Merge branch 'jk/maint-http-half-auth-push' into maint

* jk/maint-http-half-auth-push:
  http: fix segfault in handle_curl_result
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index 87fcc5f..68fe464 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -2,6 +2,9 @@
 /GIT-CFLAGS
 /GIT-LDFLAGS
 /GIT-GUI-VARS
+/GIT-PREFIX
+/GIT-SCRIPT-DEFINES
+/GIT-USER-AGENT
 /GIT-VERSION-FILE
 /bin-wrappers/
 /git
@@ -26,10 +29,12 @@
 /git-cherry-pick
 /git-clean
 /git-clone
+/git-column
 /git-commit
 /git-commit-tree
 /git-config
 /git-count-objects
+/git-credential
 /git-credential-cache
 /git-credential-cache--daemon
 /git-credential-store
@@ -92,6 +97,7 @@
 /git-name-rev
 /git-mv
 /git-notes
+/git-p4
 /git-pack-redundant
 /git-pack-objects
 /git-pack-refs
@@ -170,7 +176,6 @@
 /gitweb/static/gitweb.js
 /gitweb/static/gitweb.min.*
 /test-chmtime
-/test-credential
 /test-ctype
 /test-date
 /test-delta
@@ -180,9 +185,12 @@
 /test-index-version
 /test-line-buffer
 /test-match-trees
+/test-mergesort
 /test-mktemp
 /test-parse-options
 /test-path-utils
+/test-regex
+/test-revision-walking
 /test-run-command
 /test-sha1
 /test-sigchain
diff --git a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
index 4557711..57da6aa 100644
--- a/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
+++ b/Documentation/CodingGuidelines
@@ -76,11 +76,19 @@
 
  - We do not use Process Substitution <(list) or >(list).
 
+ - Do not write control structures on a single line with semicolon.
+   "then" should be on the next line for if statements, and "do"
+   should be on the next line for "while" and "for".
+
  - We prefer "test" over "[ ... ]".
 
  - We do not write the noiseword "function" in front of shell
    functions.
 
+ - We prefer a space between the function name and the parentheses. The
+   opening "{" should also be on the same line.
+   E.g.: my_function () {
+
  - As to use of grep, stick to a subset of BRE (namely, no \{m,n\},
    [::], [==], nor [..]) for portability.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index 9ad6a6a..267dfe1 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -44,9 +44,10 @@
 man7dir=$(mandir)/man7
 # DESTDIR=
 
-ASCIIDOC=asciidoc
+ASCIIDOC = asciidoc
 ASCIIDOC_EXTRA =
 MANPAGE_XSL = manpage-normal.xsl
+XMLTO = xmlto
 XMLTO_EXTRA =
 INSTALL?=install
 RM ?= rm -f
@@ -66,12 +67,6 @@
 -include ../config.mak
 
 #
-# For asciidoc ...
-#	-7.1.2,	set ASCIIDOC7
-#	8.0-,	no extra settings are needed
-#
-
-#
 # For docbook-xsl ...
 #	-1.68.1,	no extra settings are needed?
 #	1.69.0,		set ASCIIDOC_ROFF?
@@ -81,9 +76,6 @@
 #	1.73.0-,	no extra settings are needed
 #
 
-ifndef ASCIIDOC7
-ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -a asciidoc7compatible
-endif
 ifdef DOCBOOK_XSL_172
 ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -a git-asciidoc-no-roff
 MANPAGE_XSL = manpage-1.72.xsl
@@ -124,14 +116,15 @@
 # Shell quote;
 SHELL_PATH_SQ = $(subst ','\'',$(SHELL_PATH))
 
-#
-# Please note that there is a minor bug in asciidoc.
-# The version after 6.0.3 _will_ include the patch found here:
-#   http://marc.theaimsgroup.com/?l=git&m=111558757202243&w=2
-#
-# Until that version is released you may have to apply the patch
-# yourself - yes, all 6 characters of it!
-#
+ifdef DEFAULT_PAGER
+DEFAULT_PAGER_SQ = $(subst ','\'',$(DEFAULT_PAGER))
+ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -a 'git-default-pager=$(DEFAULT_PAGER_SQ)'
+endif
+
+ifdef DEFAULT_EDITOR
+DEFAULT_EDITOR_SQ = $(subst ','\'',$(DEFAULT_EDITOR))
+ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -a 'git-default-editor=$(DEFAULT_EDITOR_SQ)'
+endif
 
 QUIET_SUBDIR0  = +$(MAKE) -C # space to separate -C and subdir
 QUIET_SUBDIR1  =
@@ -253,7 +246,7 @@
 
 %.1 %.5 %.7 : %.xml manpage-base-url.xsl
 	$(QUIET_XMLTO)$(RM) $@ && \
-	xmlto -m $(MANPAGE_XSL) $(XMLTO_EXTRA) man $<
+	$(XMLTO) -m $(MANPAGE_XSL) $(XMLTO_EXTRA) man $<
 
 %.xml : %.txt
 	$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
@@ -270,6 +263,7 @@
 	technical/api-index.sh $(patsubst %,%.txt,$(API_DOCS))
 	$(QUIET_GEN)cd technical && '$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)' ./api-index.sh
 
+technical/%.html: ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -a git-relative-html-prefix=../
 $(patsubst %,%.html,$(API_DOCS) technical/api-index): %.html : %.txt
 	$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(ASCIIDOC) -b xhtml11 -f asciidoc.conf \
 		$(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -agit_version=$(GIT_VERSION) $*.txt
@@ -323,6 +317,7 @@
 
 WEBDOC_DEST = /pub/software/scm/git/docs
 
+howto/%.html: ASCIIDOC_EXTRA += -a git-relative-html-prefix=../
 $(patsubst %.txt,%.html,$(wildcard howto/*.txt)): %.html : %.txt
 	$(QUIET_ASCIIDOC)$(RM) $@+ $@ && \
 	sed -e '1,/^$$/d' $< | $(ASCIIDOC) $(ASCIIDOC_EXTRA) -b xhtml11 - >$@+ && \
@@ -350,4 +345,7 @@
 quick-install-html: require-htmlrepo
 	'$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)' ./install-doc-quick.sh $(HTML_REPO) $(DESTDIR)$(htmldir)
 
+print-man1:
+	@for i in $(MAN1_TXT); do echo $$i; done
+
 .PHONY: FORCE
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..577ecca
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,9 @@
+Git v1.7.11.1 Release Notes
+===========================
+
+Fixes since v1.7.11
+-------------------
+
+ * The cross links in the HTML version of manual pages were broken.
+
+Also contains minor typofixes and documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..a0d24d1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,53 @@
+Git v1.7.11.2 Release Notes
+===========================
+
+Fixes since v1.7.11.1
+---------------------
+
+ * On Cygwin, the platform pread(2) is not thread safe, just like our
+   own compat/ emulation, and cannot be used in the index-pack
+   program.  Makefile variable NO_THREAD_SAFE_PREAD can be defined to
+   avoid use of this function in a threaded program.
+
+ * "git add" allows adding a regular file to the path where a
+   submodule used to exist, but "git update-index" does not allow an
+   equivalent operation to Porcelain writers.
+
+ * "git archive" incorrectly computed the header checksum; the symptom
+   was observed only when using pathnames with hi-bit set.
+
+ * "git blame" did not try to make sure that the abbreviated commit
+   object names in its output are unique.
+
+ * Running "git bundle verify" on a bundle that records a complete
+   history said "it requires these 0 commits".
+
+ * "git clone --single-branch" to clone a single branch did not limit
+   the cloning to the specified branch.
+
+ * "git diff --no-index" did not correctly handle relative paths and
+   did not correctly give exit codes when run under "--quiet" option.
+
+ * "git diff --no-index" did not work with pagers correctly.
+
+ * "git diff COPYING HEAD:COPYING" gave a nonsense error message that
+   claimed that the treeish HEAD did not have COPYING in it.
+
+ * When "git log" gets "--simplify-merges/by-decoration" together with
+   "--first-parent", the combination of these options makes the
+   simplification logic to use in-core commit objects that haven't
+   been examined for relevance, either producing incorrect result or
+   taking too long to produce any output.  Teach the simplification
+   logic to ignore commits that the first-parent traversal logic
+   ignored when both are in effect to work around the issue.
+
+ * "git ls-files --exclude=t -i" did not consider anything under t/ as
+   excluded, as it did not pay attention to exclusion of leading paths
+   while walking the index.  Other two users of excluded() are also
+   updated.
+
+ * "git request-pull $url dev" when the tip of "dev" branch was tagged
+   with "ext4-for-linus" used the contents from the tag in the output
+   but still asked the "dev" branch to be pulled, not the tag.
+
+Also contains minor typofixes and documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..64494f8
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,53 @@
+Git v1.7.11.3 Release Notes
+===========================
+
+Fixes since v1.7.11.3
+---------------------
+
+ * The error message from "git push $there :bogo" (and its equivalent
+   "git push $there --delete bogo") mentioned that we tried and failed
+   to guess what ref is being deleted based on the LHS of the refspec,
+   which we don't.
+
+ * A handful of files and directories we create had tighter than
+   necessary permission bits when the user wanted to have group
+   writability (e.g. by setting "umask 002").
+
+ * "commit --amend" used to refuse amending a commit with an empty log
+   message, with or without "--allow-empty-message".
+
+ * "git commit --amend --only --" was meant to allow "Clever" people to
+   rewrite the commit message without making any change even when they
+   have already changes for the next commit added to their index, but
+   it never worked as advertised since it was introduced in 1.3.0 era.
+
+ * Even though the index can record pathnames longer than 1<<12 bytes,
+   in some places we were not comparing them in full, potentially
+   replacing index entries instead of adding.
+
+ * "git show"'s auto-walking behaviour was an unreliable and
+   unpredictable hack; it now behaves just like "git log" does when it
+   walks.
+
+ * "git diff", "git status" and anything that internally uses the
+   comparison machinery was utterly broken when the difference
+   involved a file with "-" as its name.  This was due to the way "git
+   diff --no-index" was incorrectly bolted on to the system, making
+   any comparison that involves a file "-" at the root level
+   incorrectly read from the standard input.
+
+ * We did not have test to make sure "git rebase" without extra options
+   filters out an empty commit in the original history.
+
+ * "git fast-export" produced an input stream for fast-import without
+   properly quoting pathnames when they contain SPs in them.
+
+ * "git checkout --detach", when you are still on an unborn branch,
+   should be forbidden, but it wasn't.
+
+ * Some implementations of Perl terminates "lines" with CRLF even when
+   the script is operating on just a sequence of bytes.  Make sure to
+   use "$PERL_PATH", the version of Perl the user told Git to use, in
+   our tests to avoid unnecessary breakages in tests.
+
+Also contains minor typofixes and documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3a640c2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,31 @@
+Git v1.7.11.4 Release Notes
+===========================
+
+Fixes since v1.7.11.3
+---------------------
+
+ * "$GIT_DIR/COMMIT_EDITMSG" file that is used to hold the commit log
+   message user edits was not documented.
+
+ * The advise() function did not use varargs correctly to format
+   its message.
+
+ * When "git am" failed, old timers knew to check .git/rebase-apply/patch
+   to see what went wrong, but we never told the users about it.
+
+ * "git commit-tree" learned a more natural "-p <parent> <tree>" order
+   of arguments long time ago, but recently forgot it by mistake.
+
+ * "git diff --no-ext-diff" did not output anything for a typechange
+   filepair when GIT_EXTERNAL_DIFF is in effect.
+
+ * In 1.7.9 era, we taught "git rebase" about the raw timestamp format
+   but we did not teach the same trick to "filter-branch", which rolled
+   a similar logic on its own.
+
+ * When "git submodule add" clones a submodule repository, it can get
+   confused where to store the resulting submodule repository in the
+   superproject's .git/ directory when there is a symbolic link in the
+   path to the current directory.
+
+Also contains minor typofixes and documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..0a2ed85
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,36 @@
+Git v1.7.11.5 Release Notes
+===========================
+
+Fixes since v1.7.11.4
+---------------------
+
+ * The Makefile rule to create assembly output (primarily for
+   debugging purposes) did not create it next to the source.
+
+ * The code to avoid mistaken attempt to add the object directory
+   itself as its own alternate could read beyond end of a string while
+   comparison.
+
+ * On some architectures, "block-sha1" did not compile correctly
+   when compilers inferred alignment guarantees from our source we
+   did not intend to make.
+
+ * When talking to a remote running ssh on IPv6 enabled host, whose
+   address is spelled as "[HOST]:PORT", we did not parse the address
+   correctly and failed to connect.
+
+ * git-blame.el (in compat/) have been updated to use Elisp more
+   correctly.
+
+ * "git checkout <branchname>" to come back from a detached HEAD state
+   incorrectly computed reachability of the detached HEAD, resulting
+   in unnecessary warnings.
+
+ * "git mergetool" did not support --tool-help option to give the list
+   of supported backends, like "git difftool" does.
+
+ * "git grep" stopped spawning an external "grep" long time ago, but a
+   duplicated test to check internal and external "grep" was left
+   behind.
+
+Also contains minor typofixes and documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ba7d3c3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,84 @@
+Git v1.7.11.6 Release Notes
+===========================
+
+Fixes since v1.7.11.5
+---------------------
+
+ * "ciabot" script (in contrib/) has been updated with extensive
+   documentation.
+
+ * "git foo" errored out with "Not a directory" when the user had a
+   non-directory on $PATH, and worse yet it masked an alias "foo" from
+   running.
+
+ * When the user exports a non-default IFS without HT, scripts that
+   rely on being able to parse "ls-files -s | while read a b c..."
+   started to fail.  Protect them from such a misconfiguration.
+
+ * When the user gives an argument that can be taken as both a
+   revision name and a pathname without disambiguating with "--", we
+   used to give a help message "Use '--' to separate".  The message
+   has been clarified to show where that '--' goes on the command
+   line.
+
+ * Documentation for the configuration file format had a confusing
+   example.
+
+ * Older parts of the documentation described as if having a regular
+   file in .git/refs/ hierarchy were the only way to have branches and
+   tags, which is not true for quite some time.
+
+ * It was generally understood that "--long-option"s to many of our
+   subcommands can be abbreviated to the unique prefix, but it was not
+   easy to find it described for new readers of the documentation set.
+
+ * The "--topo-order", "--date-order" (and the lack of either means
+   the default order) options to "rev-list" and "log" family of
+   commands were poorly described in the documentation.
+
+ * "git commit --amend" let the user edit the log message and then
+   died when the human-readable committer name was given
+   insufficiently by getpwent(3).
+
+ * The exit status code from "git config" was way overspecified while
+   being incorrect.  The implementation has been updated to give the
+   documented status for a case that was documented, and introduce a
+   new code for "all other errors".
+
+ * The output from "git diff -B" for a file that ends with an
+   incomplete line did not put "\ No newline..." on a line of its own.
+
+ * "git diff" had a confusion between taking data from a path in the
+   working tree and taking data from an object that happens to have
+   name 0{40} recorded in a tree.
+
+ * The "--rebase" option to "git pull" can be abbreviated to "-r",
+   but we didn't document it.
+
+ * When "git push" triggered the automatic gc on the receiving end, a
+   message from "git prune" that said it was removing cruft leaked to
+   the standard output, breaking the communication protocol.
+
+ * The reflog entries left by "git rebase" and "git rebase -i" were
+   inconsistent (the interactive one gave an abbreviated object name).
+
+ * "git send-email" did not unquote encoded words that appear on the
+   header correctly, and lost "_" from strings.
+
+ * "git stash apply/pop" did not trigger "rerere" upon conflicts
+   unlike other mergy operations.
+
+ * "git submodule <cmd> path" did not error out when the path to the
+   submodule was misspelt.
+
+ * "git submodule update -f" did not update paths in the working tree
+   that has local changes.
+   (merge 01d4721 sz/submodule-force-update later to maint).
+
+ * "gitweb" when used with PATH_INFO failed to notice directories with
+   SP (and other characters that need URL-style quoting) in them.
+
+ * Fallback 'getpass' implementation made unportable use of stdio API.
+
+ * A utility shell function test_seq has been added as a replacement
+   for the 'seq' utility found on some platforms.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..e7e79d9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,46 @@
+Git v1.7.11.7 Release Notes
+===========================
+
+Fixes since v1.7.11.6
+---------------------
+
+ * The synopsis said "checkout [-B branch]" to make it clear the
+   branch name is a parameter to the option, but the heading for the
+   option description was "-B::", not "-B branch::", making the
+   documentation misleading.
+
+ * Git ships with a fall-back regexp implementation for platforms with
+   buggy regexp library, but it was easy for people to keep using their
+   platform regexp.  A new test has been added to check this.
+
+ * "git apply -p0" did not parse pathnames on "diff --git" line
+   correctly.  This caused patches that had pathnames in no other
+   places to be mistakenly rejected (most notably, binary patch that
+   does not rename nor change mode).  Textual patches, renames or mode
+   changes have preimage and postimage pathnames in different places
+   in a form that can be parsed unambiguously and did not suffer from
+   this problem.
+
+ * After "gitk" showed the contents of a tag, neither "Reread
+   references" nor "Reload" did not update what is shown as the
+   contents of it, when the user overwrote the tag with "git tag -f".
+
+ * "git for-each-ref" did not currectly support more than one --sort
+   option.
+
+ * "git log .." errored out saying it is both rev range and a path
+   when there is no disambiguating "--" is on the command line.
+   Update the command line parser to interpret ".." as a path in such
+   a case.
+
+ * Pushing to smart HTTP server with recent Git fails without having
+   the username in the URL to force authentication, if the server is
+   configured to allow GET anonymously, while requiring authentication
+   for POST.
+
+ * "git show --format='%ci'" did not give timestamp correctly for
+   commits created without human readable name on "committer" line.
+   (merge e27ddb6 jc/maint-ident-missing-human-name later to maint).
+
+ * "git show --quiet" ought to be a synonym for "git show -s", but
+   wasn't.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..15b954c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.11.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,139 @@
+Git v1.7.11 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Updates since v1.7.10
+---------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * A new mode for push, "simple", which is a cross between "current"
+   and "upstream", has been introduced. "git push" without any refspec
+   will push the current branch out to the same name at the remote
+   repository only when it is set to track the branch with the same
+   name over there.  The plan is to make this mode the new default
+   value when push.default is not configured.
+
+ * A couple of commands learned the "--column" option to produce
+   columnar output.
+
+ * A third-party tool "git subtree" is distributed in contrib/
+
+ * A remote helper that acts as a proxy and caches ssl session for the
+   https:// transport is added to the contrib/ area.
+
+ * Error messages given when @{u} is used for a branch without its
+   upstream configured have been clarified.
+
+ * Even with the "-q"uiet option, "checkout" used to report setting up
+   tracking.  Also "branch" learned the "-q"uiet option to squelch
+   informational message.
+
+ * Your build platform may support hardlinks but you may prefer not to
+   use them, e.g. when installing to DESTDIR to make a tarball and
+   untarring on a filesystem that has poor support for hardlinks.
+   There is a Makefile option NO_INSTALL_HARDLINKS for you.
+
+ * The smart-http backend used to always override GIT_COMMITTER_*
+   variables with REMOTE_USER and REMOTE_ADDR, but these variables are
+   now preserved when set.
+
+ * "git am" learned the "--include" option, which is an opposite of
+   existing the "--exclude" option.
+
+ * When "git am -3" needs to fall back to an application of the patch
+   to a synthesized preimage followed by a 3-way merge, the paths that
+   needed such treatment are now reported to the end user, so that the
+   result in them can be eyeballed with extra care.
+
+ * The output from "diff/log --stat" used to always allocate 4 columns
+   to show the number of modified lines, but not anymore.
+
+ * "git difftool" learned the "--dir-diff" option to spawn external
+   diff tools that can compare two directory hierarchies at a time
+   after populating two temporary directories, instead of running an
+   instance of the external tool once per a file pair.
+
+ * The "fmt-merge-msg" command learned to list the primary contributors
+   involved in the side topic you are merging in a comment in the merge
+   commit template.
+
+ * "git rebase" learned to optionally keep commits that do not
+   introduce any change in the original history.
+
+ * "git push --recurse-submodules" learned to optionally look into the
+   histories of submodules bound to the superproject and push them
+   out.
+
+ * A 'snapshot' request to "gitweb" honors If-Modified-Since: header,
+   based on the commit date.
+
+ * "gitweb" learned to highlight the patch it outputs even more.
+
+Foreign Interface
+
+ * "git svn" used to die with unwanted SIGPIPE when talking with an HTTP
+   server that uses keep-alive.
+
+ * "git svn" learned to use platform specific authentication
+   providers, e.g. gnome-keyring, kwallet, etc.
+
+ * "git p4" has been moved out of the contrib/ area and has seen more
+   work on importing labels as tags from (and exporting tags as labels
+   to) p4.
+
+Performance and Internal Implementation (please report possible regressions)
+
+ * Bash completion script (in contrib/) have been cleaned up to make
+   future work on it simpler.
+
+ * An experimental "version 4" format of the index file has been
+   introduced to reduce on-disk footprint and I/O overhead.
+
+ * "git archive" learned to produce its output without reading the
+   blob object it writes out in memory in its entirety.
+
+ * "git index-pack" that runs when fetching or pushing objects to
+   complete the packfile on the receiving end learned to use multiple
+   threads to do its job when available.
+
+ * The code to compute hash values for lines used by the internal diff
+   engine was optimized on little-endian machines, using the same
+   trick the kernel folks came up with.
+
+ * "git apply" had some memory leaks plugged.
+
+ * Setting up a revision traversal with many starting points was
+   inefficient as these were placed in a date-order priority queue
+   one-by-one.  Now they are collected in the queue unordered first,
+   and sorted immediately before getting used.
+
+ * More lower-level commands learned to use the streaming API to read
+   from the object store without keeping everything in core.
+
+ * The weighting parameters to suggestion command name typo have been
+   tweaked, so that "git tags" will suggest "tag?" and not "stage?".
+
+ * Because "sh" on the user's PATH may be utterly broken on some
+   systems, run-command API now uses SHELL_PATH, not /bin/sh, when
+   spawning an external command (not applicable to Windows port).
+
+ * The API to iterate over the refs/ hierarchy has been tweaked to
+   allow walking only a subset of it more efficiently.
+
+Also contains minor documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.7.10
+-------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.7.10 in the maintenance
+releases are contained in this release (see release notes to them for
+details).
+
+ * "git submodule init" used to report "registered for path ..."
+   even for submodules that were registered earlier.
+   (cherry-pick c1c259e jl/submodule-report-new-path-once later to maint).
+
+ * "git diff --stat" used to fully count a binary file with modified
+   execution bits whose contents is unmodified, which was not quite
+   right.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b8f04af
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,134 @@
+Git 1.7.12.1 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.7.12
+-------------------
+
+ * "git apply -p0" did not parse pathnames on "diff --git" line
+   correctly.  This caused patches that had pathnames in no other
+   places to be mistakenly rejected (most notably, binary patch that
+   does not rename nor change mode).  Textual patches, renames or mode
+   changes have preimage and postimage pathnames in different places
+   in a form that can be parsed unambiguously and did not suffer from
+   this problem.
+
+ * "git cherry-pick A C B" used to replay changes in A and then B and
+   then C if these three commits had committer timestamps in that
+   order, which is not what the user who said "A C B" naturally
+   expects.
+
+ * "git commit --amend" let the user edit the log message and then
+   died when the human-readable committer name was given
+   insufficiently by getpwent(3).
+
+ * Some capabilities were asked by fetch-pack even when upload-pack
+   did not advertise that they are available.  fetch-pack has been
+   fixed not to do so.
+
+ * "git diff" had a confusion between taking data from a path in the
+   working tree and taking data from an object that happens to have
+   name 0{40} recorded in a tree.
+
+ * "git for-each-ref" did not correctly support more than one --sort
+   option.
+
+ * "git log .." errored out saying it is both rev range and a path
+   when there is no disambiguating "--" is on the command line.
+   Update the command line parser to interpret ".." as a path in such
+   a case.
+
+ * The "--topo-order", "--date-order" (and the lack of either means
+   the default order) options to "rev-list" and "log" family of
+   commands were poorly described in the documentation.
+
+ * "git prune" without "-v" used to warn about leftover temporary
+   files (which is an indication of an earlier aborted operation).
+
+ * Pushing to smart HTTP server with recent Git fails without having
+   the username in the URL to force authentication, if the server is
+   configured to allow GET anonymously, while requiring authentication
+   for POST.
+
+ * The reflog entries left by "git rebase" and "git rebase -i" were
+   inconsistent (the interactive one gave an abbreviated object name).
+
+ * When "git push" triggered the automatic gc on the receiving end, a
+   message from "git prune" that said it was removing cruft leaked to
+   the standard output, breaking the communication protocol.
+
+ * "git show --quiet" ought to be a synonym for "git show -s", but
+   wasn't.
+
+ * "git show --format='%ci'" did not give timestamp correctly for
+   commits created without human readable name on "committer" line.
+
+ * "git send-email" did not unquote encoded words that appear on the
+   header correctly, and lost "_" from strings.
+
+ * The interactive prompt "git send-email" gives was error prone. It
+   asked "What e-mail address do you want to use?" with the address it
+   guessed (correctly) the user would want to use in its prompt,
+   tempting the user to say "y". But the response was taken as "No,
+   please use 'y' as the e-mail address instead", which is most
+   certainly not what the user meant.
+
+ * "gitweb" when used with PATH_INFO failed to notice directories with
+   SP (and other characters that need URL-style quoting) in them.
+
+ * When the user gives an argument that can be taken as both a
+   revision name and a pathname without disambiguating with "--", we
+   used to give a help message "Use '--' to separate".  The message
+   has been clarified to show where that '--' goes on the command
+   line.
+
+ * When the user exports a non-default IFS without HT, scripts that
+   rely on being able to parse "ls-files -s | while read a b c..."
+   started to fail.  Protect them from such a misconfiguration.
+
+ * The attribute system may be asked for a path that itself or its
+   leading directories no longer exists in the working tree, and it is
+   fine if we cannot open .gitattribute file in such a case.  Failure
+   to open per-directory .gitattributes with error status other than
+   ENOENT and ENOTDIR should be diagnosed, but it wasn't.
+
+ * After "gitk" showed the contents of a tag, neither "Reread
+   references" nor "Reload" did not update what is shown as the
+   contents of it, when the user overwrote the tag with "git tag -f".
+
+ * "ciabot" script (in contrib/) has been updated with extensive
+   documentation.
+
+ * "git-jump" script (in contrib/) did not work well when
+   diff.noprefix or diff.mnemonicprefix is in effect.
+
+ * Older parts of the documentation described as if having a regular
+   file in .git/refs/ hierarchy were the only way to have branches and
+   tags, which is not true for quite some time.
+
+ * A utility shell function test_seq has been added as a replacement
+   for the 'seq' utility found on some platforms.
+
+ * Compatibility wrapper to learn the maximum number of file
+   descriptors we can open around sysconf(_SC_OPEN_MAX) and
+   getrlimit(RLIMIT_NO_FILE) has been introduced for portability.
+
+ * We used curl_easy_strerror() without checking version of cURL,
+   breaking the build for versions before curl 7.12.0.
+
+ * Code to work around MacOS X UTF-8 gotcha has been cleaned up.
+
+ * Fallback 'getpass' implementation made unportable use of stdio API.
+
+ * The "--rebase" option to "git pull" can be abbreviated to "-r",
+   but we didn't document it.
+
+ * It was generally understood that "--long-option"s to many of our
+   subcommands can be abbreviated to the unique prefix, but it was not
+   easy to find it described for new readers of the documentation set.
+
+ * The synopsis said "checkout [-B branch]" to make it clear the
+   branch name is a parameter to the option, but the heading for the
+   option description was "-B::", not "-B branch::", making the
+   documentation misleading.
+
+Also contains numerous documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6925574
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,40 @@
+Git 1.7.12.2 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.7.12.1
+---------------------
+
+ * When "git am" is fed an input that has multiple "Content-type: ..."
+   header, it did not grok charset= attribute correctly.
+
+ * Even during a conflicted merge, "git blame $path" always meant to
+   blame uncommitted changes to the "working tree" version; make it
+   more useful by showing cleanly merged parts as coming from the other
+   branch that is being merged.
+
+ * "git blame MAKEFILE" run in a history that has "Makefile" but not
+   "MAKEFILE" should say "No such file MAKEFILE in HEAD", but got
+   confused on a case insensitive filesystem and failed to do so.
+
+ * "git fetch --all", when passed "--no-tags", did not honor the
+   "--no-tags" option while fetching from individual remotes (the same
+   issue existed with "--tags", but combination "--all --tags" makes
+   much less sense than "--all --no-tags").
+
+ * "git log/diff/format-patch --stat" showed the "N line(s) added"
+   comment in user's locale and caused careless submitters to send
+   patches with such a line in them to projects whose project language
+   is not their language, mildly irritating others. Localization to
+   the line has been disabled for now.
+
+ * "git log --all-match --grep=A --grep=B" ought to show commits that
+   mention both A and B, but when these three options are used with
+   --author or --committer, it showed commits that mention either A or
+   B (or both) instead.
+
+ * The subcommand to remove the definition of a remote in "git remote"
+   was named "rm" even though all other subcommands were spelled out.
+   Introduce "git remote remove" to remove confusion, and keep "rm" as
+   a backward compatible synonym.
+
+Also contains a handful of documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..ecda427
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,34 @@
+Git 1.7.12.3 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.7.12.2
+---------------------
+
+ * "git am" mishandled a patch attached as application/octet-stream
+   (e.g. not text/*); Content-Transfer-Encoding (e.g. base64) was not
+   honored correctly.
+
+ * It was unclear in the documentation for "git blame" that it is
+   unnecessary for users to use the "--follow" option.
+
+ * A repository created with "git clone --single" had its fetch
+   refspecs set up just like a clone without "--single", leading the
+   subsequent "git fetch" to slurp all the other branches, defeating
+   the whole point of specifying "only this branch".
+
+ * "git fetch" over http had an old workaround for an unlikely server
+   misconfiguration; it turns out that this hurts debuggability of the
+   configuration in general, and has been reverted.
+
+ * "git fetch" over http advertised that it supports "deflate", which
+   is much less common, and did not advertise the more common "gzip" on
+   its Accept-Encoding header.
+
+ * "git receive-pack" (the counterpart to "git push") did not give
+   progress output while processing objects it received to the puser
+   when run over the smart-http protocol.
+
+ * "git status" honored the ignore=dirty settings in .gitmodules but
+   "git commit" didn't.
+
+Also contains a handful of documentation updates.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..010d8c7
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,136 @@
+Git v1.7.12 Release Notes
+=========================
+
+Updates since v1.7.11
+---------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * Git can be told to normalize pathnames it read from readdir(3) and
+   all arguments it got from the command line into precomposed UTF-8
+   (assuming that they come as decomposed UTF-8), in order to work
+   around issues on Mac OS.
+
+   I think there still are other places that need conversion
+   (e.g. paths that are read from stdin for some commands), but this
+   should be a good first step in the right direction.
+
+ * Per-user $HOME/.gitconfig file can optionally be stored in
+   $HOME/.config/git/config instead, which is in line with XDG.
+
+ * The value of core.attributesfile and core.excludesfile default to
+   $HOME/.config/git/attributes and $HOME/.config/git/ignore respectively
+   when these files exist.
+
+ * Logic to disambiguate abbreviated object names have been taught to
+   take advantage of object types that are expected in the context,
+   e.g. XXXXXX in the "git describe" output v1.2.3-gXXXXXX must be a
+   commit object, not a blob nor a tree.  This will help us prolong
+   the lifetime of abbreviated object names.
+
+ * "git apply" learned to wiggle the base version and perform three-way
+   merge when a patch does not exactly apply to the version you have.
+
+ * Scripted Porcelain writers now have access to the credential API via
+   the "git credential" plumbing command.
+
+ * "git help" used to always default to "man" format even on platforms
+   where "man" viewer is not widely available.
+
+ * "git clone --local $path" started its life as an experiment to
+   optionally use link/copy when cloning a repository on the disk, but
+   we didn't deprecate it after we made the option a no-op to always
+   use the optimization.  The command learned "--no-local" option to
+   turn this off, as a more explicit alternative over use of file://
+   URL.
+
+ * "git fetch" and friends used to say "remote side hung up
+   unexpectedly" when they failed to get response they expect from the
+   other side, but one common reason why they don't get expected
+   response is that the remote repository does not exist or cannot be
+   read. The error message in this case was updated to give better
+   hints to the user.
+
+ * "git help -w $cmd" can show HTML version of documentation for
+   "git-$cmd" by setting help.htmlpath to somewhere other than the
+   default location where the build procedure installs them locally;
+   the variable can even point at a http:// URL.
+
+ * "git rebase [-i] --root $tip" can now be used to rewrite all the
+   history leading to "$tip" down to the root commit.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" learned "-x <cmd>" to insert "exec <cmd>" after
+   each commit in the resulting history.
+
+ * "git status" gives finer classification to various states of paths
+   in conflicted state and offer advice messages in its output.
+
+ * "git submodule" learned to deal with nested submodule structure
+   where a module is contained within a module whose origin is
+   specified as a relative URL to its superproject's origin.
+
+ * A rather heavy-ish "git completion" script has been split to create
+   a separate "git prompting" script, to help lazy-autoloading of the
+   completion part while making prompting part always available.
+
+ * "gitweb" pays attention to various forms of credits that are
+   similar to "Signed-off-by:" lines in the commit objects and
+   highlights them accordingly.
+
+
+Foreign Interface
+
+ * "mediawiki" remote helper (in contrib/) learned to handle file
+   attachments.
+
+ * "git p4" now uses "Jobs:" and "p4 move" when appropriate.
+
+ * vcs-svn has been updated to clean-up compilation, lift 32-bit
+   limitations, etc.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, etc. (please report possible regressions)
+
+ * Some tests showed false failures caused by a bug in ecryptofs.
+
+ * We no longer use AsciiDoc7 syntax in our documentation and favor a
+   more modern style.
+
+ * "git am --rebasing" codepath was taught to grab authorship, log
+   message and the patch text directly out of existing commits.  This
+   will help rebasing commits that have confusing "diff" output in
+   their log messages.
+
+ * "git index-pack" and "git pack-objects" use streaming API to read
+   from the object store to avoid having to hold a large blob object
+   in-core while they are doing their thing.
+
+ * Code to match paths with exclude patterns learned to avoid calling
+   fnmatch() by comparing fixed leading substring literally when
+   possible.
+
+ * "git log -n 1 -- rarely-touched-path" was spending unnecessary
+   cycles after showing the first change to find the next one, only to
+   discard it.
+
+ * "git svn" got a large-looking code reorganization at the last
+   minute before the code freeze.
+
+
+Also contains minor documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v1.7.11
+-------------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v1.7.11 in the maintenance
+releases are contained in this release (see release notes to them for
+details).
+
+ * "git submodule add" was confused when the superproject did not have
+   its repository in its usual place in the working tree and GIT_DIR
+   and GIT_WORK_TREE was used to access it.
+
+ * "git commit --amend" let the user edit the log message and then died
+   when the human-readable committer name was given insufficiently by
+   getpwent(3).
diff --git a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
index aea8627..1273a85 100644
--- a/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
+++ b/Documentation/asciidoc.conf
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@
 # v1.72 breaks with this because it replaces dots not in roff requests.
 [listingblock]
 <example><title>{title}</title>
-<literallayout>
+<literallayout class="monospaced">
 ifdef::doctype-manpage[]
 &#10;.ft C&#10;
 endif::doctype-manpage[]
@@ -53,7 +53,7 @@
 # The following two small workarounds insert a simple paragraph after screen
 [listingblock]
 <example><title>{title}</title>
-<literallayout>
+<literallayout class="monospaced">
 |
 </literallayout><simpara></simpara>
 {title#}</example>
@@ -90,6 +90,8 @@
 endif::doctype-manpage[]
 
 ifdef::backend-xhtml11[]
+[attributes]
+git-relative-html-prefix=
 [linkgit-inlinemacro]
-<a href="{target}.html">{target}{0?({0})}</a>
+<a href="{git-relative-html-prefix}{target}.html">{target}{0?({0})}</a>
 endif::backend-xhtml11[]
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index e533df6..122e3c4 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -95,8 +95,8 @@
 found at the location of the include directive. If the value of the
 `include.path` variable is a relative path, the path is considered to be
 relative to the configuration file in which the include directive was
-found. The value of `include.path` is subject to tilde expansion: `{tilde}/`
-is expanded to the value of `$HOME`, and `{tilde}user/` to the specified
+found. The value of `include.path` is subject to tilde expansion: `~/`
+is expanded to the value of `$HOME`, and `~user/` to the specified
 user's home directory. See below for examples.
 
 Example
@@ -159,9 +159,10 @@
 		specified a refspec that isn't your current branch) and
 		it resulted in a non-fast-forward error.
 	statusHints::
-		Directions on how to stage/unstage/add shown in the
-		output of linkgit:git-status[1] and the template shown
-		when writing commit messages.
+		Show directions on how to proceed from the current
+		state in the output of linkgit:git-status[1] and in
+		the template shown when writing commit messages in
+		linkgit:git-commit[1].
 	commitBeforeMerge::
 		Advice shown when linkgit:git-merge[1] refuses to
 		merge to avoid overwriting local changes.
@@ -176,6 +177,9 @@
 		Advice shown when you used linkgit:git-checkout[1] to
 		move to the detach HEAD state, to instruct how to create
 		a local branch after the fact.
+	amWorkDir::
+		Advice that shows the location of the patch file when
+		linkgit:git-am[1] fails to apply it.
 --
 
 core.fileMode::
@@ -210,6 +214,15 @@
 will probe and set core.ignorecase true if appropriate when the repository
 is created.
 
+core.precomposeunicode::
+	This option is only used by Mac OS implementation of git.
+	When core.precomposeunicode=true, git reverts the unicode decomposition
+	of filenames done by Mac OS. This is useful when sharing a repository
+	between Mac OS and Linux or Windows.
+	(Git for Windows 1.7.10 or higher is needed, or git under cygwin 1.7).
+	When false, file names are handled fully transparent by git,
+	which is backward compatible with older versions of git.
+
 core.trustctime::
 	If false, the ctime differences between the index and the
 	working tree are ignored; useful when the inode change time
@@ -483,7 +496,9 @@
 	'.git/info/exclude', git looks into this file for patterns
 	of files which are not meant to be tracked.  "`~/`" is expanded
 	to the value of `$HOME` and "`~user/`" to the specified user's
-	home directory.  See linkgit:gitignore[5].
+	home directory. Its default value is $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/ignore.
+	If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is either not set or empty, $HOME/.config/git/ignore
+	is used instead. See linkgit:gitignore[5].
 
 core.askpass::
 	Some commands (e.g. svn and http interfaces) that interactively
@@ -498,7 +513,9 @@
 	In addition to '.gitattributes' (per-directory) and
 	'.git/info/attributes', git looks into this file for attributes
 	(see linkgit:gitattributes[5]). Path expansions are made the same
-	way as for `core.excludesfile`.
+	way as for `core.excludesfile`. Its default value is
+	$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/attributes. If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is either not
+	set or empty, $HOME/.config/git/attributes is used instead.
 
 core.editor::
 	Commands such as `commit` and `tag` that lets you edit
@@ -542,8 +559,9 @@
 * `space-before-tab` treats a space character that appears immediately
   before a tab character in the initial indent part of the line as an
   error (enabled by default).
-* `indent-with-non-tab` treats a line that is indented with 8 or more
-  space characters as an error (not enabled by default).
+* `indent-with-non-tab` treats a line that is indented with space
+  characters instead of the equivalent tabs as an error (not enabled by
+  default).
 * `tab-in-indent` treats a tab character in the initial indent part of
   the line as an error (not enabled by default).
 * `blank-at-eof` treats blank lines added at the end of file as an error
@@ -856,6 +874,44 @@
 	`never` if you prefer git commands not to use color unless enabled
 	explicitly with some other configuration or the `--color` option.
 
+column.ui::
+	Specify whether supported commands should output in columns.
+	This variable consists of a list of tokens separated by spaces
+	or commas:
++
+--
+`always`;;
+	always show in columns
+`never`;;
+	never show in columns
+`auto`;;
+	show in columns if the output is to the terminal
+`column`;;
+	fill columns before rows (default)
+`row`;;
+	fill rows before columns
+`plain`;;
+	show in one column
+`dense`;;
+	make unequal size columns to utilize more space
+`nodense`;;
+	make equal size columns
+--
++
+This option defaults to 'never'.
+
+column.branch::
+	Specify whether to output branch listing in `git branch` in columns.
+	See `column.ui` for details.
+
+column.status::
+	Specify whether to output untracked files in `git status` in columns.
+	See `column.ui` for details.
+
+column.tag::
+	Specify whether to output tag listing in `git tag` in columns.
+	See `column.ui` for details.
+
 commit.status::
 	A boolean to enable/disable inclusion of status information in the
 	commit message template when using an editor to prepare the commit
@@ -1682,13 +1738,33 @@
 	no refspec is implied by any of the options given on the command
 	line. Possible values are:
 +
+--
 * `nothing` - do not push anything.
-* `matching` - push all matching branches.
-  All branches having the same name in both ends are considered to be
-  matching. This is the default.
+* `matching` - push all branches having the same name in both ends.
+  This is for those who prepare all the branches into a publishable
+  shape and then push them out with a single command.  It is not
+  appropriate for pushing into a repository shared by multiple users,
+  since locally stalled branches will attempt a non-fast forward push
+  if other users updated the branch.
+  +
+  This is currently the default, but Git 2.0 will change the default
+  to `simple`.
 * `upstream` - push the current branch to its upstream branch.
-* `tracking` - deprecated synonym for `upstream`.
+  With this, `git push` will update the same remote ref as the one which
+  is merged by `git pull`, making `push` and `pull` symmetrical.
+  See "branch.<name>.merge" for how to configure the upstream branch.
+* `simple` - like `upstream`, but refuses to push if the upstream
+  branch's name is different from the local one. This is the safest
+  option and is well-suited for beginners. It will become the default
+  in Git 2.0.
 * `current` - push the current branch to a branch of the same name.
+--
++
+The `simple`, `current` and `upstream` modes are for those who want to
+push out a single branch after finishing work, even when the other
+branches are not yet ready to be pushed out. If you are working with
+other people to push into the same shared repository, you would want
+to use one of these.
 
 rebase.stat::
 	Whether to show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-config.txt b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
index 6aa1be0..67a90a8 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-config.txt
@@ -54,7 +54,7 @@
 
 diff.statGraphWidth::
 	Limit the width of the graph part in --stat output. If set, applies
-	to all commands generating --stat outuput except format-patch.
+	to all commands generating --stat output except format-patch.
 
 diff.external::
 	If this config variable is set, diff generation is not
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index 6cfedd8..cf4b216 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@
 	Generate a diffstat. By default, as much space as necessary
 	will be used for the filename part, and the rest for the graph
 	part. Maximum width defaults to terminal width, or 80 columns
-	if not connected to a terminal, and can be overriden by
+	if not connected to a terminal, and can be overridden by
 	`<width>`. The width of the filename part can be limited by
 	giving another width `<name-width>` after a comma. The width
 	of the graph part can be limited by using
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index 39d326a..b4d6476 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,8 @@
 --depth=<depth>::
 	Deepen the history of a 'shallow' repository created by
 	`git clone` with `--depth=<depth>` option (see linkgit:git-clone[1])
-	by the specified number of commits.
+	to the specified number of commits from the tip of each remote
+	branch history. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.
 
 ifndef::git-pull[]
 --dry-run::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index 9c1d395..fd9e36b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -155,7 +155,7 @@
 The optional configuration variable `core.excludesfile` indicates a path to a
 file containing patterns of file names to exclude from git-add, similar to
 $GIT_DIR/info/exclude.  Patterns in the exclude file are used in addition to
-those in info/exclude.  See linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5].
+those in info/exclude.  See linkgit:gitignore[5].
 
 
 EXAMPLES
diff --git a/Documentation/git-am.txt b/Documentation/git-am.txt
index ee6cca2..19d57a8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-am.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-am.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@
 	 [--3way] [--interactive] [--committer-date-is-author-date]
 	 [--ignore-date] [--ignore-space-change | --ignore-whitespace]
 	 [--whitespace=<option>] [-C<n>] [-p<n>] [--directory=<dir>]
-	 [--exclude=<path>] [--reject] [-q | --quiet]
+	 [--exclude=<path>] [--include=<path>] [--reject] [-q | --quiet]
 	 [--scissors | --no-scissors]
 	 [(<mbox> | <Maildir>)...]
 'git am' (--continue | --skip | --abort)
@@ -92,6 +92,7 @@
 -p<n>::
 --directory=<dir>::
 --exclude=<path>::
+--include=<path>::
 --reject::
 	These flags are passed to the 'git apply' (see linkgit:git-apply[1])
 	program that applies
diff --git a/Documentation/git-apply.txt b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
index afd2c9a..634b84e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-apply.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git apply' [--stat] [--numstat] [--summary] [--check] [--index]
+'git apply' [--stat] [--numstat] [--summary] [--check] [--index] [--3way]
 	  [--apply] [--no-add] [--build-fake-ancestor=<file>] [-R | --reverse]
 	  [--allow-binary-replacement | --binary] [--reject] [-z]
 	  [-p<n>] [-C<n>] [--inaccurate-eof] [--recount] [--cached]
@@ -72,6 +72,15 @@
 	cached data, apply the patch, and store the result in the index
 	without using the working tree. This implies `--index`.
 
+-3::
+--3way::
+	When the patch does not apply cleanly, fall back on 3-way merge if
+	the patch records the identity of blobs it is supposed to apply to,
+	and we have those blobs available locally, possibly leaving the
+	conflict markers in the files in the working tree for the user to
+	resolve.  This option implies the `--index` option, and is incompatible
+	with the `--reject` and the `--cached` options.
+
 --build-fake-ancestor=<file>::
 	Newer 'git diff' output has embedded 'index information'
 	for each blob to help identify the original version that
diff --git a/Documentation/git-blame.txt b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
index 7ee9236..e44173f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-blame.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
@@ -20,6 +20,12 @@
 
 The command can also limit the range of lines annotated.
 
+The origin of lines is automatically followed across whole-file
+renames (currently there is no option to turn the rename-following
+off). To follow lines moved from one file to another, or to follow
+lines that were copied and pasted from another file, etc., see the
+`-C` and `-M` options.
+
 The report does not tell you anything about lines which have been deleted or
 replaced; you need to use a tool such as 'git diff' or the "pickaxe"
 interface briefly mentioned in the following paragraph.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index 6410c3d..4f44131 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@
 [verse]
 'git branch' [--color[=<when>] | --no-color] [-r | -a]
 	[--list] [-v [--abbrev=<length> | --no-abbrev]]
+	[--column[=<options>] | --no-column]
 	[(--merged | --no-merged | --contains) [<commit>]] [<pattern>...]
 'git branch' [--set-upstream | --track | --no-track] [-l] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
 'git branch' (-m | -M) [<oldbranch>] <newbranch>
@@ -107,6 +108,14 @@
 	default to color output.
 	Same as `--color=never`.
 
+--column[=<options>]::
+--no-column::
+	Display branch listing in columns. See configuration variable
+	column.branch for option syntax.`--column` and `--no-column`
+	without options are equivalent to 'always' and 'never' respectively.
++
+This option is only applicable in non-verbose mode.
+
 -r::
 --remotes::
 	List or delete (if used with -d) the remote-tracking branches.
@@ -120,11 +129,18 @@
 	use `git branch --list <pattern>` to list matching branches.
 
 -v::
+-vv::
 --verbose::
 	When in list mode,
 	show sha1 and commit subject line for each head, along with
 	relationship to upstream branch (if any). If given twice, print
-	the name of the upstream branch, as well.
+	the name of the upstream branch, as well (see also `git remote
+	show <remote>`).
+
+-q::
+--quiet::
+	Be more quiet when creating or deleting a branch, suppressing
+	non-error messages.
 
 --abbrev=<length>::
 	Alter the sha1's minimum display length in the output listing.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
index 63a2516..7958a47 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -84,11 +84,11 @@
 	When checking out paths from the index, check out stage #2
 	('ours') or #3 ('theirs') for unmerged paths.
 
--b::
+-b <new_branch>::
 	Create a new branch named <new_branch> and start it at
 	<start_point>; see linkgit:git-branch[1] for details.
 
--B::
+-B <new_branch>::
 	Creates the branch <new_branch> and start it at <start_point>;
 	if it already exists, then reset it to <start_point>. This is
 	equivalent to running "git branch" with "-f"; see
@@ -124,7 +124,7 @@
 	<commit> is not a branch name.  See the "DETACHED HEAD" section
 	below for details.
 
---orphan::
+--orphan <new_branch>::
 	Create a new 'orphan' branch, named <new_branch>, started from
 	<start_point> and switch to it.  The first commit made on this
 	new branch will have no parents and it will be the root of a new
@@ -367,6 +367,18 @@
 <2> take a file out of another commit
 <3> restore hello.c from the index
 +
+If you want to check out _all_ C source files out of the index,
+you can say
++
+------------
+$ git checkout -- '*.c'
+------------
++
+Note the quotes around `*.c`.  The file `hello.c` will also be
+checked out, even though it is no longer in the working tree,
+because the file globbing is used to match entries in the index
+(not in the working tree by the shell).
++
 If you have an unfortunate branch that is named `hello.c`, this
 step would be confused as an instruction to switch to that branch.
 You should instead write:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
index 06a0bfd..0e170a5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
@@ -47,7 +47,9 @@
 	linkgit:gitrevisions[7].
 	Sets of commits can be passed but no traversal is done by
 	default, as if the '--no-walk' option was specified, see
-	linkgit:git-rev-list[1].
+	linkgit:git-rev-list[1]. Note that specifying a range will
+	feed all <commit>... arguments to a single revision walk
+	(see a later example that uses 'maint master..next').
 
 -e::
 --edit::
@@ -103,6 +105,25 @@
 	cherry-pick'ed commit, then a fast forward to this commit will
 	be performed.
 
+--allow-empty::
+	By default, cherry-picking an empty commit will fail,
+	indicating that an explicit invocation of `git commit
+	--allow-empty` is required. This option overrides that
+	behavior, allowing empty commits to be preserved automatically
+	in a cherry-pick. Note that when "--ff" is in effect, empty
+	commits that meet the "fast-forward" requirement will be kept
+	even without this option.  Note also, that use of this option only
+	keeps commits that were initially empty (i.e. the commit recorded the
+	same tree as its parent).  Commits which are made empty due to a
+	previous commit are dropped.  To force the inclusion of those commits
+	use `--keep-redundant-commits`.
+
+--keep-redundant-commits::
+	If a commit being cherry picked duplicates a commit already in the
+	current history, it will become empty.  By default these
+	redundant commits are ignored.  This option overrides that behavior and
+	creates an empty commit object.  Implies `--allow-empty`.
+
 --strategy=<strategy>::
 	Use the given merge strategy.  Should only be used once.
 	See the MERGE STRATEGIES section in linkgit:git-merge[1]
@@ -130,6 +151,15 @@
 	Apply the changes introduced by all commits that are ancestors
 	of master but not of HEAD to produce new commits.
 
+`git cherry-pick maint next ^master`::
+`git cherry-pick maint master..next`::
+
+	Apply the changes introduced by all commits that are
+	ancestors of maint or next, but not master or any of its
+	ancestors.  Note that the latter does not mean `maint` and
+	everything between `master` and `next`; specifically,
+	`maint` will not be used if it is included in `master`.
+
 `git cherry-pick master~4 master~2`::
 
 	Apply the changes introduced by the fifth and third last
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clean.txt b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
index 79fb984..9f42c0d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clean.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clean.txt
@@ -63,6 +63,10 @@
 	Remove only files ignored by git.  This may be useful to rebuild
 	everything from scratch, but keep manually created files.
 
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+linkgit:gitignore[5]
+
 GIT
 ---
 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index 6e22522..6d98ef3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -29,7 +29,8 @@
 After the clone, a plain `git fetch` without arguments will update
 all the remote-tracking branches, and a `git pull` without
 arguments will in addition merge the remote master branch into the
-current master branch, if any.
+current master branch, if any (this is untrue when "--single-branch"
+is given; see below).
 
 This default configuration is achieved by creating references to
 the remote branch heads under `refs/remotes/origin` and
@@ -46,13 +47,18 @@
 	mechanism and clones the repository by making a copy of
 	HEAD and everything under objects and refs directories.
 	The files under `.git/objects/` directory are hardlinked
-	to save space when possible.  This is now the default when
-	the source repository is specified with `/path/to/repo`
-	syntax, so it essentially is a no-op option.  To force
-	copying instead of hardlinking (which may be desirable
-	if you are trying to make a back-up of your repository),
-	but still avoid the usual "git aware" transport
-	mechanism, `--no-hardlinks` can be used.
+	to save space when possible.
++
+If the repository is specified as a local path (e.g., `/path/to/repo`),
+this is the default, and --local is essentially a no-op.  If the
+repository is specified as a URL, then this flag is ignored (and we
+never use the local optimizations).  Specifying `--no-local` will
+override the default when `/path/to/repo` is given, using the regular
+git transport instead.
++
+To force copying instead of hardlinking (which may be desirable if you
+are trying to make a back-up of your repository), but still avoid the
+usual "git aware" transport mechanism, `--no-hardlinks` can be used.
 
 --no-hardlinks::
 	Optimize the cloning process from a repository on a
@@ -147,9 +153,10 @@
 -b <name>::
 	Instead of pointing the newly created HEAD to the branch pointed
 	to by the cloned repository's HEAD, point to `<name>` branch
-	instead. `--branch` can also take tags and treat them like
-	detached HEAD. In a non-bare repository, this is the branch
-	that will be checked out.
+	instead. In a non-bare repository, this is the branch that will
+	be checked out.
+	`--branch` can also take tags and detaches the HEAD at that commit
+	in the resulting repository.
 
 --upload-pack <upload-pack>::
 -u <upload-pack>::
@@ -188,6 +195,11 @@
 	clone with the `--depth` option, this is the default, unless
 	`--no-single-branch` is given to fetch the histories near the
 	tips of all branches.
+	Further fetches into the resulting repository will only update the
+	remote tracking branch for the branch this option was used for the
+	initial cloning.  If the HEAD at the remote did not point at any
+	branch when `--single-branch` clone was made, no remote tracking
+	branch is created.
 
 --recursive::
 --recurse-submodules::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-column.txt b/Documentation/git-column.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5d6f1cc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-column.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,53 @@
+git-column(1)
+=============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-column - Display data in columns
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git column' [--command=<name>] [--[raw-]mode=<mode>] [--width=<width>]
+	     [--indent=<string>] [--nl=<string>] [--padding=<n>]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This command formats its input into multiple columns.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+--command=<name>::
+	Look up layout mode using configuration variable column.<name> and
+	column.ui.
+
+--mode=<mode>::
+	Specify layout mode. See configuration variable column.ui for option
+	syntax.
+
+--raw-mode=<n>::
+	Same as --mode but take mode encoded as a number. This is mainly used
+	by other commands that have already parsed layout mode.
+
+--width=<width>::
+	Specify the terminal width. By default 'git column' will detect the
+	terminal width, or fall back to 80 if it is unable to do so.
+
+--indent=<string>::
+	String to be printed at the beginning of each line.
+
+--nl=<N>::
+	String to be printed at the end of each line,
+	including newline character.
+
+--padding=<N>::
+	The number of spaces between columns. One space by default.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Nguyen Thai Ngoc Duy <pclouds@gmail.com>
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
index cfb9906..6d5a04c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@
 	Each '-p' indicates the id of a parent commit object.
 
 -m <message>::
-	A paragraph in the commig log message. This can be given more than
+	A paragraph in the commit log message. This can be given more than
 	once and each <message> becomes its own paragraph.
 
 -F <file>::
@@ -88,15 +88,6 @@
 
 include::date-formats.txt[]
 
-Diagnostics
------------
-You don't exist. Go away!::
-    The passwd(5) gecos field couldn't be read
-Your parents must have hated you!::
-    The passwd(5) gecos field is longer than a giant static buffer.
-Your sysadmin must hate you!::
-    The passwd(5) name field is longer than a giant static buffer.
-
 Discussion
 ----------
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 2d695f6..9594ac8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -101,12 +101,16 @@
 	When doing a dry-run, give the output in the short-format. See
 	linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies `--dry-run`.
 
+--branch::
+	Show the branch and tracking info even in short-format.
+
 --porcelain::
 	When doing a dry-run, give the output in a porcelain-ready
 	format. See linkgit:git-status[1] for details. Implies
 	`--dry-run`.
 
 -z::
+--null::
 	When showing `short` or `porcelain` status output, terminate
 	entries in the status output with NUL, instead of LF. If no
 	format is given, implies the `--porcelain` output format.
@@ -189,6 +193,10 @@
 	current tip -- if it was a merge, it will have the parents of
 	the current tip as parents -- so the current top commit is
 	discarded.
+
+--no-post-rewrite::
+	Bypass the post-rewrite hook.
+
 +
 --
 It is a rough equivalent for:
@@ -381,8 +389,10 @@
 Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message
 with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the
 change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough description.
-Tools that turn commits into email, for example, use the first line
-on the Subject: line and the rest of the commit in the body.
+The text up to the first blank line in a commit message is treated
+as the commit title, and that title is used throughout git.
+For example, linkgit:git-format-patch[1] turns a commit into email, and it uses
+the title on the Subject line and the rest of the commit in the body.
 
 include::i18n.txt[]
 
@@ -399,6 +409,15 @@
 and `post-commit` hooks.  See linkgit:githooks[5] for more
 information.
 
+FILES
+-----
+
+`$GIT_DIR/COMMIT_EDITMSG`::
+	This file contains the commit message of a commit in progress.
+	If `git commit` exits due to an error before creating a commit,
+	any commit message that has been provided by the user (e.g., in
+	an editor session) will be available in this file, but will be
+	overwritten by the next invocation of `git commit`.
 
 SEE ALSO
 --------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index d9463cb..eaea079 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -54,16 +54,16 @@
 '--file <filename>' can be used to tell the command to write to
 that location (you can say '--local' but that is the default).
 
-This command will fail (with exit code ret) if:
+This command will fail with non-zero status upon error.  Some exit
+codes are:
 
 . The config file is invalid (ret=3),
 . can not write to the config file (ret=4),
 . no section or name was provided (ret=2),
 . the section or key is invalid (ret=1),
 . you try to unset an option which does not exist (ret=5),
-. you try to unset/set an option for which multiple lines match (ret=5),
-. you try to use an invalid regexp (ret=6), or
-. you use '--global' option without $HOME being properly set (ret=128).
+. you try to unset/set an option for which multiple lines match (ret=5), or
+. you try to use an invalid regexp (ret=6).
 
 On success, the command returns the exit code 0.
 
@@ -97,10 +97,11 @@
 
 --global::
 	For writing options: write to global ~/.gitconfig file rather than
-	the repository .git/config.
+	the repository .git/config, write to $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/config file
+	if this file exists and the ~/.gitconfig file doesn't.
 +
-For reading options: read only from global ~/.gitconfig rather than
-from all available files.
+For reading options: read only from global ~/.gitconfig and from
+$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/config rather than from all available files.
 +
 See also <<FILES>>.
 
@@ -194,7 +195,7 @@
 FILES
 -----
 
-If not set explicitly with '--file', there are three files where
+If not set explicitly with '--file', there are four files where
 'git config' will search for configuration options:
 
 $GIT_DIR/config::
@@ -204,6 +205,14 @@
 	User-specific configuration file. Also called "global"
 	configuration file.
 
+$XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/config::
+	Second user-specific configuration file. If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is not set
+	or empty, $HOME/.config/git/config will be used. Any single-valued
+	variable set in this file will be overwritten by whatever is in
+	~/.gitconfig.  It is a good idea not to create this file if
+	you sometimes use older versions of Git, as support for this
+	file was added fairly recently.
+
 $(prefix)/etc/gitconfig::
 	System-wide configuration file.
 
@@ -258,7 +267,7 @@
 
 	; Proxy settings
 	[core]
-		gitproxy="proxy-command" for kernel.org
+		gitproxy=proxy-command for kernel.org
 		gitproxy=default-proxy ; for all the rest
 
 you can set the filemode to true with
@@ -333,7 +342,7 @@
 To add a new proxy, without altering any of the existing ones, use
 
 ------------
-% git config core.gitproxy '"proxy-command" for example.com'
+% git config --add core.gitproxy '"proxy-command" for example.com'
 ------------
 
 An example to use customized color from the configuration in your
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential-cache--daemon.txt b/Documentation/git-credential-cache--daemon.txt
index 11edc5a..d15db42 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential-cache--daemon.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential-cache--daemon.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@
 
 NAME
 ----
-git-credential-cache--daemon - temporarily store user credentials in memory
+git-credential-cache--daemon - Temporarily store user credentials in memory
 
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt b/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
index f3d09c5..eeff5fa 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential-cache.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@
 
 NAME
 ----
-git-credential-cache - helper to temporarily store passwords in memory
+git-credential-cache - Helper to temporarily store passwords in memory
 
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt b/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
index 3109346..b27c03c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential-store.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@
 
 NAME
 ----
-git-credential-store - helper to store credentials on disk
+git-credential-store - Helper to store credentials on disk
 
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-credential.txt b/Documentation/git-credential.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..810e957
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-credential.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,154 @@
+git-credential(1)
+=================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-credential - Retrieve and store user credentials
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+------------------
+git credential <fill|approve|reject>
+------------------
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+
+Git has an internal interface for storing and retrieving credentials
+from system-specific helpers, as well as prompting the user for
+usernames and passwords. The git-credential command exposes this
+interface to scripts which may want to retrieve, store, or prompt for
+credentials in the same manner as git. The design of this scriptable
+interface models the internal C API; see
+link:technical/api-credentials.txt[the git credential API] for more
+background on the concepts.
+
+git-credential takes an "action" option on the command-line (one of
+`fill`, `approve`, or `reject`) and reads a credential description
+on stdin (see <<IOFMT,INPUT/OUTPUT FORMAT>>).
+
+If the action is `fill`, git-credential will attempt to add "username"
+and "password" attributes to the description by reading config files,
+by contacting any configured credential helpers, or by prompting the
+user. The username and password attributes of the credential
+description are then printed to stdout together with the attributes
+already provided.
+
+If the action is `approve`, git-credential will send the description
+to any configured credential helpers, which may store the credential
+for later use.
+
+If the action is `reject`, git-credential will send the description to
+any configured credential helpers, which may erase any stored
+credential matching the description.
+
+If the action is `approve` or `reject`, no output should be emitted.
+
+TYPICAL USE OF GIT CREDENTIAL
+-----------------------------
+
+An application using git-credential will typically use `git
+credential` following these steps:
+
+  1. Generate a credential description based on the context.
++
+For example, if we want a password for
+`https://example.com/foo.git`, we might generate the following
+credential description (don't forget the blank line at the end; it
+tells `git credential` that the application finished feeding all the
+infomation it has):
+
+	 protocol=https
+	 host=example.com
+	 path=foo.git
+
+  2. Ask git-credential to give us a username and password for this
+     description. This is done by running `git credential fill`,
+     feeding the description from step (1) to its standard input. The complete
+     credential description (including the credential per se, i.e. the
+     login and password) will be produced on standard output, like:
+
+	protocol=https
+	host=example.com
+	username=bob
+	password=secr3t
++
+In most cases, this means the attributes given in the input will be
+repeated in the output, but git may also modify the credential
+description, for example by removing the `path` attribute when the
+protocol is HTTP(s) and `credential.useHttpPath` is false.
++
+If the `git credential` knew about the password, this step may
+not have involved the user actually typing this password (the
+user may have typed a password to unlock the keychain instead,
+or no user interaction was done if the keychain was already
+unlocked) before it returned `password=secr3t`.
+
+  3. Use the credential (e.g., access the URL with the username and
+     password from step (2)), and see if it's accepted.
+
+  4. Report on the success or failure of the password. If the
+     credential allowed the operation to complete successfully, then
+     it can be marked with an "approve" action to tell `git
+     credential` to reuse it in its next invocation. If the credential
+     was rejected during the operation, use the "reject" action so
+     that `git credential` will ask for a new password in its next
+     invocation. In either case, `git credential` should be fed with
+     the credential description obtained from step (2) (which also
+     contain the ones provided in step (1)).
+
+[[IOFMT]]
+INPUT/OUTPUT FORMAT
+-------------------
+
+`git credential` reads and/or writes (depending on the action used)
+credential information in its standard input/output. This information
+can correspond either to keys for which `git credential` will obtain
+the login/password information (e.g. host, protocol, path), or to the
+actual credential data to be obtained (login/password).
+
+The credential is split into a set of named attributes, with one
+attribute per line. Each attribute is
+specified by a key-value pair, separated by an `=` (equals) sign,
+followed by a newline. The key may contain any bytes except `=`,
+newline, or NUL. The value may contain any bytes except newline or NUL.
+In both cases, all bytes are treated as-is (i.e., there is no quoting,
+and one cannot transmit a value with newline or NUL in it). The list of
+attributes is terminated by a blank line or end-of-file.
+Git understands the following attributes:
+
+`protocol`::
+
+	The protocol over which the credential will be used (e.g.,
+	`https`).
+
+`host`::
+
+	The remote hostname for a network credential.
+
+`path`::
+
+	The path with which the credential will be used. E.g., for
+	accessing a remote https repository, this will be the
+	repository's path on the server.
+
+`username`::
+
+	The credential's username, if we already have one (e.g., from a
+	URL, from the user, or from a previously run helper).
+
+`password`::
+
+	The credential's password, if we are asking it to be stored.
+
+`url`::
+
+	When this special attribute is read by `git credential`, the
+	value is parsed as a URL and treated as if its constituent parts
+	were read (e.g., `url=https://example.com` would behave as if
+	`protocol=https` and `host=example.com` had been provided). This
+	can help callers avoid parsing URLs themselves.  Note that any
+	components which are missing from the URL (e.g., there is no
+	username in the example above) will be set to empty; if you want
+	to provide a URL and override some attributes, provide the URL
+	attribute first, followed by any overrides.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
index 31b28fc..e8f7577 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-daemon.txt
@@ -204,7 +204,7 @@
 	can push anything into the repository, including removal
 	of refs).  This is solely meant for a closed LAN setting
 	where everybody is friendly.  This service can be
-	enabled by `daemon.receivepack` configuration item to
+	enabled by setting `daemon.receivepack` configuration item to
 	`true`.
 
 EXAMPLES
diff --git a/Documentation/git-describe.txt b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
index 039cce2..72d6bb6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-describe.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
@@ -36,12 +36,12 @@
 
 --all::
 	Instead of using only the annotated tags, use any ref
-	found in `.git/refs/`.  This option enables matching
+	found in `refs/` namespace.  This option enables matching
 	any known branch, remote-tracking branch, or lightweight tag.
 
 --tags::
 	Instead of using only the annotated tags, use any tag
-	found in `.git/refs/tags`.  This option enables matching
+	found in `refs/tags` namespace.  This option enables matching
 	a lightweight (non-annotated) tag.
 
 --contains::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
index fe38f66..31fc2e3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
@@ -19,6 +19,12 @@
 
 OPTIONS
 -------
+-d::
+--dir-diff::
+	Copy the modified files to a temporary location and perform
+	a directory diff on them. This mode never prompts before
+	launching the diff tool.
+
 -y::
 --no-prompt::
 	Do not prompt before launching a diff tool.
@@ -30,11 +36,9 @@
 
 -t <tool>::
 --tool=<tool>::
-	Use the diff tool specified by <tool>.
-	Valid diff tools are:
-	araxis, bc3, deltawalker, diffuse, emerge, ecmerge, gvimdiff,
-	kdiff3,	kompare, meld, opendiff, p4merge, tkdiff, vimdiff and
-	xxdiff.
+	Use the diff tool specified by <tool>.  Valid values include
+	emerge, kompare, meld, and vimdiff. Run `git difftool --tool-help`
+	for the list of valid <tool> settings.
 +
 If a diff tool is not specified, 'git difftool'
 will use the configuration variable `diff.tool`.  If the
@@ -62,6 +66,9 @@
 being compared. `$BASE` is provided for compatibility
 with custom merge tool commands and has the same value as `$MERGED`.
 
+--tool-help::
+	Print a list of diff tools that may be used with `--tool`.
+
 -x <command>::
 --extcmd=<command>::
 	Specify a custom command for viewing diffs.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
index 45101ca..6603a7a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
@@ -39,6 +39,10 @@
 	See ``Date Formats'' below for details about which formats
 	are supported, and their syntax.
 
+-- done::
+	Terminate with error if there is no 'done' command at the
+	end of the stream.
+
 --force::
 	Force updating modified existing branches, even if doing
 	so would cause commits to be lost (as the new commit does
@@ -98,9 +102,10 @@
 	options.
 
 --cat-blob-fd=<fd>::
-	Specify the file descriptor that will be written to
-	when the `cat-blob` command is encountered in the stream.
-	The default behaviour is to write to `stdout`.
+	Write responses to `cat-blob` and `ls` queries to the
+	file descriptor <fd> instead of `stdout`.  Allows `progress`
+	output intended for the end-user to be separated from other
+	output.
 
 --done::
 	Require a `done` command at the end of the stream.
@@ -942,6 +947,9 @@
 accepted.  In particular, the `cat-blob` command can be used in the
 middle of a commit but not in the middle of a `data` command.
 
+See ``Responses To Commands'' below for details about how to read
+this output safely.
+
 `ls`
 ~~~~
 Prints information about the object at a path to a file descriptor
@@ -991,6 +999,9 @@
 	missing SP <path> LF
 ====
 
+See ``Responses To Commands'' below for details about how to read
+this output safely.
+
 `feature`
 ~~~~~~~~~
 Require that fast-import supports the specified feature, or abort if
@@ -1040,7 +1051,9 @@
 	Error out if the stream ends without a 'done' command.
 	Without this feature, errors causing the frontend to end
 	abruptly at a convenient point in the stream can go
-	undetected.
+	undetected.  This may occur, for example, if an import
+	front end dies in mid-operation without emitting SIGTERM
+	or SIGKILL at its subordinate git fast-import instance.
 
