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git-push - Update remote refs along with associated objects
'git push' [--all | --mirror] [--dry-run] [--tags] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
[--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [-v | --verbose]
[<repository> <refspec>...]
Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects
necessary to complete the given refs.
You can make interesting things happen to a repository
every time you push into it, by setting up 'hooks' there. See
documentation for linkgit:git-receive-pack[1].
The "remote" repository that is destination of a push
operation. This parameter can be either a URL
(see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
The canonical format of a <refspec> parameter is
`+?<src>:<dst>`; that is, an optional plus `{plus}`, followed
by the source ref, followed by a colon `:`, followed by
the destination ref.
The <src> side represents the source branch (or arbitrary
"SHA1 expression", such as `master~4` (four parents before the
tip of `master` branch); see linkgit:git-rev-parse[1]) that you
want to push. The <dst> side represents the destination location.
The local ref that matches <src> is used
to fast forward the remote ref that matches <dst>. If
the optional leading plus `+` is used, the remote ref is updated
even if it does not result in a fast forward update.
`tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
A lonely <src> parameter (without a colon and a destination) pushes
the <src> to the same name in the destination repository.
Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
the remote repository.
The special refspec `:` (or `+:` to allow non-fast forward updates)
directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
already exists on the remote side. This is the default operation mode
if no explicit refspec is found (that is neither on the command line
nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below).
Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/heads/` be pushed.
Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all
refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/` (which includes but is not
limited to `refs/heads/`, `refs/remotes/`, and `refs/tags/`)
be mirrored to the remote repository. Newly created local
refs will be pushed to the remote end, locally updated refs
will be force updated on the remote end, and deleted refs
will be removed from the remote end. This is the default
if the configuration option `remote.<remote>.mirror` is
Do everything except actually send the updates.
All refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs/tags` are pushed, in
addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command
Path to the 'git-receive-pack' program on the remote
end. Sometimes useful when pushing to a remote
repository over ssh, and you do not have the program in
a directory on the default $PATH.
Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is
not an ancestor of the local ref used to overwrite it.
This flag disables the check. This can cause the
remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.
This option is only relevant if no <repository> argument is
passed in the invocation. In this case, 'git-push' derives the
remote name from the current branch: If it tracks a remote
branch, then that remote repository is pushed to. Otherwise,
the name "origin" is used. For this latter case, this option
can be used to override the name "origin". In other words,
the difference between these two commands
git push public #1
git push --repo=public #2
is that #1 always pushes to "public" whereas #2 pushes to "public"
only if the current branch does not track a remote branch. This is
useful if you write an alias or script around 'git-push'.
These options are passed to 'git-send-pack'. Thin
transfer spends extra cycles to minimize the number of
objects to be sent and meant to be used on slower connection.
Run verbosely.
The output of "git push" depends on the transport method used; this
section describes the output when pushing over the git protocol (either
locally or via ssh).
The status of the push is output in tabular form, with each line
representing the status of a single ref. Each line is of the form:
<flag> <summary> <from> -> <to> (<reason>)
A single character indicating the status of the ref. This is
blank for a successfully pushed ref, `!` for a ref that was
rejected or failed to push, and '=' for a ref that was up to
date and did not need pushing (note that the status of up to
date refs is shown only when `git push` is running verbosely).
For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
`git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
`<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast forward updates). For a
failed update, more details are given for the failure.
The string `rejected` indicates that git did not try to send the
ref at all (typically because it is not a fast forward). The
string `remote rejected` indicates that the remote end refused
the update; this rejection is typically caused by a hook on the
remote side. The string `remote failure` indicates that the
remote end did not report the successful update of the ref
(perhaps because of a temporary error on the remote side, a
break in the network connection, or other transient error).
The name of the local ref being pushed, minus its
`refs/<type>/` prefix. In the case of deletion, the
name of the local ref is omitted.
The name of the remote ref being updated, minus its
`refs/<type>/` prefix.
A human-readable explanation. In the case of successfully pushed
refs, no explanation is needed. For a failed ref, the reason for
failure is described.
git push origin master::
Find a ref that matches `master` in the source repository
(most likely, it would find `refs/heads/master`), and update
the same ref (e.g. `refs/heads/master`) in `origin` repository
with it. If `master` did not exist remotely, it would be
git push origin :experimental::
Find a ref that matches `experimental` in the `origin` repository
(e.g. `refs/heads/experimental`), and delete it.
git push origin master:satellite/master dev:satellite/dev::
Use the source ref that matches `master` (e.g. `refs/heads/master`)
to update the ref that matches `satellite/master` (most probably
`refs/remotes/satellite/master`) in the `origin` repository, then
do the same for `dev` and `satellite/dev`.
git push origin master:refs/heads/experimental::
Create the branch `experimental` in the `origin` repository
by copying the current `master` branch. This form is only
needed to create a new branch or tag in the remote repository when
the local name and the remote name are different; otherwise,
the ref name on its own will work.
Written by Junio C Hamano <>, later rewritten in C
by Linus Torvalds <>
Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <>.
Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite