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git-pull - Fetch from and merge with another repository or a local branch
'git pull' <options> <repository> <refspec>...
Runs 'git fetch' with the given parameters, and calls 'git merge'
to merge the retrieved head(s) into the current branch.
With `--rebase`, calls 'git rebase' instead of 'git merge'.
Note that you can use `.` (current directory) as the
<repository> to pull from the local repository -- this is useful
when merging local branches into the current branch.
Also note that options meant for 'git pull' itself and underlying
'git merge' must be given before the options meant for 'git fetch'.
*Warning*: Running 'git pull' (actually, the underlying 'git merge')
with uncommitted changes is discouraged: while possible, it leaves you
in a state that is hard to back out of in the case of a conflict.
Options related to merging
:git-pull: 1
Instead of a merge, perform a rebase after fetching. If
there is a remote ref for the upstream branch, and this branch
was rebased since last fetched, the rebase uses that information
to avoid rebasing non-local changes. To make this the default
for branch `<name>`, set configuration `branch.<name>.rebase`
to `true`.
This is a potentially _dangerous_ mode of operation.
It rewrites history, which does not bode well when you
published that history already. Do *not* use this option
unless you have read linkgit:git-rebase[1] carefully.
Override earlier --rebase.
Options related to fetching
Often people use `git pull` without giving any parameter.
Traditionally, this has been equivalent to saying `git pull
origin`. However, when configuration `branch.<name>.remote` is
present while on branch `<name>`, that value is used instead of
In order to determine what URL to use to fetch from, the value
of the configuration `remote.<origin>.url` is consulted
and if there is not any such variable, the value on `URL: ` line
in `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>` file is used.
In order to determine what remote branches to fetch (and
optionally store in the tracking branches) when the command is
run without any refspec parameters on the command line, values
of the configuration variable `remote.<origin>.fetch` are
consulted, and if there aren't any, `$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>`
file is consulted and its `Pull: ` lines are used.
In addition to the refspec formats described in the OPTIONS
section, you can have a globbing refspec that looks like this:
A globbing refspec must have a non-empty RHS (i.e. must store
what were fetched in tracking branches), and its LHS and RHS
must end with `/*`. The above specifies that all remote
branches are tracked using tracking branches in
`refs/remotes/origin/` hierarchy under the same name.
The rule to determine which remote branch to merge after
fetching is a bit involved, in order not to break backward
If explicit refspecs were given on the command
line of `git pull`, they are all merged.
When no refspec was given on the command line, then `git pull`
uses the refspec from the configuration or
`$GIT_DIR/remotes/<origin>`. In such cases, the following
rules apply:
. If `branch.<name>.merge` configuration for the current
branch `<name>` exists, that is the name of the branch at the
remote site that is merged.
. If the refspec is a globbing one, nothing is merged.
. Otherwise the remote branch of the first refspec is merged.
* Update the remote-tracking branches for the repository
you cloned from, then merge one of them into your
current branch:
$ git pull, git pull origin
Normally the branch merged in is the HEAD of the remote repository,
but the choice is determined by the branch.<name>.remote and
branch.<name>.merge options; see linkgit:git-config[1] for details.
* Merge into the current branch the remote branch `next`:
$ git pull origin next
This leaves a copy of `next` temporarily in FETCH_HEAD, but
does not update any remote-tracking branches. Using remote-tracking
branches, the same can be done by invoking fetch and merge:
$ git fetch origin
$ git merge origin/next
If you tried a pull which resulted in a complex conflicts and
would want to start over, you can recover with 'git reset'.
linkgit:git-fetch[1], linkgit:git-merge[1], linkgit:git-config[1]
Written by Linus Torvalds <>
and Junio C Hamano <>
Documentation by Jon Loeliger,
David Greaves,
Junio C Hamano and the git-list <>.
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite