0;
err:
free(insn);
return ret;
}
static struct instruction *find_last_insn(struct objtool_file *file,
struct section *sec)
{
struct instruction *insn = NULL;
unsigned int offset;
unsigned int end = (sec->len > 10) ? sec->len - 10 : 0;
for (offset = sec->len - 1; offset >= end && !insn; offset--)
insn = find_insn(file, sec, offset);
return insn;
}
/*
* Mark "ud2" instructions and manually annotated dead ends.
*/
static int add_dead_ends(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct section *sec;
struct rela *rela;
struct instruction *insn;
/*
* By default, "ud2" is a dead end unless otherwise annotated, because
* GCC 7 inserts it for certain divide-by-zero cases.
*/
for_each_insn(file, insn)
if (insn->type == INSN_BUG)
insn->dead_end = true;
/*
* Check for manually annotated dead ends.
*/
sec = find_section_by_name(file->elf, ".rela.discard.unreachable");
if (!sec)
goto reachable;
list_for_each_entry(rela, &sec->rela_list, list) {
if (rela->sym->type != STT_SECTION) {
WARN("unexpected relocation symbol type in %s", sec->name);
return -1;
}
insn = find_insn(file, rela->sym->sec, rela->addend);
if (insn)
insn = list_prev_entry(insn, list);
else if (rela->addend == rela->sym->sec->len) {
insn = find_last_insn(file, rela->sym->sec);
if (!insn) {
WARN("can't find unreachable insn at %s+0x%x",
rela->sym->sec->name, rela->addend);
return -1;
}
} else {
WARN("can't find unreachable insn at %s+0x%x",
rela->sym->sec->name, rela->addend);
return -1;
}
insn->dead_end = true;
}
reachable:
/*
* These manually annotated reachable checks are needed for GCC 4.4,
* where the Linux unreachable() macro isn't supported. In that case
* GCC doesn't know the "ud2" is fatal, so it generates code as if it's
* not a dead end.
*/
sec = find_section_by_name(file->elf, ".rela.discard.reachable");
if (!sec)
return 0;
list_for_each_entry(rela, &sec->rela_list, list) {
if (rela->sym->type != STT_SECTION) {
WARN("unexpected relocation symbol type in %s", sec->name);
return -1;
}
insn = find_insn(file, rela->sym->sec, rela->addend);
if (insn)
insn = list_prev_entry(insn, list);
else if (rela->addend == rela->sym->sec->len) {
insn = find_last_insn(file, rela->sym->sec);
if (!insn) {
WARN("can't find reachable insn at %s+0x%x",
rela->sym->sec->name, rela->addend);
return -1;
}
} else {
WARN("can't find reachable insn at %s+0x%x",
rela->sym->sec->name, rela->addend);
return -1;
}
insn->dead_end = false;
}
return 0;
}
/*
* Warnings shouldn't be reported for ignored functions.
*/
static void add_ignores(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct instruction *insn;
struct section *sec;
struct symbol *func;
struct rela *rela;
sec = find_section_by_name(file->elf, ".rela.discard.func_stack_frame_non_standard");
if (!sec)
return;
list_for_each_entry(rela, &sec->rela_list, list) {
switch (rela->sym->type) {
case STT_FUNC:
func = rela->sym;
break;
case STT_SECTION:
func = find_func_by_offset(rela->sym->sec, rela->addend);
if (!func)
continue;
break;
default:
WARN("unexpected relocation symbol type in %s: %d", sec->name, rela->sym->type);
continue;
}
func_for_each_insn(file, func, insn)
insn->ignore = true;
}
}
/*
* This is a whitelist of functions that is allowed to be called with AC set.
* The list is meant to be minimal and only contains compiler instrumentation
* ABI and a few functions used to implement *_{to,from}_user() functions.
*
* These functions must not directly change AC, but may PUSHF/POPF.
*/
static const char *uaccess_safe_builtin[] = {
/* KASAN */
"kasan_report",
"check_memory_region",
/* KASAN out-of-line */
"__asan_loadN_noabort",
"__asan_load1_noabort",
"__asan_load2_noabort",
"__asan_load4_noabort",
"__asan_load8_noabort",
"__asan_load16_noabort",
"__asan_storeN_noabort",
"__asan_store1_noabort",
"__asan_store2_noabort",
"__asan_store4_noabort",
"__asan_store8_noabort",
"__asan_store16_noabort",
/* KASAN in-line */
"__asan_report_load_n_noabort",
"__asan_report_load1_noabort",
"__asan_report_load2_noabort",
"__asan_report_load4_noabort",
"__asan_report_load8_noabort",
"__asan_report_load16_noabort",
"__asan_report_store_n_noabort",
"__asan_report_store1_noabort",
"__asan_report_store2_noabort",
"__asan_report_store4_noabort",
"__asan_report_store8_noabort",
"__asan_report_store16_noabort",
/* KCSAN */
"__kcsan_check_access",
"kcsan_found_watchpoint",
"kcsan_setup_watchpoint",
"kcsan_check_scoped_accesses",
"kcsan_disable_current",
"kcsan_enable_current_nowarn",
/* KCSAN/TSAN */
"__tsan_func_entry",
"__tsan_func_exit",
"__tsan_read_range",
"__tsan_write_range",
"__tsan_read1",
"__tsan_read2",
"__tsan_read4",
"__tsan_read8",
"__tsan_read16",
"__tsan_write1",
"__tsan_write2",
"__tsan_write4",
"__tsan_write8",
"__tsan_write16",
/* KCOV */
"write_comp_data",
"check_kcov_mode",
"__sanitizer_cov_trace_pc",
"__sanitizer_cov_trace_const_cmp1",
"__sanitizer_cov_trace_const_cmp2",
"__sanitizer_cov_trace_const_cmp4",
"__sanitizer_cov_trace_const_cmp8",
"__sanitizer_cov_trace_cmp1",
"__sanitizer_cov_trace_cmp2",
"__sanitizer_cov_trace_cmp4",
"__sanitizer_cov_trace_cmp8",
"__sanitizer_cov_trace_switch",
/* UBSAN */
"ubsan_type_mismatch_common",
"__ubsan_handle_type_mismatch",
"__ubsan_handle_type_mismatch_v1",
"__ubsan_handle_shift_out_of_bounds",
/* misc */
"csum_partial_copy_generic",
"__memcpy_mcsafe",
"mcsafe_handle_tail",
"ftrace_likely_update", /* CONFIG_TRACE_BRANCH_PROFILING */
NULL
};
static void add_uaccess_safe(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct symbol *func;
const char **name;
if (!uaccess)
return;
for (name = uaccess_safe_builtin; *name; name++) {
func = find_symbol_by_name(file->elf, *name);
if (!func)
continue;
func->uaccess_safe = true;
}
}
/*
* FIXME: For now, just ignore any alternatives which add retpolines. This is
* a temporary hack, as it doesn't allow ORC to unwind from inside a retpoline.
* But it at least allows objtool to understand the control flow *around* the
* retpoline.
*/
static int add_ignore_alternatives(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct section *sec;
struct rela *rela;
struct instruction *insn;
sec = find_section_by_name(file->elf, ".rela.discard.ignore_alts");
if (!sec)
return 0;
list_for_each_entry(rela, &sec->rela_list, list) {
if (rela->sym->type != STT_SECTION) {
WARN("unexpected relocation symbol type in %s", sec->name);
return -1;
}
insn = find_insn(file, rela->sym->sec, rela->addend);
if (!insn) {
WARN("bad .discard.ignore_alts entry");
return -1;
}
insn->ignore_alts = true;
}
return 0;
}
/*
* Find the destination instructions for all jumps.