 `option`
 ~~~~~~~~
@@ -1079,6 +1092,35 @@
 in use, the `done` command is mandatory and marks the end of the
 stream.
 
+Responses To Commands
+---------------------
+New objects written by fast-import are not available immediately.
+Most fast-import commands have no visible effect until the next
+checkpoint (or completion).  The frontend can send commands to
+fill fast-import's input pipe without worrying about how quickly
+they will take effect, which improves performance by simplifying
+scheduling.
+
+For some frontends, though, it is useful to be able to read back
+data from the current repository as it is being updated (for
+example when the source material describes objects in terms of
+patches to be applied to previously imported objects).  This can
+be accomplished by connecting the frontend and fast-import via
+bidirectional pipes:
+
+====
+	mkfifo fast-import-output
+	frontend <fast-import-output |
+	git fast-import >fast-import-output
+====
+
+A frontend set up this way can use `progress`, `ls`, and `cat-blob`
+commands to read information from the import in progress.
+
+To avoid deadlock, such frontends must completely consume any
+pending output from `progress`, `ls`, and `cat-blob` before
+performing writes to fast-import that might block.
+
 Crash Reports
 -------------
 If fast-import is supplied invalid input it will terminate with a
diff --git a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
index 81f5823..e2301f5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
@@ -32,7 +32,8 @@
 useful in the future for compensating for some git bugs or such,
 therefore such a usage is permitted.
 
-*NOTE*: This command honors `.git/info/grafts` and `.git/refs/replace/`.
+*NOTE*: This command honors `.git/info/grafts` file and refs in
+the `refs/replace/` namespace.
 If you have any grafts or replacement refs defined, running this command
 will make them permanent.
 
@@ -303,6 +304,11 @@
 and all children of the merge will become merge commits with P1,P2
 as their parents instead of the merge commit.
 
+*NOTE* the changes introduced by the commits, and which are not reverted
+by subsequent commits, will still be in the rewritten branch. If you want
+to throw out _changes_ together with the commits, you should use the
+interactive mode of 'git rebase'.
+
 You can rewrite the commit log messages using `--msg-filter`.  For
 example, 'git svn-id' strings in a repository created by 'git svn' can
 be removed this way:
@@ -313,11 +319,6 @@
 '
 -------------------------------------------------------
 
-To restrict rewriting to only part of the history, specify a revision
-range in addition to the new branch name.  The new branch name will
-point to the top-most revision that a 'git rev-list' of this range
-will print.
-
 If you need to add 'Acked-by' lines to, say, the last 10 commits (none
 of which is a merge), use this command:
 
@@ -328,11 +329,10 @@
 ' HEAD~10..HEAD
 --------------------------------------------------------
 
-*NOTE* the changes introduced by the commits, and which are not reverted
-by subsequent commits, will still be in the rewritten branch. If you want
-to throw out _changes_ together with the commits, you should use the
-interactive mode of 'git rebase'.
-
+To restrict rewriting to only part of the history, specify a revision
+range in addition to the new branch name.  The new branch name will
+point to the top-most revision that a 'git rev-list' of this range
+will print.
 
 Consider this history:
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index c872b88..db55a4e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -102,9 +102,10 @@
 and `date` to extract the named component.
 
 The complete message in a commit and tag object is `contents`.
-Its first line is `contents:subject`, the remaining lines
-are `contents:body` and the optional GPG signature
-is `contents:signature`.
+Its first line is `contents:subject`, where subject is the concatenation
+of all lines of the commit message up to the first blank line.  The next
+line is 'contents:body', where body is all of the lines after the first
+blank line.  Finally, the optional GPG signature is `contents:signature`.
 
 For sorting purposes, fields with numeric values sort in numeric
 order (`objectsize`, `authordate`, `committerdate`, `taggerdate`).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index 04c7346..6d43f56 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -58,10 +58,13 @@
 If `-o` is specified, output files are created in <dir>.  Otherwise
 they are created in the current working directory.
 
-By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] First Line" and
-the subject when multiple patches are output is "[PATCH n/m] First
-Line". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use `-n`.  To omit
-patch numbers from the subject, use `-N`.
+By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] " followed by
+the concatenation of lines from the commit message up to the first blank
+line (see the DISCUSSION section of linkgit:git-commit[1]).
+
+When multiple patches are output, the subject prefix will instead be
+"[PATCH n/m] ".  To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use `-n`.
+To omit patch numbers from the subject, use `-N`.
 
 If given `--thread`, `git-format-patch` will generate `In-Reply-To` and
 `References` headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
index bbb25da..da348fc 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
@@ -23,8 +23,8 @@
 	An object to treat as the head of an unreachability trace.
 +
 If no objects are given, 'git fsck' defaults to using the
-index file, all SHA1 references in .git/refs/*, and all reflogs (unless
---no-reflogs is given) as heads.
+index file, all SHA1 references in `refs` namespace, and all reflogs
+(unless --no-reflogs is given) as heads.
 
 --unreachable::
 	Print out objects that exist but that aren't reachable from any
diff --git a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
index 909687f..39e6d0d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-index-pack.txt
@@ -74,6 +74,16 @@
 --strict::
 	Die, if the pack contains broken objects or links.
 
+--threads=<n>::
+	Specifies the number of threads to spawn when resolving
+	deltas. This requires that index-pack be compiled with
+	pthreads otherwise this option is ignored with a warning.
+	This is meant to reduce packing time on multiprocessor
+	machines. The required amount of memory for the delta search
+	window is however multiplied by the number of threads.
+	Specifying 0 will cause git to auto-detect the number of CPU's
+	and use maximum 3 threads.
+
 
 Note
 ----
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
index 1f90620..585dac4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -24,10 +24,6 @@
 OPTIONS
 -------
 
--<n>::
-	Limits the number of commits to show.
-	Note that this is a commit limiting option, see below.
-
 <since>..<until>::
 	Show only commits between the named two commits.  When
 	either <since> or <until> is omitted, it defaults to
@@ -137,6 +133,8 @@
 	This makes sense only when following a strict policy of merging all
 	topic branches when staying on a single integration branch.
 
+`git log -3`::
+	Limits the number of commits to show to 3.
 
 Discussion
 ----------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-lost-found.txt b/Documentation/git-lost-found.txt
index c406a11..d549328 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-lost-found.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-lost-found.txt
@@ -48,7 +48,8 @@
 ------------
 
 After making sure you know which the object is the tag you are looking
-for, you can reconnect it to your regular .git/refs hierarchy.
+for, you can reconnect it to your regular `refs` hierarchy by using
+the `update-ref` command.
 
 ------------
 $ git cat-file -t 1ef2b196
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
index 7a9b86a..774de5e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
@@ -42,6 +42,11 @@
 	it successfully talked with the remote repository, whether it
 	found any matching refs.
 
+--get-url::
+	Expand the URL of the given remote repository taking into account any
+	"url.<base>.insteadOf" config setting (See linkgit:git-config[1]) and
+	exit without talking to the remote.
+
 <repository>::
 	Location of the repository.  The shorthand defined in
 	$GIT_DIR/branches/ can be used. Use "." (dot) to list references in
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index 3ceefb8..20f9228 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -181,7 +181,7 @@
 however, git cannot randomly pick one side over the other, and asks you to
 resolve it by leaving what both sides did to that area.
 
-By default, git uses the same style as that is used by "merge" program
+By default, git uses the same style as the one used by the "merge" program
 from the RCS suite to present such a conflicted hunk, like this:
 
 ------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
index 2a49de7..d7207bd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
@@ -27,9 +27,9 @@
 -t <tool>::
 --tool=<tool>::
 	Use the merge resolution program specified by <tool>.
-	Valid merge tools are:
-	araxis, bc3, diffuse, ecmerge, emerge, gvimdiff, kdiff3,
-	meld, opendiff, p4merge, tkdiff, tortoisemerge, vimdiff and xxdiff.
+	Valid values include emerge, gvimdiff, kdiff3,
+	meld, vimdiff, and tortoisemerge. Run `git mergetool --tool-help`
+	for the list of valid <tool> settings.
 +
 If a merge resolution program is not specified, 'git mergetool'
 will use the configuration variable `merge.tool`.  If the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-p4.txt b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
index cf3a9fd..8228f33 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-p4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
@@ -31,13 +31,6 @@
 
 EXAMPLE
 -------
-* Create an alias for 'git p4', using the full path to the 'git-p4'
-  script if needed:
-+
-------------
-$ git config --global alias.p4 '!git-p4'
-------------
-
 * Clone a repository:
 +
 ------------
@@ -165,11 +158,14 @@
 
 General options
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
-All commands except clone accept this option.
+All commands except clone accept these options.
 
 --git-dir <dir>::
 	Set the 'GIT_DIR' environment variable.  See linkgit:git[1].
 
+--verbose::
+	Provide more progress information.
+
 Sync options
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~
 These options can be used in the initial 'clone' as well as in
@@ -201,12 +197,13 @@
 --silent::
 	Do not print any progress information.
 
---verbose::
-	Provide more progress information.
-
 --detect-labels::
 	Query p4 for labels associated with the depot paths, and add
-	them as tags in git.
+	them as tags in git. Limited usefulness as only imports labels
+	associated with new changelists. Deprecated.
+
+--import-labels::
+	Import labels from p4 into git.
 
 --import-local::
 	By default, p4 branches are stored in 'refs/remotes/p4/',
@@ -253,15 +250,12 @@
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 These options can be used to modify 'git p4 submit' behavior.
 
---verbose::
-	Provide more progress information.
-
 --origin <commit>::
 	Upstream location from which commits are identified to submit to
 	p4.  By default, this is the most recent p4 commit reachable
 	from 'HEAD'.
 
--M[<n>]::
+-M::
 	Detect renames.  See linkgit:git-diff[1].  Renames will be
 	represented in p4 using explicit 'move' operations.  There
 	is no corresponding option to detect copies, but there are
@@ -271,6 +265,16 @@
 	Re-author p4 changes before submitting to p4.  This option
 	requires p4 admin privileges.
 
+--export-labels::
+	Export tags from git as p4 labels. Tags found in git are applied
+	to the perforce working directory.
+
+Rebase options
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+These options can be used to modify 'git p4 rebase' behavior.
+
+--import-labels::
+	Import p4 labels.
 
 DEPOT PATH SYNTAX
 -----------------
@@ -312,19 +316,19 @@
 work properly; the submit command looks only at the variable and does
 not have a command-line option.
 
-The full syntax for a p4 view is documented in 'p4 help views'.  Git-p4
+The full syntax for a p4 view is documented in 'p4 help views'.  'Git p4'
 knows only a subset of the view syntax.  It understands multi-line
 mappings, overlays with '+', exclusions with '-' and double-quotes
-around whitespace.  Of the possible wildcards, git-p4 only handles
-'...', and only when it is at the end of the path.  Git-p4 will complain
+around whitespace.  Of the possible wildcards, 'git p4' only handles
+'...', and only when it is at the end of the path.  'Git p4' will complain
 if it encounters an unhandled wildcard.
 
 Bugs in the implementation of overlap mappings exist.  If multiple depot
 paths map through overlays to the same location in the repository,
-git-p4 can choose the wrong one.  This is hard to solve without
-dedicating a client spec just for git-p4.
+'git p4' can choose the wrong one.  This is hard to solve without
+dedicating a client spec just for 'git p4'.
 
-The name of the client can be given to git-p4 in multiple ways.  The
+The name of the client can be given to 'git p4' in multiple ways.  The
 variable 'git-p4.client' takes precedence if it exists.  Otherwise,
 normal p4 mechanisms of determining the client are used:  environment
 variable P4CLIENT, a file referenced by P4CONFIG, or the local host name.
@@ -441,6 +445,17 @@
 git config --add git-p4.branchList main:branchB
 -------------
 
+git-p4.ignoredP4Labels::
+	List of p4 labels to ignore. This is built automatically as
+	unimportable labels are discovered.
+
+git-p4.importLabels::
+	Import p4 labels into git, as per --import-labels.
+
+git-p4.labelImportRegexp::
+	Only p4 labels matching this regular expression will be imported. The
+	default value is '[a-zA-Z0-9_\-.]+$'.
+
 git-p4.useClientSpec::
 	Specify that the p4 client spec should be used to identify p4
 	depot paths of interest.  This is equivalent to specifying the
@@ -450,13 +465,15 @@
 Submit variables
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 git-p4.detectRenames::
-	Detect renames.  See linkgit:git-diff[1].
+	Detect renames.  See linkgit:git-diff[1].  This can be true,
+	false, or a score as expected by 'git diff -M'.
 
 git-p4.detectCopies::
-	Detect copies.  See linkgit:git-diff[1].
+	Detect copies.  See linkgit:git-diff[1].  This can be true,
+	false, or a score as expected by 'git diff -C'.
 
 git-p4.detectCopiesHarder::
-	Detect copies harder.  See linkgit:git-diff[1].
+	Detect copies harder.  See linkgit:git-diff[1].  A boolean.
 
 git-p4.preserveUser::
 	On submit, re-author changes to reflect the git author,
@@ -490,10 +507,17 @@
 	submission regardless.
 
 git-p4.attemptRCSCleanup::
-    If enabled, 'git p4 submit' will attempt to cleanup RCS keywords
-    ($Header$, etc). These would otherwise cause merge conflicts and prevent
-    the submit going ahead. This option should be considered experimental at
-    present.
+	If enabled, 'git p4 submit' will attempt to cleanup RCS keywords
+	($Header$, etc). These would otherwise cause merge conflicts and prevent
+	the submit going ahead. This option should be considered experimental at
+	present.
+
+git-p4.exportLabels::
+	Export git tags to p4 labels, as per --export-labels.
+
+git-p4.labelExportRegexp::
+	Only p4 labels matching this regular expression will be exported. The
+	default value is '[a-zA-Z0-9_\-.]+$'.
 
 IMPLEMENTATION DETAILS
 ----------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pack-refs.txt b/Documentation/git-pack-refs.txt
index 10afd4e..f131677 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pack-refs.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pack-refs.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,8 @@
 -----------
 
 Traditionally, tips of branches and tags (collectively known as
-'refs') were stored one file per ref under `$GIT_DIR/refs`
+'refs') were stored one file per ref in a (sub)directory
+under `$GIT_DIR/refs`
 directory.  While many branch tips tend to be updated often,
 most tags and some branch tips are never updated.  When a
 repository has hundreds or thousands of tags, this
@@ -22,13 +23,14 @@
 performance.
 
 This command is used to solve the storage and performance
-problem by stashing the refs in a single file,
+problem by storing the refs in a single file,
 `$GIT_DIR/packed-refs`.  When a ref is missing from the
-traditional `$GIT_DIR/refs` hierarchy, it is looked up in this
+traditional `$GIT_DIR/refs` directory hierarchy, it is looked
+up in this
 file and used if found.
 
 Subsequent updates to branches always create new files under
-`$GIT_DIR/refs` hierarchy.
+`$GIT_DIR/refs` directory hierarchy.
 
 A recommended practice to deal with a repository with too many
 refs is to pack its refs with `--all --prune` once, and
@@ -57,6 +59,15 @@
 The command usually removes loose refs under `$GIT_DIR/refs`
 hierarchy after packing them.  This option tells it not to.
 
+
+BUGS
+----
+
+Older documentation written before the packed-refs mechanism was
+introduced may still say things like ".git/refs/heads/<branch> file
+exists" when it means "branch <branch> exists".
+
+
 GIT
 ---
 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
index defb544..67fa5ee 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-pull.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-pull.txt
@@ -101,6 +101,7 @@
 
 :git-pull: 1
 
+-r::
 --rebase::
 	Rebase the current branch on top of the upstream branch after
 	fetching.  If there is a remote-tracking branch corresponding to
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index 620f8b4..cb97cc1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -170,10 +170,16 @@
 	is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
 	standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
 
---recurse-submodules=check::
-	Check whether all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
-	pushed are available on a remote tracking branch. Otherwise the
-	push will be aborted and the command will exit with non-zero status.
+--recurse-submodules=check|on-demand::
+	Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
+	pushed are available on a remote tracking branch. If 'check' is
+	used git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in
+	the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one remote
+	of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will be
+	aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'on-demand' is used
+	all submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will
+	be pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary
+	revisions it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status.
 
 
 include::urls-remotes.txt[]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index b0e13e5..fd535b0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -8,9 +8,9 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [options] [--onto <newbase>]
+'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [options] [--exec <cmd>] [--onto <newbase>]
 	[<upstream>] [<branch>]
-'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [options] --onto <newbase>
+'git rebase' [-i | --interactive] [options] [--exec <cmd>] [--onto <newbase>]
 	--root [<branch>]
 'git rebase' --continue | --skip | --abort
 
@@ -210,7 +210,7 @@
 
 OPTIONS
 -------
-<newbase>::
+--onto <newbase>::
 	Starting point at which to create the new commits. If the
 	--onto option is not specified, the starting point is
 	<upstream>.  May be any valid commit, and not just an
@@ -238,6 +238,10 @@
 	will be reset to where it was when the rebase operation was
 	started.
 
+--keep-empty::
+	Keep the commits that do not change anything from its
+	parents in the result.
+
 --skip::
 	Restart the rebasing process by skipping the current patch.
 
@@ -269,7 +273,7 @@
 	Pass the <strategy-option> through to the merge strategy.
 	This implies `--merge` and, if no strategy has been
 	specified, `-s recursive`.  Note the reversal of 'ours' and
-	'theirs' as noted in above for the `-m` option.
+	'theirs' as noted above for the `-m` option.
 
 -q::
 --quiet::
@@ -340,14 +344,36 @@
 with the `--interactive` option explicitly is generally not a good
 idea unless you know what you are doing (see BUGS below).
 
+-x <cmd>::
+--exec <cmd>::
+	Append "exec <cmd>" after each line creating a commit in the
+	final history. <cmd> will be interpreted as one or more shell
+	commands.
++
+This option can only be used with the `--interactive` option
+(see INTERACTIVE MODE below).
++
+You may execute several commands by either using one instance of `--exec`
+with several commands:
++
+	git rebase -i --exec "cmd1 && cmd2 && ..."
++
+or by giving more than one `--exec`:
++
+	git rebase -i --exec "cmd1" --exec "cmd2" --exec ...
++
+If `--autosquash` is used, "exec" lines will not be appended for
+the intermediate commits, and will only appear at the end of each
+squash/fixup series.
 
 --root::
 	Rebase all commits reachable from <branch>, instead of
 	limiting them with an <upstream>.  This allows you to rebase
-	the root commit(s) on a branch.  Must be used with --onto, and
+	the root commit(s) on a branch.  When used with --onto, it
 	will skip changes already contained in <newbase> (instead of
-	<upstream>).  When used together with --preserve-merges, 'all'
-	root commits will be rewritten to have <newbase> as parent
+	<upstream>) whereas without --onto it will operate on every change.
+	When used together with both --onto and --preserve-merges,
+	'all' root commits will be rewritten to have <newbase> as parent
 	instead.
 
 --autosquash::
@@ -517,6 +543,24 @@
 use shell features (like "cd", ">", ";" ...). The command is run from
 the root of the working tree.
 
+----------------------------------
+$ git rebase -i --exec "make test"
+----------------------------------
+
+This command lets you check that intermediate commits are compilable.
+The todo list becomes like that:
+
+--------------------
+pick 5928aea one
+exec make test
+pick 04d0fda two
+exec make test
+pick ba46169 three
+exec make test
+pick f4593f9 four
+exec make test
+--------------------
+
 SPLITTING COMMITS
 -----------------
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
index a308f4c..e8c396b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
@@ -12,7 +12,7 @@
 'git remote' [-v | --verbose]
 'git remote add' [-t <branch>] [-m <master>] [-f] [--tags|--no-tags] [--mirror=<fetch|push>] <name> <url>
 'git remote rename' <old> <new>
-'git remote rm' <name>
+'git remote remove' <name>
 'git remote set-head' <name> (-a | -d | <branch>)
 'git remote set-branches' [--add] <name> <branch>...
 'git remote set-url' [--push] <name> <newurl> [<oldurl>]
@@ -85,6 +85,7 @@
 `$GIT_DIR/remotes` or `$GIT_DIR/branches`, the remote is converted to
 the configuration file format.
 
+'remove'::
 'rm'::
 
 Remove the remote named <name>. All remote-tracking branches and
diff --git a/Documentation/git-replace.txt b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
index 17df525..51131d0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-replace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
@@ -14,14 +14,13 @@
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
-Adds a 'replace' reference in `.git/refs/replace/`
+Adds a 'replace' reference in `refs/replace/` namespace.
 
 The name of the 'replace' reference is the SHA1 of the object that is
 replaced. The content of the 'replace' reference is the SHA1 of the
 replacement object.
 
-Unless `-f` is given, the 'replace' reference must not yet exist in
-`.git/refs/replace/` directory.
+Unless `-f` is given, the 'replace' reference must not yet exist.
 
 Replacement references will be used by default by all git commands
 except those doing reachability traversal (prune, pack transfer and
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
index f63b81a..3c63561 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-parse.txt
@@ -101,6 +101,12 @@
 	The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict
 	abbreviation mode.
 
+--disambiguate=<prefix>::
+	Show every object whose name begins with the given prefix.
+	The <prefix> must be at least 4 hexadecimal digits long to
+	avoid listing each and every object in the repository by
+	mistake.
+
 --all::
 	Show all refs found in `refs/`.
 
@@ -137,7 +143,8 @@
 
 --git-dir::
 	Show `$GIT_DIR` if defined. Otherwise show the path to
-	the .git directory, relative to the current directory.
+	the .git directory. The path shown, when relative, is
+	relative to the current working directory.
 +
 If `$GIT_DIR` is not defined and the current directory
 is not detected to lie in a git repository or work tree
diff --git a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
index 01d8417..afeb4cd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-shortlog.txt
@@ -14,8 +14,7 @@
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
 Summarizes 'git log' output in a format suitable for inclusion
-in release announcements. Each commit will be grouped by author and
-the first line of the commit message will be shown.
+in release announcements. Each commit will be grouped by author and title.
 
 Additionally, "[PATCH]" will be stripped from the commit description.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
index 277e1e2..67e5f53 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -77,6 +77,13 @@
 	Terminate entries with NUL, instead of LF.  This implies
 	the `--porcelain` output format if no other format is given.
 
+--column[=<options>]::
+--no-column::
+	Display untracked files in columns. See configuration variable
+	column.status for option syntax.`--column` and `--no-column`
+	without options are equivalent to 'always' and 'never'
+	respectively.
+
 
 OUTPUT
 ------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index 9e488c0..b4683bb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -112,7 +112,6 @@
 	initialized, `+` if the currently checked out submodule commit
 	does not match the SHA-1 found in the index of the containing
 	repository and `U` if the submodule has merge conflicts.
-	This command is the default command for 'git submodule'.
 +
 If `--recursive` is specified, this command will recurse into nested
 submodules, and show their status as well.
@@ -140,7 +139,7 @@
 	checkout the commit specified in the index of the containing repository.
 	This will make the submodules HEAD be detached unless `--rebase` or
 	`--merge` is specified or the key `submodule.$name.update` is set to
-	`rebase`, `merge` or `none`. `none` can be overriden by specifying
+	`rebase`, `merge` or `none`. `none` can be overridden by specifying
 	`--checkout`.
 +
 If the submodule is not yet initialized, and you just want to use the
@@ -149,6 +148,11 @@
 +
 If `--recursive` is specified, this command will recurse into the
 registered submodules, and update any nested submodules within.
++
+If `--force` is specified, the submodule will be checked out (using
+`git checkout --force` if appropriate), even if the commit specified in the
+index of the containing repository already matches the commit checked out in
+the submodule.
 
 summary::
 	Show commit summary between the given commit (defaults to HEAD) and
@@ -210,7 +214,9 @@
 	This option is only valid for add and update commands.
 	When running add, allow adding an otherwise ignored submodule path.
 	When running update, throw away local changes in submodules when
-	switching to a different commit.
+	switching to a different commit; and always run a checkout operation
+	in the submodule, even if the commit listed in the index of the
+	containing repository matches the commit checked out in the submodule.
 
 --cached::
 	This option is only valid for status and summary commands.  These
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index 34ee785..cfe8d2b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -189,18 +189,16 @@
 	last fetched commit from the upstream SVN.
 
 'dcommit'::
-	Commit each diff from a specified head directly to the SVN
+	Commit each diff from the current branch directly to the SVN
 	repository, and then rebase or reset (depending on whether or
 	not there is a diff between SVN and head).  This will create
 	a revision in SVN for each commit in git.
-	It is recommended that you run 'git svn' fetch and rebase (not
-	pull or merge) your commits against the latest changes in the
-	SVN repository.
-	An optional revision or branch argument may be specified, and
-	causes 'git svn' to do all work on that revision/branch
-	instead of HEAD.
-	This is advantageous over 'set-tree' (below) because it produces
-	cleaner, more linear history.
++
+When an optional git branch name (or a git commit object name)
+is specified as an argument, the subcommand works on the specified
+branch, not on the current branch.
++
+Use of 'dcommit' is preferred to 'set-tree' (below).
 +
 --no-rebase;;
 	After committing, do not rebase or reset.
@@ -572,6 +570,8 @@
 --merge::
 -s<strategy>::
 --strategy=<strategy>::
+-p::
+--preserve-merges::
 	These are only used with the 'dcommit' and 'rebase' commands.
 +
 Passed directly to 'git rebase' when using 'dcommit' if a
@@ -800,18 +800,19 @@
 
 REBASE VS. PULL/MERGE
 ---------------------
+Prefer to use 'git svn rebase' or 'git rebase', rather than
+'git pull' or 'git merge' to synchronize unintegrated commits with a 'git svn'
+branch. Doing so will keep the history of unintegrated commits linear with
+respect to the upstream SVN repository and allow the use of the preferred
+'git svn dcommit' subcommand to push unintegrated commits back into SVN.
 
-Originally, 'git svn' recommended that the 'remotes/git-svn' branch be
-pulled or merged from.  This is because the author favored
+Originally, 'git svn' recommended that developers pulled or merged from
+the 'git svn' branch.  This was because the author favored
 `git svn set-tree B` to commit a single head rather than the
-`git svn set-tree A..B` notation to commit multiple commits.
-
-If you use `git svn set-tree A..B` to commit several diffs and you do
-not have the latest remotes/git-svn merged into my-branch, you should
-use `git svn rebase` to update your work branch instead of `git pull` or
-`git merge`.  `pull`/`merge` can cause non-linear history to be flattened
-when committing into SVN, which can lead to merge commits reversing
-previous commits in SVN.
+`git svn set-tree A..B` notation to commit multiple commits. Use of
+'git pull' or 'git merge' with `git svn set-tree A..B` will cause non-linear
+history to be flattened when committing into SVN and this can lead to merge
+commits unexpectedly reversing previous commits in SVN.
 
 MERGE TRACKING
 --------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
index 8d32b9a..247534e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -13,17 +13,17 @@
 	<tagname> [<commit> | <object>]
 'git tag' -d <tagname>...
 'git tag' [-n[<num>]] -l [--contains <commit>] [--points-at <object>]
+	[--column[=<options>] | --no-column] [<pattern>...]
 	[<pattern>...]
 'git tag' -v <tagname>...
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
 
-Add a tag reference in `.git/refs/tags/`, unless `-d/-l/-v` is given
+Add a tag reference in `refs/tags/`, unless `-d/-l/-v` is given
 to delete, list or verify tags.
 
-Unless `-f` is given, the tag to be created must not yet exist in the
-`.git/refs/tags/` directory.
+Unless `-f` is given, the named tag must not yet exist.
 
 If one of `-a`, `-s`, or `-u <key-id>` is passed, the command
 creates a 'tag' object, and requires a tag message.  Unless
@@ -84,6 +84,14 @@
 	using fnmatch(3)).  Multiple patterns may be given; if any of
 	them matches, the tag is shown.
 
+--column[=<options>]::
+--no-column::
+	Display tag listing in columns. See configuration variable
+	column.tag for option syntax.`--column` and `--no-column`
+	without options are equivalent to 'always' and 'never' respectively.
++
+This option is only applicable when listing tags without annotation lines.
+
 --contains <commit>::
 	Only list tags which contain the specified commit.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index a3081f4..9d0b151 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@
 	     [--ignore-submodules]
 	     [--really-refresh] [--unresolve] [--again | -g]
 	     [--info-only] [--index-info]
-	     [-z] [--stdin]
+	     [-z] [--stdin] [--index-version <n>]
 	     [--verbose]
 	     [--] [<file>...]
 
@@ -143,6 +143,10 @@
 --verbose::
         Report what is being added and removed from index.
 
+--index-version <n>::
+	Write the resulting index out in the named on-disk format version.
+	The current default version is 2.
+
 -z::
 	Only meaningful with `--stdin` or `--index-info`; paths are
 	separated with NUL character instead of LF.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-var.txt b/Documentation/git-var.txt
index 5317cc2..67edf58 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-var.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-var.txt
@@ -43,22 +43,21 @@
     `$SOME_ENVIRONMENT_VARIABLE`, `"C:\Program Files\Vim\gvim.exe"
     --nofork`.  The order of preference is the `$GIT_EDITOR`
     environment variable, then `core.editor` configuration, then
-    `$VISUAL`, then `$EDITOR`, and then finally 'vi'.
+    `$VISUAL`, then `$EDITOR`, and then the default chosen at compile
+    time, which is usually 'vi'.
+ifdef::git-default-editor[]
+    The build you are using chose '{git-default-editor}' as the default.
+endif::git-default-editor[]
 
 GIT_PAGER::
     Text viewer for use by git commands (e.g., 'less').  The value
     is meant to be interpreted by the shell.  The order of preference
     is the `$GIT_PAGER` environment variable, then `core.pager`
-    configuration, then `$PAGER`, and then finally 'less'.
-
-Diagnostics
------------
-You don't exist. Go away!::
-    The passwd(5) gecos field couldn't be read
-Your parents must have hated you!::
-    The passwd(5) gecos field is longer than a giant static buffer.
-Your sysadmin must hate you!::
-    The passwd(5) name field is longer than a giant static buffer.
+    configuration, then `$PAGER`, and then the default chosen at
+    compile time (usually 'less').
+ifdef::git-default-pager[]
+    The build you are using chose '{git-default-pager}' as the default.
+endif::git-default-pager[]
 
 SEE ALSO
 --------
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index 682fec5..d1d227a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -22,18 +22,17 @@
 and full access to internals.
 
 See linkgit:gittutorial[7] to get started, then see
-link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of commands, and
-"man git-commandname" for documentation of each command.  CVS users may
-also want to read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].  See
-the link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] for a more in-depth
-introduction.
+link:everyday.html[Everyday Git] for a useful minimum set of
+commands.  The link:user-manual.html[Git User's Manual] has a more
+in-depth introduction.
 
-The '<command>' is either a name of a Git command (see below) or an alias
-as defined in the configuration file (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
+After you mastered the basic concepts, you can come back to this
+page to learn what commands git offers.  You can learn more about
+individual git commands with "git help command".  linkgit:gitcli[7]
+manual page gives you an overview of the command line command syntax.
 
-Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git
-documentation can be viewed at
-`http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/`.
+Formatted and hyperlinked version of the latest git documentation
+can be viewed at `http://git-htmldocs.googlecode.com/git/git.html`.
 
 ifdef::stalenotes[]
 [NOTE]
@@ -44,6 +43,26 @@
 branch of the `git.git` repository.
 Documentation for older releases are available here:
 
+* link:v1.7.12.3/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.12.3]
+
+* release notes for
+  link:RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt[1.7.12.3],
+  link:RelNotes/1.7.12.2.txt[1.7.12.2],
+  link:RelNotes/1.7.12.1.txt[1.7.12.1],
+  link:RelNotes/1.7.12.txt[1.7.12].
+
+* link:v1.7.11.7/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.11.7]
+
+* release notes for
+  link:RelNotes/1.7.11.7.txt[1.7.11.7],
+  link:RelNotes/1.7.11.6.txt[1.7.11.6],
+  link:RelNotes/1.7.11.5.txt[1.7.11.5],
+  link:RelNotes/1.7.11.4.txt[1.7.11.4],
+  link:RelNotes/1.7.11.3.txt[1.7.11.3],
+  link:RelNotes/1.7.11.2.txt[1.7.11.2],
+  link:RelNotes/1.7.11.1.txt[1.7.11.1],
+  link:RelNotes/1.7.11.txt[1.7.11].
+
 * link:v1.7.10.5/git.html[documentation for release 1.7.10.5]
 
 * release notes for
@@ -396,24 +415,6 @@
 	linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
 
 
-FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
----------------------
-
-See the references above to get started using git.  The following is
-probably more detail than necessary for a first-time user.
-
-The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
-user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
-introductions to the underlying git architecture.
-
-See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
-
-See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
-examples.
-
-The internals are documented in the
-link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
-
 GIT COMMANDS
 ------------
 
@@ -729,7 +730,7 @@
 
 'GIT_EDITOR'::
 	This environment variable overrides `$EDITOR` and `$VISUAL`.
-	It is used by several git comands when, on interactive mode,
+	It is used by several git commands when, on interactive mode,
 	an editor is to be launched. See also linkgit:git-var[1]
 	and the `core.editor` option in linkgit:git-config[1].
 
@@ -833,6 +834,29 @@
 for a given pathname.  These stages are used to hold the various
 unmerged version of a file when a merge is in progress.
 
+FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
+---------------------
+
+See the references in the "description" section to get started
+using git.  The following is probably more detail than necessary
+for a first-time user.
+
+The link:user-manual.html#git-concepts[git concepts chapter of the
+user-manual] and linkgit:gitcore-tutorial[7] both provide
+introductions to the underlying git architecture.
+
+See linkgit:gitworkflows[7] for an overview of recommended workflows.
+
+See also the link:howto-index.html[howto] documents for some useful
+examples.
+
+The internals are documented in the
+link:technical/api-index.html[GIT API documentation].
+
+Users migrating from CVS may also want to
+read linkgit:gitcvs-migration[7].
+
+
 Authors
 -------
 Git was started by Linus Torvalds, and is currently maintained by Junio
diff --git a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
index 80120ea..52ab93d 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
@@ -66,6 +66,11 @@
 global and system-wide files are considered (they have the lowest
 precedence).
 
+When the `.gitattributes` file is missing from the work tree, the
+path in the index is used as a fall-back.  During checkout process,
+`.gitattributes` in the index is used and then the file in the
+working tree is used as a fall-back.
+
 If you wish to affect only a single repository (i.e., to assign
 attributes to files that are particular to
 one user's workflow for that repository), then
@@ -75,6 +80,8 @@
 `.gitattributes` files. Attributes that should affect all repositories
 for a single user should be placed in a file specified by the
 `core.attributesfile` configuration option (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
+Its default value is $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/attributes. If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME
+is either not set or empty, $HOME/.config/git/attributes is used instead.
 Attributes for all users on a system should be placed in the
 `$(prefix)/etc/gitattributes` file.
 
@@ -925,7 +932,7 @@
 macro attribute "binary" is equivalent to:
 
 ------------
-[attr]binary -diff -text
+[attr]binary -diff -merge -text
 ------------
 
 
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcli.txt b/Documentation/gitcli.txt
index ea17f7a..3bc1500 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcli.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcli.txt
@@ -37,11 +37,28 @@
    file called HEAD in your work tree, `git diff HEAD` is ambiguous, and
    you have to say either `git diff HEAD --` or `git diff -- HEAD` to
    disambiguate.
-
++
 When writing a script that is expected to handle random user-input, it is
 a good practice to make it explicit which arguments are which by placing
 disambiguating `--` at appropriate places.
 
+ * Many commands allow wildcards in paths, but you need to protect
+   them from getting globbed by the shell.  These two mean different
+   things:
++
+--------------------------------
+$ git checkout -- *.c
+$ git checkout -- \*.c
+--------------------------------
++
+The former lets your shell expand the fileglob, and you are asking
+the dot-C files in your working tree to be overwritten with the version
+in the index.  The latter passes the `*.c` to Git, and you are asking
+the paths in the index that match the pattern to be checked out to your
+working tree.  After running `git add hello.c; rm hello.c`, you will _not_
+see `hello.c` in your working tree with the former, but with the latter
+you will.
+
 Here are the rules regarding the "flags" that you should follow when you are
 scripting git:
 
@@ -62,13 +79,21 @@
    `git log -1 HEAD` but write `git log -1 HEAD --`; the former will not work
    if you happen to have a file called `HEAD` in the work tree.
 
+ * many commands allow a long option "--option" to be abbreviated
+   only to their unique prefix (e.g. if there is no other option
+   whose name begins with "opt", you may be able to spell "--opt" to
+   invoke the "--option" flag), but you should fully spell them out
+   when writing your scripts; later versions of Git may introduce a
+   new option whose name shares the same prefix, e.g. "--optimize",
+   to make a short prefix that used to be unique no longer unique.
+
 
 ENHANCED OPTION PARSER
 ----------------------
 From the git 1.5.4 series and further, many git commands (not all of them at the
 time of the writing though) come with an enhanced option parser.
 
-Here is an exhaustive list of the facilities provided by this option parser.
+Here is a list of the facilities provided by this option parser.
 
 
 Magic Options
@@ -112,6 +137,16 @@
 `git clean -fdx`.
 
 
+Abbreviating long options
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+Commands that support the enhanced option parser accepts unique
+prefix of a long option as if it is fully spelled out, but use this
+with a caution.  For example, `git commit --amen` behaves as if you
+typed `git commit --amend`, but that is true only until a later version
+of Git introduces another option that shares the same prefix,
+e.g `git commit --amenity" option.
+
+
 Separating argument from the option
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 You can write the mandatory option parameter to an option as a separate
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
index f5074a8..5325c5a 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
@@ -956,12 +956,11 @@
 ------------------------------------------------
 
 The first two lines indicate that it is showing the two branches
-and the first line of the commit log message from their
-top-of-the-tree commits, you are currently on `master` branch
-(notice the asterisk `*` character), and the first column for
-the later output lines is used to show commits contained in the
+with the titles of their top-of-the-tree commits, you are currently on
+`master` branch (notice the asterisk `*` character), and the first
+column for the later output lines is used to show commits contained in the