*/
static int add_jump_destinations(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct instruction *insn;
struct rela *rela;
struct section *dest_sec;
unsigned long dest_off;
for_each_insn(file, insn) {
if (!is_static_jump(insn))
continue;
if (insn->ignore || insn->offset == FAKE_JUMP_OFFSET)
continue;
rela = find_rela_by_dest_range(file->elf, insn->sec,
insn->offset, insn->len);
if (!rela) {
dest_sec = insn->sec;
dest_off = arch_jump_destination(insn);
} else if (rela->sym->type == STT_SECTION) {
dest_sec = rela->sym->sec;
dest_off = arch_dest_rela_offset(rela->addend);
} else if (rela->sym->sec->idx) {
dest_sec = rela->sym->sec;
dest_off = rela->sym->sym.st_value +
arch_dest_rela_offset(rela->addend);
} else if (strstr(rela->sym->name, "_indirect_thunk_")) {
/*
* Retpoline jumps are really dynamic jumps in
* disguise, so convert them accordingly.
*/
if (insn->type == INSN_JUMP_UNCONDITIONAL)
insn->type = INSN_JUMP_DYNAMIC;
else
insn->type = INSN_JUMP_DYNAMIC_CONDITIONAL;
insn->retpoline_safe = true;
continue;
} else {
/* external sibling call */
insn->call_dest = rela->sym;
continue;
}
insn->jump_dest = find_insn(file, dest_sec, dest_off);
if (!insn->jump_dest) {
/*
* This is a special case where an alt instruction
* jumps past the end of the section. These are
* handled later in handle_group_alt().
*/
if (!strcmp(insn->sec->name, ".altinstr_replacement"))
continue;
WARN_FUNC("can't find jump dest instruction at %s+0x%lx",
insn->sec, insn->offset, dest_sec->name,
dest_off);
return -1;
}
/*
* Cross-function jump.
*/
if (insn->func && insn->jump_dest->func &&
insn->func != insn->jump_dest->func) {
/*
* For GCC 8+, create parent/child links for any cold
* subfunctions. This is _mostly_ redundant with a
* similar initialization in read_symbols().
*
* If a function has aliases, we want the *first* such
* function in the symbol table to be the subfunction's
* parent. In that case we overwrite the
* initialization done in read_symbols().
*
* However this code can't completely replace the
* read_symbols() code because this doesn't detect the
* case where the parent function's only reference to a
* subfunction is through a jump table.
*/
if (!strstr(insn->func->name, ".cold.") &&
strstr(insn->jump_dest->func->name, ".cold.")) {
insn->func->cfunc = insn->jump_dest->func;
insn->jump_dest->func->pfunc = insn->func;
} else if (insn->jump_dest->func->pfunc != insn->func->pfunc &&
insn->jump_dest->offset == insn->jump_dest->func->offset) {
/* internal sibling call */
insn->call_dest = insn->jump_dest->func;
}
}
}
return 0;
}
static void remove_insn_ops(struct instruction *insn)
{
struct stack_op *op, *tmp;
list_for_each_entry_safe(op, tmp, &insn->stack_ops, list) {
list_del(&op->list);
free(op);
}
}
/*
* Find the destination instructions for all calls.
*/
static int add_call_destinations(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct instruction *insn;
unsigned long dest_off;
struct rela *rela;
for_each_insn(file, insn) {
if (insn->type != INSN_CALL)
continue;
rela = find_rela_by_dest_range(file->elf, insn->sec,
insn->offset, insn->len);
if (!rela) {
dest_off = arch_jump_destination(insn);
insn->call_dest = find_func_by_offset(insn->sec, dest_off);
if (!insn->call_dest)
insn->call_dest = find_symbol_by_offset(insn->sec, dest_off);
if (insn->ignore)
continue;
if (!insn->call_dest) {
WARN_FUNC("unannotated intra-function call", insn->sec, insn->offset);
return -1;
}
if (insn->func && insn->call_dest->type != STT_FUNC) {
WARN_FUNC("unsupported call to non-function",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return -1;
}
} else if (rela->sym->type == STT_SECTION) {
dest_off = arch_dest_rela_offset(rela->addend);
insn->call_dest = find_func_by_offset(rela->sym->sec,
dest_off);
if (!insn->call_dest) {
WARN_FUNC("can't find call dest symbol at %s+0x%lx",
insn->sec, insn->offset,
rela->sym->sec->name,
dest_off);
return -1;
}
} else
insn->call_dest = rela->sym;
/*
* Whatever stack impact regular CALLs have, should be undone
* by the RETURN of the called function.
*
* Annotated intra-function calls retain the stack_ops but
* are converted to JUMP, see read_intra_function_calls().
*/
remove_insn_ops(insn);
}
return 0;
}
/*
* The .alternatives section requires some extra special care, over and above
* what other special sections require:
*
* 1. Because alternatives are patched in-place, we need to insert a fake jump
* instruction at the end so that validate_branch() skips all the original
* replaced instructions when validating the new instruction path.
*
* 2. An added wrinkle is that the new instruction length might be zero. In
* that case the old instructions are replaced with noops. We simulate that
* by creating a fake jump as the only new instruction.
*
* 3. In some cases, the alternative section includes an instruction which
* conditionally jumps to the _end_ of the entry. We have to modify these
* jumps' destinations to point back to .text rather than the end of the
* entry in .altinstr_replacement.
*/
static int handle_group_alt(struct objtool_file *file,
struct special_alt *special_alt,
struct instruction *orig_insn,
struct instruction **new_insn)
{
static unsigned int alt_group_next_index = 1;
struct instruction *last_orig_insn, *last_new_insn, *insn, *fake_jump = NULL;
unsigned int alt_group = alt_group_next_index++;
unsigned long dest_off;
last_orig_insn = NULL;
insn = orig_insn;
sec_for_each_insn_from(file, insn) {
if (insn->offset >= special_alt->orig_off + special_alt->orig_len)
break;
insn->alt_group = alt_group;
last_orig_insn = insn;
}
if (next_insn_same_sec(file, last_orig_insn)) {
fake_jump = malloc(sizeof(*fake_jump));
if (!fake_jump) {
WARN("malloc failed");
return -1;
}
memset(fake_jump, 0, sizeof(*fake_jump));
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&fake_jump->alts);
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&fake_jump->stack_ops);
init_cfi_state(&fake_jump->cfi);
fake_jump->sec = special_alt->new_sec;
fake_jump->offset = FAKE_JUMP_OFFSET;
fake_jump->type = INSN_JUMP_UNCONDITIONAL;
fake_jump->jump_dest = list_next_entry(last_orig_insn, list);
fake_jump->func = orig_insn->func;
}
if (!special_alt->new_len) {
if (!fake_jump) {
WARN("%s: empty alternative at end of section",
special_alt->orig_sec->name);
return -1;
}
*new_insn = fake_jump;
return 0;
}
last_new_insn = NULL;
alt_group = alt_group_next_index++;
insn = *new_insn;
sec_for_each_insn_from(file, insn) {
if (insn->offset >= special_alt->new_off + special_alt->new_len)
break;
last_new_insn = insn;
insn->ignore = orig_insn->ignore_alts;
insn->func = orig_insn->func;
insn->alt_group = alt_group;
/*
* Since alternative replacement code is copy/pasted by the
* kernel after applying relocations, generally such code can't
* have relative-address relocation references to outside the
* .altinstr_replacement section, unless the arch's
* alternatives code can adjust the relative offsets
* accordingly.
*
* The x86 alternatives code adjusts the offsets only when it
* encounters a branch instruction at the very beginning of the
* replacement group.
*/
if ((insn->offset != special_alt->new_off ||
(insn->type != INSN_CALL && !is_static_jump(insn))) &&
find_rela_by_dest_range(file->elf, insn->sec, insn->offset, insn->len)) {
WARN_FUNC("unsupported relocation in alternatives section",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return -1;
}
if (!is_static_jump(insn))
continue;
if (!insn->immediate)
continue;
dest_off = arch_jump_destination(insn);
if (dest_off == special_alt->new_off + special_alt->new_len) {
if (!fake_jump) {
WARN("%s: alternative jump to end of section",
special_alt->orig_sec->name);
return -1;
}
insn->jump_dest = fake_jump;
}
if (!insn->jump_dest) {
WARN_FUNC("can't find alternative jump destination",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return -1;
}
}
if (!last_new_insn) {
WARN_FUNC("can't find last new alternative instruction",
special_alt->new_sec, special_alt->new_off);
return -1;
}
if (fake_jump)
list_add(&fake_jump->list, &last_new_insn->list);
return 0;
}
/*
* A jump table entry can either convert a nop to a jump or a jump to a nop.
* If the original instruction is a jump, make the alt entry an effective nop
* by just skipping the original instruction.
*/
static int handle_jump_alt(struct objtool_file *file,
struct special_alt *special_alt,
struct instruction *orig_insn,
struct instruction **new_insn)
{
if (orig_insn->type == INSN_NOP)
return 0;
if (orig_insn->type != INSN_JUMP_UNCONDITIONAL) {
WARN_FUNC("unsupported instruction at jump label",
orig_insn->sec, orig_insn->offset);
return -1;
}
*new_insn = list_next_entry(orig_insn, list);
return 0;
}
/*
* Read all the special sections which have alternate instructions which can be
* patched in or redirected to at runtime. Each instruction having alternate
* instruction(s) has them added to its insn->alts list, which will be
* traversed in validate_branch().
*/
static int add_special_section_alts(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct list_head special_alts;
struct instruction *orig_insn, *new_insn;
struct special_alt *special_alt, *tmp;
struct alternative *alt;
int ret;
ret = special_get_alts(file->elf, &special_alts);
if (ret)
return ret;
list_for_each_entry_safe(special_alt, tmp, &special_alts, list) {
orig_insn = find_insn(file, special_alt->orig_sec,
special_alt->orig_off);
if (!orig_insn) {
WARN_FUNC("special: can't find orig instruction",
special_alt->orig_sec, special_alt->orig_off);
ret = -1;
goto out;
}
new_insn = NULL;
if (!special_alt->group || special_alt->new_len) {
new_insn = find_insn(file, special_alt->new_sec,
special_alt->new_off);
if (!new_insn) {
WARN_FUNC("special: can't find new instruction",
special_alt->new_sec,
special_alt->new_off);
ret = -1;
goto out;
}
}
if (special_alt->group) {
if (!special_alt->orig_len) {
WARN_FUNC("empty alternative entry",
orig_insn->sec, orig_insn->offset);
continue;
}
ret = handle_group_alt(file, special_alt, orig_insn,
&new_insn);
if (ret)
goto out;
} else if (special_alt->jump_or_nop) {
ret = handle_jump_alt(file, special_alt, orig_insn,
&new_insn);
if (ret)
goto out;
}
alt = malloc(sizeof(*alt));
if (!alt) {
WARN("malloc failed");
ret = -1;
goto out;
}
alt->insn = new_insn;
alt->skip_orig = special_alt->skip_orig;
orig_insn->ignore_alts |= special_alt->skip_alt;
list_add_tail(&alt->list, &orig_insn->alts);
list_del(&special_alt->list);
free(special_alt);
}
out:
return ret;
}
static int add_jump_table(struct objtool_file *file, struct instruction *insn,
struct rela *table)
{
struct rela *rela = table;
struct instruction *dest_insn;
struct alternative *alt;
struct symbol *pfunc = insn->func->pfunc;
unsigned int prev_offset = 0;
/*
* Each @rela is a switch table relocation which points to the target
* instruction.
*/
list_for_each_entry_from(rela, &table->sec->rela_list, list) {
/* Check for the end of the table: */
if (rela != table && rela->jump_table_start)
break;
/* Make sure the table entries are consecutive: */
if (prev_offset && rela->offset != prev_offset + 8)
break;
/* Detect function pointers from contiguous objects: */
if (rela->sym->sec == pfunc->sec &&
rela->addend == pfunc->offset)
break;
dest_insn = find_insn(file, rela->sym->sec, rela->addend);
if (!dest_insn)
break;
/* Make sure the destination is in the same function: */
if (!dest_insn->func || dest_insn->func->pfunc != pfunc)
break;
alt = malloc(sizeof(*alt));
if (!alt) {
WARN("malloc failed");
return -1;
}
alt->insn = dest_insn;
list_add_tail(&alt->list, &insn->alts);
prev_offset = rela->offset;
}
if (!prev_offset) {
WARN_FUNC("can't find switch jump table",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return -1;
}
return 0;
}
/*
* find_jump_table() - Given a dynamic jump, find the switch jump table in
* .rodata associated with it.
*
* There are 3 basic patterns:
*
* 1. jmpq *[rodata addr](,%reg,8)
*
* This is the most common case by far. It jumps to an address in a simple
* jump table which is stored in .rodata.
*
* 2. jmpq *[rodata addr](%rip)
*
* This is caused by a rare GCC quirk, currently only seen in three driver
* functions in the kernel, only with certain obscure non-distro configs.
*
* As part of an optimization, GCC makes a copy of an existing switch jump
* table, modifies it, and then hard-codes the jump (albeit with an indirect
* jump) to use a single entry in the table. The rest of the jump table and
* some of its jump targets remain as dead code.
*
* In such a case we can just crudely ignore all unreachable instruction
* warnings for the entire object file. Ideally we would just ignore them
* for the function, but that would require redesigning the code quite a
* bit. And honestly that's just not worth doing: unreachable instruction
* warnings are of questionable value anyway, and this is such a rare issue.
*
* 3. mov [rodata addr],%reg1
* ... some instructions ...
* jmpq *(%reg1,%reg2,8)
*
* This is a fairly uncommon pattern which is new for GCC 6. As of this
* writing, there are 11 occurrences of it in the allmodconfig kernel.
*
* As of GCC 7 there are quite a few more of these and the 'in between' code
* is significant. Esp. with KASAN enabled some of the code between the mov
* and jmpq uses .rodata itself, which can confuse things.
*
* TODO: Once we have DWARF CFI and smarter instruction decoding logic,
* ensure the same register is used in the mov and jump instructions.
*
* NOTE: RETPOLINE made it harder still to decode dynamic jumps.
*/
static struct rela *find_jump_table(struct objtool_file *file,
struct symbol *func,
struct instruction *insn)
{
struct rela *text_rela, *table_rela;
struct instruction *dest_insn, *orig_insn = insn;
struct section *table_sec;
unsigned long table_offset;
/*
* Backward search using the @first_jump_src links, these help avoid
* much of the 'in between' code. Which avoids us getting confused by
* it.
*/
for (;
insn && insn->func && insn->func->pfunc == func;
insn = insn->first_jump_src ?: prev_insn_same_sym(file, insn)) {
if (insn != orig_insn && insn->type == INSN_JUMP_DYNAMIC)
break;
/* allow small jumps within the range */
if (insn->type == INSN_JUMP_UNCONDITIONAL &&
insn->jump_dest &&
(insn->jump_dest->offset <= insn->offset ||
insn->jump_dest->offset > orig_insn->offset))
break;
/* look for a relocation which references .rodata */
text_rela = find_rela_by_dest_range(file->elf, insn->sec,
insn->offset, insn->len);
if (!text_rela || text_rela->sym->type != STT_SECTION ||
!text_rela->sym->sec->rodata)
continue;
table_offset = text_rela->addend;
table_sec = text_rela->sym->sec;
if (text_rela->type == R_X86_64_PC32)
table_offset += 4;
/*
* Make sure the .rodata address isn't associated with a
* symbol. GCC jump tables are anonymous data.
*
* Also support C jump tables which are in the same format as
* switch jump tables. For objtool to recognize them, they
* need to be placed in the C_JUMP_TABLE_SECTION section. They
* have symbols associated with them.
*/
if (find_symbol_containing(table_sec, table_offset) &&
strcmp(table_sec->name, C_JUMP_TABLE_SECTION))
continue;
/*
* Each table entry has a rela associated with it. The rela
* should reference text in the same function as the original
* instruction.
*/
table_rela = find_rela_by_dest(file->elf, table_sec, table_offset);
if (!table_rela)
continue;
dest_insn = find_insn(file, table_rela->sym->sec, table_rela->addend);
if (!dest_insn || !dest_insn->func || dest_insn->func->pfunc != func)
continue;
/*
* Use of RIP-relative switch jumps is quite rare, and
* indicates a rare GCC quirk/bug which can leave dead code
* behind.