 `master` branch, and the second column for the `mybranch`
-branch. Three commits are shown along with their log messages.
+branch. Three commits are shown along with their titles.
 All of them have non blank characters in the first column (`*`
 shows an ordinary commit on the current branch, `-` is a merge commit), which
 means they are now part of the `master` branch. Only the "Some
@@ -1002,8 +1001,8 @@
 ----------------
 Updating from ae3a2da... to a80b4aa....
 Fast-forward (no commit created; -m option ignored)
- example |    1 +
- hello   |    1 +
+ example | 1 +
+ hello   | 1 +
  2 files changed, 2 insertions(+)
 ----------------
 
diff --git a/Documentation/gitignore.txt b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
index 2e7328b..1b82fe1 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitignore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitignore.txt
@@ -41,16 +41,24 @@
    variable 'core.excludesfile'.
 
 Which file to place a pattern in depends on how the pattern is meant to
-be used. Patterns which should be version-controlled and distributed to
-other repositories via clone (i.e., files that all developers will want
-to ignore) should go into a `.gitignore` file. Patterns which are
-specific to a particular repository but which do not need to be shared
-with other related repositories (e.g., auxiliary files that live inside
-the repository but are specific to one user's workflow) should go into
-the `$GIT_DIR/info/exclude` file.  Patterns which a user wants git to
-ignore in all situations (e.g., backup or temporary files generated by
-the user's editor of choice) generally go into a file specified by
-`core.excludesfile` in the user's `~/.gitconfig`.
+be used.
+
+ * Patterns which should be version-controlled and distributed to
+   other repositories via clone (i.e., files that all developers will want
+   to ignore) should go into a `.gitignore` file.
+
+ * Patterns which are
+   specific to a particular repository but which do not need to be shared
+   with other related repositories (e.g., auxiliary files that live inside
+   the repository but are specific to one user's workflow) should go into
+   the `$GIT_DIR/info/exclude` file.
+
+ * Patterns which a user wants git to
+   ignore in all situations (e.g., backup or temporary files generated by
+   the user's editor of choice) generally go into a file specified by
+   `core.excludesfile` in the user's `~/.gitconfig`. Its default value is
+   $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/git/ignore. If $XDG_CONFIG_HOME is either not set or
+   empty, $HOME/.config/git/ignore is used instead.
 
 The underlying git plumbing tools, such as
 'git ls-files' and 'git read-tree', read
@@ -66,11 +74,15 @@
    for readability.
 
  - A line starting with # serves as a comment.
+   Put a backslash ("`\`") in front of the first hash for patterns
+   that begin with a hash.
 
- - An optional prefix '!' which negates the pattern; any
+ - An optional prefix "`!`" which negates the pattern; any
    matching file excluded by a previous pattern will become
    included again.  If a negated pattern matches, this will
    override lower precedence patterns sources.
+   Put a backslash ("`\`") in front of the first "`!`" for patterns
+   that begin with a literal "`!`", for example, "`\!important!.txt`".
 
  - If the pattern ends with a slash, it is removed for the
    purpose of the following description, but it would only find
diff --git a/Documentation/gittutorial.txt b/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
index dee0505..f1cb6f3 100644
--- a/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gittutorial.txt
@@ -139,9 +139,11 @@
 A note on commit messages: Though not required, it's a good idea to
 begin the commit message with a single short (less than 50 character)
 line summarizing the change, followed by a blank line and then a more
-thorough description.  Tools that turn commits into email, for
-example, use the first line on the Subject: line and the rest of the
-commit in the body.
+thorough description. The text up to the first blank line in a commit
+message is treated as the commit title, and that title is used
+throughout git.  For example, linkgit:git-format-patch[1] turns a
+commit into email, and it uses the title on the Subject line and the
+rest of the commit in the body.
 
 Git tracks content not files
 ----------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
index 1cea8cb..4947455 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitweb.conf.txt
@@ -244,7 +244,7 @@
 	By default set to 'highlight'; set it to full path to highlight
 	executable if it is not installed on your web server's PATH.
 	Note that 'highlight' feature must be set for gitweb to actually
-	use syntax hightlighting.
+	use syntax highlighting.
 +
 *NOTE*: if you want to add support for new file type (supported by
 "highlight" but not used by gitweb), you need to modify `%highlight_ext`
@@ -499,6 +499,13 @@
 Set `$maxload` to undefined value (`undef`) to turn this feature off.
 The default value is 300.
 
+$omit_age_column::
+	If true, omit the column with date of the most current commit on the
+	projects list page. It can save a bit of I/O and a fork per repository.
+
+$omit_owner::
+	If true prevents displaying information about repository owner.
+
 $per_request_config::
 	If this is set to code reference, it will be run once for each request.
 	You can	set parts of configuration that change per session this way.
diff --git a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
index 3595b58..f928b57 100644
--- a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
+++ b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
@@ -117,7 +117,7 @@
 
 [[def_ent]]ent::
 	Favorite synonym to "<<def_tree-ish,tree-ish>>" by some total geeks. See
-	`http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ent_(Middle-earth)` for an in-depth
+	http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ent_(Middle-earth) for an in-depth
 	explanation. Avoid this term, not to confuse people.
 
 [[def_evil_merge]]evil merge::
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
index 595a3cf..66db802 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
@@ -32,13 +32,14 @@
 	This option forces conflicting hunks to be auto-resolved cleanly by
 	favoring 'our' version.  Changes from the other tree that do not
 	conflict with our side are reflected to the merge result.
+	For a binary file, the entire contents are taken from our side.
 +
 This should not be confused with the 'ours' merge strategy, which does not
 even look at what the other tree contains at all.  It discards everything
 the other tree did, declaring 'our' history contains all that happened in it.
 
 theirs;;
-	This is opposite of 'ours'.
+	This is the opposite of 'ours'.
 
 patience;;
 	With this option, 'merge-recursive' spends a little extra time
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
index e3d8a83..d9edded 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
@@ -130,6 +130,9 @@
 - '%b': body
 - '%B': raw body (unwrapped subject and body)
 - '%N': commit notes
+- '%GG': raw verification message from GPG for a signed commit
+- '%G?': show either "G" for Good or "B" for Bad for a signed commit
+- '%GS': show the name of the signer for a signed commit
 - '%gD': reflog selector, e.g., `refs/stash@{1}`
 - '%gd': shortened reflog selector, e.g., `stash@{1}`
 - '%gn': reflog identity name
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
index 2a3dc86..5e49942 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
@@ -66,3 +66,7 @@
 --[no-]standard-notes::
 	These options are deprecated. Use the above --notes/--no-notes
 	options instead.
+
+--show-signature::
+	Check the validity of a signed commit object by passing the signature
+	to `gpg --verify` and show the output.
diff --git a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
index 1ae3c89..1fc2a18 100644
--- a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
@@ -3,12 +3,20 @@
 
 Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the
 special notations explained in the description, additional commit
-limiting may be applied. Note that they are applied before commit
-ordering and formatting options, such as '--reverse'.
+limiting may be applied.
+
+Using more options generally further limits the output (e.g.
+`--since=<date1>` limits to commits newer than `<date1>`, and using it
+with `--grep=<pattern>` further limits to commits whose log message
+has a line that matches `<pattern>`), unless otherwise noted.
+
+Note that these are applied before commit
+ordering and formatting options, such as `--reverse`.
 
 --
 
--n 'number'::
+-<number>::
+-n <number>::
 --max-count=<number>::
 
 	Limit the number of commits to output.
@@ -38,16 +46,22 @@
 --committer=<pattern>::
 
 	Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer
-	header lines that match the specified pattern (regular expression).
+	header lines that match the specified pattern (regular
+	expression).  With more than one `--author=<pattern>`,
+	commits whose author matches any of the given patterns are
+	chosen (similarly for multiple `--committer=<pattern>`).
 
 --grep=<pattern>::
 
 	Limit the commits output to ones with log message that
-	matches the specified pattern (regular expression).
+	matches the specified pattern (regular expression).  With
+	more than one `--grep=<pattern>`, commits whose message
+	matches any of the given patterns are chosen (but see
+	`--all-match`).
 
 --all-match::
 	Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep,
-	--author and --committer instead of ones that match at least one.
+	instead of ones that match at least one.
 
 -i::
 --regexp-ignore-case::
@@ -578,16 +592,33 @@
 
 By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.
 
---topo-order::
-
-	This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e.
-	descendant commits are shown before their parents).
-
 --date-order::
+	Show no parents before all of its children are shown, but
+	otherwise show commits in the commit timestamp order.
 
-	This option is similar to '--topo-order' in the sense that no
-	parent comes before all of its children, but otherwise things
-	are still ordered in the commit timestamp order.
+--topo-order::
+	Show no parents before all of its children are shown, and
+	avoid showing commits on multiple lines of history
+	intermixed.
++
+For example, in a commit history like this:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+
+    ---1----2----4----7
+	\	       \
+	 3----5----6----8---
+
+----------------------------------------------------------------
++
+where the numbers denote the order of commit timestamps, `git
+rev-list` and friends with `--date-order` show the commits in the
+timestamp order: 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1.
++
+With `--topo-order`, they would show 8 6 5 3 7 4 2 1 (or 8 7 4 2 6 5
+3 1); some older commits are shown before newer ones in order to
+avoid showing the commits from two parallel development track mixed
+together.
 
 --reverse::
 
@@ -619,9 +650,14 @@
 	Only useful with '--objects'; print the object IDs that are not
 	in packs.
 
---no-walk::
+--no-walk[=(sorted|unsorted)]::
 
-	Only show the given revs, but do not traverse their ancestors.
+	Only show the given commits, but do not traverse their ancestors.
+	This has no effect if a range is specified. If the argument
+	"unsorted" is given, the commits are show in the order they were
+	given on the command line. Otherwise (if "sorted" or no argument
+	was given), the commits are show in reverse chronological order
+	by commit time.
 
 --do-walk::
 
@@ -759,7 +795,7 @@
 
 --cc::
 
-	This flag implies the '-c' options and further compresses the
+	This flag implies the '-c' option and further compresses the
 	patch output by omitting uninteresting hunks whose contents in
 	the parents have only two variants and the merge result picks
 	one of them without modification.
diff --git a/Documentation/revisions.txt b/Documentation/revisions.txt
index 1725661..69d996b 100644
--- a/Documentation/revisions.txt
+++ b/Documentation/revisions.txt
@@ -24,22 +24,22 @@
   object referenced by 'refs/heads/master'.  If you
   happen to have both 'heads/master' and 'tags/master', you can
   explicitly say 'heads/master' to tell git which one you mean.
-  When ambiguous, a '<name>' is disambiguated by taking the
+  When ambiguous, a '<refname>' is disambiguated by taking the
   first match in the following rules:
 
-  . If '$GIT_DIR/<name>' exists, that is what you mean (this is usually
+  . If '$GIT_DIR/<refname>' exists, that is what you mean (this is usually
     useful only for 'HEAD', 'FETCH_HEAD', 'ORIG_HEAD', 'MERGE_HEAD'
     and 'CHERRY_PICK_HEAD');
 
-  . otherwise, 'refs/<name>' if it exists;
+  . otherwise, 'refs/<refname>' if it exists;
 
   . otherwise, 'refs/tags/<refname>' if it exists;
 
-  . otherwise, 'refs/heads/<name>' if it exists;
+  . otherwise, 'refs/heads/<refname>' if it exists;
 
-  . otherwise, 'refs/remotes/<name>' if it exists;
+  . otherwise, 'refs/remotes/<refname>' if it exists;
 
-  . otherwise, 'refs/remotes/<name>/HEAD' if it exists.
+  . otherwise, 'refs/remotes/<refname>/HEAD' if it exists.
 +
 'HEAD' names the commit on which you based the changes in the working tree.
 'FETCH_HEAD' records the branch which you fetched from a remote repository
@@ -213,18 +213,56 @@
 It is the set of commits that are reachable from either one of
 'r1' or 'r2' but not from both.
 
+In these two shorthands, you can omit one end and let it default to HEAD.
+For example, 'origin..' is a shorthand for 'origin..HEAD' and asks "What
+did I do since I forked from the origin branch?"  Similarly, '..origin'
+is a shorthand for 'HEAD..origin' and asks "What did the origin do since
+I forked from them?"  Note that '..' would mean 'HEAD..HEAD' which is an
+empty range that is both reachable and unreachable from HEAD.
+
 Two other shorthands for naming a set that is formed by a commit
 and its parent commits exist.  The 'r1{caret}@' notation means all
 parents of 'r1'.  'r1{caret}!' includes commit 'r1' but excludes
 all of its parents.
 
+To summarize:
+
+'<rev>'::
+	Include commits that are reachable from (i.e. ancestors of)
+	<rev>.
+
+'{caret}<rev>'::
+	Exclude commits that are reachable from (i.e. ancestors of)
+	<rev>.
+
+'<rev1>..<rev2>'::
+	Include commits that are reachable from <rev2> but exclude
+	those that are reachable from <rev1>.
+
+'<rev1>\...<rev2>'::
+	Include commits that are reachable from either <rev1> or
+	<rev2> but exclude those that are reachable from both.
+
+'<rev>{caret}@', e.g. 'HEAD{caret}@'::
+  A suffix '{caret}' followed by an at sign is the same as listing
+  all parents of '<rev>' (meaning, include anything reachable from
+  its parents, but not the commit itself).
+
+'<rev>{caret}!', e.g. 'HEAD{caret}!'::
+  A suffix '{caret}' followed by an exclamation mark is the same
+  as giving commit '<rev>' and then all its parents prefixed with
+  '{caret}' to exclude them (and their ancestors).
+
 Here are a handful of examples:
 
    D                G H D
    D F              G H I J D F
    ^G D             H D
    ^D B             E I J F B
+   B..C             C
    B...C            G H D E B C
    ^D B C           E I J F B C
+   C                I J F C
    C^@              I J F
+   C^!              C
    F^! D            G H D F
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
index 1b7d8f1..1a79781 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
@@ -46,6 +46,10 @@
 	Format a string and push it onto the end of the array. This is a
 	convenience wrapper combining `strbuf_addf` and `argv_array_push`.
 
+`argv_array_pop`::
+	Remove the final element from the array. If there are no
+	elements in the array, do nothing.
+
 `argv_array_clear`::
 	Free all memory associated with the array and return it to the
 	initial, empty state.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-credentials.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-credentials.txt
index 21ca6a2..5977b58 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-credentials.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-credentials.txt
@@ -6,8 +6,52 @@
 world can take many forms, in this document the word "credential" always
 refers to a username and password pair).
 
+This document describes two interfaces: the C API that the credential
+subsystem provides to the rest of git, and the protocol that git uses to
+communicate with system-specific "credential helpers". If you are
+writing git code that wants to look up or prompt for credentials, see
+the section "C API" below. If you want to write your own helper, see
+the section on "Credential Helpers" below.
+
+Typical setup
+-------------
+
+------------
++-----------------------+
+| git code (C)          |--- to server requiring --->
+|                       |        authentication
+|.......................|
+| C credential API      |--- prompt ---> User
++-----------------------+
+	^      |
+	| pipe |
+	|      v
++-----------------------+
+| git credential helper |
++-----------------------+
+------------
+
+The git code (typically a remote-helper) will call the C API to obtain
+credential data like a login/password pair (credential_fill). The
+API will itself call a remote helper (e.g. "git credential-cache" or
+"git credential-store") that may retrieve credential data from a
+store. If the credential helper cannot find the information, the C API
+will prompt the user. Then, the caller of the API takes care of
+contacting the server, and does the actual authentication.
+
+C API
+-----
+
+The credential C API is meant to be called by git code which needs to
+acquire or store a credential. It is centered around an object
+representing a single credential and provides three basic operations:
+fill (acquire credentials by calling helpers and/or prompting the user),
+approve (mark a credential as successfully used so that it can be stored
+for later use), and reject (mark a credential as unsuccessful so that it
+can be erased from any persistent storage).
+
 Data Structures
----------------
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 `struct credential`::
 
@@ -21,14 +65,17 @@
 The `helpers` member of the struct is a `string_list` of helpers.  Each
 string specifies an external helper which will be run, in order, to
 either acquire or store credentials. See the section on credential
-helpers below.
+helpers below. This list is filled-in by the API functions
+according to the corresponding configuration variables before
+consulting helpers, so there usually is no need for a caller to
+modify the helpers field at all.
 +
 This struct should always be initialized with `CREDENTIAL_INIT` or
 `credential_init`.
 
 
 Functions
----------
+~~~~~~~~~
 
 `credential_init`::
 
@@ -72,7 +119,7 @@
 	Parse a URL into broken-down credential fields.
 
 Example
--------
+~~~~~~~
 
 The example below shows how the functions of the credential API could be
 used to login to a fictitious "foo" service on a remote host:
@@ -135,8 +182,10 @@
 longer than a single git process; e.g., credentials may be stored
 in-memory for a few minutes, or indefinitely on disk).
 
-Each helper is specified by a single string. The string is transformed
-by git into a command to be executed using these rules:
+Each helper is specified by a single string in the configuration
+variable `credential.helper` (and others, see linkgit:git-config[1]).
+The string is transformed by git into a command to be executed using
+these rules:
 
   1. If the helper string begins with "!", it is considered a shell
      snippet, and everything after the "!" becomes the command.
@@ -192,42 +241,9 @@
 	Remove a matching credential, if any, from the helper's storage.
 
 The details of the credential will be provided on the helper's stdin
-stream. The credential is split into a set of named attributes.
-Attributes are provided to the helper, one per line. Each attribute is
-specified by a key-value pair, separated by an `=` (equals) sign,
-followed by a newline. The key may contain any bytes except `=`,
-newline, or NUL. The value may contain any bytes except newline or NUL.
-In both cases, all bytes are treated as-is (i.e., there is no quoting,
-and one cannot transmit a value with newline or NUL in it). The list of
-attributes is terminated by a blank line or end-of-file.
-
-Git will send the following attributes (but may not send all of
-them for a given credential; for example, a `host` attribute makes no
-sense when dealing with a non-network protocol):
-
-`protocol`::
-
-	The protocol over which the credential will be used (e.g.,
-	`https`).
-
-`host`::
-
-	The remote hostname for a network credential.
-
-`path`::
-
-	The path with which the credential will be used. E.g., for
-	accessing a remote https repository, this will be the
-	repository's path on the server.
-
-`username`::
-
-	The credential's username, if we already have one (e.g., from a
-	URL, from the user, or from a previously run helper).
-
-`password`::
-
-	The credential's password, if we are asking it to be stored.
+stream. The exact format is the same as the input/output format of the
+`git credential` plumbing command (see the section `INPUT/OUTPUT
+FORMAT` in linkgit:git-credential[7] for a detailed specification).
 
 For a `get` operation, the helper should produce a list of attributes
 on stdout in the same format. A helper is free to produce a subset, or
@@ -243,3 +259,10 @@
 If a helper receives any other operation, it should silently ignore the
 request. This leaves room for future operations to be added (older
 helpers will just ignore the new requests).
+
+See also
+--------
+
+linkgit:gitcredentials[7]
+
+linkgit:git-config[5] (See configuration variables `credential.*`)
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-revision-walking.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-revision-walking.txt
index 996da05..b7d0d9a 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-revision-walking.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-revision-walking.txt
@@ -56,6 +56,11 @@
 	returning a `struct commit *` each time you call it. The end of the
 	revision list is indicated by returning a NULL pointer.
 
+`reset_revision_walk`::
+
+	Reset the flags used by the revision walking api. You can use
+	this to do multiple sequencial revision walks.
+
 Data structures
 ---------------
 
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
index 8930b3f..9d25b30 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
@@ -113,9 +113,22 @@
     are encoded in 7-bit ASCII and the encoding cannot contain a NUL
     byte (iow, this is a UNIX pathname).
 
+  (Version 4) In version 4, the entry path name is prefix-compressed
+    relative to the path name for the previous entry (the very first
+    entry is encoded as if the path name for the previous entry is an
+    empty string).  At the beginning of an entry, an integer N in the
+    variable width encoding (the same encoding as the offset is encoded
+    for OFS_DELTA pack entries; see pack-format.txt) is stored, followed
+    by a NUL-terminated string S.  Removing N bytes from the end of the
+    path name for the previous entry, and replacing it with the string S
+    yields the path name for this entry.
+
   1-8 nul bytes as necessary to pad the entry to a multiple of eight bytes
   while keeping the name NUL-terminated.
 
+  (Version 4) In version 4, the padding after the pathname does not
+  exist.
+
 == Extensions
 
 === Cached tree
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
index 49cdc57..d51e20f 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
@@ -259,8 +259,10 @@
 ----
 
 If the client has requested a positive depth, the server will compute
-the set of commits which are no deeper than the desired depth, starting
-at the client's wants. The server writes 'shallow' lines for each
+the set of commits which are no deeper than the desired depth. The set
+of commits start at the client's wants.
+
+The server writes 'shallow' lines for each
 commit whose parents will not be sent as a result. The server writes
 an 'unshallow' line for each commit which the client has indicated is
 shallow, but is no longer shallow at the currently requested depth
diff --git a/Documentation/urls.txt b/Documentation/urls.txt
index 2890194..1d15ee7 100644
--- a/Documentation/urls.txt
+++ b/Documentation/urls.txt
@@ -6,8 +6,12 @@
 Depending on the transport protocol, some of this information may be
 absent.
 
-Git natively supports ssh, git, http, https, ftp, ftps, and rsync
-protocols. The following syntaxes may be used with them:
+Git supports ssh, git, http, and https protocols (in addition, ftp,
+and ftps can be used for fetching and rsync can be used for fetching
+and pushing, but these are inefficient and deprecated; do not use
+them).
+
+The following syntaxes may be used with them:
 
 - ssh://{startsb}user@{endsb}host.xz{startsb}:port{endsb}/path/to/repo.git/
 - git://host.xz{startsb}:port{endsb}/path/to/repo.git/
diff --git a/Documentation/user-manual.conf b/Documentation/user-manual.conf
index 339b309..d87294d 100644
--- a/Documentation/user-manual.conf
+++ b/Documentation/user-manual.conf
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@
 # "unbreak" docbook-xsl v1.68 for manpages. v1.69 works with or without this.
 [listingblock]
 <example><title>{title}</title>
-<literallayout>
+<literallayout class="monospaced">
 |
 </literallayout>
 {title#}</example>
diff --git a/Documentation/user-manual.txt b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
index 1b94207..85651b5 100644
--- a/Documentation/user-manual.txt
+++ b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
@@ -1136,9 +1136,12 @@
 Though not required, it's a good idea to begin the commit message
 with a single short (less than 50 character) line summarizing the
 change, followed by a blank line and then a more thorough
-description.  Tools that turn commits into email, for example, use
-the first line on the Subject line and the rest of the commit in the
-body.
+description.  The text up to the first blank line in a commit
+message is treated as the commit title, and that title is used
+throughout git.  For example, linkgit:git-format-patch[1] turns a
+commit into email, and it uses the title on the Subject line and the
+rest of the commit in the body.
+
 
 [[ignoring-files]]
 Ignoring files
@@ -1600,7 +1603,7 @@
 You will see informational messages on dangling objects. They are objects
 that still exist in the repository but are no longer referenced by any of
 your branches, and can (and will) be removed after a while with "gc".
-You can run `git fsck --no-dangling` to supress these messages, and still
+You can run `git fsck --no-dangling` to suppress these messages, and still
 view real errors.
 
 [[recovering-lost-changes]]
@@ -2870,7 +2873,7 @@
 You can also add a "+" to force the update each time:
 
 -------------------------------------------------
-$ git config remote.example.fetch +master:ref/remotes/example/master
+$ git config remote.example.fetch +master:refs/remotes/example/master
 -------------------------------------------------
 
 Don't do this unless you're sure you won't mind "git fetch" possibly
@@ -2966,7 +2969,7 @@
 
 - a tree: The SHA-1 name of a tree object (as defined below), representing
   the contents of a directory at a certain point in time.
-- parent(s): The SHA-1 name of some number of commits which represent the
+- parent(s): The SHA-1 name(s) of some number of commits which represent the
   immediately previous step(s) in the history of the project.  The
   example above has one parent; merge commits may have more than
   one.  A commit with no parents is called a "root" commit, and
@@ -3363,8 +3366,8 @@
 :100644 100644 oldsha... 4b9458b... M somedirectory/myfile
 ------------------------------------------------
 
-This tells you that the immediately preceding version of the file was
-"newsha", and that the immediately following version was "oldsha".
+This tells you that the immediately following version of the file was
+"newsha", and that the immediately preceding version was "oldsha".
 You also know the commit messages that went with the change from oldsha
 to 4b9458b and with the change from 4b9458b to newsha.
 
@@ -4035,8 +4038,8 @@
 Each line of the `git ls-files --unmerged` output begins with
 the blob mode bits, blob SHA-1, 'stage number', and the
 filename.  The 'stage number' is git's way to say which tree it
-came from: stage 1 corresponds to `$orig` tree, stage 2 `HEAD`
-tree, and stage3 `$target` tree.
+came from: stage 1 corresponds to the `$orig` tree, stage 2 to
+the `HEAD` tree, and stage 3 to the `$target` tree.
 
 Earlier we said that trivial merges are done inside
 `git read-tree -m`.  For example, if the file did not change
diff --git a/GIT-VERSION-GEN b/GIT-VERSION-GEN
index 2ccbf24..ecdbf90 100755
--- a/GIT-VERSION-GEN
+++ b/GIT-VERSION-GEN
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
 #!/bin/sh
 
 GVF=GIT-VERSION-FILE
-DEF_VER=v1.7.10.5
+DEF_VER=v1.7.12.3
 
 LF='
 '
diff --git a/INSTALL b/INSTALL
index 58b2b86..28f34bd 100644
--- a/INSTALL
+++ b/INSTALL
@@ -131,6 +131,9 @@
 	  use English. Under autoconf the configure script will do this
 	  automatically if it can't find libintl on the system.
 
+	- Python version 2.6 or later is needed to use the git-p4
+	  interface to Perforce.
+
  - Some platform specific issues are dealt with Makefile rules,
    but depending on your specific installation, you may not
    have all the libraries/tools needed, or you may have
@@ -158,11 +161,9 @@
    makeinfo and docbook2X.  Version 0.8.3 is known to work.
 
    Building and installing the pdf file additionally requires
-   dblatex.  Version 0.2.7 with asciidoc >= 8.2.7 is known to work.
+   dblatex.  Version >= 0.2.7 is known to work.
 
-   The documentation is written for AsciiDoc 7, but by default
-   uses some compatibility wrappers to work on AsciiDoc 8. If you have
-   AsciiDoc 7, try "make ASCIIDOC7=YesPlease".
+   All formats require at least asciidoc 8.4.1.
 
    There are also "make quick-install-doc", "make quick-install-man"
    and "make quick-install-html" which install preformatted man pages
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index 91ec231..26b697d 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -127,9 +127,8 @@
 # specify your own (or DarwinPort's) include directories and
 # library directories by defining CFLAGS and LDFLAGS appropriately.
 #
-# Define BLK_SHA1 environment variable if you want the C version
-# of the SHA1 that assumes you can do unaligned 32-bit loads and
-# have a fast htonl() function.
+# Define BLK_SHA1 environment variable to make use of the bundled
+# optimized C SHA1 routine.
 #
 # Define PPC_SHA1 environment variable when running make to make use of
 # a bundled SHA1 routine optimized for PowerPC.
@@ -158,6 +157,9 @@
 # Define NO_PREAD if you have a problem with pread() system call (e.g.
 # cygwin1.dll before v1.5.22).
 #
+# Define NO_THREAD_SAFE_PREAD if your pread() implementation is not
+# thread-safe. (e.g. compat/pread.c or cygwin)
+#
 # Define NO_FAST_WORKING_DIRECTORY if accessing objects in pack files is
 # generally faster on your platform than accessing the working directory.
 #
@@ -203,8 +205,6 @@
 # Define NO_ST_BLOCKS_IN_STRUCT_STAT if your platform does not have st_blocks
 # field that counts the on-disk footprint in 512-byte blocks.
 #
-# Define ASCIIDOC7 if you want to format documentation with AsciiDoc 7
-#
 # Define DOCBOOK_XSL_172 if you want to format man pages with DocBook XSL v1.72
 # (not v1.73 or v1.71).
 #
@@ -247,6 +247,9 @@
 # Define NO_CROSS_DIRECTORY_HARDLINKS if you plan to distribute the installed
 # programs as a tar, where bin/ and libexec/ might be on different file systems.
 #
+# Define NO_INSTALL_HARDLINKS if you prefer to use either symbolic links or
+# copies to install built-in git commands e.g. git-cat-file.
+#
 # Define USE_NED_ALLOCATOR if you want to replace the platforms default
 # memory allocators with the nedmalloc allocator written by Niall Douglas.
 #
@@ -288,6 +291,18 @@
 # dependency rules.
 #
 # Define NATIVE_CRLF if your platform uses CRLF for line endings.
+#
+# Define XDL_FAST_HASH to use an alternative line-hashing method in
+# the diff algorithm.  It gives a nice speedup if your processor has
+# fast unaligned word loads.  Does NOT work on big-endian systems!
+# Enabled by default on x86_64.
+#
+# Define GIT_USER_AGENT if you want to change how git identifies itself during
+# network interactions.  The default is "git/$(GIT_VERSION)".
+#
+# Define DEFAULT_HELP_FORMAT to "man", "info" or "html"
+# (defaults to "man") if you want to have a different default when
+# "git help" is called without a parameter specifying the format.
 
 GIT-VERSION-FILE: FORCE
 	@$(SHELL_PATH) ./GIT-VERSION-GEN
@@ -381,11 +396,9 @@
 BUILT_INS =
 COMPAT_CFLAGS =
 COMPAT_OBJS =
-XDIFF_H =
 XDIFF_OBJS =
-VCSSVN_H =
 VCSSVN_OBJS =
-VCSSVN_TEST_OBJS =
+GENERATED_H =
 EXTRA_CPPFLAGS =
 LIB_H =
 LIB_OBJS =
@@ -440,6 +453,7 @@
 SCRIPT_PERL += git-svn.perl
 
 SCRIPT_PYTHON += git-remote-testgit.py
+SCRIPT_PYTHON += git-p4.py
 
 SCRIPTS = $(patsubst %.sh,%,$(SCRIPT_SH)) \
 	  $(patsubst %.perl,%,$(SCRIPT_PERL)) \
@@ -454,15 +468,15 @@
 # ... and all the rest that could be moved out of bindir to gitexecdir
 PROGRAMS += $(EXTRA_PROGRAMS)
 
+PROGRAM_OBJS += credential-store.o
 PROGRAM_OBJS += daemon.o
 PROGRAM_OBJS += fast-import.o
+PROGRAM_OBJS += http-backend.o
 PROGRAM_OBJS += imap-send.o
+PROGRAM_OBJS += sh-i18n--envsubst.o
 PROGRAM_OBJS += shell.o
 PROGRAM_OBJS += show-index.o
 PROGRAM_OBJS += upload-pack.o
-PROGRAM_OBJS += http-backend.o
-PROGRAM_OBJS += sh-i18n--envsubst.o
-PROGRAM_OBJS += credential-store.o
 
 # Binary suffix, set to .exe for Windows builds
 X =
@@ -470,20 +484,22 @@
 PROGRAMS += $(patsubst %.o,git-%$X,$(PROGRAM_OBJS))
 
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-chmtime
-TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-credential
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-ctype
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-date
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-delta
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-dump-cache-tree
-TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-scrap-cache-tree
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-genrandom
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-index-version
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-line-buffer
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-match-trees
+TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-mergesort
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-mktemp
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-parse-options
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-path-utils
+TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-regex
+TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-revision-walking
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-run-command
+TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-scrap-cache-tree
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-sha1
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-sigchain
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-subprocess
@@ -543,36 +559,60 @@
 XDIFF_LIB=xdiff/lib.a
 VCSSVN_LIB=vcs-svn/lib.a
 
+LIB_H += xdiff/xinclude.h
+LIB_H += xdiff/xmacros.h
+LIB_H += xdiff/xdiff.h
+LIB_H += xdiff/xtypes.h
+LIB_H += xdiff/xutils.h
+LIB_H += xdiff/xprepare.h
+LIB_H += xdiff/xdiffi.h
+LIB_H += xdiff/xemit.h
+
+LIB_H += vcs-svn/line_buffer.h
+LIB_H += vcs-svn/sliding_window.h
+LIB_H += vcs-svn/repo_tree.h
+LIB_H += vcs-svn/fast_export.h
+LIB_H += vcs-svn/svndiff.h
+LIB_H += vcs-svn/svndump.h
+
+GENERATED_H += common-cmds.h
+
 LIB_H += advice.h
 LIB_H += archive.h
 LIB_H += argv-array.h
 LIB_H += attr.h
+LIB_H += bisect.h
 LIB_H += blob.h
+LIB_H += branch.h
 LIB_H += builtin.h
 LIB_H += bulk-checkin.h
-LIB_H += cache.h
+LIB_H += bundle.h
 LIB_H += cache-tree.h
+LIB_H += cache.h
 LIB_H += color.h
+LIB_H += column.h
 LIB_H += commit.h
 LIB_H += compat/bswap.h
 LIB_H += compat/cygwin.h
 LIB_H += compat/mingw.h
 LIB_H += compat/obstack.h
+LIB_H += compat/precompose_utf8.h
 LIB_H += compat/terminal.h
+LIB_H += compat/win32/dirent.h
+LIB_H += compat/win32/poll.h
 LIB_H += compat/win32/pthread.h
 LIB_H += compat/win32/syslog.h
-LIB_H += compat/win32/poll.h
-LIB_H += compat/win32/dirent.h
 LIB_H += connected.h
 LIB_H += convert.h
 LIB_H += credential.h
 LIB_H += csum-file.h
 LIB_H += decorate.h
 LIB_H += delta.h
-LIB_H += diffcore.h
 LIB_H += diff.h
+LIB_H += diffcore.h
 LIB_H += dir.h
 LIB_H += exec_cmd.h
+LIB_H += fetch-pack.h
 LIB_H += fmt-merge-msg.h
 LIB_H += fsck.h
 LIB_H += gettext.h
@@ -582,6 +622,7 @@
 LIB_H += grep.h
 LIB_H += hash.h
 LIB_H += help.h
+LIB_H += http.h
 LIB_H += kwset.h
 LIB_H += levenshtein.h
 LIB_H += list-objects.h
@@ -590,19 +631,21 @@
 LIB_H += mailmap.h
 LIB_H += merge-file.h
 LIB_H += merge-recursive.h
-LIB_H += notes.h
+LIB_H += mergesort.h
 LIB_H += notes-cache.h
 LIB_H += notes-merge.h
+LIB_H += notes.h
 LIB_H += object.h
-LIB_H += pack.h
 LIB_H += pack-refs.h
 LIB_H += pack-revindex.h
+LIB_H += pack.h
 LIB_H += parse-options.h
 LIB_H += patch-ids.h
 LIB_H += pkt-line.h
 LIB_H += progress.h
 LIB_H += prompt.h
 LIB_H += quote.h
+LIB_H += reachable.h
 LIB_H += reflog-walk.h
 LIB_H += refs.h
 LIB_H += remote.h
@@ -610,9 +653,11 @@
 LIB_H += resolve-undo.h
 LIB_H += revision.h
 LIB_H += run-command.h
+LIB_H += send-pack.h
 LIB_H += sequencer.h
 LIB_H += sha1-array.h
 LIB_H += sha1-lookup.h
+LIB_H += shortlog.h
 LIB_H += sideband.h
 LIB_H += sigchain.h
 LIB_H += strbuf.h
@@ -620,13 +665,18 @@
 LIB_H += string-list.h
 LIB_H += submodule.h
 LIB_H += tag.h
+LIB_H += tar.h
 LIB_H += thread-utils.h
 LIB_H += transport.h
-LIB_H += tree.h
 LIB_H += tree-walk.h
+LIB_H += tree.h
 LIB_H += unpack-trees.h
+LIB_H += url.h
 LIB_H += userdiff.h
 LIB_H += utf8.h
+LIB_H += varint.h
+LIB_H += walker.h
+LIB_H += wt-status.h
 LIB_H += xdiff-interface.h
 LIB_H += xdiff/xdiff.h
 
@@ -647,6 +697,7 @@
 LIB_OBJS += bundle.o
 LIB_OBJS += cache-tree.o
 LIB_OBJS += color.o
+LIB_OBJS += column.o
 LIB_OBJS += combine-diff.o
 LIB_OBJS += commit.o
 LIB_OBJS += compat/obstack.o
@@ -676,8 +727,8 @@
 LIB_OBJS += environment.o
 LIB_OBJS += exec_cmd.o
 LIB_OBJS += fsck.o
-LIB_OBJS += gpg-interface.o
 LIB_OBJS += gettext.o
+LIB_OBJS += gpg-interface.o
 LIB_OBJS += graph.o
 LIB_OBJS += grep.o
 LIB_OBJS += hash.o
@@ -694,6 +745,7 @@
 LIB_OBJS += match-trees.o
 LIB_OBJS += merge-file.o
 LIB_OBJS += merge-recursive.o
+LIB_OBJS += mergesort.o
 LIB_OBJS += name-hash.o
 LIB_OBJS += notes.o
 LIB_OBJS += notes-cache.o
@@ -725,9 +777,9 @@
 LIB_OBJS += resolve-undo.o
 LIB_OBJS += revision.o
 LIB_OBJS += run-command.o
+LIB_OBJS += sequencer.o
 LIB_OBJS += server-info.o
 LIB_OBJS += setup.o
-LIB_OBJS += sequencer.o
 LIB_OBJS += sha1-array.o
 LIB_OBJS += sha1-lookup.o
 LIB_OBJS += sha1_file.o
@@ -752,6 +804,8 @@
 LIB_OBJS += usage.o
 LIB_OBJS += userdiff.o
 LIB_OBJS += utf8.o
+LIB_OBJS += varint.o
+LIB_OBJS += version.o
 LIB_OBJS += walker.o
 LIB_OBJS += wrapper.o
 LIB_OBJS += write_or_die.o
@@ -775,10 +829,12 @@
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/checkout.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/clean.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/clone.o
+BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/column.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/commit-tree.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/commit.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/config.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/count-objects.o
+BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/credential.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/describe.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/diff-files.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/diff-index.o
@@ -856,6 +912,8 @@
 GITLIBS = $(LIB_FILE) $(XDIFF_LIB)
 EXTLIBS =
 
+GIT_USER_AGENT = git/$(GIT_VERSION)
+
 #
 # Platform specific tweaks
 #
@@ -864,6 +922,9 @@
 # because maintaining the nesting to match is a pain.  If
 # we had "elif" things would have been much nicer...
 
+ifeq ($(uname_M),x86_64)
+	XDL_FAST_HASH = YesPlease
+endif
 ifeq ($(uname_S),OSF1)
 	# Need this for u_short definitions et al
 	BASIC_CFLAGS += -D_OSF_SOURCE
@@ -939,6 +1000,8 @@
 	NO_MEMMEM = YesPlease
 	USE_ST_TIMESPEC = YesPlease
 	HAVE_DEV_TTY = YesPlease
+	COMPAT_OBJS += compat/precompose_utf8.o
+	BASIC_CFLAGS += -DPRECOMPOSE_UNICODE
 endif
 ifeq ($(uname_S),SunOS)
 	NEEDS_SOCKET = YesPlease
@@ -952,6 +1015,7 @@
 	NO_REGEX = YesPlease
 	NO_FNMATCH_CASEFOLD = YesPlease
 	NO_MSGFMT_EXTENDED_OPTIONS = YesPlease
+	HAVE_DEV_TTY = YesPlease
 	ifeq ($(uname_R),5.6)
 		SOCKLEN_T = int
 		NO_HSTRERROR = YesPlease
@@ -1000,6 +1064,7 @@
 		NO_IPV6 = YesPlease
 		OLD_ICONV = UnfortunatelyYes
 	endif
+	NO_THREAD_SAFE_PREAD = YesPlease
 	NEEDS_LIBICONV = YesPlease
 	NO_FAST_WORKING_DIRECTORY = UnfortunatelyYes
 	NO_TRUSTABLE_FILEMODE = UnfortunatelyYes
@@ -1185,6 +1250,7 @@
 	BLK_SHA1 = YesPlease
 	NO_POSIX_GOODIES = UnfortunatelyYes
 	NATIVE_CRLF = YesPlease
+	DEFAULT_HELP_FORMAT = html
 
 	CC = compat/vcbuild/scripts/clink.pl
 	AR = compat/vcbuild/scripts/lib.pl
@@ -1608,6 +1674,10 @@
 ifdef NO_PREAD
 	COMPAT_CFLAGS += -DNO_PREAD
 	COMPAT_OBJS += compat/pread.o
+	NO_THREAD_SAFE_PREAD = YesPlease
+endif
+ifdef NO_THREAD_SAFE_PREAD
+	BASIC_CFLAGS += -DNO_THREAD_SAFE_PREAD
 endif
 ifdef NO_FAST_WORKING_DIRECTORY
 	BASIC_CFLAGS += -DNO_FAST_WORKING_DIRECTORY
@@ -1737,6 +1807,10 @@
 	MSGFMT += --check --statistics
 endif
 
+ifneq (,$(XDL_FAST_HASH))
+	BASIC_CFLAGS += -DXDL_FAST_HASH
+endif
+
 ifeq ($(TCLTK_PATH),)
 NO_TCLTK=NoThanks
 endif
@@ -1779,8 +1853,8 @@
 endif
 endif
 
-ifdef ASCIIDOC7
-	export ASCIIDOC7
+ifdef NO_INSTALL_HARDLINKS
+	export NO_INSTALL_HARDLINKS
 endif
 
 ### profile feedback build
@@ -1849,6 +1923,25 @@
 BASIC_CFLAGS += -DDEFAULT_PAGER='$(DEFAULT_PAGER_CQ_SQ)'
 endif
 
+ifdef SHELL_PATH
+SHELL_PATH_CQ = "$(subst ",\",$(subst \,\\,$(SHELL_PATH)))"
+SHELL_PATH_CQ_SQ = $(subst ','\'',$(SHELL_PATH_CQ))
+
+BASIC_CFLAGS += -DSHELL_PATH='$(SHELL_PATH_CQ_SQ)'
+endif
+
+GIT_USER_AGENT_SQ = $(subst ','\'',$(GIT_USER_AGENT))
+GIT_USER_AGENT_CQ = "$(subst ",\",$(subst \,\\,$(GIT_USER_AGENT)))"
+GIT_USER_AGENT_CQ_SQ = $(subst ','\'',$(GIT_USER_AGENT_CQ))
+GIT-USER-AGENT: FORCE
+	@if test x'$(GIT_USER_AGENT_SQ)' != x"`cat GIT-USER-AGENT 2>/dev/null`"; then \
+		echo '$(GIT_USER_AGENT_SQ)' >GIT-USER-AGENT; \
+	fi
+
+ifdef DEFAULT_HELP_FORMAT
+BASIC_CFLAGS += -DDEFAULT_HELP_FORMAT='"$(DEFAULT_HELP_FORMAT)"'
+endif
+
 ALL_CFLAGS += $(BASIC_CFLAGS)
 ALL_LDFLAGS += $(BASIC_LDFLAGS)
 
@@ -1895,8 +1988,41 @@
 strip: $(PROGRAMS) git$X
 	$(STRIP) $(STRIP_OPTS) $(PROGRAMS) git$X
 
-git.o: common-cmds.h
-git.sp git.s git.o: EXTRA_CPPFLAGS = -DGIT_VERSION='"$(GIT_VERSION)"' \
+### Target-specific flags and dependencies
+
+# The generic compilation pattern rule and automatically
+# computed header dependencies (falling back to a dependency on
+# LIB_H) are enough to describe how most targets should be built,
+# but some targets are special enough to need something a little
+# different.
+#
+# - When a source file "foo.c" #includes a generated header file,
+#   we need to list that dependency for the "foo.o" target.
+#
+#   We also list it from other targets that are built from foo.c
+#   like "foo.sp" and "foo.s", even though that is easy to forget
+#   to do because the generated header is already present around
+#   after a regular build attempt.
+#
+# - Some code depends on configuration kept in makefile
+#   variables. The target-specific variable EXTRA_CPPFLAGS can
+#   be used to convey that information to the C preprocessor
+#   using -D options.
+#
+#   The "foo.o" target should have a corresponding dependency on
+#   a file that changes when the value of the makefile variable