*/
if (text_rela->type == R_X86_64_PC32)
file->ignore_unreachables = true;
return table_rela;
}
return NULL;
}
/*
* First pass: Mark the head of each jump table so that in the next pass,
* we know when a given jump table ends and the next one starts.
*/
static void mark_func_jump_tables(struct objtool_file *file,
struct symbol *func)
{
struct instruction *insn, *last = NULL;
struct rela *rela;
func_for_each_insn(file, func, insn) {
if (!last)
last = insn;
/*
* Store back-pointers for unconditional forward jumps such
* that find_jump_table() can back-track using those and
* avoid some potentially confusing code.
*/
if (insn->type == INSN_JUMP_UNCONDITIONAL && insn->jump_dest &&
insn->offset > last->offset &&
insn->jump_dest->offset > insn->offset &&
!insn->jump_dest->first_jump_src) {
insn->jump_dest->first_jump_src = insn;
last = insn->jump_dest;
}
if (insn->type != INSN_JUMP_DYNAMIC)
continue;
rela = find_jump_table(file, func, insn);
if (rela) {
rela->jump_table_start = true;
insn->jump_table = rela;
}
}
}
static int add_func_jump_tables(struct objtool_file *file,
struct symbol *func)
{
struct instruction *insn;
int ret;
func_for_each_insn(file, func, insn) {
if (!insn->jump_table)
continue;
ret = add_jump_table(file, insn, insn->jump_table);
if (ret)
return ret;
}
return 0;
}
/*
* For some switch statements, gcc generates a jump table in the .rodata
* section which contains a list of addresses within the function to jump to.
* This finds these jump tables and adds them to the insn->alts lists.
*/
static int add_jump_table_alts(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct section *sec;
struct symbol *func;
int ret;
if (!file->rodata)
return 0;
for_each_sec(file, sec) {
list_for_each_entry(func, &sec->symbol_list, list) {
if (func->type != STT_FUNC)
continue;
mark_func_jump_tables(file, func);
ret = add_func_jump_tables(file, func);
if (ret)
return ret;
}
}
return 0;
}
static int read_unwind_hints(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct section *sec, *relasec;
struct rela *rela;
struct unwind_hint *hint;
struct instruction *insn;
struct cfi_reg *cfa;
int i;
sec = find_section_by_name(file->elf, ".discard.unwind_hints");
if (!sec)
return 0;
relasec = sec->rela;
if (!relasec) {
WARN("missing .rela.discard.unwind_hints section");
return -1;
}
if (sec->len % sizeof(struct unwind_hint)) {
WARN("struct unwind_hint size mismatch");
return -1;
}
file->hints = true;
for (i = 0; i < sec->len / sizeof(struct unwind_hint); i++) {
hint = (struct unwind_hint *)sec->data->d_buf + i;
rela = find_rela_by_dest(file->elf, sec, i * sizeof(*hint));
if (!rela) {
WARN("can't find rela for unwind_hints[%d]", i);
return -1;
}
insn = find_insn(file, rela->sym->sec, rela->addend);
if (!insn) {
WARN("can't find insn for unwind_hints[%d]", i);
return -1;
}
cfa = &insn->cfi.cfa;
if (hint->type == UNWIND_HINT_TYPE_RET_OFFSET) {
insn->ret_offset = hint->sp_offset;
continue;
}
insn->hint = true;
switch (hint->sp_reg) {
case ORC_REG_UNDEFINED:
cfa->base = CFI_UNDEFINED;
break;
case ORC_REG_SP:
cfa->base = CFI_SP;
break;
case ORC_REG_BP:
cfa->base = CFI_BP;
break;
case ORC_REG_SP_INDIRECT:
cfa->base = CFI_SP_INDIRECT;
break;
case ORC_REG_R10:
cfa->base = CFI_R10;
break;
case ORC_REG_R13:
cfa->base = CFI_R13;
break;
case ORC_REG_DI:
cfa->base = CFI_DI;
break;
case ORC_REG_DX:
cfa->base = CFI_DX;
break;
default:
WARN_FUNC("unsupported unwind_hint sp base reg %d",
insn->sec, insn->offset, hint->sp_reg);
return -1;
}
cfa->offset = hint->sp_offset;
insn->cfi.type = hint->type;
insn->cfi.end = hint->end;
}
return 0;
}
static int read_retpoline_hints(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct section *sec;
struct instruction *insn;
struct rela *rela;
sec = find_section_by_name(file->elf, ".rela.discard.retpoline_safe");
if (!sec)
return 0;
list_for_each_entry(rela, &sec->rela_list, list) {
if (rela->sym->type != STT_SECTION) {
WARN("unexpected relocation symbol type in %s", sec->name);
return -1;
}
insn = find_insn(file, rela->sym->sec, rela->addend);
if (!insn) {
WARN("bad .discard.retpoline_safe entry");
return -1;
}
if (insn->type != INSN_JUMP_DYNAMIC &&
insn->type != INSN_CALL_DYNAMIC) {
WARN_FUNC("retpoline_safe hint not an indirect jump/call",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return -1;
}
insn->retpoline_safe = true;
}
return 0;
}
static int read_instr_hints(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct section *sec;
struct instruction *insn;
struct rela *rela;
sec = find_section_by_name(file->elf, ".rela.discard.instr_end");
if (!sec)
return 0;
list_for_each_entry(rela, &sec->rela_list, list) {
if (rela->sym->type != STT_SECTION) {
WARN("unexpected relocation symbol type in %s", sec->name);
return -1;
}
insn = find_insn(file, rela->sym->sec, rela->addend);
if (!insn) {
WARN("bad .discard.instr_end entry");
return -1;
}
insn->instr--;
}
sec = find_section_by_name(file->elf, ".rela.discard.instr_begin");
if (!sec)
return 0;
list_for_each_entry(rela, &sec->rela_list, list) {
if (rela->sym->type != STT_SECTION) {
WARN("unexpected relocation symbol type in %s", sec->name);
return -1;
}
insn = find_insn(file, rela->sym->sec, rela->addend);
if (!insn) {
WARN("bad .discard.instr_begin entry");
return -1;
}
insn->instr++;
}
return 0;
}
static int read_intra_function_calls(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct instruction *insn;
struct section *sec;
struct rela *rela;
sec = find_section_by_name(file->elf, ".rela.discard.intra_function_calls");
if (!sec)
return 0;
list_for_each_entry(rela, &sec->rela_list, list) {
unsigned long dest_off;
if (rela->sym->type != STT_SECTION) {
WARN("unexpected relocation symbol type in %s",
sec->name);
return -1;
}
insn = find_insn(file, rela->sym->sec, rela->addend);
if (!insn) {
WARN("bad .discard.intra_function_call entry");
return -1;
}
if (insn->type != INSN_CALL) {
WARN_FUNC("intra_function_call not a direct call",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return -1;
}
/*
* Treat intra-function CALLs as JMPs, but with a stack_op.
* See add_call_destinations(), which strips stack_ops from
* normal CALLs.
*/
insn->type = INSN_JUMP_UNCONDITIONAL;
dest_off = insn->offset + insn->len + insn->immediate;
insn->jump_dest = find_insn(file, insn->sec, dest_off);
if (!insn->jump_dest) {
WARN_FUNC("can't find call dest at %s+0x%lx",
insn->sec, insn->offset,
insn->sec->name, dest_off);
return -1;
}
}
return 0;
}
static void mark_rodata(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct section *sec;
bool found = false;
/*
* Search for the following rodata sections, each of which can
* potentially contain jump tables:
*
* - .rodata: can contain GCC switch tables
* - .rodata.<func>: same, if -fdata-sections is being used
* - .rodata..c_jump_table: contains C annotated jump tables
*
* .rodata.str1.* sections are ignored; they don't contain jump tables.