+#   changes.  For example, targets making use of the
+#   $(GIT_VERSION) variable depend on GIT-VERSION-FILE.
+#
+#   Technically the ".sp" and ".s" targets do not need this
+#   dependency because they are force-built, but they get the
+#   same dependency for consistency. This way, you do not have to
+#   know how each target is implemented. And it means the
+#   dependencies here will not need to change if the force-build
+#   details change some day.
+
+git.sp git.s git.o: GIT-PREFIX
+git.sp git.s git.o: EXTRA_CPPFLAGS = \
 	'-DGIT_HTML_PATH="$(htmldir_SQ)"' \
 	'-DGIT_MAN_PATH="$(mandir_SQ)"' \
 	'-DGIT_INFO_PATH="$(infodir_SQ)"'
@@ -1905,14 +2031,19 @@
 	$(QUIET_LINK)$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) -o $@ git.o \
 		$(BUILTIN_OBJS) $(ALL_LDFLAGS) $(LIBS)
 
-help.sp help.o: common-cmds.h
+help.sp help.s help.o: common-cmds.h
 
-builtin/help.sp builtin/help.o: common-cmds.h
+builtin/help.sp builtin/help.s builtin/help.o: common-cmds.h GIT-PREFIX
 builtin/help.sp builtin/help.s builtin/help.o: EXTRA_CPPFLAGS = \
 	'-DGIT_HTML_PATH="$(htmldir_SQ)"' \
 	'-DGIT_MAN_PATH="$(mandir_SQ)"' \
 	'-DGIT_INFO_PATH="$(infodir_SQ)"'
 
+version.sp version.s version.o: GIT-VERSION-FILE GIT-USER-AGENT
+version.sp version.s version.o: EXTRA_CPPFLAGS = \
+	'-DGIT_VERSION="$(GIT_VERSION)"' \
+	'-DGIT_USER_AGENT=$(GIT_USER_AGENT_CQ_SQ)'
+
 $(BUILT_INS): git$X
 	$(QUIET_BUILT_IN)$(RM) $@ && \
 	ln git$X $@ 2>/dev/null || \
@@ -1924,35 +2055,54 @@
 common-cmds.h: $(wildcard Documentation/git-*.txt)
 	$(QUIET_GEN)./generate-cmdlist.sh > $@+ && mv $@+ $@
 
+SCRIPT_DEFINES = $(SHELL_PATH_SQ):$(DIFF_SQ):$(GIT_VERSION):\
+	$(localedir_SQ):$(NO_CURL):$(USE_GETTEXT_SCHEME):$(SANE_TOOL_PATH_SQ):\
+	$(gitwebdir_SQ):$(PERL_PATH_SQ)
 define cmd_munge_script
 $(RM) $@ $@+ && \
 sed -e '1s|#!.*/sh|#!$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)|' \
     -e 's|@SHELL_PATH@|$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)|' \
     -e 's|@@DIFF@@|$(DIFF_SQ)|' \
-    -e 's/@@GIT_VERSION@@/$(GIT_VERSION)/g' \
     -e 's|@@LOCALEDIR@@|$(localedir_SQ)|g' \
     -e 's/@@NO_CURL@@/$(NO_CURL)/g' \
     -e 's/@@USE_GETTEXT_SCHEME@@/$(USE_GETTEXT_SCHEME)/g' \
     -e $(BROKEN_PATH_FIX) \
+    -e 's|@@GITWEBDIR@@|$(gitwebdir_SQ)|g' \
+    -e 's|@@PERL@@|$(PERL_PATH_SQ)|g' \
     $@.sh >$@+
 endef
 
-$(patsubst %.sh,%,$(SCRIPT_SH)) : % : %.sh
+GIT-SCRIPT-DEFINES: FORCE
+	@FLAGS='$(SCRIPT_DEFINES)'; \
+	    if test x"$$FLAGS" != x"`cat $@ 2>/dev/null`" ; then \
+		echo 1>&2 "    * new script parameters"; \
+		echo "$$FLAGS" >$@; \
+            fi
+
+
+$(patsubst %.sh,%,$(SCRIPT_SH)) : % : %.sh GIT-SCRIPT-DEFINES
 	$(QUIET_GEN)$(cmd_munge_script) && \
 	chmod +x $@+ && \
 	mv $@+ $@
 
-$(SCRIPT_LIB) : % : %.sh
+$(SCRIPT_LIB) : % : %.sh GIT-SCRIPT-DEFINES
 	$(QUIET_GEN)$(cmd_munge_script) && \
 	mv $@+ $@
 
 ifndef NO_PERL
 $(patsubst %.perl,%,$(SCRIPT_PERL)): perl/perl.mak
 
-perl/perl.mak: GIT-CFLAGS perl/Makefile perl/Makefile.PL
+perl/perl.mak: perl/PM.stamp
+
+perl/PM.stamp: FORCE
+	$(QUIET_GEN)$(FIND) perl -type f -name '*.pm' | sort >$@+ && \
+	{ cmp $@+ $@ >/dev/null 2>/dev/null || mv $@+ $@; } && \
+	$(RM) $@+
+
+perl/perl.mak: GIT-CFLAGS GIT-PREFIX perl/Makefile perl/Makefile.PL
 	$(QUIET_SUBDIR0)perl $(QUIET_SUBDIR1) PERL_PATH='$(PERL_PATH_SQ)' prefix='$(prefix_SQ)' $(@F)
 
-$(patsubst %.perl,%,$(SCRIPT_PERL)): % : %.perl
+$(patsubst %.perl,%,$(SCRIPT_PERL)): % : %.perl GIT-VERSION-FILE
 	$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ $@+ && \
 	INSTLIBDIR=`MAKEFLAGS= $(MAKE) -C perl -s --no-print-directory instlibdir` && \
 	sed -e '1{' \
@@ -1972,14 +2122,8 @@
 gitweb:
 	$(QUIET_SUBDIR0)gitweb $(QUIET_SUBDIR1) all
 
-git-instaweb: git-instaweb.sh gitweb
-	$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ $@+ && \
-	sed -e '1s|#!.*/sh|#!$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)|' \
-	    -e 's/@@GIT_VERSION@@/$(GIT_VERSION)/g' \
-	    -e 's/@@NO_CURL@@/$(NO_CURL)/g' \
-	    -e 's|@@GITWEBDIR@@|$(gitwebdir_SQ)|g' \
-	    -e 's|@@PERL@@|$(PERL_PATH_SQ)|g' \
-	    $@.sh > $@+ && \
+git-instaweb: git-instaweb.sh gitweb GIT-SCRIPT-DEFINES
+	$(QUIET_GEN)$(cmd_munge_script) && \
 	chmod +x $@+ && \
 	mv $@+ $@
 else # NO_PERL
@@ -1993,7 +2137,7 @@
 endif # NO_PERL
 
 ifndef NO_PYTHON
-$(patsubst %.py,%,$(SCRIPT_PYTHON)): GIT-CFLAGS
+$(patsubst %.py,%,$(SCRIPT_PYTHON)): GIT-CFLAGS GIT-PREFIX
 $(patsubst %.py,%,$(SCRIPT_PYTHON)): % : %.py
 	$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ $@+ && \
 	INSTLIBDIR=`MAKEFLAGS= $(MAKE) -C git_remote_helpers -s \
@@ -2015,24 +2159,23 @@
 	mv $@+ $@
 endif # NO_PYTHON
 
-configure: configure.ac
+configure: configure.ac GIT-VERSION-FILE
 	$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ $<+ && \
 	sed -e 's/@@GIT_VERSION@@/$(GIT_VERSION)/g' \
 	    $< > $<+ && \
 	autoconf -o $@ $<+ && \
 	$(RM) $<+
 
-# These can record GIT_VERSION
-git.o git.spec http.o \
-	$(patsubst %.sh,%,$(SCRIPT_SH)) \
-	$(patsubst %.perl,%,$(SCRIPT_PERL)) \
-	: GIT-VERSION-FILE
-
-TEST_OBJS := $(patsubst test-%$X,test-%.o,$(TEST_PROGRAMS))
-GIT_OBJS := $(LIB_OBJS) $(BUILTIN_OBJS) $(PROGRAM_OBJS) $(TEST_OBJS) \
-	git.o
-ifndef NO_CURL
-	GIT_OBJS += http.o http-walker.o remote-curl.o
+ifdef AUTOCONFIGURED
+config.status: configure
+	$(QUIET_GEN)if test -f config.status; then \
+	  ./config.status --recheck; \
+	else \
+	  ./configure; \
+	fi
+reconfigure config.mak.autogen: config.status
+	$(QUIET_GEN)./config.status
+.PHONY: reconfigure # This is a convenience target.
 endif
 
 XDIFF_OBJS += xdiff/xdiffi.o
@@ -2050,9 +2193,14 @@
 VCSSVN_OBJS += vcs-svn/svndiff.o
 VCSSVN_OBJS += vcs-svn/svndump.o
 
-VCSSVN_TEST_OBJS += test-line-buffer.o
-
-OBJECTS := $(GIT_OBJS) $(XDIFF_OBJS) $(VCSSVN_OBJS)
+TEST_OBJS := $(patsubst test-%$X,test-%.o,$(TEST_PROGRAMS))
+OBJECTS := $(LIB_OBJS) $(BUILTIN_OBJS) $(PROGRAM_OBJS) $(TEST_OBJS) \
+	$(XDIFF_OBJS) \
+	$(VCSSVN_OBJS) \
+	git.o
+ifndef NO_CURL
+	OBJECTS += http.o http-walker.o remote-curl.o
+endif
 
 dep_files := $(foreach f,$(OBJECTS),$(dir $f).depend/$(notdir $f).d)
 dep_dirs := $(addsuffix .depend,$(sort $(dir $(OBJECTS))))
@@ -2135,7 +2283,7 @@
 endif
 
 %.s: %.c GIT-CFLAGS FORCE
-	$(QUIET_CC)$(CC) -S $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(EXTRA_CPPFLAGS) $<
+	$(QUIET_CC)$(CC) -o $@ -S $(ALL_CFLAGS) $(EXTRA_CPPFLAGS) $<
 
 ifdef USE_COMPUTED_HEADER_DEPENDENCIES
 # Take advantage of gcc's on-the-fly dependency generation
@@ -2151,66 +2299,32 @@
 # Dependencies on automatically generated headers such as common-cmds.h
 # should _not_ be included here, since they are necessary even when
 # building an object for the first time.
-#
-# XXX. Please check occasionally that these include all dependencies
-# gcc detects!
 
-$(GIT_OBJS): $(LIB_H)
-builtin/branch.o builtin/checkout.o builtin/clone.o builtin/reset.o branch.o transport.o: branch.h
-builtin/bundle.o bundle.o transport.o: bundle.h
-builtin/bisect--helper.o builtin/rev-list.o bisect.o: bisect.h
-builtin/clone.o builtin/fetch-pack.o transport.o: fetch-pack.h
-builtin/grep.o builtin/pack-objects.o transport-helper.o thread-utils.o: thread-utils.h
-builtin/send-pack.o transport.o: send-pack.h
-builtin/log.o builtin/shortlog.o: shortlog.h
-builtin/prune.o builtin/reflog.o reachable.o: reachable.h
-builtin/commit.o builtin/revert.o wt-status.o: wt-status.h
-builtin/tar-tree.o archive-tar.o: tar.h
-connect.o transport.o url.o http-backend.o: url.h
-http-fetch.o http-walker.o remote-curl.o transport.o walker.o: walker.h
-http.o http-walker.o http-push.o http-fetch.o remote-curl.o: http.h url.h
-
-XDIFF_H += xdiff/xinclude.h
-XDIFF_H += xdiff/xmacros.h
-XDIFF_H += xdiff/xdiff.h
-XDIFF_H += xdiff/xtypes.h
-XDIFF_H += xdiff/xutils.h
-XDIFF_H += xdiff/xprepare.h
-XDIFF_H += xdiff/xdiffi.h
-XDIFF_H += xdiff/xemit.h
-
-xdiff-interface.o $(XDIFF_OBJS): $(XDIFF_H)
-
-VCSSVN_H += vcs-svn/line_buffer.h
-VCSSVN_H += vcs-svn/sliding_window.h
-VCSSVN_H += vcs-svn/repo_tree.h
-VCSSVN_H += vcs-svn/fast_export.h
-VCSSVN_H += vcs-svn/svndiff.h
-VCSSVN_H += vcs-svn/svndump.h
-
-$(VCSSVN_OBJS) $(VCSSVN_TEST_OBJS): $(LIB_H) $(VCSSVN_H)
+$(OBJECTS): $(LIB_H)
 endif
 
+exec_cmd.sp exec_cmd.s exec_cmd.o: GIT-PREFIX
 exec_cmd.sp exec_cmd.s exec_cmd.o: EXTRA_CPPFLAGS = \
 	'-DGIT_EXEC_PATH="$(gitexecdir_SQ)"' \
 	'-DBINDIR="$(bindir_relative_SQ)"' \
 	'-DPREFIX="$(prefix_SQ)"'
 
+builtin/init-db.sp builtin/init-db.s builtin/init-db.o: GIT-PREFIX
 builtin/init-db.sp builtin/init-db.s builtin/init-db.o: EXTRA_CPPFLAGS = \
 	-DDEFAULT_GIT_TEMPLATE_DIR='"$(template_dir_SQ)"'
 
+config.sp config.s config.o: GIT-PREFIX
 config.sp config.s config.o: EXTRA_CPPFLAGS = \
 	-DETC_GITCONFIG='"$(ETC_GITCONFIG_SQ)"'
 
+attr.sp attr.s attr.o: GIT-PREFIX
 attr.sp attr.s attr.o: EXTRA_CPPFLAGS = \
 	-DETC_GITATTRIBUTES='"$(ETC_GITATTRIBUTES_SQ)"'
 
+gettext.sp gettext.s gettext.o: GIT-PREFIX
 gettext.sp gettext.s gettext.o: EXTRA_CPPFLAGS = \
 	-DGIT_LOCALE_PATH='"$(localedir_SQ)"'
 
-http.sp http.s http.o: EXTRA_CPPFLAGS = \
-	-DGIT_HTTP_USER_AGENT='"git/$(GIT_VERSION)"'
-
 ifdef NO_EXPAT
 http-walker.sp http-walker.s http-walker.o: EXTRA_CPPFLAGS = -DNO_EXPAT
 endif
@@ -2258,6 +2372,8 @@
 $(VCSSVN_LIB): $(VCSSVN_OBJS)
 	$(QUIET_AR)$(RM) $@ && $(AR) rcs $@ $(VCSSVN_OBJS)
 
+export DEFAULT_EDITOR DEFAULT_PAGER
+
 doc:
 	$(MAKE) -C Documentation all
 
@@ -2280,9 +2396,10 @@
 	--from-code=UTF-8
 XGETTEXT_FLAGS_C = $(XGETTEXT_FLAGS) --language=C \
 	--keyword=_ --keyword=N_ --keyword="Q_:1,2"
-XGETTEXT_FLAGS_SH = $(XGETTEXT_FLAGS) --language=Shell
+XGETTEXT_FLAGS_SH = $(XGETTEXT_FLAGS) --language=Shell \
+	--keyword=gettextln --keyword=eval_gettextln
 XGETTEXT_FLAGS_PERL = $(XGETTEXT_FLAGS) --keyword=__ --language=Perl
-LOCALIZED_C := $(C_OBJ:o=c)
+LOCALIZED_C := $(C_OBJ:o=c) $(LIB_H) $(GENERATED_H)
 LOCALIZED_SH := $(SCRIPT_SH)
 LOCALIZED_PERL := $(SCRIPT_PERL)
 
@@ -2329,14 +2446,22 @@
 	$(FIND_SOURCE_FILES) | xargs cscope -b
 
 ### Detect prefix changes
-TRACK_CFLAGS = $(CC):$(subst ','\'',$(ALL_CFLAGS)):\
-             $(bindir_SQ):$(gitexecdir_SQ):$(template_dir_SQ):$(prefix_SQ):\
-             $(localedir_SQ):$(USE_GETTEXT_SCHEME)
+TRACK_PREFIX = $(bindir_SQ):$(gitexecdir_SQ):$(template_dir_SQ):$(prefix_SQ):\
+		$(localedir_SQ)
+
+GIT-PREFIX: FORCE
+	@FLAGS='$(TRACK_PREFIX)'; \
+	if test x"$$FLAGS" != x"`cat GIT-PREFIX 2>/dev/null`" ; then \
+		echo 1>&2 "    * new prefix flags"; \
+		echo "$$FLAGS" >GIT-PREFIX; \
+	fi
+
+TRACK_CFLAGS = $(CC):$(subst ','\'',$(ALL_CFLAGS)):$(USE_GETTEXT_SCHEME)
 
 GIT-CFLAGS: FORCE
 	@FLAGS='$(TRACK_CFLAGS)'; \
 	    if test x"$$FLAGS" != x"`cat GIT-CFLAGS 2>/dev/null`" ; then \
-		echo 1>&2 "    * new build flags or prefix"; \
+		echo 1>&2 "    * new build flags"; \
 		echo "$$FLAGS" >GIT-CFLAGS; \
             fi
 
@@ -2528,19 +2653,21 @@
 	{ test "$$bindir/" = "$$execdir/" || \
 	  for p in git$X $(filter $(install_bindir_programs),$(ALL_PROGRAMS)); do \
 		$(RM) "$$execdir/$$p" && \
-		test -z "$(NO_CROSS_DIRECTORY_HARDLINKS)" && \
+		test -z "$(NO_INSTALL_HARDLINKS)$(NO_CROSS_DIRECTORY_HARDLINKS)" && \
 		ln "$$bindir/$$p" "$$execdir/$$p" 2>/dev/null || \
 		cp "$$bindir/$$p" "$$execdir/$$p" || exit; \
 	  done; \
 	} && \
 	for p in $(filter $(install_bindir_programs),$(BUILT_INS)); do \
 		$(RM) "$$bindir/$$p" && \
+		test -z "$(NO_INSTALL_HARDLINKS)" && \
 		ln "$$bindir/git$X" "$$bindir/$$p" 2>/dev/null || \
 		ln -s "git$X" "$$bindir/$$p" 2>/dev/null || \
 		cp "$$bindir/git$X" "$$bindir/$$p" || exit; \
 	done && \
 	for p in $(BUILT_INS); do \
 		$(RM) "$$execdir/$$p" && \
+		test -z "$(NO_INSTALL_HARDLINKS)" && \
 		ln "$$execdir/git$X" "$$execdir/$$p" 2>/dev/null || \
 		ln -s "git$X" "$$execdir/$$p" 2>/dev/null || \
 		cp "$$execdir/git$X" "$$execdir/$$p" || exit; \
@@ -2548,6 +2675,7 @@
 	remote_curl_aliases="$(REMOTE_CURL_ALIASES)" && \
 	for p in $$remote_curl_aliases; do \
 		$(RM) "$$execdir/$$p" && \
+		test -z "$(NO_INSTALL_HARDLINKS)" && \
 		ln "$$execdir/git-remote-http$X" "$$execdir/$$p" 2>/dev/null || \
 		ln -s "git-remote-http$X" "$$execdir/$$p" 2>/dev/null || \
 		cp "$$execdir/git-remote-http$X" "$$execdir/$$p" || exit; \
@@ -2585,7 +2713,7 @@
 
 ### Maintainer's dist rules
 
-git.spec: git.spec.in
+git.spec: git.spec.in GIT-VERSION-FILE
 	sed -e 's/@@VERSION@@/$(GIT_VERSION)/g' < $< > $@+
 	mv $@+ $@
 
@@ -2635,6 +2763,9 @@
 
 distclean: clean
 	$(RM) configure
+	$(RM) config.log config.status config.cache
+	$(RM) config.mak.autogen config.mak.append
+	$(RM) -r autom4te.cache
 
 profile-clean:
 	$(RM) $(addsuffix *.gcda,$(addprefix $(PROFILE_DIR)/, $(object_dirs)))
@@ -2649,8 +2780,6 @@
 	$(RM) -r $(dep_dirs)
 	$(RM) -r po/build/
 	$(RM) *.spec *.pyc *.pyo */*.pyc */*.pyo common-cmds.h $(ETAGS_TARGET) tags cscope*
-	$(RM) -r autom4te.cache
-	$(RM) config.log config.mak.autogen config.mak.append config.status config.cache
 	$(RM) -r $(GIT_TARNAME) .doc-tmp-dir
 	$(RM) $(GIT_TARNAME).tar.gz git-core_$(GIT_VERSION)-*.tar.gz
 	$(RM) $(htmldocs).tar.gz $(manpages).tar.gz
@@ -2669,6 +2798,7 @@
 	$(MAKE) -C git-gui clean
 endif
 	$(RM) GIT-VERSION-FILE GIT-CFLAGS GIT-LDFLAGS GIT-GUI-VARS GIT-BUILD-OPTIONS
+	$(RM) GIT-USER-AGENT GIT-PREFIX GIT-SCRIPT-DEFINES
 
 .PHONY: all install profile-clean clean strip
 .PHONY: shell_compatibility_test please_set_SHELL_PATH_to_a_more_modern_shell
@@ -2676,8 +2806,13 @@
 
 ### Check documentation
 #
+ALL_COMMANDS = $(ALL_PROGRAMS) $(SCRIPT_LIB) $(BUILT_INS)
+ALL_COMMANDS += git
+ALL_COMMANDS += gitk
+ALL_COMMANDS += gitweb
+ALL_COMMANDS += git-gui git-citool
 check-docs::
-	@(for v in $(ALL_PROGRAMS) $(SCRIPT_LIB) $(BUILT_INS) git gitk; \
+	@(for v in $(ALL_COMMANDS); \
 	do \
 		case "$$v" in \
 		git-merge-octopus | git-merge-ours | git-merge-recursive | \
@@ -2699,35 +2834,13 @@
 		sed -e '/^#/d' \
 		    -e 's/[ 	].*//' \
 		    -e 's/^/listed /' command-list.txt; \
-		ls -1 Documentation/git*txt | \
+		$(MAKE) -C Documentation print-man1 | \
+		grep '\.txt$$' | \
 		sed -e 's|Documentation/|documented |' \
 		    -e 's/\.txt//'; \
 	) | while read how cmd; \
 	do \
-		case "$$how,$$cmd" in \
-		*,git-citool | \
-		*,git-gui | \
-		*,git-help | \
-		documented,gitattributes | \
-		documented,gitignore | \
-		documented,gitmodules | \
-		documented,gitcli | \
-		documented,git-tools | \
-		documented,gitcore-tutorial | \
-		documented,gitcvs-migration | \
-		documented,gitdiffcore | \
-		documented,gitglossary | \
-		documented,githooks | \
-		documented,gitrepository-layout | \
-		documented,gitrevisions | \
-		documented,gittutorial | \
-		documented,gittutorial-2 | \
-		documented,git-bisect-lk2009 | \
-		documented,git-remote-helpers | \
-		documented,gitworkflows | \
-		sentinel,not,matching,is,ok ) continue ;; \
-		esac; \
-		case " $(ALL_PROGRAMS) $(SCRIPT_LIB) $(BUILT_INS) git gitk " in \
+		case " $(ALL_COMMANDS) " in \
 		*" $$cmd "*)	;; \
 		*) echo "removed but $$how: $$cmd" ;; \
 		esac; \
diff --git a/RelNotes b/RelNotes
index 1af36ea..9cd9140 120000
--- a/RelNotes
+++ b/RelNotes
@@ -1 +1 @@
-Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.10.5.txt
\ No newline at end of file
+Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.12.3.txt
\ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/advice.c b/advice.c
index a492eea..edfbd4a 100644
--- a/advice.c
+++ b/advice.c
@@ -32,7 +32,7 @@
 	const char *cp, *np;
 
 	va_start(params, advice);
-	strbuf_addf(&buf, advice, params);
+	strbuf_vaddf(&buf, advice, params);
 	va_end(params);
 
 	for (cp = buf.buf; *cp; cp = np) {
diff --git a/archive-tar.c b/archive-tar.c
index 20af005..0ba3f25 100644
--- a/archive-tar.c
+++ b/archive-tar.c
@@ -4,6 +4,7 @@
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "tar.h"
 #include "archive.h"
+#include "streaming.h"
 #include "run-command.h"
 
 #define RECORDSIZE	(512)
@@ -30,10 +31,9 @@
  * queues up writes, so that all our write(2) calls write exactly one
  * full block; pads writes to RECORDSIZE
  */
-static void write_blocked(const void *data, unsigned long size)
+static void do_write_blocked(const void *data, unsigned long size)
 {
 	const char *buf = data;
-	unsigned long tail;
 
 	if (offset) {
 		unsigned long chunk = BLOCKSIZE - offset;
@@ -54,6 +54,11 @@
 		memcpy(block + offset, buf, size);
 		offset += size;
 	}
+}
+
+static void finish_record(void)
+{
+	unsigned long tail;
 	tail = offset % RECORDSIZE;
 	if (tail)  {
 		memset(block + offset, 0, RECORDSIZE - tail);
@@ -62,6 +67,12 @@
 	write_if_needed();
 }
 
+static void write_blocked(const void *data, unsigned long size)
+{
+	do_write_blocked(data, size);
+	finish_record();
+}
+
 /*
  * The end of tar archives is marked by 2*512 nul bytes and after that
  * follows the rest of the block (if any).
@@ -78,6 +89,33 @@
 }
 
 /*
+ * queues up writes, so that all our write(2) calls write exactly one
+ * full block; pads writes to RECORDSIZE
+ */
+static int stream_blocked(const unsigned char *sha1)
+{
+	struct git_istream *st;
+	enum object_type type;
+	unsigned long sz;
+	char buf[BLOCKSIZE];
+	ssize_t readlen;
+
+	st = open_istream(sha1, &type, &sz, NULL);
+	if (!st)
+		return error("cannot stream blob %s", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+	for (;;) {
+		readlen = read_istream(st, buf, sizeof(buf));
+		if (readlen <= 0)
+			break;
+		do_write_blocked(buf, readlen);
+	}
+	close_istream(st);
+	if (!readlen)
+		finish_record();
+	return readlen;
+}
+
+/*
  * pax extended header records have the format "%u %s=%s\n".  %u contains
  * the size of the whole string (including the %u), the first %s is the
  * keyword, the second one is the value.  This function constructs such a
@@ -101,13 +139,13 @@
 
 static unsigned int ustar_header_chksum(const struct ustar_header *header)
 {
-	char *p = (char *)header;
+	const unsigned char *p = (const unsigned char *)header;
 	unsigned int chksum = 0;
-	while (p < header->chksum)
+	while (p < (const unsigned char *)header->chksum)
 		chksum += *p++;
 	chksum += sizeof(header->chksum) * ' ';
 	p += sizeof(header->chksum);
-	while (p < (char *)header + sizeof(struct ustar_header))
+	while (p < (const unsigned char *)header + sizeof(struct ustar_header))
 		chksum += *p++;
 	return chksum;
 }
@@ -123,56 +161,101 @@
 	return i;
 }
 
+static void prepare_header(struct archiver_args *args,
+			   struct ustar_header *header,
+			   unsigned int mode, unsigned long size)
+{
+	sprintf(header->mode, "%07o", mode & 07777);
+	sprintf(header->size, "%011lo", S_ISREG(mode) ? size : 0);
+	sprintf(header->mtime, "%011lo", (unsigned long) args->time);
+
+	sprintf(header->uid, "%07o", 0);
+	sprintf(header->gid, "%07o", 0);
+	strlcpy(header->uname, "root", sizeof(header->uname));
+	strlcpy(header->gname, "root", sizeof(header->gname));
+	sprintf(header->devmajor, "%07o", 0);
+	sprintf(header->devminor, "%07o", 0);
+
+	memcpy(header->magic, "ustar", 6);
+	memcpy(header->version, "00", 2);
+
+	sprintf(header->chksum, "%07o", ustar_header_chksum(header));
+}
+
+static int write_extended_header(struct archiver_args *args,
+				 const unsigned char *sha1,
+				 const void *buffer, unsigned long size)
+{
+	struct ustar_header header;
+	unsigned int mode;
+	memset(&header, 0, sizeof(header));
+	*header.typeflag = TYPEFLAG_EXT_HEADER;
+	mode = 0100666;
+	sprintf(header.name, "%s.paxheader", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+	prepare_header(args, &header, mode, size);
+	write_blocked(&header, sizeof(header));
+	write_blocked(buffer, size);
+	return 0;
+}
+
 static int write_tar_entry(struct archiver_args *args,
-		const unsigned char *sha1, const char *path, size_t pathlen,
-		unsigned int mode, void *buffer, unsigned long size)
+			   const unsigned char *sha1,
+			   const char *path, size_t pathlen,
+			   unsigned int mode)
 {
 	struct ustar_header header;
 	struct strbuf ext_header = STRBUF_INIT;
+	unsigned int old_mode = mode;
+	unsigned long size;
+	void *buffer;
 	int err = 0;
 
 	memset(&header, 0, sizeof(header));
 
-	if (!sha1) {
-		*header.typeflag = TYPEFLAG_GLOBAL_HEADER;
-		mode = 0100666;
-		strcpy(header.name, "pax_global_header");
-	} else if (!path) {
-		*header.typeflag = TYPEFLAG_EXT_HEADER;
-		mode = 0100666;
-		sprintf(header.name, "%s.paxheader", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+	if (S_ISDIR(mode) || S_ISGITLINK(mode)) {
+		*header.typeflag = TYPEFLAG_DIR;
+		mode = (mode | 0777) & ~tar_umask;
+	} else if (S_ISLNK(mode)) {
+		*header.typeflag = TYPEFLAG_LNK;
+		mode |= 0777;
+	} else if (S_ISREG(mode)) {
+		*header.typeflag = TYPEFLAG_REG;
+		mode = (mode | ((mode & 0100) ? 0777 : 0666)) & ~tar_umask;
 	} else {
-		if (S_ISDIR(mode) || S_ISGITLINK(mode)) {
-			*header.typeflag = TYPEFLAG_DIR;
-			mode = (mode | 0777) & ~tar_umask;
-		} else if (S_ISLNK(mode)) {
-			*header.typeflag = TYPEFLAG_LNK;
-			mode |= 0777;
-		} else if (S_ISREG(mode)) {
-			*header.typeflag = TYPEFLAG_REG;
-			mode = (mode | ((mode & 0100) ? 0777 : 0666)) & ~tar_umask;
-		} else {
-			return error("unsupported file mode: 0%o (SHA1: %s)",
-					mode, sha1_to_hex(sha1));
-		}
-		if (pathlen > sizeof(header.name)) {
-			size_t plen = get_path_prefix(path, pathlen,
-					sizeof(header.prefix));
-			size_t rest = pathlen - plen - 1;
-			if (plen > 0 && rest <= sizeof(header.name)) {
-				memcpy(header.prefix, path, plen);
+		return error("unsupported file mode: 0%o (SHA1: %s)",
+			     mode, sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+	}
+	if (pathlen > sizeof(header.name)) {
+		size_t plen = get_path_prefix(path, pathlen,
+					      sizeof(header.prefix));
+		size_t rest = pathlen - plen - 1;
+		if (plen > 0 && rest <= sizeof(header.name)) {
+			memcpy(header.prefix, path, plen);
 				memcpy(header.name, path + plen + 1, rest);
-			} else {
-				sprintf(header.name, "%s.data",
-				        sha1_to_hex(sha1));
-				strbuf_append_ext_header(&ext_header, "path",
-						path, pathlen);
-			}
-		} else
-			memcpy(header.name, path, pathlen);
+		} else {
+			sprintf(header.name, "%s.data",
+				sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+			strbuf_append_ext_header(&ext_header, "path",
+						 path, pathlen);
+		}
+	} else
+		memcpy(header.name, path, pathlen);
+
+	if (S_ISREG(mode) && !args->convert &&
+	    sha1_object_info(sha1, &size) == OBJ_BLOB &&
+	    size > big_file_threshold)
+		buffer = NULL;
+	else if (S_ISLNK(mode) || S_ISREG(mode)) {
+		enum object_type type;
+		buffer = sha1_file_to_archive(args, path, sha1, old_mode, &type, &size);
+		if (!buffer)
+			return error("cannot read %s", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+	} else {
+		buffer = NULL;
+		size = 0;
 	}
 
-	if (S_ISLNK(mode) && buffer) {
+	if (S_ISLNK(mode)) {
 		if (size > sizeof(header.linkname)) {
 			sprintf(header.linkname, "see %s.paxheader",
 			        sha1_to_hex(sha1));
@@ -182,32 +265,25 @@
 			memcpy(header.linkname, buffer, size);
 	}
 
-	sprintf(header.mode, "%07o", mode & 07777);
-	sprintf(header.size, "%011lo", S_ISREG(mode) ? size : 0);
-	sprintf(header.mtime, "%011lo", (unsigned long) args->time);
-
-	sprintf(header.uid, "%07o", 0);
-	sprintf(header.gid, "%07o", 0);
-	strlcpy(header.uname, "root", sizeof(header.uname));
-	strlcpy(header.gname, "root", sizeof(header.gname));
-	sprintf(header.devmajor, "%07o", 0);
-	sprintf(header.devminor, "%07o", 0);
-
-	memcpy(header.magic, "ustar", 6);
-	memcpy(header.version, "00", 2);
-
-	sprintf(header.chksum, "%07o", ustar_header_chksum(&header));
+	prepare_header(args, &header, mode, size);
 
 	if (ext_header.len > 0) {
-		err = write_tar_entry(args, sha1, NULL, 0, 0, ext_header.buf,
-				ext_header.len);
-		if (err)
+		err = write_extended_header(args, sha1, ext_header.buf,
+					    ext_header.len);
+		if (err) {
+			free(buffer);
 			return err;
+		}
 	}
 	strbuf_release(&ext_header);
 	write_blocked(&header, sizeof(header));
-	if (S_ISREG(mode) && buffer && size > 0)
-		write_blocked(buffer, size);
+	if (S_ISREG(mode) && size > 0) {
+		if (buffer)
+			write_blocked(buffer, size);
+		else
+			err = stream_blocked(sha1);
+	}
+	free(buffer);
 	return err;
 }
 
@@ -215,11 +291,18 @@
 {
 	const unsigned char *sha1 = args->commit_sha1;
 	struct strbuf ext_header = STRBUF_INIT;
-	int err;
+	struct ustar_header header;
+	unsigned int mode;
+	int err = 0;
 
 	strbuf_append_ext_header(&ext_header, "comment", sha1_to_hex(sha1), 40);
-	err = write_tar_entry(args, NULL, NULL, 0, 0, ext_header.buf,
-			ext_header.len);
+	memset(&header, 0, sizeof(header));
+	*header.typeflag = TYPEFLAG_GLOBAL_HEADER;
+	mode = 0100666;
+	strcpy(header.name, "pax_global_header");
+	prepare_header(args, &header, mode, ext_header.len);
+	write_blocked(&header, sizeof(header));
+	write_blocked(ext_header.buf, ext_header.len);
 	strbuf_release(&ext_header);
 	return err;
 }
diff --git a/archive-zip.c b/archive-zip.c
index 02d1f37..f5af81f 100644
--- a/archive-zip.c
+++ b/archive-zip.c
@@ -3,6 +3,7 @@
  */
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "archive.h"
+#include "streaming.h"
 
 static int zip_date;
 static int zip_time;
@@ -15,6 +16,7 @@
 static unsigned int zip_dir_entries;
 
 #define ZIP_DIRECTORY_MIN_SIZE	(1024 * 1024)
+#define ZIP_STREAM (8)
 
 struct zip_local_header {
 	unsigned char magic[4];
@@ -31,6 +33,14 @@
 	unsigned char _end[1];
 };
 
+struct zip_data_desc {
+	unsigned char magic[4];
+	unsigned char crc32[4];
+	unsigned char compressed_size[4];
+	unsigned char size[4];
+	unsigned char _end[1];
+};
+
 struct zip_dir_header {
 	unsigned char magic[4];
 	unsigned char creator_version[2];
@@ -70,6 +80,7 @@
  * we're interested in.
  */
 #define ZIP_LOCAL_HEADER_SIZE	offsetof(struct zip_local_header, _end)
+#define ZIP_DATA_DESC_SIZE	offsetof(struct zip_data_desc, _end)
 #define ZIP_DIR_HEADER_SIZE	offsetof(struct zip_dir_header, _end)
 #define ZIP_DIR_TRAILER_SIZE	offsetof(struct zip_dir_trailer, _end)
 
@@ -120,20 +131,59 @@
 	return buffer;
 }
 
+static void write_zip_data_desc(unsigned long size,
+				unsigned long compressed_size,
+				unsigned long crc)
+{
+	struct zip_data_desc trailer;
+
+	copy_le32(trailer.magic, 0x08074b50);
+	copy_le32(trailer.crc32, crc);
+	copy_le32(trailer.compressed_size, compressed_size);
+	copy_le32(trailer.size, size);
+	write_or_die(1, &trailer, ZIP_DATA_DESC_SIZE);
+}
+
+static void set_zip_dir_data_desc(struct zip_dir_header *header,
+				  unsigned long size,
+				  unsigned long compressed_size,
+				  unsigned long crc)
+{
+	copy_le32(header->crc32, crc);
+	copy_le32(header->compressed_size, compressed_size);
+	copy_le32(header->size, size);
+}
+
+static void set_zip_header_data_desc(struct zip_local_header *header,
+				     unsigned long size,
+				     unsigned long compressed_size,
+				     unsigned long crc)
+{
+	copy_le32(header->crc32, crc);
+	copy_le32(header->compressed_size, compressed_size);
+	copy_le32(header->size, size);
+}
+
+#define STREAM_BUFFER_SIZE (1024 * 16)
+
 static int write_zip_entry(struct archiver_args *args,
-		const unsigned char *sha1, const char *path, size_t pathlen,
-		unsigned int mode, void *buffer, unsigned long size)
+			   const unsigned char *sha1,
+			   const char *path, size_t pathlen,
+			   unsigned int mode)
 {
 	struct zip_local_header header;
 	struct zip_dir_header dirent;
 	unsigned long attr2;
 	unsigned long compressed_size;
-	unsigned long uncompressed_size;
 	unsigned long crc;
 	unsigned long direntsize;
 	int method;
 	unsigned char *out;
 	void *deflated = NULL;
+	void *buffer;
+	struct git_istream *stream = NULL;
+	unsigned long flags = 0;
+	unsigned long size;
 
 	crc = crc32(0, NULL, 0);
 
@@ -146,24 +196,43 @@
 		method = 0;
 		attr2 = 16;
 		out = NULL;
-		uncompressed_size = 0;
+		size = 0;
 		compressed_size = 0;
+		buffer = NULL;
+		size = 0;
 	} else if (S_ISREG(mode) || S_ISLNK(mode)) {
+		enum object_type type = sha1_object_info(sha1, &size);
+
 		method = 0;
 		attr2 = S_ISLNK(mode) ? ((mode | 0777) << 16) :
 			(mode & 0111) ? ((mode) << 16) : 0;
-		if (S_ISREG(mode) && args->compression_level != 0)
+		if (S_ISREG(mode) && args->compression_level != 0 && size > 0)
 			method = 8;
-		crc = crc32(crc, buffer, size);
-		out = buffer;
-		uncompressed_size = size;
 		compressed_size = size;
+
+		if (S_ISREG(mode) && type == OBJ_BLOB && !args->convert &&
+		    size > big_file_threshold) {
+			stream = open_istream(sha1, &type, &size, NULL);
+			if (!stream)
+				return error("cannot stream blob %s",
+					     sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+			flags |= ZIP_STREAM;
+			out = buffer = NULL;
+		} else {
+			buffer = sha1_file_to_archive(args, path, sha1, mode,
+						      &type, &size);
+			if (!buffer)
+				return error("cannot read %s",
+					     sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+			crc = crc32(crc, buffer, size);
+			out = buffer;
+		}
 	} else {
 		return error("unsupported file mode: 0%o (SHA1: %s)", mode,
 				sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 	}
 
-	if (method == 8) {
+	if (buffer && method == 8) {
 		deflated = zlib_deflate(buffer, size, args->compression_level,
 				&compressed_size);
 		if (deflated && compressed_size - 6 < size) {
@@ -188,13 +257,11 @@
 	copy_le16(dirent.creator_version,
 		S_ISLNK(mode) || (S_ISREG(mode) && (mode & 0111)) ? 0x0317 : 0);
 	copy_le16(dirent.version, 10);
-	copy_le16(dirent.flags, 0);
+	copy_le16(dirent.flags, flags);
 	copy_le16(dirent.compression_method, method);
 	copy_le16(dirent.mtime, zip_time);
 	copy_le16(dirent.mdate, zip_date);
-	copy_le32(dirent.crc32, crc);
-	copy_le32(dirent.compressed_size, compressed_size);
-	copy_le32(dirent.size, uncompressed_size);
+	set_zip_dir_data_desc(&dirent, size, compressed_size, crc);
 	copy_le16(dirent.filename_length, pathlen);
 	copy_le16(dirent.extra_length, 0);
 	copy_le16(dirent.comment_length, 0);
@@ -202,33 +269,120 @@
 	copy_le16(dirent.attr1, 0);
 	copy_le32(dirent.attr2, attr2);
 	copy_le32(dirent.offset, zip_offset);
-	memcpy(zip_dir + zip_dir_offset, &dirent, ZIP_DIR_HEADER_SIZE);
-	zip_dir_offset += ZIP_DIR_HEADER_SIZE;
-	memcpy(zip_dir + zip_dir_offset, path, pathlen);
-	zip_dir_offset += pathlen;
-	zip_dir_entries++;
 
 	copy_le32(header.magic, 0x04034b50);
 	copy_le16(header.version, 10);
-	copy_le16(header.flags, 0);
+	copy_le16(header.flags, flags);
 	copy_le16(header.compression_method, method);
 	copy_le16(header.mtime, zip_time);
 	copy_le16(header.mdate, zip_date);
-	copy_le32(header.crc32, crc);
-	copy_le32(header.compressed_size, compressed_size);
-	copy_le32(header.size, uncompressed_size);
+	if (flags & ZIP_STREAM)
+		set_zip_header_data_desc(&header, 0, 0, 0);
+	else
+		set_zip_header_data_desc(&header, size, compressed_size, crc);
 	copy_le16(header.filename_length, pathlen);
 	copy_le16(header.extra_length, 0);
 	write_or_die(1, &header, ZIP_LOCAL_HEADER_SIZE);
 	zip_offset += ZIP_LOCAL_HEADER_SIZE;
 	write_or_die(1, path, pathlen);
 	zip_offset += pathlen;
-	if (compressed_size > 0) {
+	if (stream && method == 0) {
+		unsigned char buf[STREAM_BUFFER_SIZE];
+		ssize_t readlen;
+
+		for (;;) {
+			readlen = read_istream(stream, buf, sizeof(buf));
+			if (readlen <= 0)
+				break;
+			crc = crc32(crc, buf, readlen);
+			write_or_die(1, buf, readlen);
+		}
+		close_istream(stream);
+		if (readlen)
+			return readlen;
+
+		compressed_size = size;
+		zip_offset += compressed_size;
+
+		write_zip_data_desc(size, compressed_size, crc);
+		zip_offset += ZIP_DATA_DESC_SIZE;
+
+		set_zip_dir_data_desc(&dirent, size, compressed_size, crc);
+	} else if (stream && method == 8) {
+		unsigned char buf[STREAM_BUFFER_SIZE];
+		ssize_t readlen;
+		git_zstream zstream;
+		int result;
+		size_t out_len;
+		unsigned char compressed[STREAM_BUFFER_SIZE * 2];
+
+		memset(&zstream, 0, sizeof(zstream));
+		git_deflate_init(&zstream, args->compression_level);
+
+		compressed_size = 0;
+		zstream.next_out = compressed;
+		zstream.avail_out = sizeof(compressed);
+
+		for (;;) {
+			readlen = read_istream(stream, buf, sizeof(buf));
+			if (readlen <= 0)
+				break;
+			crc = crc32(crc, buf, readlen);
+
+			zstream.next_in = buf;
+			zstream.avail_in = readlen;
+			result = git_deflate(&zstream, 0);
+			if (result != Z_OK)
+				die("deflate error (%d)", result);
+			out = compressed;
+			if (!compressed_size)
+				out += 2;
+			out_len = zstream.next_out - out;
+
+			if (out_len > 0) {
+				write_or_die(1, out, out_len);
+				compressed_size += out_len;
+				zstream.next_out = compressed;
+				zstream.avail_out = sizeof(compressed);
+			}
+
+		}
+		close_istream(stream);
+		if (readlen)
+			return readlen;
+
+		zstream.next_in = buf;
+		zstream.avail_in = 0;
+		result = git_deflate(&zstream, Z_FINISH);
+		if (result != Z_STREAM_END)
+			die("deflate error (%d)", result);
+
+		git_deflate_end(&zstream);
+		out = compressed;
+		if (!compressed_size)
+			out += 2;
+		out_len = zstream.next_out - out - 4;
+		write_or_die(1, out, out_len);
+		compressed_size += out_len;
+		zip_offset += compressed_size;
+
+		write_zip_data_desc(size, compressed_size, crc);
+		zip_offset += ZIP_DATA_DESC_SIZE;
+
+		set_zip_dir_data_desc(&dirent, size, compressed_size, crc);
+	} else if (compressed_size > 0) {
 		write_or_die(1, out, compressed_size);
 		zip_offset += compressed_size;
 	}
 
 	free(deflated);
+	free(buffer);
+
+	memcpy(zip_dir + zip_dir_offset, &dirent, ZIP_DIR_HEADER_SIZE);
+	zip_dir_offset += ZIP_DIR_HEADER_SIZE;
+	memcpy(zip_dir + zip_dir_offset, path, pathlen);
+	zip_dir_offset += pathlen;
+	zip_dir_entries++;
 
 	return 0;
 }
diff --git a/archive.c b/archive.c
index 1ee837d..a484433 100644
--- a/archive.c
+++ b/archive.c
@@ -59,12 +59,15 @@
 	free(to_free);
 }
 
-static void *sha1_file_to_archive(const char *path, const unsigned char *sha1,
-		unsigned int mode, enum object_type *type,
-		unsigned long *sizep, const struct commit *commit)
+void *sha1_file_to_archive(const struct archiver_args *args,
+			   const char *path, const unsigned char *sha1,
+			   unsigned int mode, enum object_type *type,
+			   unsigned long *sizep)
 {
 	void *buffer;
+	const struct commit *commit = args->convert ? args->commit : NULL;
 
+	path += args->baselen;
 	buffer = read_sha1_file(sha1, type, sizep);
 	if (buffer && S_ISREG(mode)) {
 		struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
@@ -109,12 +112,9 @@
 	write_archive_entry_fn_t write_entry = c->write_entry;
 	struct git_attr_check check[2];
 	const char *path_without_prefix;
-	int convert = 0;
 	int err;
-	enum object_type type;
-	unsigned long size;
-	void *buffer;
 
+	args->convert = 0;
 	strbuf_reset(&path);
 	strbuf_grow(&path, PATH_MAX);
 	strbuf_add(&path, args->base, args->baselen);
@@ -126,28 +126,22 @@
 	if (!git_check_attr(path_without_prefix, ARRAY_SIZE(check), check)) {
 		if (ATTR_TRUE(check[0].value))
 			return 0;
-		convert = ATTR_TRUE(check[1].value);
+		args->convert = ATTR_TRUE(check[1].value);
 	}
 
 	if (S_ISDIR(mode) || S_ISGITLINK(mode)) {
 		strbuf_addch(&path, '/');
 		if (args->verbose)
 			fprintf(stderr, "%.*s\n", (int)path.len, path.buf);
-		err = write_entry(args, sha1, path.buf, path.len, mode, NULL, 0);
+		err = write_entry(args, sha1, path.buf, path.len, mode);
 		if (err)
 			return err;
 		return (S_ISDIR(mode) ? READ_TREE_RECURSIVE : 0);
 	}
 
-	buffer = sha1_file_to_archive(path_without_prefix, sha1, mode,
-			&type, &size, convert ? args->commit : NULL);
-	if (!buffer)
-		return error("cannot read %s", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 	if (args->verbose)
 		fprintf(stderr, "%.*s\n", (int)path.len, path.buf);
-	err = write_entry(args, sha1, path.buf, path.len, mode, buffer, size);
-	free(buffer);
-	return err;
+	return write_entry(args, sha1, path.buf, path.len, mode);
 }
 
 int write_archive_entries(struct archiver_args *args,
@@ -167,7 +161,7 @@
 		if (args->verbose)
 			fprintf(stderr, "%.*s\n", (int)len, args->base);
 		err = write_entry(args, args->tree->object.sha1, args->base,
-				len, 040777, NULL, 0);
+				  len, 040777);
 		if (err)
 			return err;
 	}
@@ -260,18 +254,11 @@
 	/* Remotes are only allowed to fetch actual refs */
 	if (remote) {
 		char *ref = NULL;
-		const char *refname, *colon = NULL;
+		const char *colon = strchr(name, ':');
+		int refnamelen = colon ? colon - name : strlen(name);
 
-		colon = strchr(name, ':');
-		if (colon)
-			refname = xstrndup(name, colon - name);
-		else
-			refname = name;
-
-		if (!dwim_ref(refname, strlen(refname), sha1, &ref))
-			die("no such ref: %s", refname);
-		if (refname != name)
-			free((void *)refname);
+		if (!dwim_ref(name, refnamelen, sha1, &ref))
+			die("no such ref: %.*s", refnamelen, name);
 		free(ref);
 	}
 
diff --git a/archive.h b/archive.h
index 2b0884f..895afcd 100644
--- a/archive.h
+++ b/archive.h
@@ -11,6 +11,7 @@
 	const char **pathspec;
 	unsigned int verbose : 1;
 	unsigned int worktree_attributes : 1;
+	unsigned int convert : 1;
 	int compression_level;
 };
 
@@ -27,11 +28,18 @@
 extern void init_tar_archiver(void);
 extern void init_zip_archiver(void);
 
-typedef int (*write_archive_entry_fn_t)(struct archiver_args *args, const unsigned char *sha1, const char *path, size_t pathlen, unsigned int mode, void *buffer, unsigned long size);
+typedef int (*write_archive_entry_fn_t)(struct archiver_args *args,
+					const unsigned char *sha1,
+					const char *path, size_t pathlen,
+					unsigned int mode);
 
 extern int write_archive_entries(struct archiver_args *args, write_archive_entry_fn_t write_entry);
 extern int write_archive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix, int setup_prefix, const char *name_hint, int remote);
 
 const char *archive_format_from_filename(const char *filename);
+extern void *sha1_file_to_archive(const struct archiver_args *args,
+				  const char *path, const unsigned char *sha1,
+				  unsigned int mode, enum object_type *type,
+				  unsigned long *sizep);
 
 #endif	/* ARCHIVE_H */
diff --git a/argv-array.c b/argv-array.c
index 0b5f889..256741d 100644
--- a/argv-array.c
+++ b/argv-array.c
@@ -49,12 +49,21 @@
 	va_end(ap);
 }
 
+void argv_array_pop(struct argv_array *array)
+{
+	if (!array->argc)
+		return;
+	free((char *)array->argv[array->argc - 1]);
+	array->argv[array->argc - 1] = NULL;
+	array->argc--;
+}
+
 void argv_array_clear(struct argv_array *array)
 {
 	if (array->argv != empty_argv) {
 		int i;
 		for (i = 0; i < array->argc; i++)
-			free((char **)array->argv[i]);
+			free((char *)array->argv[i]);
 		free(array->argv);
 	}
 	argv_array_init(array);
diff --git a/argv-array.h b/argv-array.h
index b93a69c..f4b9866 100644
--- a/argv-array.h
+++ b/argv-array.h
@@ -16,6 +16,7 @@
 __attribute__((format (printf,2,3)))
 void argv_array_pushf(struct argv_array *, const char *fmt, ...);
 void argv_array_pushl(struct argv_array *, ...);
+void argv_array_pop(struct argv_array *);
 void argv_array_clear(struct argv_array *);
 
 #endif /* ARGV_ARRAY_H */
diff --git a/attr.c b/attr.c
index 303751f..887a9ae 100644
--- a/attr.c
+++ b/attr.c
@@ -306,7 +306,7 @@
 }
 
 static const char *builtin_attr[] = {
-	"[attr]binary -diff -text",
+	"[attr]binary -diff -merge -text",
 	NULL,
 };
 
@@ -352,8 +352,11 @@
 	char buf[2048];
 	int lineno = 0;
 
-	if (!fp)
+	if (!fp) {
+		if (errno != ENOENT && errno != ENOTDIR)
+			warn_on_inaccessible(path);
 		return NULL;
+	}
 	res = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*res));
 	while (fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), fp))
 		handle_attr_line(res, buf, path, ++lineno, macro_ok);
@@ -497,6 +500,7 @@
 static void bootstrap_attr_stack(void)
 {
 	struct attr_stack *elem;
+	char *xdg_attributes_file;
 
 	if (attr_stack)
 		return;
@@ -515,6 +519,10 @@
 		}
 	}
 
+	if (!git_attributes_file) {
+		home_config_paths(NULL, &xdg_attributes_file, "attributes");
+		git_attributes_file = xdg_attributes_file;
+	}
 	if (git_attributes_file) {
 		elem = read_attr_from_file(git_attributes_file, 1);
 		if (elem) {
diff --git a/bisect.c b/bisect.c
index 6e186e2..48acf73 100644
--- a/bisect.c
+++ b/bisect.c
@@ -833,7 +833,7 @@
  */
 static void check_good_are_ancestors_of_bad(const char *prefix, int no_checkout)
 {
-	const char *filename = git_path("BISECT_ANCESTORS_OK");
+	char *filename = xstrdup(git_path("BISECT_ANCESTORS_OK"));
 	struct stat st;
 	int fd;
 
@@ -842,11 +842,11 @@
 
 	/* Check if file BISECT_ANCESTORS_OK exists. */
 	if (!stat(filename, &st) && S_ISREG(st.st_mode))
-		return;
+		goto done;
 
 	/* Bisecting with no good rev is ok. */
 	if (good_revs.nr == 0)
-		return;
+		goto done;
 
 	/* Check if all good revs are ancestor of the bad rev. */
 	if (check_ancestors(prefix))
@@ -859,6 +859,8 @@
 			filename, strerror(errno));
 	else
 		close(fd);
+ done:
+	free(filename);
 }
 
 /*
diff --git a/block-sha1/sha1.c b/block-sha1/sha1.c
index c0054a0..a8d4bf9 100644
--- a/block-sha1/sha1.c
+++ b/block-sha1/sha1.c
@@ -101,8 +101,8 @@
  * Where do we get the source from? The first 16 iterations get it from
  * the input data, the next mix it from the 512-bit array.
  */
-#define SHA_SRC(t) get_be32(data + t)
-#define SHA_MIX(t) SHA_ROL(W(t+13) ^ W(t+8) ^ W(t+2) ^ W(t), 1)
+#define SHA_SRC(t) get_be32((unsigned char *) block + (t)*4)
+#define SHA_MIX(t) SHA_ROL(W((t)+13) ^ W((t)+8) ^ W((t)+2) ^ W(t), 1);
 
 #define SHA_ROUND(t, input, fn, constant, A, B, C, D, E) do { \
 	unsigned int TEMP = input(t); setW(t, TEMP); \
@@ -115,7 +115,7 @@
 #define T_40_59(t, A, B, C, D, E) SHA_ROUND(t, SHA_MIX, ((B&C)+(D&(B^C))) , 0x8f1bbcdc, A, B, C, D, E )
 #define T_60_79(t, A, B, C, D, E) SHA_ROUND(t, SHA_MIX, (B^C^D) ,  0xca62c1d6, A, B, C, D, E )
 
-static void blk_SHA1_Block(blk_SHA_CTX *ctx, const unsigned int *data)
+static void blk_SHA1_Block(blk_SHA_CTX *ctx, const void *block)
 {
 	unsigned int A,B,C,D,E;
 	unsigned int array[16];
@@ -126,7 +126,7 @@
 	D = ctx->H[3];
 	E = ctx->H[4];
 
-	/* Round 1 - iterations 0-16 take their input from 'data' */
+	/* Round 1 - iterations 0-16 take their input from 'block' */
 	T_0_15( 0, A, B, C, D, E);
 	T_0_15( 1, E, A, B, C, D);
 	T_0_15( 2, D, E, A, B, C);
diff --git a/branch.c b/branch.c
index 9971820..2bef1e7 100644
--- a/branch.c
+++ b/branch.c
@@ -74,25 +74,33 @@
 		strbuf_addf(&key, "branch.%s.rebase", local);
 		git_config_set(key.buf, "true");
 	}
+	strbuf_release(&key);
 
 	if (flag & BRANCH_CONFIG_VERBOSE) {
-		strbuf_reset(&key);
-
-		strbuf_addstr(&key, origin ? "remote" : "local");
-
-		/* Are we tracking a proper "branch"? */
-		if (remote_is_branch) {
-			strbuf_addf(&key, " branch %s", shortname);
-			if (origin)
-				strbuf_addf(&key, " from %s", origin);
-		}
+		if (remote_is_branch && origin)
+			printf(rebasing ?
+			       "Branch %s set up to track remote branch %s from %s by rebasing.\n" :
+			       "Branch %s set up to track remote branch %s from %s.\n",
+			       local, shortname, origin);
+		else if (remote_is_branch && !origin)
+			printf(rebasing ?
+			       "Branch %s set up to track local branch %s by rebasing.\n" :
+			       "Branch %s set up to track local branch %s.\n",
+			       local, shortname);
+		else if (!remote_is_branch && origin)
+			printf(rebasing ?
+			       "Branch %s set up to track remote ref %s by rebasing.\n" :
+			       "Branch %s set up to track remote ref %s.\n",
+			       local, remote);
+		else if (!remote_is_branch && !origin)
+			printf(rebasing ?
+			       "Branch %s set up to track local ref %s by rebasing.\n" :
+			       "Branch %s set up to track local ref %s.\n",
+			       local, remote);
 		else
-			strbuf_addf(&key, " ref %s", remote);
-		printf("Branch %s set up to track %s%s.\n",
-		       local, key.buf,
-		       rebasing ? " by rebasing" : "");
+			die("BUG: impossible combination of %d and %p",
+			    remote_is_branch, origin);
 	}
-	strbuf_release(&key);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -101,9 +109,10 @@
  * config.
  */
 static int setup_tracking(const char *new_ref, const char *orig_ref,
-                          enum branch_track track)
+			  enum branch_track track, int quiet)
 {
 	struct tracking tracking;
+	int config_flags = quiet ? 0 : BRANCH_CONFIG_VERBOSE;
 
 	if (strlen(new_ref) > 1024 - 7 - 7 - 1)
 		return error("Tracking not set up: name too long: %s",
@@ -128,7 +137,7 @@
 		return error("Not tracking: ambiguous information for ref %s",
 				orig_ref);
 
-	install_branch_config(BRANCH_CONFIG_VERBOSE, new_ref, tracking.remote,