*/
for_each_sec(file, sec) {
if (!strncmp(sec->name, ".rodata", 7) &&
!strstr(sec->name, ".str1.")) {
sec->rodata = true;
found = true;
}
}
file->rodata = found;
}
static int decode_sections(struct objtool_file *file)
{
int ret;
mark_rodata(file);
ret = decode_instructions(file);
if (ret)
return ret;
ret = add_dead_ends(file);
if (ret)
return ret;
add_ignores(file);
add_uaccess_safe(file);
ret = add_ignore_alternatives(file);
if (ret)
return ret;
ret = add_jump_destinations(file);
if (ret)
return ret;
ret = add_special_section_alts(file);
if (ret)
return ret;
ret = read_intra_function_calls(file);
if (ret)
return ret;
ret = add_call_destinations(file);
if (ret)
return ret;
ret = add_jump_table_alts(file);
if (ret)
return ret;
ret = read_unwind_hints(file);
if (ret)
return ret;
ret = read_retpoline_hints(file);
if (ret)
return ret;
ret = read_instr_hints(file);
if (ret)
return ret;
return 0;
}
static bool is_fentry_call(struct instruction *insn)
{
if (insn->type == INSN_CALL && insn->call_dest &&
insn->call_dest->type == STT_NOTYPE &&
!strcmp(insn->call_dest->name, "__fentry__"))
return true;
return false;
}
static bool has_modified_stack_frame(struct instruction *insn, struct insn_state *state)
{
u8 ret_offset = insn->ret_offset;
struct cfi_state *cfi = &state->cfi;
int i;
if (cfi->cfa.base != initial_func_cfi.cfa.base || cfi->drap)
return true;
if (cfi->cfa.offset != initial_func_cfi.cfa.offset + ret_offset)
return true;
if (cfi->stack_size != initial_func_cfi.cfa.offset + ret_offset)
return true;
/*
* If there is a ret offset hint then don't check registers
* because a callee-saved register might have been pushed on
* the stack.
*/
if (ret_offset)
return false;
for (i = 0; i < CFI_NUM_REGS; i++) {
if (cfi->regs[i].base != initial_func_cfi.regs[i].base ||
cfi->regs[i].offset != initial_func_cfi.regs[i].offset)
return true;
}
return false;
}
static bool has_valid_stack_frame(struct insn_state *state)
{
struct cfi_state *cfi = &state->cfi;
if (cfi->cfa.base == CFI_BP && cfi->regs[CFI_BP].base == CFI_CFA &&
cfi->regs[CFI_BP].offset == -16)
return true;
if (cfi->drap && cfi->regs[CFI_BP].base == CFI_BP)
return true;
return false;
}
static int update_cfi_state_regs(struct instruction *insn,
struct cfi_state *cfi,
struct stack_op *op)
{
struct cfi_reg *cfa = &cfi->cfa;
if (cfa->base != CFI_SP && cfa->base != CFI_SP_INDIRECT)
return 0;
/* push */
if (op->dest.type == OP_DEST_PUSH || op->dest.type == OP_DEST_PUSHF)
cfa->offset += 8;
/* pop */
if (op->src.type == OP_SRC_POP || op->src.type == OP_SRC_POPF)
cfa->offset -= 8;
/* add immediate to sp */
if (op->dest.type == OP_DEST_REG && op->src.type == OP_SRC_ADD &&
op->dest.reg == CFI_SP && op->src.reg == CFI_SP)
cfa->offset -= op->src.offset;
return 0;
}
static void save_reg(struct cfi_state *cfi, unsigned char reg, int base, int offset)
{
if (arch_callee_saved_reg(reg) &&
cfi->regs[reg].base == CFI_UNDEFINED) {
cfi->regs[reg].base = base;
cfi->regs[reg].offset = offset;
}
}
static void restore_reg(struct cfi_state *cfi, unsigned char reg)
{
cfi->regs[reg].base = initial_func_cfi.regs[reg].base;
cfi->regs[reg].offset = initial_func_cfi.regs[reg].offset;
}
/*
* A note about DRAP stack alignment:
*
* GCC has the concept of a DRAP register, which is used to help keep track of
* the stack pointer when aligning the stack. r10 or r13 is used as the DRAP
* register. The typical DRAP pattern is:
*
* 4c 8d 54 24 08 lea 0x8(%rsp),%r10
* 48 83 e4 c0 and $0xffffffffffffffc0,%rsp
* 41 ff 72 f8 pushq -0x8(%r10)
* 55 push %rbp
* 48 89 e5 mov %rsp,%rbp
* (more pushes)
* 41 52 push %r10
* ...
* 41 5a pop %r10
* (more pops)
* 5d pop %rbp
* 49 8d 62 f8 lea -0x8(%r10),%rsp
* c3 retq
*
* There are some variations in the epilogues, like:
*
* 5b pop %rbx
* 41 5a pop %r10
* 41 5c pop %r12
* 41 5d pop %r13
* 41 5e pop %r14
* c9 leaveq
* 49 8d 62 f8 lea -0x8(%r10),%rsp
* c3 retq
*
* and:
*
* 4c 8b 55 e8 mov -0x18(%rbp),%r10
* 48 8b 5d e0 mov -0x20(%rbp),%rbx
* 4c 8b 65 f0 mov -0x10(%rbp),%r12
* 4c 8b 6d f8 mov -0x8(%rbp),%r13
* c9 leaveq
* 49 8d 62 f8 lea -0x8(%r10),%rsp
* c3 retq
*
* Sometimes r13 is used as the DRAP register, in which case it's saved and
* restored beforehand:
*
* 41 55 push %r13
* 4c 8d 6c 24 10 lea 0x10(%rsp),%r13
* 48 83 e4 f0 and $0xfffffffffffffff0,%rsp
* ...
* 49 8d 65 f0 lea -0x10(%r13),%rsp
* 41 5d pop %r13
* c3 retq
*/
static int update_cfi_state(struct instruction *insn, struct cfi_state *cfi,
struct stack_op *op)
{
struct cfi_reg *cfa = &cfi->cfa;
struct cfi_reg *regs = cfi->regs;
/* stack operations don't make sense with an undefined CFA */
if (cfa->base == CFI_UNDEFINED) {
if (insn->func) {
WARN_FUNC("undefined stack state", insn->sec, insn->offset);
return -1;
}
return 0;
}
if (cfi->type == ORC_TYPE_REGS || cfi->type == ORC_TYPE_REGS_IRET)
return update_cfi_state_regs(insn, cfi, op);
switch (op->dest.type) {
case OP_DEST_REG:
switch (op->src.type) {
case OP_SRC_REG:
if (op->src.reg == CFI_SP && op->dest.reg == CFI_BP &&
cfa->base == CFI_SP &&
regs[CFI_BP].base == CFI_CFA &&
regs[CFI_BP].offset == -cfa->offset) {
/* mov %rsp, %rbp */
cfa->base = op->dest.reg;
cfi->bp_scratch = false;
}
else if (op->src.reg == CFI_SP &&
op->dest.reg == CFI_BP && cfi->drap) {
/* drap: mov %rsp, %rbp */
regs[CFI_BP].base = CFI_BP;
regs[CFI_BP].offset = -cfi->stack_size;
cfi->bp_scratch = false;
}
else if (op->src.reg == CFI_SP && cfa->base == CFI_SP) {
/*
* mov %rsp, %reg
*
* This is needed for the rare case where GCC
* does:
*
* mov %rsp, %rax
* ...
* mov %rax, %rsp
*/
cfi->vals[op->dest.reg].base = CFI_CFA;
cfi->vals[op->dest.reg].offset = -cfi->stack_size;
}
else if (op->src.reg == CFI_BP && op->dest.reg == CFI_SP &&
cfa->base == CFI_BP) {
/*
* mov %rbp, %rsp
*
* Restore the original stack pointer (Clang).
*/
cfi->stack_size = -cfi->regs[CFI_BP].offset;
}
else if (op->dest.reg == cfa->base) {
/* mov %reg, %rsp */
if (cfa->base == CFI_SP &&
cfi->vals[op->src.reg].base == CFI_CFA) {
/*
* This is needed for the rare case
* where GCC does something dumb like:
*
* lea 0x8(%rsp), %rcx
* ...
* mov %rcx, %rsp
*/
cfa->offset = -cfi->vals[op->src.reg].offset;
cfi->stack_size = cfa->offset;
} else {
cfa->base = CFI_UNDEFINED;
cfa->offset = 0;
}
}
break;
case OP_SRC_ADD:
if (op->dest.reg == CFI_SP && op->src.reg == CFI_SP) {
/* add imm, %rsp */
cfi->stack_size -= op->src.offset;
if (cfa->base == CFI_SP)
cfa->offset -= op->src.offset;
break;
}
if (op->dest.reg == CFI_SP && op->src.reg == CFI_BP) {
/* lea disp(%rbp), %rsp */
cfi->stack_size = -(op->src.offset + regs[CFI_BP].offset);
break;
}
if (op->src.reg == CFI_SP && cfa->base == CFI_SP) {
/* drap: lea disp(%rsp), %drap */
cfi->drap_reg = op->dest.reg;
/*
* lea disp(%rsp), %reg
*
* This is needed for the rare case where GCC
* does something dumb like:
*
* lea 0x8(%rsp), %rcx
* ...
* mov %rcx, %rsp
*/
cfi->vals[op->dest.reg].base = CFI_CFA;
cfi->vals[op->dest.reg].offset = \
-cfi->stack_size + op->src.offset;
break;
}
if (cfi->drap && op->dest.reg == CFI_SP &&
op->src.reg == cfi->drap_reg) {
/* drap: lea disp(%drap), %rsp */
cfa->base = CFI_SP;
cfa->offset = cfi->stack_size = -op->src.offset;
cfi->drap_reg = CFI_UNDEFINED;
cfi->drap = false;
break;
}
if (op->dest.reg == cfi->cfa.base) {
WARN_FUNC("unsupported stack register modification",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return -1;
}
break;
case OP_SRC_AND:
if (op->dest.reg != CFI_SP ||
(cfi->drap_reg != CFI_UNDEFINED && cfa->base != CFI_SP) ||
(cfi->drap_reg == CFI_UNDEFINED && cfa->base != CFI_BP)) {
WARN_FUNC("unsupported stack pointer realignment",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return -1;
}
if (cfi->drap_reg != CFI_UNDEFINED) {
/* drap: and imm, %rsp */
cfa->base = cfi->drap_reg;
cfa->offset = cfi->stack_size = 0;
cfi->drap = true;
}
/*
* Older versions of GCC (4.8ish) realign the stack
* without DRAP, with a frame pointer.
*/
break;
case OP_SRC_POP:
case OP_SRC_POPF:
if (!cfi->drap && op->dest.reg == cfa->base) {
/* pop %rbp */
cfa->base = CFI_SP;
}
if (cfi->drap && cfa->base == CFI_BP_INDIRECT &&
op->dest.reg == cfi->drap_reg &&
cfi->drap_offset == -cfi->stack_size) {
/* drap: pop %drap */
cfa->base = cfi->drap_reg;
cfa->offset = 0;
cfi->drap_offset = -1;
} else if (regs[op->dest.reg].offset == -cfi->stack_size) {
/* pop %reg */
restore_reg(cfi, op->dest.reg);
}
cfi->stack_size -= 8;
if (cfa->base == CFI_SP)
cfa->offset -= 8;
break;
case OP_SRC_REG_INDIRECT:
if (cfi->drap && op->src.reg == CFI_BP &&
op->src.offset == cfi->drap_offset) {
/* drap: mov disp(%rbp), %drap */
cfa->base = cfi->drap_reg;
cfa->offset = 0;
cfi->drap_offset = -1;
}
if (cfi->drap && op->src.reg == CFI_BP &&
op->src.offset == regs[op->dest.reg].offset) {
/* drap: mov disp(%rbp), %reg */
restore_reg(cfi, op->dest.reg);
} else if (op->src.reg == cfa->base &&
op->src.offset == regs[op->dest.reg].offset + cfa->offset) {
/* mov disp(%rbp), %reg */
/* mov disp(%rsp), %reg */
restore_reg(cfi, op->dest.reg);
}
break;
default:
WARN_FUNC("unknown stack-related instruction",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return -1;
}
break;
case OP_DEST_PUSH:
case OP_DEST_PUSHF:
cfi->stack_size += 8;
if (cfa->base == CFI_SP)
cfa->offset += 8;
if (op->src.type != OP_SRC_REG)
break;
if (cfi->drap) {
if (op->src.reg == cfa->base && op->src.reg == cfi->drap_reg) {
/* drap: push %drap */
cfa->base = CFI_BP_INDIRECT;
cfa->offset = -cfi->stack_size;
/* save drap so we know when to restore it */
cfi->drap_offset = -cfi->stack_size;
} else if (op->src.reg == CFI_BP && cfa->base == cfi->drap_reg) {
/* drap: push %rbp */
cfi->stack_size = 0;
} else if (regs[op->src.reg].base == CFI_UNDEFINED) {
/* drap: push %reg */
save_reg(cfi, op->src.reg, CFI_BP, -cfi->stack_size);
}
} else {
/* push %reg */
save_reg(cfi, op->src.reg, CFI_CFA, -cfi->stack_size);
}
/* detect when asm code uses rbp as a scratch register */
if (!no_fp && insn->func && op->src.reg == CFI_BP &&
cfa->base != CFI_BP)
cfi->bp_scratch = true;
break;
case OP_DEST_REG_INDIRECT:
if (cfi->drap) {
if (op->src.reg == cfa->base && op->src.reg == cfi->drap_reg) {
/* drap: mov %drap, disp(%rbp) */
cfa->base = CFI_BP_INDIRECT;
cfa->offset = op->dest.offset;
/* save drap offset so we know when to restore it */
cfi->drap_offset = op->dest.offset;
}
else if (regs[op->src.reg].base == CFI_UNDEFINED) {
/* drap: mov reg, disp(%rbp) */
save_reg(cfi, op->src.reg, CFI_BP, op->dest.offset);
}
} else if (op->dest.reg == cfa->base) {
/* mov reg, disp(%rbp) */
/* mov reg, disp(%rsp) */
save_reg(cfi, op->src.reg, CFI_CFA,
op->dest.offset - cfi->cfa.offset);
}
break;
case OP_DEST_LEAVE:
if ((!cfi->drap && cfa->base != CFI_BP) ||
(cfi->drap && cfa->base != cfi->drap_reg)) {
WARN_FUNC("leave instruction with modified stack frame",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return -1;
}
/* leave (mov %rbp, %rsp; pop %rbp) */
cfi->stack_size = -cfi->regs[CFI_BP].offset - 8;
restore_reg(cfi, CFI_BP);
if (!cfi->drap) {
cfa->base = CFI_SP;
cfa->offset -= 8;
}
break;
case OP_DEST_MEM:
if (op->src.type != OP_SRC_POP && op->src.type != OP_SRC_POPF) {
WARN_FUNC("unknown stack-related memory operation",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return -1;
}
/* pop mem */
cfi->stack_size -= 8;
if (cfa->base == CFI_SP)
cfa->offset -= 8;
break;
default:
WARN_FUNC("unknown stack-related instruction",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return -1;
}
return 0;
}
static int handle_insn_ops(struct instruction *insn, struct insn_state *state)
{
struct stack_op *op;
list_for_each_entry(op, &insn->stack_ops, list) {
struct cfi_state old_cfi = state->cfi;
int res;
res = update_cfi_state(insn, &state->cfi, op);
if (res)
return res;
if (insn->alt_group && memcmp(&state->cfi, &old_cfi, sizeof(struct cfi_state))) {
WARN_FUNC("alternative modifies stack", insn->sec, insn->offset);
return -1;
}
if (op->dest.type == OP_DEST_PUSHF) {
if (!state->uaccess_stack) {
state->uaccess_stack = 1;
} else if (state->uaccess_stack >> 31) {
WARN_FUNC("PUSHF stack exhausted",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return 1;
}
state->uaccess_stack <<= 1;
state->uaccess_stack |= state->uaccess;
}
if (op->src.type == OP_SRC_POPF) {
if (state->uaccess_stack) {
state->uaccess = state->uaccess_stack & 1;
state->uaccess_stack >>= 1;
if (state->uaccess_stack == 1)
state->uaccess_stack = 0;
}
}
}
return 0;
}
static bool insn_cfi_match(struct instruction *insn, struct cfi_state *cfi2)
{
struct cfi_state *cfi1 = &insn->cfi;
int i;
if (memcmp(&cfi1->cfa, &cfi2->cfa, sizeof(cfi1->cfa))) {
WARN_FUNC("stack state mismatch: cfa1=%d%+d cfa2=%d%+d",
insn->sec, insn->offset,
cfi1->cfa.base, cfi1->cfa.offset,
cfi2->cfa.base, cfi2->cfa.offset);
} else if (memcmp(&cfi1->regs, &cfi2->regs, sizeof(cfi1->regs))) {
for (i = 0; i < CFI_NUM_REGS; i++) {