+	install_branch_config(config_flags, new_ref, tracking.remote,
 			      tracking.src ? tracking.src : orig_ref);
 
 	free(tracking.src);
@@ -191,7 +200,7 @@
 void create_branch(const char *head,
 		   const char *name, const char *start_name,
 		   int force, int reflog, int clobber_head,
-		   enum branch_track track)
+		   int quiet, enum branch_track track)
 {
 	struct ref_lock *lock = NULL;
 	struct commit *commit;
@@ -260,7 +269,7 @@
 			 start_name);
 
 	if (real_ref && track)
-		setup_tracking(ref.buf+11, real_ref, track);
+		setup_tracking(ref.buf+11, real_ref, track, quiet);
 
 	if (!dont_change_ref)
 		if (write_ref_sha1(lock, sha1, msg) < 0)
diff --git a/branch.h b/branch.h
index b99c5a3..64173ab 100644
--- a/branch.h
+++ b/branch.h
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@
  */
 void create_branch(const char *head, const char *name, const char *start_name,
 		   int force, int reflog,
-		   int clobber_head, enum branch_track track);
+		   int clobber_head, int quiet, enum branch_track track);
 
 /*
  * Validates that the requested branch may be created, returning the
diff --git a/builtin.h b/builtin.h
index 857b9c8..8e37752 100644
--- a/builtin.h
+++ b/builtin.h
@@ -9,7 +9,6 @@
 
 #define DEFAULT_MERGE_LOG_LEN 20
 
-extern const char git_version_string[];
 extern const char git_usage_string[];
 extern const char git_more_info_string[];
 
@@ -41,8 +40,10 @@
 void finish_copy_notes_for_rewrite(struct notes_rewrite_cfg *c);
 
 extern int check_pager_config(const char *cmd);
+struct diff_options;
+extern void setup_diff_pager(struct diff_options *);
 
-extern int textconv_object(const char *path, unsigned mode, const unsigned char *sha1, char **buf, unsigned long *buf_size);
+extern int textconv_object(const char *path, unsigned mode, const unsigned char *sha1, int sha1_valid, char **buf, unsigned long *buf_size);
 
 extern int cmd_add(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_annotate(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
@@ -61,10 +62,12 @@
 extern int cmd_cherry_pick(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_clone(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_clean(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+extern int cmd_column(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_commit(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_commit_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_config(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_count_objects(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+extern int cmd_credential(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_describe(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_diff_files(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_diff_index(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
@@ -82,7 +85,6 @@
 extern int cmd_grep(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_hash_object(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_help(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_http_fetch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_index_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_init_db(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_log(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
@@ -107,7 +109,6 @@
 extern int cmd_pack_objects(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_pack_redundant(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_patch_id(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_pickaxe(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_prune(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_prune_packed(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_push(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
@@ -140,7 +141,6 @@
 extern int cmd_update_server_info(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_upload_archive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_upload_archive_writer(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_upload_tar(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_var(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_verify_tag(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_version(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
diff --git a/builtin/add.c b/builtin/add.c
index b79336d..89dce56 100644
--- a/builtin/add.c
+++ b/builtin/add.c
@@ -281,7 +281,7 @@
 	argc = setup_revisions(argc, argv, &rev, NULL);
 	rev.diffopt.output_format = DIFF_FORMAT_PATCH;
 	DIFF_OPT_SET(&rev.diffopt, IGNORE_DIRTY_SUBMODULES);
-	out = open(file, O_CREAT | O_WRONLY, 0644);
+	out = open(file, O_CREAT | O_WRONLY, 0666);
 	if (out < 0)
 		die (_("Could not open '%s' for writing."), file);
 	rev.diffopt.file = xfdopen(out, "w");
@@ -443,6 +443,9 @@
 
 	if (pathspec) {
 		int i;
+		struct path_exclude_check check;
+
+		path_exclude_check_init(&check, &dir);
 		if (!seen)
 			seen = find_used_pathspec(pathspec);
 		for (i = 0; pathspec[i]; i++) {
@@ -450,7 +453,7 @@
 			    && !file_exists(pathspec[i])) {
 				if (ignore_missing) {
 					int dtype = DT_UNKNOWN;
-					if (excluded(&dir, pathspec[i], &dtype))
+					if (path_excluded(&check, pathspec[i], -1, &dtype))
 						dir_add_ignored(&dir, pathspec[i], strlen(pathspec[i]));
 				} else
 					die(_("pathspec '%s' did not match any files"),
@@ -458,6 +461,7 @@
 			}
 		}
 		free(seen);
+		path_exclude_check_clear(&check);
 	}
 
 	plug_bulk_checkin();
diff --git a/builtin/apply.c b/builtin/apply.c
index 389898f..ca8695a 100644
--- a/builtin/apply.c
+++ b/builtin/apply.c
@@ -16,6 +16,9 @@
 #include "dir.h"
 #include "diff.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
+#include "xdiff-interface.h"
+#include "ll-merge.h"
+#include "rerere.h"
 
 /*
  *  --check turns on checking that the working tree matches the
@@ -46,11 +49,12 @@
 static int apply_verbosely;
 static int allow_overlap;
 static int no_add;
+static int threeway;
 static const char *fake_ancestor;
 static int line_termination = '\n';
 static unsigned int p_context = UINT_MAX;
 static const char * const apply_usage[] = {
-	"git apply [options] [<patch>...]",
+	N_("git apply [options] [<patch>...]"),
 	NULL
 };
 
@@ -103,7 +107,7 @@
 		ws_error_action = correct_ws_error;
 		return;
 	}
-	die("unrecognized whitespace option '%s'", option);
+	die(_("unrecognized whitespace option '%s'"), option);
 }
 
 static void parse_ignorewhitespace_option(const char *option)
@@ -118,7 +122,7 @@
 		ws_ignore_action = ignore_ws_change;
 		return;
 	}
-	die("unrecognized whitespace ignore option '%s'", option);
+	die(_("unrecognized whitespace ignore option '%s'"), option);
 }
 
 static void set_default_whitespace_mode(const char *whitespace_option)
@@ -152,9 +156,14 @@
 	unsigned long leading, trailing;
 	unsigned long oldpos, oldlines;
 	unsigned long newpos, newlines;
+	/*
+	 * 'patch' is usually borrowed from buf in apply_patch(),
+	 * but some codepaths store an allocated buffer.
+	 */
 	const char *patch;
+	unsigned free_patch:1,
+		rejected:1;
 	int size;
-	int rejected;
 	int linenr;
 	struct fragment *next;
 };
@@ -179,7 +188,6 @@
 	int is_new, is_delete;	/* -1 = unknown, 0 = false, 1 = true */
 	int rejected;
 	unsigned ws_rule;
-	unsigned long deflate_origlen;
 	int lines_added, lines_deleted;
 	int score;
 	unsigned int is_toplevel_relative:1;
@@ -188,14 +196,49 @@
 	unsigned int is_copy:1;
 	unsigned int is_rename:1;
 	unsigned int recount:1;
+	unsigned int conflicted_threeway:1;
+	unsigned int direct_to_threeway:1;
 	struct fragment *fragments;
 	char *result;
 	size_t resultsize;
 	char old_sha1_prefix[41];
 	char new_sha1_prefix[41];
 	struct patch *next;
+
+	/* three-way fallback result */
+	unsigned char threeway_stage[3][20];
 };
 
+static void free_fragment_list(struct fragment *list)
+{
+	while (list) {
+		struct fragment *next = list->next;
+		if (list->free_patch)
+			free((char *)list->patch);
+		free(list);
+		list = next;
+	}
+}
+
+static void free_patch(struct patch *patch)
+{
+	free_fragment_list(patch->fragments);
+	free(patch->def_name);
+	free(patch->old_name);
+	free(patch->new_name);
+	free(patch->result);
+	free(patch);
+}
+
+static void free_patch_list(struct patch *list)
+{
+	while (list) {
+		struct patch *next = list->next;
+		free_patch(list);
+		list = next;
+	}
+}
+
 /*
  * A line in a file, len-bytes long (includes the terminating LF,
  * except for an incomplete line at the end if the file ends with
@@ -302,6 +345,11 @@
 	img->nr++;
 }
 
+/*
+ * "buf" has the file contents to be patched (read from various sources).
+ * attach it to "image" and add line-based index to it.
+ * "image" now owns the "buf".
+ */
 static void prepare_image(struct image *image, char *buf, size_t len,
 			  int prepare_linetable)
 {
@@ -331,29 +379,31 @@
 static void clear_image(struct image *image)
 {
 	free(image->buf);
-	image->buf = NULL;
-	image->len = 0;
+	free(image->line_allocated);
+	memset(image, 0, sizeof(*image));
 }
 
-static void say_patch_name(FILE *output, const char *pre,
-			   struct patch *patch, const char *post)
+/* fmt must contain _one_ %s and no other substitution */
+static void say_patch_name(FILE *output, const char *fmt, struct patch *patch)
 {
-	fputs(pre, output);
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+
 	if (patch->old_name && patch->new_name &&
 	    strcmp(patch->old_name, patch->new_name)) {
-		quote_c_style(patch->old_name, NULL, output, 0);
-		fputs(" => ", output);
-		quote_c_style(patch->new_name, NULL, output, 0);
+		quote_c_style(patch->old_name, &sb, NULL, 0);
+		strbuf_addstr(&sb, " => ");
+		quote_c_style(patch->new_name, &sb, NULL, 0);
 	} else {
 		const char *n = patch->new_name;
 		if (!n)
 			n = patch->old_name;
-		quote_c_style(n, NULL, output, 0);
+		quote_c_style(n, &sb, NULL, 0);
 	}
-	fputs(post, output);
+	fprintf(output, fmt, sb.buf);
+	fputc('\n', output);
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
 }
 
-#define CHUNKSIZE (8192)
 #define SLOP (16)
 
 static void read_patch_file(struct strbuf *sb, int fd)
@@ -416,7 +466,7 @@
 	return name;
 }
 
-static char *find_name_gnu(const char *line, char *def, int p_value)
+static char *find_name_gnu(const char *line, const char *def, int p_value)
 {
 	struct strbuf name = STRBUF_INIT;
 	char *cp;
@@ -439,11 +489,7 @@
 		cp++;
 	}
 
-	/* name can later be freed, so we need
-	 * to memmove, not just return cp
-	 */
 	strbuf_remove(&name, 0, cp - name.buf);
-	free(def);
 	if (root)
 		strbuf_insert(&name, 0, root, root_len);
 	return squash_slash(strbuf_detach(&name, NULL));
@@ -608,8 +654,13 @@
 	return line + len - end;
 }
 
-static char *find_name_common(const char *line, char *def, int p_value,
-				const char *end, int terminate)
+static char *null_strdup(const char *s)
+{
+	return s ? xstrdup(s) : NULL;
+}
+
+static char *find_name_common(const char *line, const char *def,
+			      int p_value, const char *end, int terminate)
 {
 	int len;
 	const char *start = NULL;
@@ -630,10 +681,10 @@
 			start = line;
 	}
 	if (!start)
-		return squash_slash(def);
+		return squash_slash(null_strdup(def));
 	len = line - start;
 	if (!len)
-		return squash_slash(def);
+		return squash_slash(null_strdup(def));
 
 	/*
 	 * Generally we prefer the shorter name, especially
@@ -644,8 +695,7 @@
 	if (def) {
 		int deflen = strlen(def);
 		if (deflen < len && !strncmp(start, def, deflen))
-			return squash_slash(def);
-		free(def);
+			return squash_slash(xstrdup(def));
 	}
 
 	if (root) {
@@ -770,7 +820,7 @@
 	if (!stamp) {
 		stamp = xmalloc(sizeof(*stamp));
 		if (regcomp(stamp, stamp_regexp, REG_EXTENDED)) {
-			warning("Cannot prepare timestamp regexp %s",
+			warning(_("Cannot prepare timestamp regexp %s"),
 				stamp_regexp);
 			return 0;
 		}
@@ -779,7 +829,7 @@
 	status = regexec(stamp, timestamp, ARRAY_SIZE(m), m, 0);
 	if (status) {
 		if (status != REG_NOMATCH)
-			warning("regexec returned %d for input: %s",
+			warning(_("regexec returned %d for input: %s"),
 				status, timestamp);
 		return 0;
 	}
@@ -842,8 +892,10 @@
 		name = find_name_traditional(first, NULL, p_value);
 		patch->old_name = name;
 	} else {
-		name = find_name_traditional(first, NULL, p_value);
-		name = find_name_traditional(second, name, p_value);
+		char *first_name;
+		first_name = find_name_traditional(first, NULL, p_value);
+		name = find_name_traditional(second, first_name, p_value);
+		free(first_name);
 		if (has_epoch_timestamp(first)) {
 			patch->is_new = 1;
 			patch->is_delete = 0;
@@ -853,11 +905,12 @@
 			patch->is_delete = 1;
 			patch->old_name = name;
 		} else {
-			patch->old_name = patch->new_name = name;
+			patch->old_name = name;
+			patch->new_name = xstrdup(name);
 		}
 	}
 	if (!name)
-		die("unable to find filename in patch at line %d", linenr);
+		die(_("unable to find filename in patch at line %d"), linenr);
 }
 
 static int gitdiff_hdrend(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
@@ -874,7 +927,10 @@
  * their names against any previous information, just
  * to make sure..
  */
-static char *gitdiff_verify_name(const char *line, int isnull, char *orig_name, const char *oldnew)
+#define DIFF_OLD_NAME 0
+#define DIFF_NEW_NAME 1
+
+static char *gitdiff_verify_name(const char *line, int isnull, char *orig_name, int side)
 {
 	if (!orig_name && !isnull)
 		return find_name(line, NULL, p_value, TERM_TAB);
@@ -886,30 +942,40 @@
 		name = orig_name;
 		len = strlen(name);
 		if (isnull)
-			die("git apply: bad git-diff - expected /dev/null, got %s on line %d", name, linenr);
+			die(_("git apply: bad git-diff - expected /dev/null, got %s on line %d"), name, linenr);
 		another = find_name(line, NULL, p_value, TERM_TAB);
 		if (!another || memcmp(another, name, len + 1))
-			die("git apply: bad git-diff - inconsistent %s filename on line %d", oldnew, linenr);
+			die((side == DIFF_NEW_NAME) ?
+			    _("git apply: bad git-diff - inconsistent new filename on line %d") :
+			    _("git apply: bad git-diff - inconsistent old filename on line %d"), linenr);
 		free(another);
 		return orig_name;
 	}
 	else {
 		/* expect "/dev/null" */
 		if (memcmp("/dev/null", line, 9) || line[9] != '\n')
-			die("git apply: bad git-diff - expected /dev/null on line %d", linenr);
+			die(_("git apply: bad git-diff - expected /dev/null on line %d"), linenr);
 		return NULL;
 	}
 }
 
 static int gitdiff_oldname(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
 {
-	patch->old_name = gitdiff_verify_name(line, patch->is_new, patch->old_name, "old");
+	char *orig = patch->old_name;
+	patch->old_name = gitdiff_verify_name(line, patch->is_new, patch->old_name,
+					      DIFF_OLD_NAME);
+	if (orig != patch->old_name)
+		free(orig);
 	return 0;
 }
 
 static int gitdiff_newname(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
 {
-	patch->new_name = gitdiff_verify_name(line, patch->is_delete, patch->new_name, "new");
+	char *orig = patch->new_name;
+	patch->new_name = gitdiff_verify_name(line, patch->is_delete, patch->new_name,
+					      DIFF_NEW_NAME);
+	if (orig != patch->new_name)
+		free(orig);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -928,20 +994,23 @@
 static int gitdiff_delete(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	patch->is_delete = 1;
-	patch->old_name = patch->def_name;
+	free(patch->old_name);
+	patch->old_name = null_strdup(patch->def_name);
 	return gitdiff_oldmode(line, patch);
 }
 
 static int gitdiff_newfile(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	patch->is_new = 1;
-	patch->new_name = patch->def_name;
+	free(patch->new_name);
+	patch->new_name = null_strdup(patch->def_name);
 	return gitdiff_newmode(line, patch);
 }
 
 static int gitdiff_copysrc(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	patch->is_copy = 1;
+	free(patch->old_name);
 	patch->old_name = find_name(line, NULL, p_value ? p_value - 1 : 0, 0);
 	return 0;
 }
@@ -949,6 +1018,7 @@
 static int gitdiff_copydst(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	patch->is_copy = 1;
+	free(patch->new_name);
 	patch->new_name = find_name(line, NULL, p_value ? p_value - 1 : 0, 0);
 	return 0;
 }
@@ -956,6 +1026,7 @@
 static int gitdiff_renamesrc(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	patch->is_rename = 1;
+	free(patch->old_name);
 	patch->old_name = find_name(line, NULL, p_value ? p_value - 1 : 0, 0);
 	return 0;
 }
@@ -963,6 +1034,7 @@
 static int gitdiff_renamedst(const char *line, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	patch->is_rename = 1;
+	free(patch->new_name);
 	patch->new_name = find_name(line, NULL, p_value ? p_value - 1 : 0, 0);
 	return 0;
 }
@@ -1023,15 +1095,23 @@
 	return -1;
 }
 
-static const char *stop_at_slash(const char *line, int llen)
+/*
+ * Skip p_value leading components from "line"; as we do not accept
+ * absolute paths, return NULL in that case.
+ */
+static const char *skip_tree_prefix(const char *line, int llen)
 {
-	int nslash = p_value;
+	int nslash;
 	int i;
 
+	if (!p_value)
+		return (llen && line[0] == '/') ? NULL : line;
+
+	nslash = p_value;
 	for (i = 0; i < llen; i++) {
 		int ch = line[i];
 		if (ch == '/' && --nslash <= 0)
-			return &line[i];
+			return (i == 0) ? NULL : &line[i + 1];
 	}
 	return NULL;
 }
@@ -1044,7 +1124,7 @@
  * creation or deletion of an empty file.  In any of these cases,
  * both sides are the same name under a/ and b/ respectively.
  */
-static char *git_header_name(char *line, int llen)
+static char *git_header_name(const char *line, int llen)
 {
 	const char *name;
 	const char *second = NULL;
@@ -1061,12 +1141,11 @@
 		if (unquote_c_style(&first, line, &second))
 			goto free_and_fail1;
 
-		/* advance to the first slash */
-		cp = stop_at_slash(first.buf, first.len);
-		/* we do not accept absolute paths */
-		if (!cp || cp == first.buf)
+		/* strip the a/b prefix including trailing slash */
+		cp = skip_tree_prefix(first.buf, first.len);
+		if (!cp)
 			goto free_and_fail1;
-		strbuf_remove(&first, 0, cp + 1 - first.buf);
+		strbuf_remove(&first, 0, cp - first.buf);
 
 		/*
 		 * second points at one past closing dq of name.
@@ -1080,22 +1159,21 @@
 		if (*second == '"') {
 			if (unquote_c_style(&sp, second, NULL))
 				goto free_and_fail1;
-			cp = stop_at_slash(sp.buf, sp.len);
-			if (!cp || cp == sp.buf)
+			cp = skip_tree_prefix(sp.buf, sp.len);
+			if (!cp)
 				goto free_and_fail1;
 			/* They must match, otherwise ignore */
-			if (strcmp(cp + 1, first.buf))
+			if (strcmp(cp, first.buf))
 				goto free_and_fail1;
 			strbuf_release(&sp);
 			return strbuf_detach(&first, NULL);
 		}
 
 		/* unquoted second */
-		cp = stop_at_slash(second, line + llen - second);
-		if (!cp || cp == second)
+		cp = skip_tree_prefix(second, line + llen - second);
+		if (!cp)
 			goto free_and_fail1;
-		cp++;
-		if (line + llen - cp != first.len + 1 ||
+		if (line + llen - cp != first.len ||
 		    memcmp(first.buf, cp, first.len))
 			goto free_and_fail1;
 		return strbuf_detach(&first, NULL);
@@ -1107,10 +1185,9 @@
 	}
 
 	/* unquoted first name */
-	name = stop_at_slash(line, llen);
-	if (!name || name == line)
+	name = skip_tree_prefix(line, llen);
+	if (!name)
 		return NULL;
-	name++;
 
 	/*
 	 * since the first name is unquoted, a dq if exists must be
@@ -1124,10 +1201,9 @@
 			if (unquote_c_style(&sp, second, NULL))
 				goto free_and_fail2;
 
-			np = stop_at_slash(sp.buf, sp.len);
-			if (!np || np == sp.buf)
+			np = skip_tree_prefix(sp.buf, sp.len);
+			if (!np)
 				goto free_and_fail2;
-			np++;
 
 			len = sp.buf + sp.len - np;
 			if (len < second - name &&
@@ -1159,19 +1235,33 @@
 		case '\n':
 			return NULL;
 		case '\t': case ' ':
-			second = stop_at_slash(name + len, line_len - len);
+			/*
+			 * Is this the separator between the preimage
+			 * and the postimage pathname?  Again, we are
+			 * only interested in the case where there is
+			 * no rename, as this is only to set def_name
+			 * and a rename patch has the names elsewhere
+			 * in an unambiguous form.
+			 */
+			if (!name[len + 1])
+				return NULL; /* no postimage name */
+			second = skip_tree_prefix(name + len + 1,
+						  line_len - (len + 1));
 			if (!second)
 				return NULL;
-			second++;
-			if (second[len] == '\n' && !strncmp(name, second, len)) {
+			/*
+			 * Does len bytes starting at "name" and "second"
+			 * (that are separated by one HT or SP we just
+			 * found) exactly match?
+			 */
+			if (second[len] == '\n' && !strncmp(name, second, len))
 				return xmemdupz(name, len);
-			}
 		}
 	}
 }
 
 /* Verify that we recognize the lines following a git header */
-static int parse_git_header(char *line, int len, unsigned int size, struct patch *patch)
+static int parse_git_header(const char *line, int len, unsigned int size, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	unsigned long offset;
 
@@ -1287,7 +1377,7 @@
 	return offset + ex;
 }
 
-static void recount_diff(char *line, int size, struct fragment *fragment)
+static void recount_diff(const char *line, int size, struct fragment *fragment)
 {
 	int oldlines = 0, newlines = 0, ret = 0;
 
@@ -1327,7 +1417,7 @@
 			break;
 		}
 		if (ret) {
-			warning("recount: unexpected line: %.*s",
+			warning(_("recount: unexpected line: %.*s"),
 				(int)linelen(line, size), line);
 			return;
 		}
@@ -1341,7 +1431,7 @@
  * Parse a unified diff fragment header of the
  * form "@@ -a,b +c,d @@"
  */
-static int parse_fragment_header(char *line, int len, struct fragment *fragment)
+static int parse_fragment_header(const char *line, int len, struct fragment *fragment)
 {
 	int offset;
 
@@ -1355,7 +1445,7 @@
 	return offset;
 }
 
-static int find_header(char *line, unsigned long size, int *hdrsize, struct patch *patch)
+static int find_header(const char *line, unsigned long size, int *hdrsize, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	unsigned long offset, len;
 
@@ -1384,7 +1474,7 @@
 			struct fragment dummy;
 			if (parse_fragment_header(line, len, &dummy) < 0)
 				continue;
-			die("patch fragment without header at line %d: %.*s",
+			die(_("patch fragment without header at line %d: %.*s"),
 			    linenr, (int)len-1, line);
 		}
 
@@ -1401,9 +1491,14 @@
 				continue;
 			if (!patch->old_name && !patch->new_name) {
 				if (!patch->def_name)
-					die("git diff header lacks filename information when removing "
-					    "%d leading pathname components (line %d)" , p_value, linenr);
-				patch->old_name = patch->new_name = patch->def_name;
+					die(Q_("git diff header lacks filename information when removing "
+					       "%d leading pathname component (line %d)",
+					       "git diff header lacks filename information when removing "
+					       "%d leading pathname components (line %d)",
+					       p_value),
+					    p_value, linenr);
+				patch->old_name = xstrdup(patch->def_name);
+				patch->new_name = xstrdup(patch->def_name);
 			}
 			if (!patch->is_delete && !patch->new_name)
 				die("git diff header lacks filename information "
@@ -1466,7 +1561,7 @@
  * between a "---" that is part of a patch, and a "---" that starts
  * the next patch is to look at the line counts..
  */
-static int parse_fragment(char *line, unsigned long size,
+static int parse_fragment(const char *line, unsigned long size,
 			  struct patch *patch, struct fragment *fragment)
 {
 	int added, deleted;
@@ -1556,13 +1651,21 @@
 	patch->lines_deleted += deleted;
 
 	if (0 < patch->is_new && oldlines)
-		return error("new file depends on old contents");
+		return error(_("new file depends on old contents"));
 	if (0 < patch->is_delete && newlines)
-		return error("deleted file still has contents");
+		return error(_("deleted file still has contents"));
 	return offset;
 }
 
-static int parse_single_patch(char *line, unsigned long size, struct patch *patch)
+/*
+ * We have seen "diff --git a/... b/..." header (or a traditional patch
+ * header).  Read hunks that belong to this patch into fragments and hang
+ * them to the given patch structure.
+ *
+ * The (fragment->patch, fragment->size) pair points into the memory given
+ * by the caller, not a copy, when we return.
+ */
+static int parse_single_patch(const char *line, unsigned long size, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	unsigned long offset = 0;
 	unsigned long oldlines = 0, newlines = 0, context = 0;
@@ -1576,7 +1679,7 @@
 		fragment->linenr = linenr;
 		len = parse_fragment(line, size, patch, fragment);
 		if (len <= 0)
-			die("corrupt patch at line %d", linenr);
+			die(_("corrupt patch at line %d"), linenr);
 		fragment->patch = line;
 		fragment->size = len;
 		oldlines += fragment->oldlines;
@@ -1612,12 +1715,14 @@
 		patch->is_delete = 0;
 
 	if (0 < patch->is_new && oldlines)
-		die("new file %s depends on old contents", patch->new_name);
+		die(_("new file %s depends on old contents"), patch->new_name);
 	if (0 < patch->is_delete && newlines)
-		die("deleted file %s still has contents", patch->old_name);
+		die(_("deleted file %s still has contents"), patch->old_name);
 	if (!patch->is_delete && !newlines && context)
-		fprintf(stderr, "** warning: file %s becomes empty but "
-			"is not deleted\n", patch->new_name);
+		fprintf_ln(stderr,
+			   _("** warning: "
+			     "file %s becomes empty but is not deleted"),
+			   patch->new_name);
 
 	return offset;
 }
@@ -1655,6 +1760,11 @@
 	return out;
 }
 
+/*
+ * Read a binary hunk and return a new fragment; fragment->patch
+ * points at an allocated memory that the caller must free, so
+ * it is marked as "->free_patch = 1".
+ */
 static struct fragment *parse_binary_hunk(char **buf_p,
 					  unsigned long *sz_p,
 					  int *status_p,
@@ -1742,6 +1852,7 @@
 
 	frag = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*frag));
 	frag->patch = inflate_it(data, hunk_size, origlen);
+	frag->free_patch = 1;
 	if (!frag->patch)
 		goto corrupt;
 	free(data);
@@ -1755,7 +1866,7 @@
  corrupt:
 	free(data);
 	*status_p = -1;
-	error("corrupt binary patch at line %d: %.*s",
+	error(_("corrupt binary patch at line %d: %.*s"),
 	      linenr-1, llen-1, buffer);
 	return NULL;
 }
@@ -1784,7 +1895,7 @@
 	forward = parse_binary_hunk(&buffer, &size, &status, &used);
 	if (!forward && !status)
 		/* there has to be one hunk (forward hunk) */
-		return error("unrecognized binary patch at line %d", linenr-1);
+		return error(_("unrecognized binary patch at line %d"), linenr-1);
 	if (status)
 		/* otherwise we already gave an error message */
 		return status;
@@ -1807,6 +1918,13 @@
 	return used;
 }
 
+/*
+ * Read the patch text in "buffer" taht extends for "size" bytes; stop
+ * reading after seeing a single patch (i.e. changes to a single file).
+ * Create fragments (i.e. patch hunks) and hang them to the given patch.
+ * Return the number of bytes consumed, so that the caller can call us
+ * again for the next patch.
+ */
 static int parse_chunk(char *buffer, unsigned long size, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	int hdrsize, patchsize;
@@ -1863,7 +1981,7 @@
 		 */
 		if ((apply || check) &&
 		    (!patch->is_binary && !metadata_changes(patch)))
-			die("patch with only garbage at line %d", linenr);
+			die(_("patch with only garbage at line %d"), linenr);
 	}
 
 	return offset + hdrsize + patchsize;
@@ -1953,11 +2071,11 @@
 	switch (st->st_mode & S_IFMT) {
 	case S_IFLNK:
 		if (strbuf_readlink(buf, path, st->st_size) < 0)
-			return error("unable to read symlink %s", path);
+			return error(_("unable to read symlink %s"), path);
 		return 0;
 	case S_IFREG:
 		if (strbuf_read_file(buf, path, st->st_size) != st->st_size)
-			return error("unable to open or read %s", path);
+			return error(_("unable to open or read %s"), path);
 		convert_to_git(path, buf->buf, buf->len, buf, 0);
 		return 0;
 	default:
@@ -2028,7 +2146,7 @@
 			ctx++;
 		}
 		if (preimage->nr <= ctx)
-			die("oops");
+			die(_("oops"));
 
 		/* and copy it in, while fixing the line length */
 		len = preimage->line[ctx].len;
@@ -2367,6 +2485,11 @@
 	img->len -= img->line[--img->nr].len;
 }
 
+/*
+ * The change from "preimage" and "postimage" has been found to
+ * apply at applied_pos (counts in line numbers) in "img".
+ * Update "img" to remove "preimage" and replace it with "postimage".
+ */
 static void update_image(struct image *img,
 			 int applied_pos,
 			 struct image *preimage,
@@ -2438,6 +2561,11 @@
 	img->nr = nr;
 }
 
+/*
+ * Use the patch-hunk text in "frag" to prepare two images (preimage and
+ * postimage) for the hunk.  Find lines that match "preimage" in "img" and
+ * replace the part of "img" with "postimage" text.
+ */
 static int apply_one_fragment(struct image *img, struct fragment *frag,
 			      int inaccurate_eof, unsigned ws_rule,
 			      int nth_fragment)
@@ -2540,7 +2668,7 @@
 			break;
 		default:
 			if (apply_verbosely)
-				error("invalid start of line: '%c'", first);
+				error(_("invalid start of line: '%c'"), first);
 			return -1;
 		}
 		if (added_blank_line) {
@@ -2657,9 +2785,11 @@
 			int offset = applied_pos - pos;
 			if (apply_in_reverse)
 				offset = 0 - offset;
-			fprintf(stderr,
-				"Hunk #%d succeeded at %d (offset %d lines).\n",
-				nth_fragment, applied_pos + 1, offset);
+			fprintf_ln(stderr,
+				   Q_("Hunk #%d succeeded at %d (offset %d line).",
+				      "Hunk #%d succeeded at %d (offset %d lines).",
+				      offset),
+				   nth_fragment, applied_pos + 1, offset);
 		}
 
 		/*
@@ -2668,13 +2798,13 @@
 		 */
 		if ((leading != frag->leading) ||
 		    (trailing != frag->trailing))
-			fprintf(stderr, "Context reduced to (%ld/%ld)"
-				" to apply fragment at %d\n",
-				leading, trailing, applied_pos+1);
+			fprintf_ln(stderr, _("Context reduced to (%ld/%ld)"
+					     " to apply fragment at %d"),
+				   leading, trailing, applied_pos+1);
 		update_image(img, applied_pos, &preimage, &postimage);
 	} else {
 		if (apply_verbosely)
-			error("while searching for:\n%.*s",
+			error(_("while searching for:\n%.*s"),
 			      (int)(old - oldlines), oldlines);
 	}
 
@@ -2693,7 +2823,7 @@
 	void *dst;
 
 	if (!fragment)
-		return error("missing binary patch data for '%s'",
+		return error(_("missing binary patch data for '%s'"),
 			     patch->new_name ?
 			     patch->new_name :
 			     patch->old_name);
@@ -2728,6 +2858,12 @@
 	return -1;
 }
 
+/*
+ * Replace "img" with the result of applying the binary patch.
+ * The binary patch data itself in patch->fragment is still kept
+ * but the preimage prepared by the caller in "img" is freed here
+ * or in the helper function apply_binary_fragment() this calls.
+ */
 static int apply_binary(struct image *img, struct patch *patch)
 {
 	const char *name = patch->old_name ? patch->old_name : patch->new_name;
@@ -2790,13 +2926,13 @@
 		 * in the patch->fragments->{patch,size}.
 		 */
 		if (apply_binary_fragment(img, patch))
-			return error("binary patch does not apply to '%s'",
+			return error(_("binary patch does not apply to '%s'"),
 				     name);
 
 		/* verify that the result matches */
 		hash_sha1_file(img->buf, img->len, blob_type, sha1);
 		if (strcmp(sha1_to_hex(sha1), patch->new_sha1_prefix))
-			return error("binary patch to '%s' creates incorrect result (expecting %s, got %s)",
+			return error(_("binary patch to '%s' creates incorrect result (expecting %s, got %s)"),
 				name, patch->new_sha1_prefix, sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 	}
 
@@ -2817,7 +2953,7 @@
 	while (frag) {
 		nth++;
 		if (apply_one_fragment(img, frag, inaccurate_eof, ws_rule, nth)) {
-			error("patch failed: %s:%ld", name, frag->oldpos);
+			error(_("patch failed: %s:%ld"), name, frag->oldpos);
 			if (!apply_with_reject)
 				return -1;
 			frag->rejected = 1;
@@ -2827,20 +2963,17 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int read_file_or_gitlink(struct cache_entry *ce, struct strbuf *buf)
+static int read_blob_object(struct strbuf *buf, const unsigned char *sha1, unsigned mode)
 {
-	if (!ce)
-		return 0;
-
-	if (S_ISGITLINK(ce->ce_mode)) {
+	if (S_ISGITLINK(mode)) {
 		strbuf_grow(buf, 100);
-		strbuf_addf(buf, "Subproject commit %s\n", sha1_to_hex(ce->sha1));
+		strbuf_addf(buf, "Subproject commit %s\n", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 	} else {
 		enum object_type type;
 		unsigned long sz;
 		char *result;
 
-		result = read_sha1_file(ce->sha1, &type, &sz);
+		result = read_sha1_file(sha1, &type, &sz);
 		if (!result)
 			return -1;
 		/* XXX read_sha1_file NUL-terminates */
@@ -2849,6 +2982,13 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static int read_file_or_gitlink(struct cache_entry *ce, struct strbuf *buf)
+{
+	if (!ce)
+		return 0;
+	return read_blob_object(buf, ce->sha1, ce->ce_mode);
+}
+
 static struct patch *in_fn_table(const char *name)
 {
 	struct string_list_item *item;
@@ -2867,9 +3007,15 @@
  * item->util in the filename table records the status of the path.
  * Usually it points at a patch (whose result records the contents
  * of it after applying it), but it could be PATH_WAS_DELETED for a
- * path that a previously applied patch has already removed.
+ * path that a previously applied patch has already removed, or
+ * PATH_TO_BE_DELETED for a path that a later patch would remove.
+ *
+ * The latter is needed to deal with a case where two paths A and B
+ * are swapped by first renaming A to B and then renaming B to A;
+ * moving A to B should not be prevented due to presense of B as we
+ * will remove it in a later patch.
  */
- #define PATH_TO_BE_DELETED ((struct patch *) -2)
+#define PATH_TO_BE_DELETED ((struct patch *) -2)
 #define PATH_WAS_DELETED ((struct patch *) -1)
 
 static int to_be_deleted(struct patch *patch)
@@ -2921,61 +3067,384 @@
 	}
 }
 
-static int apply_data(struct patch *patch, struct stat *st, struct cache_entry *ce)
+static int checkout_target(struct cache_entry *ce, struct stat *st)
+{
+	struct checkout costate;
+
+	memset(&costate, 0, sizeof(costate));
+	costate.base_dir = "";
+	costate.refresh_cache = 1;
+	if (checkout_entry(ce, &costate, NULL) || lstat(ce->name, st))
+		return error(_("cannot checkout %s"), ce->name);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static struct patch *previous_patch(struct patch *patch, int *gone)
+{
+	struct patch *previous;
+
+	*gone = 0;
+	if (patch->is_copy || patch->is_rename)
+		return NULL; /* "git" patches do not depend on the order */
+
+	previous = in_fn_table(patch->old_name);
+	if (!previous)
+		return NULL;
+
+	if (to_be_deleted(previous))
+		return NULL; /* the deletion hasn't happened yet */
+
+	if (was_deleted(previous))
+		*gone = 1;
+
+	return previous;
+}
+
+static int verify_index_match(struct cache_entry *ce, struct stat *st)
+{
+	if (S_ISGITLINK(ce->ce_mode)) {
+		if (!S_ISDIR(st->st_mode))
+			return -1;
+		return 0;
+	}
+	return ce_match_stat(ce, st, CE_MATCH_IGNORE_VALID|CE_MATCH_IGNORE_SKIP_WORKTREE);
+}
+
+#define SUBMODULE_PATCH_WITHOUT_INDEX 1
+
+static int load_patch_target(struct strbuf *buf,
+			     struct cache_entry *ce,
+			     struct stat *st,
+			     const char *name,
+			     unsigned expected_mode)
+{
+	if (cached) {
+		if (read_file_or_gitlink(ce, buf))
+			return error(_("read of %s failed"), name);
+	} else if (name) {
+		if (S_ISGITLINK(expected_mode)) {
+			if (ce)
+				return read_file_or_gitlink(ce, buf);
+			else
+				return SUBMODULE_PATCH_WITHOUT_INDEX;
+		} else {
+			if (read_old_data(st, name, buf))
+				return error(_("read of %s failed"), name);
+		}
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * We are about to apply "patch"; populate the "image" with the
+ * current version we have, from the working tree or from the index,
+ * depending on the situation e.g. --cached/--index.  If we are
+ * applying a non-git patch that incrementally updates the tree,
+ * we read from the result of a previous diff.
+ */
+static int load_preimage(struct image *image,
+			 struct patch *patch, struct stat *st, struct cache_entry *ce)
 {
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
-	struct image image;
 	size_t len;
 	char *img;
-	struct patch *tpatch;
+	struct patch *previous;
+	int status;
 
-	if (!(patch->is_copy || patch->is_rename) &&
-	    (tpatch = in_fn_table(patch->old_name)) != NULL && !to_be_deleted(tpatch)) {
-		if (was_deleted(tpatch)) {
-			return error("patch %s has been renamed/deleted",
-				patch->old_name);
-		}
-		/* We have a patched copy in memory use that */
-		strbuf_add(&buf, tpatch->result, tpatch->resultsize);
-	} else if (cached) {
-		if (read_file_or_gitlink(ce, &buf))
-			return error("read of %s failed", patch->old_name);
-	} else if (patch->old_name) {
-		if (S_ISGITLINK(patch->old_mode)) {
-			if (ce) {
-				read_file_or_gitlink(ce, &buf);
-			} else {
-				/*
-				 * There is no way to apply subproject
-				 * patch without looking at the index.
-				 */
-				patch->fragments = NULL;
-			}
-		} else {
-			if (read_old_data(st, patch->old_name, &buf))
-				return error("read of %s failed", patch->old_name);
+	previous = previous_patch(patch, &status);
+	if (status)
+		return error(_("path %s has been renamed/deleted"),
+			     patch->old_name);
+	if (previous) {
+		/* We have a patched copy in memory; use that. */
+		strbuf_add(&buf, previous->result, previous->resultsize);
+	} else {
+		status = load_patch_target(&buf, ce, st,
+					   patch->old_name, patch->old_mode);
+		if (status < 0)
+			return status;
+		else if (status == SUBMODULE_PATCH_WITHOUT_INDEX) {
+			/*
+			 * There is no way to apply subproject
+			 * patch without looking at the index.
+			 * NEEDSWORK: shouldn't this be flagged
+			 * as an error???
+			 */
+			free_fragment_list(patch->fragments);
+			patch->fragments = NULL;
+		} else if (status) {
+			return error(_("read of %s failed"), patch->old_name);
 		}
 	}
 
 	img = strbuf_detach(&buf, &len);
-	prepare_image(&image, img, len, !patch->is_binary);
+	prepare_image(image, img, len, !patch->is_binary);
+	return 0;
+}
 
-	if (apply_fragments(&image, patch) < 0)
-		return -1; /* note with --reject this succeeds. */
+static int three_way_merge(struct image *image,
+			   char *path,
+			   const unsigned char *base,
+			   const unsigned char *ours,
+			   const unsigned char *theirs)
+{
+	mmfile_t base_file, our_file, their_file;
+	mmbuffer_t result = { NULL };
+	int status;
+
+	read_mmblob(&base_file, base);
+	read_mmblob(&our_file, ours);
+	read_mmblob(&their_file, theirs);
+	status = ll_merge(&result, path,
+			  &base_file, "base",
+			  &our_file, "ours",
+			  &their_file, "theirs", NULL);
+	free(base_file.ptr);
+	free(our_file.ptr);
+	free(their_file.ptr);
+	if (status < 0 || !result.ptr) {
+		free(result.ptr);
+		return -1;
+	}
+	clear_image(image);
+	image->buf = result.ptr;
+	image->len = result.size;
+
+	return status;
+}
+
+/*
+ * When directly falling back to add/add three-way merge, we read from
+ * the current contents of the new_name.  In no cases other than that
+ * this function will be called.
+ */
+static int load_current(struct image *image, struct patch *patch)
+{
+	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
+	int status, pos;
+	size_t len;
+	char *img;
+	struct stat st;
+	struct cache_entry *ce;
+	char *name = patch->new_name;
+	unsigned mode = patch->new_mode;
+
+	if (!patch->is_new)
+		die("BUG: patch to %s is not a creation", patch->old_name);
+
+	pos = cache_name_pos(name, strlen(name));
+	if (pos < 0)
+		return error(_("%s: does not exist in index"), name);
+	ce = active_cache[pos];
+	if (lstat(name, &st)) {
+		if (errno != ENOENT)
+			return error(_("%s: %s"), name, strerror(errno));
+		if (checkout_target(ce, &st))
+			return -1;
+	}
+	if (verify_index_match(ce, &st))
+		return error(_("%s: does not match index"), name);
+
+	status = load_patch_target(&buf, ce, &st, name, mode);
+	if (status < 0)
+		return status;
+	else if (status)
+		return -1;
+	img = strbuf_detach(&buf, &len);
+	prepare_image(image, img, len, !patch->is_binary);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int try_threeway(struct image *image, struct patch *patch,
+			struct stat *st, struct cache_entry *ce)
+{
+	unsigned char pre_sha1[20], post_sha1[20], our_sha1[20];
+	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
+	size_t len;
+	int status;
+	char *img;
+	struct image tmp_image;
+
+	/* No point falling back to 3-way merge in these cases */
+	if (patch->is_delete ||
+	    S_ISGITLINK(patch->old_mode) || S_ISGITLINK(patch->new_mode))
+		return -1;
+
+	/* Preimage the patch was prepared for */
+	if (patch->is_new)
+		write_sha1_file("", 0, blob_type, pre_sha1);
+	else if (get_sha1(patch->old_sha1_prefix, pre_sha1) ||
+		 read_blob_object(&buf, pre_sha1, patch->old_mode))
+		return error("repository lacks the necessary blob to fall back on 3-way merge.");
+
+	fprintf(stderr, "Falling back to three-way merge...\n");
+
+	img = strbuf_detach(&buf, &len);
+	prepare_image(&tmp_image, img, len, 1);
+	/* Apply the patch to get the post image */
+	if (apply_fragments(&tmp_image, patch) < 0) {
+		clear_image(&tmp_image);
+		return -1;
+	}
+	/* post_sha1[] is theirs */
+	write_sha1_file(tmp_image.buf, tmp_image.len, blob_type, post_sha1);
+	clear_image(&tmp_image);
+
+	/* our_sha1[] is ours */
+	if (patch->is_new) {
+		if (load_current(&tmp_image, patch))
+			return error("cannot read the current contents of '%s'",
+				     patch->new_name);
+	} else {
+		if (load_preimage(&tmp_image, patch, st, ce))
+			return error("cannot read the current contents of '%s'",
+				     patch->old_name);
+	}
+	write_sha1_file(tmp_image.buf, tmp_image.len, blob_type, our_sha1);
+	clear_image(&tmp_image);
+
+	/* in-core three-way merge between post and our using pre as base */
+	status = three_way_merge(image, patch->new_name,
+				 pre_sha1, our_sha1, post_sha1);
+	if (status < 0) {
+		fprintf(stderr, "Failed to fall back on three-way merge...\n");
+		return status;
+	}
+
+	if (status) {
+		patch->conflicted_threeway = 1;
+		if (patch->is_new)
+			hashclr(patch->threeway_stage[0]);
+		else
+			hashcpy(patch->threeway_stage[0], pre_sha1);
+		hashcpy(patch->threeway_stage[1], our_sha1);
+		hashcpy(patch->threeway_stage[2], post_sha1);
+		fprintf(stderr, "Applied patch to '%s' with conflicts.\n", patch->new_name);
+	} else {
+		fprintf(stderr, "Applied patch to '%s' cleanly.\n", patch->new_name);
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int apply_data(struct patch *patch, struct stat *st, struct cache_entry *ce)
+{
+	struct image image;
+
+	if (load_preimage(&image, patch, st, ce) < 0)
+		return -1;
+
+	if (patch->direct_to_threeway ||
+	    apply_fragments(&image, patch) < 0) {
+		/* Note: with --reject, apply_fragments() returns 0 */
+		if (!threeway || try_threeway(&image, patch, st, ce) < 0)
+			return -1;
+	}
 	patch->result = image.buf;
 	patch->resultsize = image.len;
 	add_to_fn_table(patch);
 	free(image.line_allocated);
 
 	if (0 < patch->is_delete && patch->resultsize)
-		return error("removal patch leaves file contents");
+		return error(_("removal patch leaves file contents"));
 
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int check_to_create_blob(const char *new_name, int ok_if_exists)
+/*
+ * If "patch" that we are looking at modifies or deletes what we have,
+ * we would want it not to lose any local modification we have, either
+ * in the working tree or in the index.
+ *
+ * This also decides if a non-git patch is a creation patch or a
+ * modification to an existing empty file.  We do not check the state
+ * of the current tree for a creation patch in this function; the caller
+ * check_patch() separately makes sure (and errors out otherwise) that
+ * the path the patch creates does not exist in the current tree.
+ */
+static int check_preimage(struct patch *patch, struct cache_entry **ce, struct stat *st)
+{
+	const char *old_name = patch->old_name;
+	struct patch *previous = NULL;
+	int stat_ret = 0, status;
+	unsigned st_mode = 0;
+
+	if (!old_name)
+		return 0;
+
+	assert(patch->is_new <= 0);
+	previous = previous_patch(patch, &status);
+
+	if (status)
+		return error(_("path %s has been renamed/deleted"), old_name);
+	if (previous) {
+		st_mode = previous->new_mode;
+	} else if (!cached) {
+		stat_ret = lstat(old_name, st);
+		if (stat_ret && errno != ENOENT)
+			return error(_("%s: %s"), old_name, strerror(errno));
+	}
+