if (!memcmp(&cfi1->regs[i], &cfi2->regs[i],
sizeof(struct cfi_reg)))
continue;
WARN_FUNC("stack state mismatch: reg1[%d]=%d%+d reg2[%d]=%d%+d",
insn->sec, insn->offset,
i, cfi1->regs[i].base, cfi1->regs[i].offset,
i, cfi2->regs[i].base, cfi2->regs[i].offset);
break;
}
} else if (cfi1->type != cfi2->type) {
WARN_FUNC("stack state mismatch: type1=%d type2=%d",
insn->sec, insn->offset, cfi1->type, cfi2->type);
} else if (cfi1->drap != cfi2->drap ||
(cfi1->drap && cfi1->drap_reg != cfi2->drap_reg) ||
(cfi1->drap && cfi1->drap_offset != cfi2->drap_offset)) {
WARN_FUNC("stack state mismatch: drap1=%d(%d,%d) drap2=%d(%d,%d)",
insn->sec, insn->offset,
cfi1->drap, cfi1->drap_reg, cfi1->drap_offset,
cfi2->drap, cfi2->drap_reg, cfi2->drap_offset);
} else
return true;
return false;
}
static inline bool func_uaccess_safe(struct symbol *func)
{
if (func)
return func->uaccess_safe;
return false;
}
static inline const char *call_dest_name(struct instruction *insn)
{
if (insn->call_dest)
return insn->call_dest->name;
return "{dynamic}";
}
static int validate_call(struct instruction *insn, struct insn_state *state)
{
if (state->noinstr && state->instr <= 0 &&
(!insn->call_dest || !insn->call_dest->sec->noinstr)) {
WARN_FUNC("call to %s() leaves .noinstr.text section",
insn->sec, insn->offset, call_dest_name(insn));
return 1;
}
if (state->uaccess && !func_uaccess_safe(insn->call_dest)) {
WARN_FUNC("call to %s() with UACCESS enabled",
insn->sec, insn->offset, call_dest_name(insn));
return 1;
}
if (state->df) {
WARN_FUNC("call to %s() with DF set",
insn->sec, insn->offset, call_dest_name(insn));
return 1;
}
return 0;
}
static int validate_sibling_call(struct instruction *insn, struct insn_state *state)
{
if (has_modified_stack_frame(insn, state)) {
WARN_FUNC("sibling call from callable instruction with modified stack frame",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return 1;
}
return validate_call(insn, state);
}
static int validate_return(struct symbol *func, struct instruction *insn, struct insn_state *state)
{
if (state->noinstr && state->instr > 0) {
WARN_FUNC("return with instrumentation enabled",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return 1;
}
if (state->uaccess && !func_uaccess_safe(func)) {
WARN_FUNC("return with UACCESS enabled",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return 1;
}
if (!state->uaccess && func_uaccess_safe(func)) {
WARN_FUNC("return with UACCESS disabled from a UACCESS-safe function",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return 1;
}
if (state->df) {
WARN_FUNC("return with DF set",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return 1;
}
if (func && has_modified_stack_frame(insn, state)) {
WARN_FUNC("return with modified stack frame",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return 1;
}
if (state->cfi.bp_scratch) {
WARN_FUNC("BP used as a scratch register",
insn->sec, insn->offset);
return 1;
}
return 0;
}
/*
* Alternatives should not contain any ORC entries, this in turn means they
* should not contain any CFI ops, which implies all instructions should have
* the same same CFI state.
*
* It is possible to constuct alternatives that have unreachable holes that go
* unreported (because they're NOPs), such holes would result in CFI_UNDEFINED
* states which then results in ORC entries, which we just said we didn't want.
*
* Avoid them by copying the CFI entry of the first instruction into the whole
* alternative.
*/
static void fill_alternative_cfi(struct objtool_file *file, struct instruction *insn)
{
struct instruction *first_insn = insn;
int alt_group = insn->alt_group;
sec_for_each_insn_continue(file, insn) {
if (insn->alt_group != alt_group)
break;
insn->cfi = first_insn->cfi;
}
}
/*
* Follow the branch starting at the given instruction, and recursively follow
* any other branches (jumps). Meanwhile, track the frame pointer state at
* each instruction and validate all the rules described in
* tools/objtool/Documentation/stack-validation.txt.
*/
static int validate_branch(struct objtool_file *file, struct symbol *func,
struct instruction *insn, struct insn_state state)
{
struct alternative *alt;
struct instruction *next_insn;
struct section *sec;
u8 visited;
int ret;
sec = insn->sec;
while (1) {
next_insn = next_insn_same_sec(file, insn);
if (file->c_file && func && insn->func && func != insn->func->pfunc) {
WARN("%s() falls through to next function %s()",
func->name, insn->func->name);
return 1;
}
if (func && insn->ignore) {
WARN_FUNC("BUG: why am I validating an ignored function?",
sec, insn->offset);
return 1;
}
visited = 1 << state.uaccess;
if (insn->visited) {
if (!insn->hint && !insn_cfi_match(insn, &state.cfi))
return 1;
if (insn->visited & visited)
return 0;
}
if (state.noinstr)
state.instr += insn->instr;
if (insn->hint)
state.cfi = insn->cfi;
else
insn->cfi = state.cfi;
insn->visited |= visited;
if (!insn->ignore_alts && !list_empty(&insn->alts)) {
bool skip_orig = false;
list_for_each_entry(alt, &insn->alts, list) {
if (alt->skip_orig)
skip_orig = true;
ret = validate_branch(file, func, alt->insn, state);
if (ret) {
if (backtrace)
BT_FUNC("(alt)", insn);
return ret;
}
}
if (insn->alt_group)
fill_alternative_cfi(file, insn);
if (skip_orig)
return 0;
}
if (handle_insn_ops(insn, &state))
return 1;
switch (insn->type) {
case INSN_RETURN:
return validate_return(func, insn, &state);
case INSN_CALL:
case INSN_CALL_DYNAMIC:
ret = validate_call(insn, &state);
if (ret)
return ret;
if (!no_fp && func && !is_fentry_call(insn) &&
!has_valid_stack_frame(&state)) {
WARN_FUNC("call without frame pointer save/setup",
sec, insn->offset);
return 1;
}
if (dead_end_function(file, insn->call_dest))
return 0;
break;
case INSN_JUMP_CONDITIONAL:
case INSN_JUMP_UNCONDITIONAL:
if (func && is_sibling_call(insn)) {
ret = validate_sibling_call(insn, &state);
if (ret)
return ret;
} else if (insn->jump_dest) {
ret = validate_branch(file, func,
insn->jump_dest, state);
if (ret) {
if (backtrace)
BT_FUNC("(branch)", insn);
return ret;
}
}
if (insn->type == INSN_JUMP_UNCONDITIONAL)
return 0;
break;
case INSN_JUMP_DYNAMIC:
case INSN_JUMP_DYNAMIC_CONDITIONAL:
if (func && is_sibling_call(insn)) {
ret = validate_sibling_call(insn, &state);
if (ret)
return ret;
}
if (insn->type == INSN_JUMP_DYNAMIC)
return 0;
break;
case INSN_CONTEXT_SWITCH:
if (func && (!next_insn || !next_insn->hint)) {
WARN_FUNC("unsupported instruction in callable function",
sec, insn->offset);
return 1;
}
return 0;
case INSN_STAC:
if (state.uaccess) {
WARN_FUNC("recursive UACCESS enable", sec, insn->offset);
return 1;
}
state.uaccess = true;
break;
case INSN_CLAC:
if (!state.uaccess && func) {
WARN_FUNC("redundant UACCESS disable", sec, insn->offset);
return 1;
}
if (func_uaccess_safe(func) && !state.uaccess_stack) {
WARN_FUNC("UACCESS-safe disables UACCESS", sec, insn->offset);
return 1;
}
state.uaccess = false;
break;
case INSN_STD:
if (state.df)
WARN_FUNC("recursive STD", sec, insn->offset);
state.df = true;
break;
case INSN_CLD:
if (!state.df && func)
WARN_FUNC("redundant CLD", sec, insn->offset);
state.df = false;
break;
default:
break;
}
if (insn->dead_end)
return 0;
if (!next_insn) {
if (state.cfi.cfa.base == CFI_UNDEFINED)
return 0;
WARN("%s: unexpected end of section", sec->name);
return 1;
}
insn = next_insn;
}
return 0;
}
static int validate_unwind_hints(struct objtool_file *file, struct section *sec)
{
struct instruction *insn;
struct insn_state state;
int ret, warnings = 0;
if (!file->hints)
return 0;
init_insn_state(&state, sec);
if (sec) {
insn = find_insn(file, sec, 0);
if (!insn)
return 0;
} else {
insn = list_first_entry(&file->insn_list, typeof(*insn), list);
}
while (&insn->list != &file->insn_list && (!sec || insn->sec == sec)) {
if (insn->hint && !insn->visited) {
ret = validate_branch(file, insn->func, insn, state);
if (ret && backtrace)
BT_FUNC("<=== (hint)", insn);
warnings += ret;
}
insn = list_next_entry(insn, list);
}
return warnings;
}
static int validate_retpoline(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct instruction *insn;
int warnings = 0;
for_each_insn(file, insn) {
if (insn->type != INSN_JUMP_DYNAMIC &&
insn->type != INSN_CALL_DYNAMIC)
continue;
if (insn->retpoline_safe)
continue;
/*
* .init.text code is ran before userspace and thus doesn't
* strictly need retpolines, except for modules which are
* loaded late, they very much do need retpoline in their
* .init.text
*/
if (!strcmp(insn->sec->name, ".init.text") && !module)
continue;
WARN_FUNC("indirect %s found in RETPOLINE build",
insn->sec, insn->offset,
insn->type == INSN_JUMP_DYNAMIC ? "jump" : "call");
warnings++;
}
return warnings;
}
static bool is_kasan_insn(struct instruction *insn)
{
return (insn->type == INSN_CALL &&
!strcmp(insn->call_dest->name, "__asan_handle_no_return"));
}
static bool is_ubsan_insn(struct instruction *insn)
{
return (insn->type == INSN_CALL &&
!strcmp(insn->call_dest->name,
"__ubsan_handle_builtin_unreachable"));
}
static bool ignore_unreachable_insn(struct instruction *insn)
{
int i;
if (insn->ignore || insn->type == INSN_NOP)
return true;
/*
* Ignore any unused exceptions. This can happen when a whitelisted
* function has an exception table entry.
*
* Also ignore alternative replacement instructions. This can happen
* when a whitelisted function uses one of the ALTERNATIVE macros.
*/
if (!strcmp(insn->sec->name, ".fixup") ||
!strcmp(insn->sec->name, ".altinstr_replacement") ||
!strcmp(insn->sec->name, ".altinstr_aux"))
return true;
if (!insn->func)
return false;
/*
* CONFIG_UBSAN_TRAP inserts a UD2 when it sees
* __builtin_unreachable(). The BUG() macro has an unreachable() after
* the UD2, which causes GCC's undefined trap logic to emit another UD2
* (or occasionally a JMP to UD2).
*/
if (list_prev_entry(insn, list)->dead_end &&
(insn->type == INSN_BUG ||
(insn->type == INSN_JUMP_UNCONDITIONAL &&
insn->jump_dest && insn->jump_dest->type == INSN_BUG)))
return true;
/*
* Check if this (or a subsequent) instruction is related to
* CONFIG_UBSAN or CONFIG_KASAN.
*
* End the search at 5 instructions to avoid going into the weeds.
*/
for (i = 0; i < 5; i++) {
if (is_kasan_insn(insn) || is_ubsan_insn(insn))
return true;
if (insn->type == INSN_JUMP_UNCONDITIONAL) {
if (insn->jump_dest &&
insn->jump_dest->func == insn->func) {
insn = insn->jump_dest;
continue;
}
break;
}
if (insn->offset + insn->len >= insn->func->offset + insn->func->len)
break;
insn = list_next_entry(insn, list);
}
return false;
}
static int validate_symbol(struct objtool_file *file, struct section *sec,
struct symbol *sym, struct insn_state *state)
{
struct instruction *insn;
int ret;
if (!sym->len) {
WARN("%s() is missing an ELF size annotation", sym->name);
return 1;
}
if (sym->pfunc != sym || sym->alias != sym)
return 0;
insn = find_insn(file, sec, sym->offset);
if (!insn || insn->ignore || insn->visited)
return 0;
state->uaccess = sym->uaccess_safe;
ret = validate_branch(file, insn->func, insn, *state);
if (ret && backtrace)
BT_FUNC("<=== (sym)", insn);
return ret;
}
static int validate_section(struct objtool_file *file, struct section *sec)
{
struct insn_state state;
struct symbol *func;
int warnings = 0;
list_for_each_entry(func, &sec->symbol_list, list) {
if (func->type != STT_FUNC)
continue;
init_insn_state(&state, sec);
state.cfi.cfa = initial_func_cfi.cfa;
memcpy(&state.cfi.regs, &initial_func_cfi.regs,
CFI_NUM_REGS * sizeof(struct cfi_reg));
state.cfi.stack_size = initial_func_cfi.cfa.offset;
warnings += validate_symbol(file, sec, func, &state);
}
return warnings;
}
static int validate_vmlinux_functions(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct section *sec;
int warnings = 0;
sec = find_section_by_name(file->elf, ".noinstr.text");
if (sec) {
warnings += validate_section(file, sec);
warnings += validate_unwind_hints(file, sec);
}
sec = find_section_by_name(file->elf, ".entry.text");
if (sec) {
warnings += validate_section(file, sec);
warnings += validate_unwind_hints(file, sec);
}
return warnings;
}
static int validate_functions(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct section *sec;
int warnings = 0;
for_each_sec(file, sec) {
if (!(sec->sh.sh_flags & SHF_EXECINSTR))
continue;
warnings += validate_section(file, sec);
}
return warnings;
}
static int validate_reachable_instructions(struct objtool_file *file)
{
struct instruction *insn;
if (file->ignore_unreachables)
return 0;
for_each_insn(file, insn) {
if (insn->visited || ignore_unreachable_insn(insn))
continue;
WARN_FUNC("unreachable instruction", insn->sec, insn->offset);
return 1;
}
return 0;
}
static struct objtool_file file;
int check(const char *_objname, bool orc)
{
int ret, warnings = 0;
objname = _objname;
file.elf = elf_open_read(objname, orc ? O_RDWR : O_RDONLY);
if (!file.elf)
return 1;
INIT_LIST_HEAD(&file.insn_list);
hash_init(file.insn_hash);
file.c_file = find_section_by_name(file.elf, ".comment");
file.ignore_unreachables = no_unreachable;
file.hints = false;
arch_initial_func_cfi_state(&initial_func_cfi);
ret = decode_sections(&file);
if (ret < 0)
goto out;
warnings += ret;
if (list_empty(&file.insn_list))
goto out;
if (vmlinux && !validate_dup) {
ret = validate_vmlinux_functions(&file);
if (ret < 0)
goto out;
warnings += ret;
goto out;
}
if (retpoline) {
ret = validate_retpoline(&file);
if (ret < 0)
return ret;
warnings += ret;
}
ret = validate_functions(&file);
if (ret < 0)
goto out;
warnings += ret;
ret = validate_unwind_hints(&file, NULL);
if (ret < 0)
goto out;
warnings += ret;