+	if (check_index && !previous) {
+		int pos = cache_name_pos(old_name, strlen(old_name));
+		if (pos < 0) {
+			if (patch->is_new < 0)
+				goto is_new;
+			return error(_("%s: does not exist in index"), old_name);
+		}
+		*ce = active_cache[pos];
+		if (stat_ret < 0) {
+			if (checkout_target(*ce, st))
+				return -1;
+		}
+		if (!cached && verify_index_match(*ce, st))
+			return error(_("%s: does not match index"), old_name);
+		if (cached)
+			st_mode = (*ce)->ce_mode;
+	} else if (stat_ret < 0) {
+		if (patch->is_new < 0)
+			goto is_new;
+		return error(_("%s: %s"), old_name, strerror(errno));
+	}
+
+	if (!cached && !previous)
+		st_mode = ce_mode_from_stat(*ce, st->st_mode);
+
+	if (patch->is_new < 0)
+		patch->is_new = 0;
+	if (!patch->old_mode)
+		patch->old_mode = st_mode;
+	if ((st_mode ^ patch->old_mode) & S_IFMT)
+		return error(_("%s: wrong type"), old_name);
+	if (st_mode != patch->old_mode)
+		warning(_("%s has type %o, expected %o"),
+			old_name, st_mode, patch->old_mode);
+	if (!patch->new_mode && !patch->is_delete)
+		patch->new_mode = st_mode;
+	return 0;
+
+ is_new:
+	patch->is_new = 1;
+	patch->is_delete = 0;
+	free(patch->old_name);
+	patch->old_name = NULL;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+
+#define EXISTS_IN_INDEX 1
+#define EXISTS_IN_WORKTREE 2
+
+static int check_to_create(const char *new_name, int ok_if_exists)
 {
 	struct stat nst;
+
+	if (check_index &&
+	    cache_name_pos(new_name, strlen(new_name)) >= 0 &&
+	    !ok_if_exists)
+		return EXISTS_IN_INDEX;
+	if (cached)
+		return 0;
+
 	if (!lstat(new_name, &nst)) {
 		if (S_ISDIR(nst.st_mode) || ok_if_exists)
 			return 0;
@@ -2989,106 +3458,17 @@
 		if (has_symlink_leading_path(new_name, strlen(new_name)))
 			return 0;
 
-		return error("%s: already exists in working directory", new_name);
-	}
-	else if ((errno != ENOENT) && (errno != ENOTDIR))
+		return EXISTS_IN_WORKTREE;
+	} else if ((errno != ENOENT) && (errno != ENOTDIR)) {
 		return error("%s: %s", new_name, strerror(errno));
+	}
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int verify_index_match(struct cache_entry *ce, struct stat *st)
-{
-	if (S_ISGITLINK(ce->ce_mode)) {
-		if (!S_ISDIR(st->st_mode))
-			return -1;
-		return 0;
-	}
-	return ce_match_stat(ce, st, CE_MATCH_IGNORE_VALID|CE_MATCH_IGNORE_SKIP_WORKTREE);
-}
-
-static int check_preimage(struct patch *patch, struct cache_entry **ce, struct stat *st)
-{
-	const char *old_name = patch->old_name;
-	struct patch *tpatch = NULL;
-	int stat_ret = 0;
-	unsigned st_mode = 0;
-
-	/*
-	 * Make sure that we do not have local modifications from the
-	 * index when we are looking at the index.  Also make sure
-	 * we have the preimage file to be patched in the work tree,
-	 * unless --cached, which tells git to apply only in the index.
-	 */
-	if (!old_name)
-		return 0;
-
-	assert(patch->is_new <= 0);
-
-	if (!(patch->is_copy || patch->is_rename) &&
-	    (tpatch = in_fn_table(old_name)) != NULL && !to_be_deleted(tpatch)) {
-		if (was_deleted(tpatch))
-			return error("%s: has been deleted/renamed", old_name);
-		st_mode = tpatch->new_mode;
-	} else if (!cached) {
-		stat_ret = lstat(old_name, st);
-		if (stat_ret && errno != ENOENT)
-			return error("%s: %s", old_name, strerror(errno));
-	}
-
-	if (to_be_deleted(tpatch))
-		tpatch = NULL;
-
-	if (check_index && !tpatch) {
-		int pos = cache_name_pos(old_name, strlen(old_name));
-		if (pos < 0) {
-			if (patch->is_new < 0)
-				goto is_new;
-			return error("%s: does not exist in index", old_name);
-		}
-		*ce = active_cache[pos];
-		if (stat_ret < 0) {
-			struct checkout costate;
-			/* checkout */
-			memset(&costate, 0, sizeof(costate));
-			costate.base_dir = "";
-			costate.refresh_cache = 1;
-			if (checkout_entry(*ce, &costate, NULL) ||
-			    lstat(old_name, st))
-				return -1;
-		}
-		if (!cached && verify_index_match(*ce, st))
-			return error("%s: does not match index", old_name);
-		if (cached)
-			st_mode = (*ce)->ce_mode;
-	} else if (stat_ret < 0) {
-		if (patch->is_new < 0)
-			goto is_new;
-		return error("%s: %s", old_name, strerror(errno));
-	}
-
-	if (!cached && !tpatch)
-		st_mode = ce_mode_from_stat(*ce, st->st_mode);
-
-	if (patch->is_new < 0)
-		patch->is_new = 0;
-	if (!patch->old_mode)
-		patch->old_mode = st_mode;
-	if ((st_mode ^ patch->old_mode) & S_IFMT)
-		return error("%s: wrong type", old_name);
-	if (st_mode != patch->old_mode)
-		warning("%s has type %o, expected %o",
-			old_name, st_mode, patch->old_mode);
-	if (!patch->new_mode && !patch->is_delete)
-		patch->new_mode = st_mode;
-	return 0;
-
- is_new:
-	patch->is_new = 1;
-	patch->is_delete = 0;
-	patch->old_name = NULL;
-	return 0;
-}
-
+/*
+ * Check and apply the patch in-core; leave the result in patch->result
+ * for the caller to write it out to the final destination.
+ */
 static int check_patch(struct patch *patch)
 {
 	struct stat st;
@@ -3107,31 +3487,45 @@
 		return status;
 	old_name = patch->old_name;
 
+	/*
+	 * A type-change diff is always split into a patch to delete
+	 * old, immediately followed by a patch to create new (see
+	 * diff.c::run_diff()); in such a case it is Ok that the entry
+	 * to be deleted by the previous patch is still in the working
+	 * tree and in the index.
+	 *
+	 * A patch to swap-rename between A and B would first rename A
+	 * to B and then rename B to A.  While applying the first one,
+	 * the presense of B should not stop A from getting renamed to
+	 * B; ask to_be_deleted() about the later rename.  Removal of
+	 * B and rename from A to B is handled the same way by asking
+	 * was_deleted().
+	 */
 	if ((tpatch = in_fn_table(new_name)) &&
-			(was_deleted(tpatch) || to_be_deleted(tpatch)))
-		/*
-		 * A type-change diff is always split into a patch to
-		 * delete old, immediately followed by a patch to
-		 * create new (see diff.c::run_diff()); in such a case
-		 * it is Ok that the entry to be deleted by the
-		 * previous patch is still in the working tree and in
-		 * the index.
-		 */
+	    (was_deleted(tpatch) || to_be_deleted(tpatch)))
 		ok_if_exists = 1;
 	else
 		ok_if_exists = 0;
 
 	if (new_name &&
 	    ((0 < patch->is_new) | (0 < patch->is_rename) | patch->is_copy)) {
-		if (check_index &&
-		    cache_name_pos(new_name, strlen(new_name)) >= 0 &&
-		    !ok_if_exists)
-			return error("%s: already exists in index", new_name);
-		if (!cached) {
-			int err = check_to_create_blob(new_name, ok_if_exists);
-			if (err)
-				return err;
+		int err = check_to_create(new_name, ok_if_exists);
+
+		if (err && threeway) {
+			patch->direct_to_threeway = 1;
+		} else switch (err) {
+		case 0:
+			break; /* happy */
+		case EXISTS_IN_INDEX:
+			return error(_("%s: already exists in index"), new_name);
+			break;
+		case EXISTS_IN_WORKTREE:
+			return error(_("%s: already exists in working directory"),
+				     new_name);
+		default:
+			return err;
 		}
+
 		if (!patch->new_mode) {
 			if (0 < patch->is_new)
 				patch->new_mode = S_IFREG | 0644;
@@ -3144,14 +3538,22 @@
 		int same = !strcmp(old_name, new_name);
 		if (!patch->new_mode)
 			patch->new_mode = patch->old_mode;
-		if ((patch->old_mode ^ patch->new_mode) & S_IFMT)
-			return error("new mode (%o) of %s does not match old mode (%o)%s%s",
-				patch->new_mode, new_name, patch->old_mode,
-				same ? "" : " of ", same ? "" : old_name);
+		if ((patch->old_mode ^ patch->new_mode) & S_IFMT) {
+			if (same)
+				return error(_("new mode (%o) of %s does not "
+					       "match old mode (%o)"),
+					patch->new_mode, new_name,
+					patch->old_mode);
+			else
+				return error(_("new mode (%o) of %s does not "
+					       "match old mode (%o) of %s"),
+					patch->new_mode, new_name,
+					patch->old_mode, old_name);
+		}
 	}
 
 	if (apply_data(patch, &st, ce) < 0)
-		return error("%s: patch does not apply", name);
+		return error(_("%s: patch does not apply"), name);
 	patch->rejected = 0;
 	return 0;
 }
@@ -3164,7 +3566,7 @@
 	while (patch) {
 		if (apply_verbosely)
 			say_patch_name(stderr,
-				       "Checking patch ", patch, "...\n");
+				       _("Checking patch %s..."), patch);
 		err |= check_patch(patch);
 		patch = patch->next;
 	}
@@ -3204,7 +3606,7 @@
 		name = patch->old_name ? patch->old_name : patch->new_name;
 		if (0 < patch->is_new)
 			continue;
-		else if (get_sha1(patch->old_sha1_prefix, sha1))
+		else if (get_sha1_blob(patch->old_sha1_prefix, sha1))
 			/* git diff has no index line for mode/type changes */
 			if (!patch->lines_added && !patch->lines_deleted) {
 				if (get_current_sha1(patch->old_name, sha1))
@@ -3219,7 +3621,7 @@
 
 		ce = make_cache_entry(patch->old_mode, sha1_ptr, name, 0, 0);
 		if (!ce)
-			die("make_cache_entry failed for path '%s'", name);
+			die(_("make_cache_entry failed for path '%s'"), name);
 		if (add_index_entry(&result, ce, ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD))
 			die ("Could not add %s to temporary index", name);
 	}
@@ -3362,7 +3764,7 @@
 {
 	if (update_index) {
 		if (remove_file_from_cache(patch->old_name) < 0)
-			die("unable to remove %s from index", patch->old_name);
+			die(_("unable to remove %s from index"), patch->old_name);
 	}
 	if (!cached) {
 		if (!remove_or_warn(patch->old_mode, patch->old_name) && rmdir_empty) {
@@ -3384,24 +3786,25 @@
 	ce = xcalloc(1, ce_size);
 	memcpy(ce->name, path, namelen);
 	ce->ce_mode = create_ce_mode(mode);
-	ce->ce_flags = namelen;
+	ce->ce_flags = create_ce_flags(0);
+	ce->ce_namelen = namelen;
 	if (S_ISGITLINK(mode)) {
 		const char *s = buf;
 
 		if (get_sha1_hex(s + strlen("Subproject commit "), ce->sha1))
-			die("corrupt patch for subproject %s", path);
+			die(_("corrupt patch for subproject %s"), path);
 	} else {
 		if (!cached) {
 			if (lstat(path, &st) < 0)
-				die_errno("unable to stat newly created file '%s'",
+				die_errno(_("unable to stat newly created file '%s'"),
 					  path);
 			fill_stat_cache_info(ce, &st);
 		}
 		if (write_sha1_file(buf, size, blob_type, ce->sha1) < 0)
-			die("unable to create backing store for newly created file %s", path);
+			die(_("unable to create backing store for newly created file %s"), path);
 	}
 	if (add_cache_entry(ce, ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD) < 0)
-		die("unable to add cache entry for %s", path);
+		die(_("unable to add cache entry for %s"), path);
 }
 
 static int try_create_file(const char *path, unsigned int mode, const char *buf, unsigned long size)
@@ -3434,7 +3837,7 @@
 	strbuf_release(&nbuf);
 
 	if (close(fd) < 0)
-		die_errno("closing file '%s'", path);
+		die_errno(_("closing file '%s'"), path);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -3483,7 +3886,34 @@
 			++nr;
 		}
 	}
-	die_errno("unable to write file '%s' mode %o", path, mode);
+	die_errno(_("unable to write file '%s' mode %o"), path, mode);
+}
+
+static void add_conflicted_stages_file(struct patch *patch)
+{
+	int stage, namelen;
+	unsigned ce_size, mode;
+	struct cache_entry *ce;
+
+	if (!update_index)
+		return;
+	namelen = strlen(patch->new_name);
+	ce_size = cache_entry_size(namelen);
+	mode = patch->new_mode ? patch->new_mode : (S_IFREG | 0644);
+
+	remove_file_from_cache(patch->new_name);
+	for (stage = 1; stage < 4; stage++) {
+		if (is_null_sha1(patch->threeway_stage[stage - 1]))
+			continue;
+		ce = xcalloc(1, ce_size);
+		memcpy(ce->name, patch->new_name, namelen);
+		ce->ce_mode = create_ce_mode(mode);
+		ce->ce_flags = create_ce_flags(stage);
+		ce->ce_namelen = namelen;
+		hashcpy(ce->sha1, patch->threeway_stage[stage - 1]);
+		if (add_cache_entry(ce, ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD) < 0)
+			die(_("unable to add cache entry for %s"), patch->new_name);
+	}
 }
 
 static void create_file(struct patch *patch)
@@ -3496,7 +3926,11 @@
 	if (!mode)
 		mode = S_IFREG | 0644;
 	create_one_file(path, mode, buf, size);
-	add_index_file(path, mode, buf, size);
+
+	if (patch->conflicted_threeway)
+		add_conflicted_stages_file(patch);
+	else
+		add_index_file(path, mode, buf, size);
 }
 
 /* phase zero is to remove, phase one is to create */
@@ -3528,6 +3962,7 @@
 	char namebuf[PATH_MAX];
 	struct fragment *frag;
 	int cnt = 0;
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
 
 	for (cnt = 0, frag = patch->fragments; frag; frag = frag->next) {
 		if (!frag->rejected)
@@ -3538,7 +3973,7 @@
 	if (!cnt) {
 		if (apply_verbosely)
 			say_patch_name(stderr,
-				       "Applied patch ", patch, " cleanly.\n");
+				       _("Applied patch %s cleanly."), patch);
 		return 0;
 	}
 
@@ -3546,16 +3981,20 @@
 	 * contents are marked "rejected" at the patch level.
 	 */
 	if (!patch->new_name)
-		die("internal error");
+		die(_("internal error"));
 
 	/* Say this even without --verbose */
-	say_patch_name(stderr, "Applying patch ", patch, " with");
-	fprintf(stderr, " %d rejects...\n", cnt);
+	strbuf_addf(&sb, Q_("Applying patch %%s with %d reject...",
+			    "Applying patch %%s with %d rejects...",
+			    cnt),
+		    cnt);
+	say_patch_name(stderr, sb.buf, patch);
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
 
 	cnt = strlen(patch->new_name);
 	if (ARRAY_SIZE(namebuf) <= cnt + 5) {
 		cnt = ARRAY_SIZE(namebuf) - 5;
-		warning("truncating .rej filename to %.*s.rej",
+		warning(_("truncating .rej filename to %.*s.rej"),
 			cnt - 1, patch->new_name);
 	}
 	memcpy(namebuf, patch->new_name, cnt);
@@ -3563,7 +4002,7 @@
 
 	rej = fopen(namebuf, "w");
 	if (!rej)
-		return error("cannot open %s: %s", namebuf, strerror(errno));
+		return error(_("cannot open %s: %s"), namebuf, strerror(errno));
 
 	/* Normal git tools never deal with .rej, so do not pretend
 	 * this is a git patch by saying --git nor give extended
@@ -3576,10 +4015,10 @@
 	     frag;
 	     cnt++, frag = frag->next) {
 		if (!frag->rejected) {
-			fprintf(stderr, "Hunk #%d applied cleanly.\n", cnt);
+			fprintf_ln(stderr, _("Hunk #%d applied cleanly."), cnt);
 			continue;
 		}
-		fprintf(stderr, "Rejected hunk #%d.\n", cnt);
+		fprintf_ln(stderr, _("Rejected hunk #%d."), cnt);
 		fprintf(rej, "%.*s", frag->size, frag->patch);
 		if (frag->patch[frag->size-1] != '\n')
 			fputc('\n', rej);
@@ -3593,6 +4032,7 @@
 	int phase;
 	int errs = 0;
 	struct patch *l;
+	struct string_list cpath = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
 
 	for (phase = 0; phase < 2; phase++) {
 		l = list;
@@ -3601,12 +4041,30 @@
 				errs = 1;
 			else {
 				write_out_one_result(l, phase);
-				if (phase == 1 && write_out_one_reject(l))
-					errs = 1;
+				if (phase == 1) {
+					if (write_out_one_reject(l))
+						errs = 1;
+					if (l->conflicted_threeway) {
+						string_list_append(&cpath, l->new_name);
+						errs = 1;
+					}
+				}
 			}
 			l = l->next;
 		}
 	}
+
+	if (cpath.nr) {
+		struct string_list_item *item;
+
+		sort_string_list(&cpath);
+		for_each_string_list_item(item, &cpath)
+			fprintf(stderr, "U %s\n", item->string);
+		string_list_clear(&cpath, 0);
+
+		rerere(0);
+	}
+
 	return errs;
 }
 
@@ -3665,15 +4123,8 @@
 	if (!prefix || p->is_toplevel_relative)
 		return;
 	for ( ; p; p = p->next) {
-		if (p->new_name == p->old_name) {
-			char *prefixed = p->new_name;
-			prefix_one(&prefixed);
-			p->new_name = p->old_name = prefixed;
-		}
-		else {
-			prefix_one(&p->new_name);
-			prefix_one(&p->old_name);
-		}
+		prefix_one(&p->new_name);
+		prefix_one(&p->old_name);
 	}
 }
 
@@ -3683,12 +4134,10 @@
 static int apply_patch(int fd, const char *filename, int options)
 {
 	size_t offset;
-	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT; /* owns the patch text */
 	struct patch *list = NULL, **listp = &list;
 	int skipped_patch = 0;
 
-	/* FIXME - memory leak when using multiple patch files as inputs */
-	memset(&fn_table, 0, sizeof(struct string_list));
 	patch_input_file = filename;
 	read_patch_file(&buf, fd);
 	offset = 0;
@@ -3712,15 +4161,14 @@
 			listp = &patch->next;
 		}
 		else {
-			/* perhaps free it a bit better? */
-			free(patch);
+			free_patch(patch);
 			skipped_patch++;
 		}
 		offset += nr;
 	}
 
 	if (!list && !skipped_patch)
-		die("unrecognized input");
+		die(_("unrecognized input"));
 
 	if (whitespace_error && (ws_error_action == die_on_ws_error))
 		apply = 0;
@@ -3731,7 +4179,7 @@
 
 	if (check_index) {
 		if (read_cache() < 0)
-			die("unable to read index file");
+			die(_("unable to read index file"));
 	}
 
 	if ((check || apply) &&
@@ -3739,8 +4187,12 @@
 	    !apply_with_reject)
 		exit(1);
 
-	if (apply && write_out_results(list))
-		exit(1);
+	if (apply && write_out_results(list)) {
+		if (apply_with_reject)
+			exit(1);
+		/* with --3way, we still need to write the index out */
+		return 1;
+	}
 
 	if (fake_ancestor)
 		build_fake_ancestor(list, fake_ancestor);
@@ -3754,7 +4206,9 @@
 	if (summary)
 		summary_patch_list(list);
 
+	free_patch_list(list);
 	strbuf_release(&buf);
+	string_list_clear(&fn_table, 0);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -3844,66 +4298,68 @@
 	const char *whitespace_option = NULL;
 
 	struct option builtin_apply_options[] = {
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "exclude", NULL, "path",
-			"don't apply changes matching the given path",
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "exclude", NULL, N_("path"),
+			N_("don't apply changes matching the given path"),
 			0, option_parse_exclude },
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "include", NULL, "path",
-			"apply changes matching the given path",
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "include", NULL, N_("path"),
+			N_("apply changes matching the given path"),
 			0, option_parse_include },
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 'p', NULL, NULL, "num",
-			"remove <num> leading slashes from traditional diff paths",
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 'p', NULL, NULL, N_("num"),
+			N_("remove <num> leading slashes from traditional diff paths"),
 			0, option_parse_p },
 		OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "no-add", &no_add,
-			"ignore additions made by the patch"),
+			N_("ignore additions made by the patch")),
 		OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "stat", &diffstat,
-			"instead of applying the patch, output diffstat for the input"),
+			N_("instead of applying the patch, output diffstat for the input")),
 		OPT_NOOP_NOARG(0, "allow-binary-replacement"),
 		OPT_NOOP_NOARG(0, "binary"),
 		OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "numstat", &numstat,
-			"shows number of added and deleted lines in decimal notation"),
+			N_("shows number of added and deleted lines in decimal notation")),
 		OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "summary", &summary,
-			"instead of applying the patch, output a summary for the input"),
+			N_("instead of applying the patch, output a summary for the input")),
 		OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "check", &check,
-			"instead of applying the patch, see if the patch is applicable"),
+			N_("instead of applying the patch, see if the patch is applicable")),
 		OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "index", &check_index,
-			"make sure the patch is applicable to the current index"),
+			N_("make sure the patch is applicable to the current index")),
 		OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "cached", &cached,
-			"apply a patch without touching the working tree"),
+			N_("apply a patch without touching the working tree")),
 		OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "apply", &force_apply,
-			"also apply the patch (use with --stat/--summary/--check)"),
+			N_("also apply the patch (use with --stat/--summary/--check)")),
+		OPT_BOOL('3', "3way", &threeway,
+			 N_( "attempt three-way merge if a patch does not apply")),
 		OPT_FILENAME(0, "build-fake-ancestor", &fake_ancestor,
-			"build a temporary index based on embedded index information"),
+			N_("build a temporary index based on embedded index information")),
 		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 'z', NULL, NULL, NULL,
-			"paths are separated with NUL character",
+			N_("paths are separated with NUL character"),
 			PARSE_OPT_NOARG, option_parse_z },
 		OPT_INTEGER('C', NULL, &p_context,
-				"ensure at least <n> lines of context match"),
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "whitespace", &whitespace_option, "action",
-			"detect new or modified lines that have whitespace errors",
+				N_("ensure at least <n> lines of context match")),
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "whitespace", &whitespace_option, N_("action"),
+			N_("detect new or modified lines that have whitespace errors"),
 			0, option_parse_whitespace },
 		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "ignore-space-change", NULL, NULL,
-			"ignore changes in whitespace when finding context",
+			N_("ignore changes in whitespace when finding context"),
 			PARSE_OPT_NOARG, option_parse_space_change },
 		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "ignore-whitespace", NULL, NULL,
-			"ignore changes in whitespace when finding context",
+			N_("ignore changes in whitespace when finding context"),
 			PARSE_OPT_NOARG, option_parse_space_change },
 		OPT_BOOLEAN('R', "reverse", &apply_in_reverse,
-			"apply the patch in reverse"),
+			N_("apply the patch in reverse")),
 		OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "unidiff-zero", &unidiff_zero,
-			"don't expect at least one line of context"),
+			N_("don't expect at least one line of context")),
 		OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "reject", &apply_with_reject,
-			"leave the rejected hunks in corresponding *.rej files"),
+			N_("leave the rejected hunks in corresponding *.rej files")),
 		OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "allow-overlap", &allow_overlap,
-			"allow overlapping hunks"),
-		OPT__VERBOSE(&apply_verbosely, "be verbose"),
+			N_("allow overlapping hunks")),
+		OPT__VERBOSE(&apply_verbosely, N_("be verbose")),
 		OPT_BIT(0, "inaccurate-eof", &options,
-			"tolerate incorrectly detected missing new-line at the end of file",
+			N_("tolerate incorrectly detected missing new-line at the end of file"),
 			INACCURATE_EOF),
 		OPT_BIT(0, "recount", &options,
-			"do not trust the line counts in the hunk headers",
+			N_("do not trust the line counts in the hunk headers"),
 			RECOUNT),
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "directory", NULL, "root",
-			"prepend <root> to all filenames",
+		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "directory", NULL, N_("root"),
+			N_("prepend <root> to all filenames"),
 			0, option_parse_directory },
 		OPT_END()
 	};
@@ -3919,15 +4375,24 @@
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, builtin_apply_options,
 			apply_usage, 0);
 
+	if (apply_with_reject && threeway)
+		die("--reject and --3way cannot be used together.");
+	if (cached && threeway)
+		die("--cached and --3way cannot be used together.");
+	if (threeway) {
+		if (is_not_gitdir)
+			die(_("--3way outside a repository"));
+		check_index = 1;
+	}
 	if (apply_with_reject)
 		apply = apply_verbosely = 1;
 	if (!force_apply && (diffstat || numstat || summary || check || fake_ancestor))
 		apply = 0;
 	if (check_index && is_not_gitdir)
-		die("--index outside a repository");
+		die(_("--index outside a repository"));
 	if (cached) {
 		if (is_not_gitdir)
-			die("--cached outside a repository");
+			die(_("--cached outside a repository"));
 		check_index = 1;
 	}
 	for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
@@ -3943,7 +4408,7 @@
 
 		fd = open(arg, O_RDONLY);
 		if (fd < 0)
-			die_errno("can't open patch '%s'", arg);
+			die_errno(_("can't open patch '%s'"), arg);
 		read_stdin = 0;
 		set_default_whitespace_mode(whitespace_option);
 		errs |= apply_patch(fd, arg, options);
@@ -3957,32 +4422,32 @@
 		    squelch_whitespace_errors < whitespace_error) {
 			int squelched =
 				whitespace_error - squelch_whitespace_errors;
-			warning("squelched %d "
-				"whitespace error%s",
-				squelched,
-				squelched == 1 ? "" : "s");
+			warning(Q_("squelched %d whitespace error",
+				   "squelched %d whitespace errors",
+				   squelched),
+				squelched);
 		}
 		if (ws_error_action == die_on_ws_error)
-			die("%d line%s add%s whitespace errors.",
-			    whitespace_error,
-			    whitespace_error == 1 ? "" : "s",
-			    whitespace_error == 1 ? "s" : "");
+			die(Q_("%d line adds whitespace errors.",
+			       "%d lines add whitespace errors.",
+			       whitespace_error),
+			    whitespace_error);
 		if (applied_after_fixing_ws && apply)
 			warning("%d line%s applied after"
 				" fixing whitespace errors.",
 				applied_after_fixing_ws,
 				applied_after_fixing_ws == 1 ? "" : "s");
 		else if (whitespace_error)
-			warning("%d line%s add%s whitespace errors.",
-				whitespace_error,
-				whitespace_error == 1 ? "" : "s",
-				whitespace_error == 1 ? "s" : "");
+			warning(Q_("%d line adds whitespace errors.",
+				   "%d lines add whitespace errors.",
+				   whitespace_error),
+				whitespace_error);
 	}
 
 	if (update_index) {
 		if (write_cache(newfd, active_cache, active_nr) ||
 		    commit_locked_index(&lock_file))
-			die("Unable to write new index file");
+			die(_("Unable to write new index file"));
 	}
 
 	return !!errs;
diff --git a/builtin/blame.c b/builtin/blame.c
index 324d476..409eb42 100644
--- a/builtin/blame.c
+++ b/builtin/blame.c
@@ -88,6 +88,20 @@
 	char path[FLEX_ARRAY];
 };
 
+static int diff_hunks(mmfile_t *file_a, mmfile_t *file_b, long ctxlen,
+		      xdl_emit_hunk_consume_func_t hunk_func, void *cb_data)
+{
+	xpparam_t xpp = {0};
+	xdemitconf_t xecfg = {0};
+	xdemitcb_t ecb = {NULL};
+
+	xpp.flags = xdl_opts;
+	xecfg.ctxlen = ctxlen;
+	xecfg.hunk_func = hunk_func;
+	ecb.priv = cb_data;
+	return xdi_diff(file_a, file_b, &xpp, &xecfg, &ecb);
+}
+
 /*
  * Prepare diff_filespec and convert it using diff textconv API
  * if the textconv driver exists.
@@ -96,6 +110,7 @@
 int textconv_object(const char *path,
 		    unsigned mode,
 		    const unsigned char *sha1,
+		    int sha1_valid,
 		    char **buf,
 		    unsigned long *buf_size)
 {
@@ -103,7 +118,7 @@
 	struct userdiff_driver *textconv;
 
 	df = alloc_filespec(path);
-	fill_filespec(df, sha1, mode);
+	fill_filespec(df, sha1, sha1_valid, mode);
 	textconv = get_textconv(df);
 	if (!textconv) {
 		free_filespec(df);
@@ -128,7 +143,7 @@
 
 		num_read_blob++;
 		if (DIFF_OPT_TST(opt, ALLOW_TEXTCONV) &&
-		    textconv_object(o->path, o->mode, o->blob_sha1, &file->ptr, &file_size))
+		    textconv_object(o->path, o->mode, o->blob_sha1, 1, &file->ptr, &file_size))
 			;
 		else
 			file->ptr = read_sha1_file(o->blob_sha1, &type, &file_size);
@@ -392,8 +407,7 @@
 	paths[1] = NULL;
 
 	diff_tree_setup_paths(paths, &diff_opts);
-	if (diff_setup_done(&diff_opts) < 0)
-		die("diff-setup");
+	diff_setup_done(&diff_opts);
 
 	if (is_null_sha1(origin->commit->object.sha1))
 		do_diff_cache(parent->tree->object.sha1, &diff_opts);
@@ -479,8 +493,7 @@
 	diff_opts.single_follow = origin->path;
 	paths[0] = NULL;
 	diff_tree_setup_paths(paths, &diff_opts);
-	if (diff_setup_done(&diff_opts) < 0)
-		die("diff-setup");
+	diff_setup_done(&diff_opts);
 
 	if (is_null_sha1(origin->commit->object.sha1))
 		do_diff_cache(parent->tree->object.sha1, &diff_opts);
@@ -759,12 +772,14 @@
 	long tlno;
 };
 
-static void blame_chunk_cb(void *data, long same, long p_next, long t_next)
+static int blame_chunk_cb(long start_a, long count_a,
+			  long start_b, long count_b, void *data)
 {
 	struct blame_chunk_cb_data *d = data;
-	blame_chunk(d->sb, d->tlno, d->plno, same, d->target, d->parent);
-	d->plno = p_next;
-	d->tlno = t_next;
+	blame_chunk(d->sb, d->tlno, d->plno, start_b, d->target, d->parent);
+	d->plno = start_a + count_a;
+	d->tlno = start_b + count_b;
+	return 0;
 }
 
 /*
@@ -779,8 +794,7 @@
 	int last_in_target;
 	mmfile_t file_p, file_o;
 	struct blame_chunk_cb_data d;
-	xpparam_t xpp;
-	xdemitconf_t xecfg;
+
 	memset(&d, 0, sizeof(d));
 	d.sb = sb; d.target = target; d.parent = parent;
 	last_in_target = find_last_in_target(sb, target);
@@ -791,11 +805,7 @@
 	fill_origin_blob(&sb->revs->diffopt, target, &file_o);
 	num_get_patch++;
 
-	memset(&xpp, 0, sizeof(xpp));
-	xpp.flags = xdl_opts;
-	memset(&xecfg, 0, sizeof(xecfg));
-	xecfg.ctxlen = 0;
-	xdi_diff_hunks(&file_p, &file_o, blame_chunk_cb, &d, &xpp, &xecfg);
+	diff_hunks(&file_p, &file_o, 0, blame_chunk_cb, &d);
 	/* The rest (i.e. anything after tlno) are the same as the parent */
 	blame_chunk(sb, d.tlno, d.plno, last_in_target, target, parent);
 
@@ -899,12 +909,15 @@
 	long tlno;
 };
 
-static void handle_split_cb(void *data, long same, long p_next, long t_next)
+static int handle_split_cb(long start_a, long count_a,
+			   long start_b, long count_b, void *data)
 {
 	struct handle_split_cb_data *d = data;
-	handle_split(d->sb, d->ent, d->tlno, d->plno, same, d->parent, d->split);
-	d->plno = p_next;
-	d->tlno = t_next;
+	handle_split(d->sb, d->ent, d->tlno, d->plno, start_b, d->parent,
+		     d->split);
+	d->plno = start_a + count_a;
+	d->tlno = start_b + count_b;
+	return 0;
 }
 
 /*
@@ -922,8 +935,7 @@
 	int cnt;
 	mmfile_t file_o;
 	struct handle_split_cb_data d;
-	xpparam_t xpp;
-	xdemitconf_t xecfg;
+
 	memset(&d, 0, sizeof(d));
 	d.sb = sb; d.ent = ent; d.parent = parent; d.split = split;
 	/*
@@ -943,12 +955,8 @@
 	 * file_o is a part of final image we are annotating.
 	 * file_p partially may match that image.
 	 */
-	memset(&xpp, 0, sizeof(xpp));
-	xpp.flags = xdl_opts;
-	memset(&xecfg, 0, sizeof(xecfg));
-	xecfg.ctxlen = 1;
 	memset(split, 0, sizeof(struct blame_entry [3]));
-	xdi_diff_hunks(file_p, &file_o, handle_split_cb, &d, &xpp, &xecfg);
+	diff_hunks(file_p, &file_o, 1, handle_split_cb, &d);
 	/* remainder, if any, all match the preimage */
 	handle_split(sb, ent, d.tlno, d.plno, ent->num_lines, parent, split);
 }
@@ -1065,8 +1073,7 @@
 
 	paths[0] = NULL;
 	diff_tree_setup_paths(paths, &diff_opts);
-	if (diff_setup_done(&diff_opts) < 0)
-		die("diff-setup");
+	diff_setup_done(&diff_opts);
 
 	/* Try "find copies harder" on new path if requested;
 	 * we do not want to use diffcore_rename() actually to
@@ -1828,6 +1835,16 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static int update_auto_abbrev(int auto_abbrev, struct origin *suspect)
+{
+	const char *uniq = find_unique_abbrev(suspect->commit->object.sha1,
+					      auto_abbrev);
+	int len = strlen(uniq);
+	if (auto_abbrev < len)
+		return len;
+	return auto_abbrev;
+}
+
 /*
  * How many columns do we need to show line numbers, authors,
  * and filenames?
@@ -1838,12 +1855,16 @@
 	int longest_dst_lines = 0;
 	unsigned largest_score = 0;
 	struct blame_entry *e;
+	int compute_auto_abbrev = (abbrev < 0);
+	int auto_abbrev = default_abbrev;
 
 	for (e = sb->ent; e; e = e->next) {
 		struct origin *suspect = e->suspect;
 		struct commit_info ci;
 		int num;
 
+		if (compute_auto_abbrev)
+			auto_abbrev = update_auto_abbrev(auto_abbrev, suspect);
 		if (strcmp(suspect->path, sb->path))
 			*option |= OUTPUT_SHOW_NAME;
 		num = strlen(suspect->path);
@@ -1871,6 +1892,10 @@
 	max_orig_digits = decimal_width(longest_src_lines);
 	max_digits = decimal_width(longest_dst_lines);
 	max_score_digits = decimal_width(largest_score);
+
+	if (compute_auto_abbrev)
+		/* one more abbrev length is needed for the boundary commit */
+		abbrev = auto_abbrev + 1;
 }
 
 /*
@@ -2044,6 +2069,55 @@
 	return git_default_config(var, value, cb);
 }
 
+static void verify_working_tree_path(struct commit *work_tree, const char *path)
+{
+	struct commit_list *parents;
+
+	for (parents = work_tree->parents; parents; parents = parents->next) {
+		const unsigned char *commit_sha1 = parents->item->object.sha1;
+		unsigned char blob_sha1[20];
+		unsigned mode;
+
+		if (!get_tree_entry(commit_sha1, path, blob_sha1, &mode) &&
+		    sha1_object_info(blob_sha1, NULL) == OBJ_BLOB)
+			return;
+	}
+	die("no such path '%s' in HEAD", path);
+}
+
+static struct commit_list **append_parent(struct commit_list **tail, const unsigned char *sha1)
+{
+	struct commit *parent;
+
+	parent = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
+	if (!parent)
+		die("no such commit %s", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+	return &commit_list_insert(parent, tail)->next;
+}
+
+static void append_merge_parents(struct commit_list **tail)
+{
+	int merge_head;
+	const char *merge_head_file = git_path("MERGE_HEAD");
+	struct strbuf line = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	merge_head = open(merge_head_file, O_RDONLY);
+	if (merge_head < 0) {
+		if (errno == ENOENT)
+			return;
+		die("cannot open '%s' for reading", merge_head_file);
+	}
+
+	while (!strbuf_getwholeline_fd(&line, merge_head, '\n')) {
+		unsigned char sha1[20];
+		if (line.len < 40 || get_sha1_hex(line.buf, sha1))
+			die("unknown line in '%s': %s", merge_head_file, line.buf);
+		tail = append_parent(tail, sha1);
+	}
+	close(merge_head);
+	strbuf_release(&line);
+}
+
 /*
  * Prepare a dummy commit that represents the work tree (or staged) item.
  * Note that annotating work tree item never works in the reverse.
@@ -2054,6 +2128,7 @@
 {
 	struct commit *commit;
 	struct origin *origin;
+	struct commit_list **parent_tail, *parent;
 	unsigned char head_sha1[20];
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 	const char *ident;
@@ -2061,20 +2136,38 @@
 	int size, len;
 	struct cache_entry *ce;
 	unsigned mode;
-
-	if (get_sha1("HEAD", head_sha1))
-		die("No such ref: HEAD");
+	struct strbuf msg = STRBUF_INIT;
 
 	time(&now);
 	commit = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*commit));
-	commit->parents = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*commit->parents));
-	commit->parents->item = lookup_commit_reference(head_sha1);
 	commit->object.parsed = 1;
 	commit->date = now;
 	commit->object.type = OBJ_COMMIT;
+	parent_tail = &commit->parents;
+
+	if (!resolve_ref_unsafe("HEAD", head_sha1, 1, NULL))
+		die("no such ref: HEAD");
+
+	parent_tail = append_parent(parent_tail, head_sha1);
+	append_merge_parents(parent_tail);
+	verify_working_tree_path(commit, path);
 
 	origin = make_origin(commit, path);
 
+	ident = fmt_ident("Not Committed Yet", "not.committed.yet", NULL, 0);
+	strbuf_addstr(&msg, "tree 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000\n");
+	for (parent = commit->parents; parent; parent = parent->next)
+		strbuf_addf(&msg, "parent %s\n",
+			    sha1_to_hex(parent->item->object.sha1));
+	strbuf_addf(&msg,
+		    "author %s\n"
+		    "committer %s\n\n"
+		    "Version of %s from %s\n",
+		    ident, ident, path,
+		    (!contents_from ? path :
+		     (!strcmp(contents_from, "-") ? "standard input" : contents_from)));
+	commit->buffer = strbuf_detach(&msg, NULL);
+
 	if (!contents_from || strcmp("-", contents_from)) {
 		struct stat st;
 		const char *read_from;
@@ -2096,7 +2189,7 @@
 		switch (st.st_mode & S_IFMT) {
 		case S_IFREG:
 			if (DIFF_OPT_TST(opt, ALLOW_TEXTCONV) &&
-			    textconv_object(read_from, mode, null_sha1, &buf_ptr, &buf_len))
+			    textconv_object(read_from, mode, null_sha1, 0, &buf_ptr, &buf_len))
 				strbuf_attach(&buf, buf_ptr, buf_len, buf_len + 1);
 			else if (strbuf_read_file(&buf, read_from, st.st_size) != st.st_size)
 				die_errno("cannot open or read '%s'", read_from);
@@ -2111,7 +2204,6 @@
 	}
 	else {
 		/* Reading from stdin */
-		contents_from = "standard input";
 		mode = 0;
 		if (strbuf_read(&buf, 0, 0) < 0)
 			die_errno("failed to read from stdin");
@@ -2144,7 +2236,8 @@
 	ce = xcalloc(1, size);
 	hashcpy(ce->sha1, origin->blob_sha1);
 	memcpy(ce->name, path, len);
-	ce->ce_flags = create_ce_flags(len, 0);
+	ce->ce_flags = create_ce_flags(0);
+	ce->ce_namelen = len;
 	ce->ce_mode = create_ce_mode(mode);
 	add_cache_entry(ce, ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD|ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_REPLACE);
 
@@ -2155,16 +2248,6 @@
 	 */
 	cache_tree_invalidate_path(active_cache_tree, path);
 
-	commit->buffer = xmalloc(400);
-	ident = fmt_ident("Not Committed Yet", "not.committed.yet", NULL, 0);
-	snprintf(commit->buffer, 400,
-		"tree 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000\n"
-		"parent %s\n"
-		"author %s\n"
-		"committer %s\n\n"
-		"Version of %s from %s\n",
-		sha1_to_hex(head_sha1),
-		ident, ident, path, contents_from ? contents_from : path);
 	return commit;
 }
 
@@ -2344,10 +2427,9 @@
 parse_done:
 	argc = parse_options_end(&ctx);
 
-	if (abbrev == -1)
-		abbrev = default_abbrev;
-	/* one more abbrev length is needed for the boundary commit */
-	abbrev++;
+	if (0 < abbrev)
+		/* one more abbrev length is needed for the boundary commit */
+		abbrev++;
 
 	if (revs_file && read_ancestry(revs_file))
 		die_errno("reading graft file '%s' failed", revs_file);
@@ -2489,7 +2571,7 @@
 			die("no such path %s in %s", path, final_commit_name);
 
 		if (DIFF_OPT_TST(&sb.revs->diffopt, ALLOW_TEXTCONV) &&
-		    textconv_object(path, o->mode, o->blob_sha1, (char **) &sb.final_buf,
+		    textconv_object(path, o->mode, o->blob_sha1, 1, (char **) &sb.final_buf,
 				    &sb.final_buf_size))
 			;
 		else
diff --git a/builtin/branch.c b/builtin/branch.c
index d8cccf7..0e060f2 100644
--- a/builtin/branch.c
+++ b/builtin/branch.c
@@ -15,6 +15,8 @@
 #include "branch.h"
 #include "diff.h"
 #include "revision.h"
+#include "string-list.h"
+#include "column.h"
 
 static const char * const builtin_branch_usage[] = {
 	"git branch [options] [-r | -a] [--merged | --no-merged]",
@@ -53,6 +55,9 @@
 } merge_filter;
 static unsigned char merge_filter_ref[20];
 
+static struct string_list output = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
+static unsigned int colopts;
+
 static int parse_branch_color_slot(const char *var, int ofs)
 {
 	if (!strcasecmp(var+ofs, "plain"))
@@ -70,6 +75,8 @@
 
 static int git_branch_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
 {
+	if (!prefixcmp(var, "column."))
+		return git_column_config(var, value, "branch", &colopts);
 	if (!strcmp(var, "color.branch")) {
 		branch_use_color = git_config_colorbool(var, value);
 		return 0;
@@ -146,26 +153,28 @@
 	return merged;
 }
 
-static int delete_branches(int argc, const char **argv, int force, int kinds)
+static int delete_branches(int argc, const char **argv, int force, int kinds,
+			   int quiet)
 {
 	struct commit *rev, *head_rev = NULL;
 	unsigned char sha1[20];
 	char *name = NULL;
-	const char *fmt, *remote;
+	const char *fmt;
 	int i;
 	int ret = 0;
+	int remote_branch = 0;
 	struct strbuf bname = STRBUF_INIT;
 
 	switch (kinds) {
 	case REF_REMOTE_BRANCH:
 		fmt = "refs/remotes/%s";
-		/* TRANSLATORS: This is "remote " in "remote branch '%s' not found" */
-		remote = _("remote ");
+		/* For subsequent UI messages */
+		remote_branch = 1;
+
 		force = 1;
 		break;
 	case REF_LOCAL_BRANCH:
 		fmt = "refs/heads/%s";
-		remote = "";
 		break;
 	default:
 		die(_("cannot use -a with -d"));
@@ -189,8 +198,9 @@
 
 		name = xstrdup(mkpath(fmt, bname.buf));
 		if (read_ref(name, sha1)) {
-			error(_("%sbranch '%s' not found."),
-					remote, bname.buf);
+			error(remote_branch
+			      ? _("remote branch '%s' not found.")
+			      : _("branch '%s' not found."), bname.buf);
 			ret = 1;
 			continue;
 		}
@@ -211,14 +221,19 @@
 		}
 
 		if (delete_ref(name, sha1, 0)) {
-			error(_("Error deleting %sbranch '%s'"), remote,
+			error(remote_branch
+			      ? _("Error deleting remote branch '%s'")
+			      : _("Error deleting branch '%s'"),
 			      bname.buf);
 			ret = 1;
 		} else {
 			struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
-			printf(_("Deleted %sbranch %s (was %s).\n"), remote,
-			       bname.buf,
-			       find_unique_abbrev(sha1, DEFAULT_ABBREV));
+			if (!quiet)
+				printf(remote_branch
+				       ? _("Deleted remote branch %s (was %s).\n")
+				       : _("Deleted branch %s (was %s).\n"),
+				       bname.buf,
+				       find_unique_abbrev(sha1, DEFAULT_ABBREV));
 			strbuf_addf(&buf, "branch.%s", bname.buf);
 			if (git_config_rename_section(buf.buf, NULL) < 0)
 				warning(_("Update of config-file failed"));
@@ -376,6 +391,7 @@
 		int show_upstream_ref)
 {
 	int ours, theirs;
+	char *ref = NULL;
 	struct branch *branch = branch_get(branch_name);
 
 	if (!stat_tracking_info(branch, &ours, &theirs)) {
@@ -386,16 +402,29 @@
 		return;
 	}
 
-	strbuf_addch(stat, '[');
 	if (show_upstream_ref)
-		strbuf_addf(stat, "%s: ",
-			shorten_unambiguous_ref(branch->merge[0]->dst, 0));
-	if (!ours)
-		strbuf_addf(stat, _("behind %d] "), theirs);
-	else if (!theirs)
-		strbuf_addf(stat, _("ahead %d] "), ours);
-	else
-		strbuf_addf(stat, _("ahead %d, behind %d] "), ours, theirs);
+		ref = shorten_unambiguous_ref(branch->merge[0]->dst, 0);
+	if (!ours) {
+		if (ref)
+			strbuf_addf(stat, _("[%s: behind %d]"), ref, theirs);
+		else
+			strbuf_addf(stat, _("[behind %d]"), theirs);
+
+	} else if (!theirs) {
+		if (ref)
+			strbuf_addf(stat, _("[%s: ahead %d]"), ref, ours);
+		else
+			strbuf_addf(stat, _("[ahead %d]"), ours);
+	} else {
+		if (ref)
+			strbuf_addf(stat, _("[%s: ahead %d, behind %d]"),
+				    ref, ours, theirs);
+		else
+			strbuf_addf(stat, _("[ahead %d, behind %d]"),
+				    ours, theirs);
+	}
+	strbuf_addch(stat, ' ');
+	free(ref);
 }
 
 static int matches_merge_filter(struct commit *commit)
@@ -474,7 +503,12 @@
 	else if (verbose)
 		/* " f7c0c00 [ahead 58, behind 197] vcs-svn: drop obj_pool.h" */
 		add_verbose_info(&out, item, verbose, abbrev);
-	printf("%s\n", out.buf);
+	if (column_active(colopts)) {
+		assert(!verbose && "--column and --verbose are incompatible");
+		string_list_append(&output, out.buf);
+	} else {
+		printf("%s\n", out.buf);
+	}
 	strbuf_release(&name);
 	strbuf_release(&out);
 }
@@ -655,7 +689,7 @@
 	fp = fopen(git_path(edit_description), "w");
 	if ((fwrite(buf.buf, 1, buf.len, fp) < buf.len) || fclose(fp)) {
 		strbuf_release(&buf);
-		return error(_("could not write branch description template: %s\n"),
+		return error(_("could not write branch description template: %s"),
 			     strerror(errno));
 	}
 	strbuf_reset(&buf);
@@ -678,6 +712,7 @@
 	int delete = 0, rename = 0, force_create = 0, list = 0;
 	int verbose = 0, abbrev = -1, detached = 0;
 	int reflog = 0, edit_description = 0;
+	int quiet = 0;
 	enum branch_track track;
 	int kinds = REF_LOCAL_BRANCH;
 	struct commit_list *with_commit = NULL;
@@ -686,6 +721,7 @@
 		OPT_GROUP("Generic options"),
 		OPT__VERBOSE(&verbose,
 			"show hash and subject, give twice for upstream branch"),
+		OPT__QUIET(&quiet, "suppress informational messages"),
 		OPT_SET_INT('t', "track",  &track, "set up tracking mode (see git-pull(1))",
 			BRANCH_TRACK_EXPLICIT),
 		OPT_SET_INT( 0, "set-upstream",  &track, "change upstream info",
@@ -731,6 +767,7 @@
 			PARSE_OPT_LASTARG_DEFAULT | PARSE_OPT_NONEG,
 			opt_parse_merge_filter, (intptr_t) "HEAD",
 		},
+		OPT_COLUMN(0, "column", &colopts, "list branches in columns"),
 		OPT_END(),
 	};
 
@@ -753,6 +790,7 @@
 	}
 	hashcpy(merge_filter_ref, head_sha1);
 
+
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options, builtin_branch_usage,
 			     0);
 
@@ -764,12 +802,22 @@
 
 	if (abbrev == -1)
 		abbrev = DEFAULT_ABBREV;
+	finalize_colopts(&colopts, -1);
+	if (verbose) {
+		if (explicitly_enable_column(colopts))
+			die(_("--column and --verbose are incompatible"));
+		colopts = 0;
+	}
 
 	if (delete)
-		return delete_branches(argc, argv, delete > 1, kinds);
-	else if (list)
-		return print_ref_list(kinds, detached, verbose, abbrev,
-				      with_commit, argv);
+		return delete_branches(argc, argv, delete > 1, kinds, quiet);
+	else if (list) {
+		int ret = print_ref_list(kinds, detached, verbose, abbrev,
+					 with_commit, argv);
+		print_columns(&output, colopts, NULL);
+		string_list_clear(&output, 0);
+		return ret;
+	}
 	else if (edit_description) {
 		const char *branch_name;
 		struct strbuf branch_ref = STRBUF_INIT;
@@ -808,7 +856,7 @@
 		if (kinds != REF_LOCAL_BRANCH)
 			die(_("-a and -r options to 'git branch' do not make sense with a branch name"));
 		create_branch(head, argv[0], (argc == 2) ? argv[1] : head,
-			      force_create, reflog, 0, track);
+			      force_create, reflog, 0, quiet, track);
 	} else
 		usage_with_options(builtin_branch_usage, options);
 
diff --git a/builtin/cat-file.c b/builtin/cat-file.c
index 8ed501f..0eca2d7 100644
--- a/builtin/cat-file.c
+++ b/builtin/cat-file.c
@@ -11,6 +11,7 @@
 #include "parse-options.h"
 #include "diff.h"
 #include "userdiff.h"
+#include "streaming.h"
 
 #define BATCH 1
 #define BATCH_CHECK 2
@@ -90,7 +91,7 @@
 	unsigned long size;
 	struct object_context obj_context;
 
-	if (get_sha1_with_context(obj_name, sha1, &obj_context))
+	if (get_sha1_with_context(obj_name, 0, sha1, &obj_context))
 		die("Not a valid object name %s", obj_name);
 
 	buf = NULL;
@@ -127,6 +128,8 @@
 			return cmd_ls_tree(2, ls_args, NULL);
 		}
 
+		if (type == OBJ_BLOB)
+			return stream_blob_to_fd(1, sha1, NULL, 0);
 		buf = read_sha1_file(sha1, &type, &size);
 		if (!buf)
 			die("Cannot read object %s", obj_name);
@@ -143,12 +146,34 @@
 			die("git cat-file --textconv %s: <object> must be <sha1:path>",
 			    obj_name);
 
-		if (!textconv_object(obj_context.path, obj_context.mode, sha1, &buf, &size))
+		if (!textconv_object(obj_context.path, obj_context.mode, sha1, 1, &buf, &size))
 			die("git cat-file --textconv: unable to run textconv on %s",
 			    obj_name);
 		break;
 
 	case 0:
+		if (type_from_string(exp_type) == OBJ_BLOB) {
+			unsigned char blob_sha1[20];
+			if (sha1_object_info(sha1, NULL) == OBJ_TAG) {
+				enum object_type type;
+				unsigned long size;
+				char *buffer = read_sha1_file(sha1, &type, &size);
+				if (memcmp(buffer, "object ", 7) ||
+				    get_sha1_hex(buffer + 7, blob_sha1))
+					die("%s not a valid tag", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+				free(buffer);
+			} else
+				hashcpy(blob_sha1, sha1);
+
+			if (sha1_object_info(blob_sha1, NULL) == OBJ_BLOB)
+				return stream_blob_to_fd(1, blob_sha1, NULL, 0);
+			/*
+			 * we attempted to dereference a tag to a blob
+			 * and failed; there may be new dereference
+			 * mechanisms this code is not aware of.
+			 * fall-back to the usual case.
+			 */
+		}
 		buf = read_object_with_reference(sha1, exp_type, &size, NULL);
 		break;
 
diff --git a/builtin/check-attr.c b/builtin/check-attr.c
index 44c421e..9000c2d 100644
--- a/builtin/check-attr.c
+++ b/builtin/check-attr.c
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
 static int stdin_paths;
 static const char * const check_attr_usage[] = {
 "git check-attr [-a | --all | attr...] [--] pathname...",
-"git check-attr --stdin [-a | --all | attr...] < <list-of-paths>",
+"git check-attr --stdin [-z] [-a | --all | attr...] < <list-of-paths>",
 NULL
 };
 
diff --git a/builtin/checkout.c b/builtin/checkout.c
index f9f7f40..7d922c6 100644
--- a/builtin/checkout.c
+++ b/builtin/checkout.c
@@ -73,7 +73,8 @@
 	hashcpy(ce->sha1, sha1);
 	memcpy(ce->name, base, baselen);
 	memcpy(ce->name + baselen, pathname, len - baselen);
-	ce->ce_flags = create_ce_flags(len, 0) | CE_UPDATE;
+	ce->ce_flags = create_ce_flags(0) | CE_UPDATE;
+	ce->ce_namelen = len;
 	ce->ce_mode = create_ce_mode(mode);
 	add_cache_entry(ce, ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD | ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_REPLACE);
 	return 0;
@@ -315,8 +316,7 @@
 	init_revisions(&rev, NULL);
 	rev.diffopt.flags = opts->flags;
 	rev.diffopt.output_format |= DIFF_FORMAT_NAME_STATUS;
-	if (diff_setup_done(&rev.diffopt) < 0)
-		die(_("diff_setup_done failed"));
+	diff_setup_done(&rev.diffopt);
 	add_pending_object(&rev, head, NULL);
 	run_diff_index(&rev, 0);
 }
@@ -543,6 +543,7 @@
 				      opts->new_branch_force ? 1 : 0,
 				      opts->new_branch_log,
 				      opts->new_branch_force ? 1 : 0,
+				      opts->quiet,
 				      opts->track);
 		new->name = opts->new_branch;
 		setup_branch_path(new);
@@ -604,7 +605,7 @@
 					 const unsigned char *sha1,
 					 int flags, void *cb_data)
 {
-	add_pending_sha1(cb_data, refname, sha1, flags | UNINTERESTING);
+	add_pending_sha1(cb_data, refname, sha1, UNINTERESTING);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -914,6 +915,8 @@
 	int status;
 	struct strbuf branch_ref = STRBUF_INIT;
 
+	if (!opts->new_branch)
+		die(_("You are on a branch yet to be born"));
 	strbuf_addf(&branch_ref, "refs/heads/%s", opts->new_branch);
 	status = create_symref("HEAD", branch_ref.buf, "checkout -b");
 	strbuf_release(&branch_ref);
diff --git a/builtin/clone.c b/builtin/clone.c
index a4d8d25..0d663e3 100644
--- a/builtin/clone.c
+++ b/builtin/clone.c
@@ -38,7 +38,7 @@
 };
 
 static int option_no_checkout, option_bare, option_mirror, option_single_branch = -1;
-static int option_local, option_no_hardlinks, option_shared, option_recursive;
+static int option_local = -1, option_no_hardlinks, option_shared, option_recursive;
 static char *option_template, *option_depth;
 static char *option_origin = NULL;
 static char *option_branch = NULL;
@@ -70,8 +70,8 @@
 		PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN },
 	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "mirror", &option_mirror,
 		    "create a mirror repository (implies bare)"),
-	OPT_BOOLEAN('l', "local", &option_local,
-		    "to clone from a local repository"),
+	OPT_BOOL('l', "local", &option_local,
+		"to clone from a local repository"),
 	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "no-hardlinks", &option_no_hardlinks,
 		    "don't use local hardlinks, always copy"),
 	OPT_BOOLEAN('s', "shared", &option_shared,
@@ -342,7 +342,7 @@
 		if (!option_no_hardlinks) {
 			if (!link(src->buf, dest->buf))
 				continue;
-			if (option_local)
+			if (option_local > 0)
 				die_errno(_("failed to create link '%s'"), dest->buf);
 			option_no_hardlinks = 1;
 		}
@@ -433,8 +433,11 @@
 
 		if (!option_branch)
 			remote_head = guess_remote_head(head, refs, 0);
-		else
-			remote_head = find_remote_branch(refs, option_branch);
+		else {
+			local_refs = NULL;
+			tail = &local_refs;
+			remote_head = copy_ref(find_remote_branch(refs, option_branch));
+		}
 
 		if (!remote_head && option_branch)
 			warning(_("Could not find remote branch %s to clone."),
@@ -607,6 +610,54 @@
 	}
 }
 
+static void write_refspec_config(const char* src_ref_prefix,
+		const struct ref* our_head_points_at,
+		const struct ref* remote_head_points_at, struct strbuf* branch_top)
+{
+	struct strbuf key = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct strbuf value = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	if (option_mirror || !option_bare) {
+		if (option_single_branch && !option_mirror) {
+			if (option_branch) {
+				if (strstr(our_head_points_at->name, "refs/tags/"))
+					strbuf_addf(&value, "+%s:%s", our_head_points_at->name,
+						our_head_points_at->name);
+				else
+					strbuf_addf(&value, "+%s:%s%s", our_head_points_at->name,
+						branch_top->buf, option_branch);
+			} else if (remote_head_points_at) {
+				strbuf_addf(&value, "+%s:%s%s", remote_head_points_at->name,
+						branch_top->buf,
+						skip_prefix(remote_head_points_at->name, "refs/heads/"));
+			}
+			/*
+			 * otherwise, the next "git fetch" will
+			 * simply fetch from HEAD without updating
+			 * any remote tracking branch, which is what
+			 * we want.
+			 */
+		} else {
+			strbuf_addf(&value, "+%s*:%s*", src_ref_prefix, branch_top->buf);
+		}
+		/* Configure the remote */
+		if (value.len) {
+			strbuf_addf(&key, "remote.%s.fetch", option_origin);
+			git_config_set_multivar(key.buf, value.buf, "^$", 0);
+			strbuf_reset(&key);
+
+			if (option_mirror) {
+				strbuf_addf(&key, "remote.%s.mirror", option_origin);
+				git_config_set(key.buf, "true");
+				strbuf_reset(&key);
+			}
+		}
+	}
+
+	strbuf_release(&key);
+	strbuf_release(&value);
+}
+
 int cmd_clone(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
 	int is_bundle = 0, is_local;
@@ -668,7 +719,7 @@
 		die(_("repository '%s' does not exist"), repo_name);
 	else
 		repo = repo_name;
-	is_local = path && !is_bundle;
+	is_local = option_local != 0 && path && !is_bundle;
 	if (is_local && option_depth)
 		warning(_("--depth is ignored in local clones; use file:// instead."));
 
@@ -705,7 +756,7 @@
 		if (safe_create_leading_directories_const(work_tree) < 0)
 			die_errno(_("could not create leading directories of '%s'"),
 				  work_tree);
-		if (!dest_exists && mkdir(work_tree, 0755))
+		if (!dest_exists && mkdir(work_tree, 0777))
 			die_errno(_("could not create work tree dir '%s'."),
 				  work_tree);
 		set_git_work_tree(work_tree);
@@ -752,20 +803,6 @@
 	}
 
 	strbuf_addf(&value, "+%s*:%s*", src_ref_prefix, branch_top.buf);
-
-	if (option_mirror || !option_bare) {
-		/* Configure the remote */
-		strbuf_addf(&key, "remote.%s.fetch", option_origin);
-		git_config_set_multivar(key.buf, value.buf, "^$", 0);
-		strbuf_reset(&key);
-
-		if (option_mirror) {
-			strbuf_addf(&key, "remote.%s.mirror", option_origin);
-			git_config_set(key.buf, "true");
-			strbuf_reset(&key);
-		}
-	}
-
 	strbuf_addf(&key, "remote.%s.url", option_origin);
 	git_config_set(key.buf, repo);
 	strbuf_reset(&key);
@@ -850,6 +887,9 @@
 					      "refs/heads/master");
 	}
 
+	write_refspec_config(src_ref_prefix, our_head_points_at,
+			remote_head_points_at, &branch_top);
+
 	if (is_local)
 		clone_local(path, git_dir);
 	else if (refs && complete_refs_before_fetch)
diff --git a/builtin/column.c b/builtin/column.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5ea798a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/builtin/column.c
@@ -0,0 +1,59 @@
+#include "builtin.h"
+#include "cache.h"
+#include "strbuf.h"
+#include "parse-options.h"
+#include "string-list.h"
+#include "column.h"
+
+static const char * const builtin_column_usage[] = {
+	"git column [options]",
+	NULL
+};
+static unsigned int colopts;
+
+static int column_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
+{
+	return git_column_config(var, value, cb, &colopts);
+}
+
+int cmd_column(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+	struct string_list list = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct column_options copts;
+	const char *command = NULL, *real_command = NULL;
+	struct option options[] = {
+		OPT_STRING(0, "command", &real_command, "name", "lookup config vars"),
+		OPT_COLUMN(0, "mode", &colopts, "layout to use"),
+		OPT_INTEGER(0, "raw-mode", &colopts, "layout to use"),
+		OPT_INTEGER(0, "width", &copts.width, "Maximum width"),
+		OPT_STRING(0, "indent", &copts.indent, "string", "Padding space on left border"),
+		OPT_INTEGER(0, "nl", &copts.nl, "Padding space on right border"),
+		OPT_INTEGER(0, "padding", &copts.padding, "Padding space between columns"),
+		OPT_END()
+	};
+
+	/* This one is special and must be the first one */
+	if (argc > 1 && !prefixcmp(argv[1], "--command=")) {
+		command = argv[1] + 10;
+		git_config(column_config, (void *)command);
+	} else
+		git_config(column_config, NULL);
+
+	memset(&copts, 0, sizeof(copts));
+	copts.width = term_columns();
+	copts.padding = 1;
+	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, "", options, builtin_column_usage, 0);
+	if (argc)
+		usage_with_options(builtin_column_usage, options);
+	if (real_command || command) {
+		if (!real_command || !command || strcmp(real_command, command))
+			die(_("--command must be the first argument"));
+	}
+	finalize_colopts(&colopts, -1);
+	while (!strbuf_getline(&sb, stdin, '\n'))
+		string_list_append(&list, sb.buf);
+
+	print_columns(&list, colopts, &copts);
+	return 0;
+}
diff --git a/builtin/commit-tree.c b/builtin/commit-tree.c
index 164b655..eac901a 100644
--- a/builtin/commit-tree.c
+++ b/builtin/commit-tree.c
@@ -48,16 +48,13 @@
 	if (argc < 2 || !strcmp(argv[1], "-h"))
 		usage(commit_tree_usage);
 
-	if (get_sha1(argv[1], tree_sha1))
-		die("Not a valid object name %s", argv[1]);
-
 	for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {
 		const char *arg = argv[i];
 		if (!strcmp(arg, "-p")) {
 			unsigned char sha1[20];
 			if (argc <= ++i)
 				usage(commit_tree_usage);
-			if (get_sha1(argv[i], sha1))
+			if (get_sha1_commit(argv[i], sha1))
 				die("Not a valid object name %s", argv[i]);
 			assert_sha1_type(sha1, OBJ_COMMIT);
 			new_parent(lookup_commit(sha1), &parents);
@@ -104,7 +101,7 @@
 			continue;
 		}
 
-		if (get_sha1(arg, tree_sha1))
+		if (get_sha1_tree(arg, tree_sha1))
 			die("Not a valid object name %s", arg);
 		if (got_tree)
 			die("Cannot give more than one trees");
diff --git a/builtin/commit.c b/builtin/commit.c
index e2d9cbe..7a83cae 100644
--- a/builtin/commit.c
+++ b/builtin/commit.c
@@ -27,6 +27,7 @@
 #include "quote.h"
 #include "submodule.h"
 #include "gpg-interface.h"
+#include "column.h"
 
 static const char * const builtin_commit_usage[] = {
 	"git commit [options] [--] <filepattern>...",
@@ -139,24 +140,6 @@
 		s->whence = whence;
 }
 
-static const char *whence_s(void)
-{
-	const char *s = "";
-
-	switch (whence) {
-	case FROM_COMMIT:
-		break;
-	case FROM_MERGE:
-		s = _("merge");
-		break;
-	case FROM_CHERRY_PICK:
-		s = _("cherry-pick");
-		break;
-	}
-
-	return s;
-}
-
 static void rollback_index_files(void)
 {
 	switch (commit_style) {
@@ -201,6 +184,9 @@
 	int i;
 	char *m;
 
+	if (!pattern)
+		return 0;
+
 	for (i = 0; pattern[i]; i++)
 		;
 	m = xcalloc(1, i);
@@ -362,7 +348,7 @@
 	 * and create commit from the_index.
 	 * We still need to refresh the index here.
 	 */
-	if (!pathspec || !*pathspec) {
+	if (!only && (!pathspec || !*pathspec)) {
 		fd = hold_locked_index(&index_lock, 1);
 		refresh_cache_or_die(refresh_flags);
 		if (active_cache_changed) {
@@ -398,8 +384,12 @@
 	 */
 	commit_style = COMMIT_PARTIAL;
 
-	if (whence != FROM_COMMIT)
-		die(_("cannot do a partial commit during a %s."), whence_s());
+	if (whence != FROM_COMMIT) {
+		if (whence == FROM_MERGE)
+			die(_("cannot do a partial commit during a merge."));
+		else if (whence == FROM_CHERRY_PICK)
+			die(_("cannot do a partial commit during a cherry-pick."));
+	}
 
 	memset(&partial, 0, sizeof(partial));
 	partial.strdup_strings = 1;
@@ -488,6 +478,20 @@
 	strbuf_release(&buf);
 }
 
+static int sane_ident_split(struct ident_split *person)
+{
+	if (!person->name_begin || !person->name_end ||
+	    person->name_begin == person->name_end)
+		return 0; /* no human readable name */
+	if (!person->mail_begin || !person->mail_end ||
+	    person->mail_begin == person->mail_end)
+		return 0; /* no usable mail */
+	if (!person->date_begin || !person->date_end ||
+	    !person->tz_begin || !person->tz_end)
+		return 0;
+	return 1;
+}
+
 static void determine_author_info(struct strbuf *author_ident)
 {
 	char *name, *email, *date;
@@ -539,9 +543,9 @@
 
 	if (force_date)
 		date = force_date;
-	strbuf_addstr(author_ident, fmt_ident(name, email, date,
-					      IDENT_ERROR_ON_NO_NAME));
-	if (!split_ident_line(&author, author_ident->buf, author_ident->len)) {
+	strbuf_addstr(author_ident, fmt_ident(name, email, date, IDENT_STRICT));
+	if (!split_ident_line(&author, author_ident->buf, author_ident->len) &&
+	    sane_ident_split(&author)) {
 		export_one("GIT_AUTHOR_NAME", author.name_begin, author.name_end, 0);
 		export_one("GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL", author.mail_begin, author.mail_end, 0);
 		export_one("GIT_AUTHOR_DATE", author.date_begin, author.tz_end, '@');
@@ -654,7 +658,7 @@
 		hook_arg1 = "message";
 	} else if (use_message) {
 		buffer = strstr(use_message_buffer, "\n\n");
-		if (!buffer || buffer[2] == '\0')
+		if (!use_editor && (!buffer || buffer[2] == '\0'))
 			die(_("commit has empty message"));
 		strbuf_add(&sb, buffer + 2, strlen(buffer + 2));
 		hook_arg1 = "commit";
@@ -736,33 +740,36 @@
 	strbuf_release(&sb);
 
 	/* This checks if committer ident is explicitly given */
-	strbuf_addstr(&committer_ident, git_committer_info(0));
+	strbuf_addstr(&committer_ident, git_committer_info(IDENT_STRICT));
 	if (use_editor && include_status) {
 		char *ai_tmp, *ci_tmp;
 		if (whence != FROM_COMMIT)
 			status_printf_ln(s, GIT_COLOR_NORMAL,
-				_("\n"
-				"It looks like you may be committing a %s.\n"
-				"If this is not correct, please remove the file\n"
-				"	%s\n"
-				"and try again.\n"
-				""),
-				whence_s(),
+			    whence == FROM_MERGE
+				? _("\n"
+					"It looks like you may be committing a merge.\n"
+					"If this is not correct, please remove the file\n"
+					"	%s\n"
+					"and try again.\n")
+				: _("\n"
+					"It looks like you may be committing a cherry-pick.\n"
+					"If this is not correct, please remove the file\n"
+					"	%s\n"
+					"and try again.\n"),
 				git_path(whence == FROM_MERGE
 					 ? "MERGE_HEAD"
 					 : "CHERRY_PICK_HEAD"));
 
 		fprintf(s->fp, "\n");
-		status_printf(s, GIT_COLOR_NORMAL,
-			_("Please enter the commit message for your changes."));
 		if (cleanup_mode == CLEANUP_ALL)
-			status_printf_more(s, GIT_COLOR_NORMAL,
-				_(" Lines starting\n"
-				"with '#' will be ignored, and an empty"
+			status_printf(s, GIT_COLOR_NORMAL,
+				_("Please enter the commit message for your changes."
+				" Lines starting\nwith '#' will be ignored, and an empty"
 				" message aborts the commit.\n"));
 		else /* CLEANUP_SPACE, that is. */
-			status_printf_more(s, GIT_COLOR_NORMAL,
-				_(" Lines starting\n"
+			status_printf(s, GIT_COLOR_NORMAL,
+				_("Please enter the commit message for your changes."
+				" Lines starting\n"
 				"with '#' will be kept; you may remove them"
 				" yourself if you want to.\n"
 				"An empty message aborts the commit.\n"));
@@ -1017,8 +1024,12 @@
 	/* Sanity check options */
 	if (amend && !current_head)
 		die(_("You have nothing to amend."));
-	if (amend && whence != FROM_COMMIT)
-		die(_("You are in the middle of a %s -- cannot amend."), whence_s());
+	if (amend && whence != FROM_COMMIT) {
+		if (whence == FROM_MERGE)
+			die(_("You are in the middle of a merge -- cannot amend."));
+		else if (whence == FROM_CHERRY_PICK)
+			die(_("You are in the middle of a cherry-pick -- cannot amend."));
+	}
 	if (fixup_message && squash_message)
 		die(_("Options --squash and --fixup cannot be used together"));
 	if (use_message)
@@ -1125,6 +1136,8 @@
 {
 	struct wt_status *s = cb;
 
+	if (!prefixcmp(k, "column."))
+		return git_column_config(k, v, "status", &s->colopts);
 	if (!strcmp(k, "status.submodulesummary")) {
 		int is_bool;
 		s->submodule_summary = git_config_bool_or_int(k, v, &is_bool);
@@ -1190,6 +1203,7 @@
 		{ OPTION_STRING, 0, "ignore-submodules", &ignore_submodule_arg, "when",
 		  "ignore changes to submodules, optional when: all, dirty, untracked. (Default: all)",
 		  PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, NULL, (intptr_t)"all" },
+		OPT_COLUMN(0, "column", &s.colopts, "list untracked files in columns"),
 		OPT_END(),
 	};
 
@@ -1203,6 +1217,7 @@
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix,
 			     builtin_status_options,
 			     builtin_status_usage, 0);
+	finalize_colopts(&s.colopts, -1);
 
 	if (s.null_termination && status_format == STATUS_FORMAT_LONG)
 		status_format = STATUS_FORMAT_PORCELAIN;
@@ -1437,8 +1452,10 @@
 		usage_with_options(builtin_commit_usage, builtin_commit_options);
 
 	wt_status_prepare(&s);
+	gitmodules_config();
 	git_config(git_commit_config, &s);
 	determine_whence(&s);
+	s.colopts = 0;
 
 	if (get_sha1("HEAD", sha1))
 		current_head = NULL;
diff --git a/builtin/config.c b/builtin/config.c
index 33c8820..442ccc2 100644
--- a/builtin/config.c
+++ b/builtin/config.c
@@ -160,8 +160,8 @@
 
 static int get_value(const char *key_, const char *regex_)
 {
-	int ret = -1;
-	char *global = NULL, *repo_config = NULL;
+	int ret = CONFIG_GENERIC_ERROR;
+	char *global = NULL, *xdg = NULL, *repo_config = NULL;
 	const char *system_wide = NULL, *local;
 	struct config_include_data inc = CONFIG_INCLUDE_INIT;
 	config_fn_t fn;
@@ -169,12 +169,10 @@
 
 	local = given_config_file;
 	if (!local) {
-		const char *home = getenv("HOME");
 		local = repo_config = git_pathdup("config");
-		if (home)
-			global = xstrdup(mkpath("%s/.gitconfig", home));
 		if (git_config_system())
 			system_wide = git_etc_gitconfig();
+		home_config_paths(&global, &xdg, "config");
 	}
 
 	if (use_key_regexp) {
@@ -198,11 +196,14 @@
 		if (regcomp(key_regexp, key, REG_EXTENDED)) {
 			fprintf(stderr, "Invalid key pattern: %s\n", key_);
 			free(key);
+			ret = CONFIG_INVALID_PATTERN;
 			goto free_strings;
 		}
 	} else {
-		if (git_config_parse_key(key_, &key, NULL))
+		if (git_config_parse_key(key_, &key, NULL)) {
+			ret = CONFIG_INVALID_KEY;
 			goto free_strings;
+		}
 	}
 
 	if (regex_) {
@@ -214,6 +215,7 @@
 		regexp = (regex_t*)xmalloc(sizeof(regex_t));
 		if (regcomp(regexp, regex_, REG_EXTENDED)) {
 			fprintf(stderr, "Invalid pattern: %s\n", regex_);
+			ret = CONFIG_INVALID_PATTERN;
 			goto free_strings;
 		}
 	}
@@ -229,6 +231,8 @@
 
 	if (do_all && system_wide)
 		git_config_from_file(fn, system_wide, data);
+	if (do_all && xdg)
+		git_config_from_file(fn, xdg, data);
 	if (do_all && global)
 		git_config_from_file(fn, global, data);
 	if (do_all)
@@ -238,6 +242,8 @@
 		git_config_from_file(fn, local, data);
 	if (!do_all && !seen && global)
 		git_config_from_file(fn, global, data);
+	if (!do_all && !seen && xdg)
+		git_config_from_file(fn, xdg, data);
 	if (!do_all && !seen && system_wide)
 		git_config_from_file(fn, system_wide, data);
 
@@ -255,6 +261,7 @@
 free_strings:
 	free(repo_config);
 	free(global);
+	free(xdg);
 	return ret;
 }
 
@@ -379,13 +386,25 @@
 	}
 
 	if (use_global_config) {
-		char *home = getenv("HOME");
-		if (home) {
-			char *user_config = xstrdup(mkpath("%s/.gitconfig", home));
-			given_config_file = user_config;
-		} else {
+		char *user_config = NULL;
+		char *xdg_config = NULL;
+
+		home_config_paths(&user_config, &xdg_config, "config");
+
+		if (!user_config)
+			/*
+			 * It is unknown if HOME/.gitconfig exists, so
+			 * we do not know if we should write to XDG
+			 * location; error out even if XDG_CONFIG_HOME
+			 * is set and points at a sane location.
+			 */
 			die("$HOME not set");
-		}
+
+		if (access_or_warn(user_config, R_OK) &&
+		    xdg_config && !access_or_warn(xdg_config, R_OK))
+			given_config_file = xdg_config;
+		else
+			given_config_file = user_config;
 	}
 	else if (use_system_config)
 		given_config_file = git_etc_gitconfig();
diff --git a/builtin/credential.c b/builtin/credential.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..0412fa0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/builtin/credential.c
@@ -0,0 +1,31 @@
+#include "git-compat-util.h"
+#include "credential.h"
+#include "builtin.h"
+
+static const char usage_msg[] =
+	"git credential [fill|approve|reject]";
+
+int cmd_credential(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+	const char *op;
+	struct credential c = CREDENTIAL_INIT;
+
+	op = argv[1];
+	if (!op)
+		usage(usage_msg);
+
+	if (credential_read(&c, stdin) < 0)
+		die("unable to read credential from stdin");
+
+	if (!strcmp(op, "fill")) {
+		credential_fill(&c);
+		credential_write(&c, stdout);
+	} else if (!strcmp(op, "approve")) {
+		credential_approve(&c);
+	} else if (!strcmp(op, "reject")) {
+		credential_reject(&c);
+	} else {
+		usage(usage_msg);
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
diff --git a/builtin/diff.c b/builtin/diff.c
index 9069dc4..9650be2 100644
--- a/builtin/diff.c
+++ b/builtin/diff.c
@@ -29,6 +29,8 @@
 			 unsigned old_mode, unsigned new_mode,
 			 const unsigned char *old_sha1,
 			 const unsigned char *new_sha1,
+			 int old_sha1_valid,
+			 int new_sha1_valid,
 			 const char *old_name,
 			 const char *new_name)
 {
@@ -54,8 +56,8 @@
 
 	one = alloc_filespec(old_name);
 	two = alloc_filespec(new_name);
-	fill_filespec(one, old_sha1, old_mode);
-	fill_filespec(two, new_sha1, new_mode);
+	fill_filespec(one, old_sha1, old_sha1_valid, old_mode);
+	fill_filespec(two, new_sha1, new_sha1_valid, new_mode);
 
 	diff_queue(&diff_queued_diff, one, two);
 }
@@ -84,6 +86,7 @@
 	stuff_change(&revs->diffopt,
 		     blob[0].mode, canon_mode(st.st_mode),
 		     blob[0].sha1, null_sha1,
+		     1, 0,
 		     path, path);
 	diffcore_std(&revs->diffopt);
 	diff_flush(&revs->diffopt);
@@ -108,6 +111,7 @@
 	stuff_change(&revs->diffopt,
 		     blob[0].mode, blob[1].mode,
 		     blob[0].sha1, blob[1].sha1,
+		     1, 1,
 		     blob[0].name, blob[1].name);
 	diffcore_std(&revs->diffopt);
 	diff_flush(&revs->diffopt);
@@ -298,19 +302,12 @@
 	argc = setup_revisions(argc, argv, &rev, NULL);
 	if (!rev.diffopt.output_format) {
 		rev.diffopt.output_format = DIFF_FORMAT_PATCH;
-		if (diff_setup_done(&rev.diffopt) < 0)
-			die(_("diff_setup_done failed"));
+		diff_setup_done(&rev.diffopt);
 	}
 
 	DIFF_OPT_SET(&rev.diffopt, RECURSIVE);
 
-	/*
-	 * If the user asked for our exit code then don't start a
-	 * pager or we would end up reporting its exit code instead.
-	 */
-	if (!DIFF_OPT_TST(&rev.diffopt, EXIT_WITH_STATUS) &&
-	    check_pager_config("diff") != 0)
-		setup_pager();
+	setup_diff_pager(&rev.diffopt);
 
 	/*
 	 * Do we have --cached and not have a pending object, then
@@ -421,3 +418,19 @@
 		refresh_index_quietly();
 	return result;
 }
+
+void setup_diff_pager(struct diff_options *opt)
+{
+	/*
+	 * If the user asked for our exit code, then either they want --quiet
+	 * or --exit-code. We should definitely not bother with a pager in the
+	 * former case, as we will generate no output. Since we still properly
+	 * report our exit code even when a pager is run, we _could_ run a
+	 * pager with --exit-code. But since we have not done so historically,
+	 * and because it is easy to find people oneline advising "git diff
+	 * --exit-code" in hooks and other scripts, we do not do so.
+	 */
+	if (!DIFF_OPT_TST(opt, EXIT_WITH_STATUS) &&
+	    check_pager_config("diff") != 0)
+		setup_pager();
+}
diff --git a/builtin/fast-export.c b/builtin/fast-export.c
index ef7c012..9ab6db3 100644
--- a/builtin/fast-export.c
+++ b/builtin/fast-export.c
@@ -185,6 +185,8 @@
 	int need_quote = quote_c_style(path, NULL, NULL, 0);
 	if (need_quote)
 		quote_c_style(path, NULL, stdout, 0);
+	else if (strchr(path, ' '))
+		printf("\"%s\"", path);
 	else
 		printf("%s", path);
 }
diff --git a/builtin/fetch-pack.c b/builtin/fetch-pack.c
index 10db15b..fdda36f 100644
--- a/builtin/fetch-pack.c
+++ b/builtin/fetch-pack.c
@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@
 #include "remote.h"
 #include "run-command.h"
 #include "transport.h"
+#include "version.h"
 
 static int transfer_unpack_limit = -1;
 static int fetch_unpack_limit = -1;
@@ -18,6 +19,7 @@
 static int no_done;
 static int fetch_fsck_objects = -1;
 static int transfer_fsck_objects = -1;
+static int agent_supported;
 static struct fetch_pack_args args = {
 	/* .uploadpack = */ "git-upload-pack",
 };
@@ -327,6 +329,8 @@
 			if (args.no_progress)   strbuf_addstr(&c, " no-progress");
 			if (args.include_tag)   strbuf_addstr(&c, " include-tag");
 			if (prefer_ofs_delta)   strbuf_addstr(&c, " ofs-delta");
+			if (agent_supported)    strbuf_addf(&c, " agent=%s",
+							    git_user_agent_sanitized());
 			packet_buf_write(&req_buf, "want %s%s\n", remote_hex, c.buf);
 			strbuf_release(&c);
 		} else
@@ -528,6 +532,7 @@
 	struct ref **newtail = &newlist;
 	struct ref *ref, *next;
 	struct ref *fastarray[32];
+	int match_pos;
 
 	if (nr_match && !args.fetch_all) {
 		if (ARRAY_SIZE(fastarray) < nr_match)
@@ -540,6 +545,7 @@
 	else
 		return_refs = NULL;
 
+	match_pos = 0;
 	for (ref = *refs; ref; ref = next) {
 		next = ref->next;
 		if (!memcmp(ref->name, "refs/", 5) &&
@@ -553,15 +559,20 @@
 			continue;
 		}
 		else {
-			int i;
-			for (i = 0; i < nr_match; i++) {
-				if (!strcmp(ref->name, match[i])) {
-					match[i][0] = '\0';
-					return_refs[i] = ref;
+			int cmp = -1;
+			while (match_pos < nr_match) {
+				cmp = strcmp(ref->name, match[match_pos]);
+				if (cmp < 0) /* definitely do not have it */
+					break;
+				else if (cmp == 0) { /* definitely have it */
+					match[match_pos][0] = '\0';
+					return_refs[match_pos] = ref;
 					break;
 				}
+				else /* might have it; keep looking */
+					match_pos++;
 			}
-			if (i < nr_match)
+			if (!cmp)
 				continue; /* we will link it later */
 		}
 		free(ref);
@@ -776,6 +787,10 @@
 {
 	struct ref *ref = copy_ref_list(orig_ref);
 	unsigned char sha1[20];
+	const char *agent_feature;
+	int agent_len;
+
+	sort_ref_list(&ref, ref_compare_name);
 
 	if (is_repository_shallow() && !server_supports("shallow"))
 		die("Server does not support shallow clients");
@@ -805,11 +820,25 @@
 			fprintf(stderr, "Server supports side-band\n");
 		use_sideband = 1;
 	}
+	if (!server_supports("thin-pack"))
+		args.use_thin_pack = 0;
+	if (!server_supports("no-progress"))
+		args.no_progress = 0;
+	if (!server_supports("include-tag"))
+		args.include_tag = 0;
 	if (server_supports("ofs-delta")) {
 		if (args.verbose)
 			fprintf(stderr, "Server supports ofs-delta\n");
 	} else
 		prefer_ofs_delta = 0;
+
+	if ((agent_feature = server_feature_value("agent", &agent_len))) {
+		agent_supported = 1;
+		if (args.verbose && agent_len)
+			fprintf(stderr, "Server version is %.*s\n",
+				agent_len, agent_feature);
+	}
+
 	if (everything_local(&ref, nr_match, match)) {
 		packet_flush(fd[1]);
 		goto all_done;
@@ -834,21 +863,12 @@
 {
 	int src, dst;
 
-	for (src = dst = 0; src < nr_heads; src++) {
-		/* If heads[src] is different from any of
-		 * heads[0..dst], push it in.
-		 */
-		int i;
-		for (i = 0; i < dst; i++) {
-			if (!strcmp(heads[i], heads[src]))
-				break;
-		}
-		if (i < dst)
-			continue;
-		if (src != dst)
-			heads[dst] = heads[src];
-		dst++;
-	}
+	if (!nr_heads)
+		return 0;
+
+	for (src = dst = 1; src < nr_heads; src++)
+		if (strcmp(heads[src], heads[dst-1]))
+			heads[dst++] = heads[src];
 	return dst;
 }
 
@@ -899,9 +919,11 @@
 
 int cmd_fetch_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
-	int i, ret, nr_heads;
+	int i, ret;
 	struct ref *ref = NULL;
-	char *dest = NULL, **heads;
+	const char *dest = NULL;
+	int alloc_heads = 0, nr_heads = 0;
+	char **heads = NULL;
 	int fd[2];
 	char *pack_lockfile = NULL;
 	char **pack_lockfile_ptr = NULL;
@@ -909,84 +931,79 @@
 
 	packet_trace_identity("fetch-pack");
 
-	nr_heads = 0;
-	heads = NULL;
-	for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {
+	for (i = 1; i < argc && *argv[i] == '-'; i++) {
 		const char *arg = argv[i];
 
-		if (*arg == '-') {
-			if (!prefixcmp(arg, "--upload-pack=")) {
-				args.uploadpack = arg + 14;
-				continue;
-			}
-			if (!prefixcmp(arg, "--exec=")) {
-				args.uploadpack = arg + 7;
-				continue;
-			}
-			if (!strcmp("--quiet", arg) || !strcmp("-q", arg)) {
-				args.quiet = 1;
-				continue;
-			}
-			if (!strcmp("--keep", arg) || !strcmp("-k", arg)) {
-				args.lock_pack = args.keep_pack;
-				args.keep_pack = 1;
-				continue;
-			}
-			if (!strcmp("--thin", arg)) {
-				args.use_thin_pack = 1;
-				continue;
-			}
-			if (!strcmp("--include-tag", arg)) {
-				args.include_tag = 1;
-				continue;
-			}
-			if (!strcmp("--all", arg)) {
-				args.fetch_all = 1;
-				continue;
-			}
-			if (!strcmp("--stdin", arg)) {
-				args.stdin_refs = 1;
-				continue;
-			}
-			if (!strcmp("-v", arg)) {
-				args.verbose = 1;
-				continue;
-			}
-			if (!prefixcmp(arg, "--depth=")) {
-				args.depth = strtol(arg + 8, NULL, 0);
-				continue;
-			}
-			if (!strcmp("--no-progress", arg)) {
-				args.no_progress = 1;
-				continue;
-			}
-			if (!strcmp("--stateless-rpc", arg)) {
-				args.stateless_rpc = 1;
-				continue;
-			}
-			if (!strcmp("--lock-pack", arg)) {
-				args.lock_pack = 1;
-				pack_lockfile_ptr = &pack_lockfile;
-				continue;
-			}
-			usage(fetch_pack_usage);
+		if (!prefixcmp(arg, "--upload-pack=")) {
+			args.uploadpack = arg + 14;
+			continue;
 		}
-		dest = (char *)arg;
-		heads = (char **)(argv + i + 1);
-		nr_heads = argc - i - 1;
-		break;
+		if (!prefixcmp(arg, "--exec=")) {
+			args.uploadpack = arg + 7;
+			continue;
+		}
+		if (!strcmp("--quiet", arg) || !strcmp("-q", arg)) {
+			args.quiet = 1;
+			continue;
+		}
+		if (!strcmp("--keep", arg) || !strcmp("-k", arg)) {
+			args.lock_pack = args.keep_pack;
+			args.keep_pack = 1;
+			continue;
+		}
+		if (!strcmp("--thin", arg)) {
+			args.use_thin_pack = 1;
+			continue;
+		}
+		if (!strcmp("--include-tag", arg)) {
+			args.include_tag = 1;
+			continue;
+		}
+		if (!strcmp("--all", arg)) {
+			args.fetch_all = 1;
+			continue;
+		}
+		if (!strcmp("--stdin", arg)) {
+			args.stdin_refs = 1;
+			continue;
+		}
+		if (!strcmp("-v", arg)) {
+			args.verbose = 1;
+			continue;
+		}
+		if (!prefixcmp(arg, "--depth=")) {
+			args.depth = strtol(arg + 8, NULL, 0);
+			continue;
+		}
+		if (!strcmp("--no-progress", arg)) {
+			args.no_progress = 1;
+			continue;
+		}
+		if (!strcmp("--stateless-rpc", arg)) {
+			args.stateless_rpc = 1;
+			continue;
+		}
+		if (!strcmp("--lock-pack", arg)) {
+			args.lock_pack = 1;
+			pack_lockfile_ptr = &pack_lockfile;
+			continue;
+		}
+		usage(fetch_pack_usage);
 	}
-	if (!dest)
+
+	if (i < argc)
+		dest = argv[i++];
+	else
 		usage(fetch_pack_usage);
 
+	/*
+	 * Copy refs from cmdline to growable list, then append any
+	 * refs from the standard input:
+	 */
+	ALLOC_GROW(heads, argc - i, alloc_heads);
+	for (; i < argc; i++)
+		heads[nr_heads++] = xstrdup(argv[i]);
 	if (args.stdin_refs) {
-		/*
-		 * Copy refs from cmdline to new growable list, then
-		 * append the refs from the standard input.
-		 */
-		int alloc_heads = nr_heads;
-		int size = nr_heads * sizeof(*heads);
-		heads = memcpy(xmalloc(size), heads, size);
 		if (args.stateless_rpc) {
 			/* in stateless RPC mode we use pkt-line to read
 			 * from stdin, until we get a flush packet
@@ -1018,7 +1035,7 @@
 		fd[0] = 0;
 		fd[1] = 1;
 	} else {
-		conn = git_connect(fd, (char *)dest, args.uploadpack,
+		conn = git_connect(fd, dest, args.uploadpack,
 				   args.verbose ? CONNECT_VERBOSE : 0);
 	}
 
@@ -1057,6 +1074,11 @@
 	return ret;
 }
 
+static int compare_heads(const void *a, const void *b)
+{
+	return strcmp(*(const char **)a, *(const char **)b);
+}
+
 struct ref *fetch_pack(struct fetch_pack_args *my_args,
 		       int fd[], struct child_process *conn,
 		       const struct ref *ref,
@@ -1076,8 +1098,11 @@
 			st.st_mtime = 0;
 	}
 
-	if (heads && nr_heads)
+	if (heads && nr_heads) {
+		qsort(heads, nr_heads, sizeof(*heads), compare_heads);
 		nr_heads = remove_duplicates(nr_heads, heads);
+	}
+
 	if (!ref) {
 		packet_flush(fd[1]);
 		die("no matching remote head");
diff --git a/builtin/fetch.c b/builtin/fetch.c
index 1c8cb62..f483352 100644
--- a/builtin/fetch.c
+++ b/builtin/fetch.c
@@ -14,6 +14,7 @@
 #include "transport.h"
 #include "submodule.h"
 #include "connected.h"
+#include "argv-array.h"
 
 static const char * const builtin_fetch_usage[] = {
 	"git fetch [<options>] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]",
@@ -546,8 +547,8 @@
 	int result = 0;
 	struct ref *ref, *stale_refs = get_stale_heads(refs, ref_count, ref_map);
 	const char *dangling_msg = dry_run
-		? _("   (%s will become dangling)\n")
-		: _("   (%s has become dangling)\n");
+		? _("   (%s will become dangling)")
+		: _("   (%s has become dangling)");
 
 	for (ref = stale_refs; ref; ref = ref->next) {
 		if (!dry_run)
@@ -841,38 +842,39 @@
 	return 1;
 }
 
-static void add_options_to_argv(int *argc, const char **argv)
+static void add_options_to_argv(struct argv_array *argv)
 {
 	if (dry_run)
-		argv[(*argc)++] = "--dry-run";
+		argv_array_push(argv, "--dry-run");
 	if (prune)
-		argv[(*argc)++] = "--prune";
+		argv_array_push(argv, "--prune");
 	if (update_head_ok)
-		argv[(*argc)++] = "--update-head-ok";
+		argv_array_push(argv, "--update-head-ok");
 	if (force)
-		argv[(*argc)++] = "--force";
+		argv_array_push(argv, "--force");
 	if (keep)
-		argv[(*argc)++] = "--keep";
+		argv_array_push(argv, "--keep");
 	if (recurse_submodules == RECURSE_SUBMODULES_ON)
-		argv[(*argc)++] = "--recurse-submodules";
+		argv_array_push(argv, "--recurse-submodules");
 	else if (recurse_submodules == RECURSE_SUBMODULES_ON_DEMAND)
-		argv[(*argc)++] = "--recurse-submodules=on-demand";
+		argv_array_push(argv, "--recurse-submodules=on-demand");
+	if (tags == TAGS_SET)
+		argv_array_push(argv, "--tags");
+	else if (tags == TAGS_UNSET)
+		argv_array_push(argv, "--no-tags");
 	if (verbosity >= 2)
-		argv[(*argc)++] = "-v";
+		argv_array_push(argv, "-v");
 	if (verbosity >= 1)
-		argv[(*argc)++] = "-v";
+		argv_array_push(argv, "-v");
 	else if (verbosity < 0)
-		argv[(*argc)++] = "-q";
+		argv_array_push(argv, "-q");
 
 }
 
 static int fetch_multiple(struct string_list *list)
 {
 	int i, result = 0;
-	const char *argv[12] = { "fetch", "--append" };
-	int argc = 2;
-
-	add_options_to_argv(&argc, argv);
+	struct argv_array argv = ARGV_ARRAY_INIT;
 
 	if (!append && !dry_run) {
 		int errcode = truncate_fetch_head();
@@ -880,18 +882,22 @@
 			return errcode;
 	}
 
+	argv_array_pushl(&argv, "fetch", "--append", NULL);
+	add_options_to_argv(&argv);
+
 	for (i = 0; i < list->nr; i++) {
 		const char *name = list->items[i].string;
-		argv[argc] = name;
-		argv[argc + 1] = NULL;
+		argv_array_push(&argv, name);
 		if (verbosity >= 0)
 			printf(_("Fetching %s\n"), name);
-		if (run_command_v_opt(argv, RUN_GIT_CMD)) {
+		if (run_command_v_opt(argv.argv, RUN_GIT_CMD)) {
 			error(_("Could not fetch %s"), name);
 			result = 1;
 		}
+		argv_array_pop(&argv);
 	}
 
+	argv_array_clear(&argv);
 	return result;
 }
 
@@ -1007,13 +1013,14 @@
 	}
 
 	if (!result && (recurse_submodules != RECURSE_SUBMODULES_OFF)) {
-		const char *options[10];
-		int num_options = 0;
-		add_options_to_argv(&num_options, options);
-		result = fetch_populated_submodules(num_options, options,
+		struct argv_array options = ARGV_ARRAY_INIT;
+
+		add_options_to_argv(&options);
+		result = fetch_populated_submodules(&options,
 						    submodule_prefix,
 						    recurse_submodules,
 						    verbosity < 0);
+		argv_array_clear(&options);
 	}
 
 	/* All names were strdup()ed or strndup()ed */
diff --git a/builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c b/builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c
index fb1ebcb..2c4d435 100644
--- a/builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c
+++ b/builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c
@@ -27,6 +27,8 @@
 			merge_log_config = DEFAULT_MERGE_LOG_LEN;
 	} else if (!strcmp(key, "merge.branchdesc")) {
 		use_branch_desc = git_config_bool(key, value);
+	} else {
+		return git_default_config(key, value, cb);
 	}
 	return 0;
 }
@@ -223,6 +225,101 @@
 	strbuf_release(&desc);
 }
 
+#define util_as_integral(elem) ((intptr_t)((elem)->util))
+
+static void record_person(int which, struct string_list *people,
+			  struct commit *commit)
+{
+	char *name_buf, *name, *name_end;
+	struct string_list_item *elem;
+	const char *field = (which == 'a') ? "\nauthor " : "\ncommitter ";
+
+	name = strstr(commit->buffer, field);
+	if (!name)
+		return;
+	name += strlen(field);
+	name_end = strchrnul(name, '<');
+	if (*name_end)
+		name_end--;
+	while (isspace(*name_end) && name <= name_end)
+		name_end--;
+	if (name_end < name)
+		return;
+	name_buf = xmemdupz(name, name_end - name + 1);
+
+	elem = string_list_lookup(people, name_buf);
+	if (!elem) {
+		elem = string_list_insert(people, name_buf);
+		elem->util = (void *)0;
+	}
+	elem->util = (void*)(util_as_integral(elem) + 1);
+	free(name_buf);
+}
+
+static int cmp_string_list_util_as_integral(const void *a_, const void *b_)
+{
+	const struct string_list_item *a = a_, *b = b_;
+	return util_as_integral(b) - util_as_integral(a);
+}
+
+static void add_people_count(struct strbuf *out, struct string_list *people)
+{
+	if (people->nr == 1)
+		strbuf_addf(out, "%s", people->items[0].string);
+	else if (people->nr == 2)
+		strbuf_addf(out, "%s (%d) and %s (%d)",
+			    people->items[0].string,
+			    (int)util_as_integral(&people->items[0]),
+			    people->items[1].string,
+			    (int)util_as_integral(&people->items[1]));
+	else if (people->nr)
+		strbuf_addf(out, "%s (%d) and others",
+			    people->items[0].string,
+			    (int)util_as_integral(&people->items[0]));
+}
+
+static void credit_people(struct strbuf *out,
+			  struct string_list *them,
+			  int kind)
+{
+	const char *label;
+	const char *me;
+
+	if (kind == 'a') {
+		label = "\n# By ";
+		me = git_author_info(IDENT_NO_DATE);
+	} else {
+		label = "\n# Via ";
+		me = git_committer_info(IDENT_NO_DATE);
+	}
+
+	if (!them->nr ||
+	    (them->nr == 1 &&
+	     me &&
+	     (me = skip_prefix(me, them->items->string)) != NULL &&
+	     skip_prefix(me, " <")))
+		return;
+	strbuf_addstr(out, label);
+	add_people_count(out, them);
+}
+
+static void add_people_info(struct strbuf *out,
+			    struct string_list *authors,
+			    struct string_list *committers)
+{
+	if (authors->nr)
+		qsort(authors->items,
+		      authors->nr, sizeof(authors->items[0]),
+		      cmp_string_list_util_as_integral);
+	if (committers->nr)
+		qsort(committers->items,
+		      committers->nr, sizeof(committers->items[0]),
+		      cmp_string_list_util_as_integral);
+
+	credit_people(out, authors, 'a');
+	credit_people(out, committers, 'c');
+}
+
 static void shortlog(const char *name,
 		     struct origin_data *origin_data,
 		     struct commit *head,
@@ -233,6 +330,8 @@
 	struct commit *commit;
 	struct object *branch;
 	struct string_list subjects = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
+	struct string_list authors = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
+	struct string_list committers = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
 	int flags = UNINTERESTING | TREESAME | SEEN | SHOWN | ADDED;
 	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
 	const unsigned char *sha1 = origin_data->sha1;
@@ -242,7 +341,6 @@
 		return;
 
 	setup_revisions(0, NULL, rev, NULL);
-	rev->ignore_merges = 1;
 	add_pending_object(rev, branch, name);
 	add_pending_object(rev, &head->object, "^HEAD");
 	head->object.flags |= UNINTERESTING;
@@ -251,10 +349,15 @@
 	while ((commit = get_revision(rev)) != NULL) {
 		struct pretty_print_context ctx = {0};
 
-		/* ignore merges */
-		if (commit->parents && commit->parents->next)
+		if (commit->parents && commit->parents->next) {
+			/* do not list a merge but count committer */
+			record_person('c', &committers, commit);
 			continue;
-
+		}
+		if (!count)
+			/* the 'tip' committer */
+			record_person('c', &committers, commit);
+		record_person('a', &authors, commit);
 		count++;
 		if (subjects.nr > limit)
 			continue;
@@ -269,6 +372,7 @@
 			string_list_append(&subjects, strbuf_detach(&sb, NULL));
 	}
 
+	add_people_info(out, &authors, &committers);
 	if (count > limit)
 		strbuf_addf(out, "\n* %s: (%d commits)\n", name, count);
 	else
@@ -289,6 +393,8 @@
 	rev->commits = NULL;
 	rev->pending.nr = 0;
 
+	string_list_clear(&authors, 0);
+	string_list_clear(&committers, 0);
 	string_list_clear(&subjects, 0);
 }
 
diff --git a/builtin/for-each-ref.c b/builtin/for-each-ref.c
index b01d76a..0c5294e 100644
--- a/builtin/for-each-ref.c
+++ b/builtin/for-each-ref.c
@@ -962,7 +962,9 @@
 	if (!arg) /* should --no-sort void the list ? */
 		return -1;
 
-	*sort_tail = s = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*s));
+	s = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*s));
+	s->next = *sort_tail;
+	*sort_tail = s;
 
 	if (*arg == '-') {
 		s->reverse = 1;
diff --git a/builtin/fsck.c b/builtin/fsck.c
index 67eb553..a710227 100644
--- a/builtin/fsck.c
+++ b/builtin/fsck.c
@@ -12,6 +12,7 @@
 #include "parse-options.h"
 #include "dir.h"
 #include "progress.h"
+#include "streaming.h"
 
 #define REACHABLE 0x0001
 #define SEEN      0x0002
@@ -238,13 +239,8 @@
 			if (!(f = fopen(filename, "w")))
 				die_errno("Could not open '%s'", filename);
 			if (obj->type == OBJ_BLOB) {
-				enum object_type type;
-				unsigned long size;
-				char *buf = read_sha1_file(obj->sha1,
-						&type, &size);
-				if (buf && fwrite(buf, 1, size, f) != size)
+				if (stream_blob_to_fd(fileno(f), obj->sha1, NULL, 1))
 					die_errno("Could not write '%s'", filename);
-				free(buf);
 			} else
 				fprintf(f, "%s\n", sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
 			if (fclose(f))
diff --git a/builtin/grep.c b/builtin/grep.c
index fe1726f..0654e0b 100644
--- a/builtin/grep.c
+++ b/builtin/grep.c
@@ -209,6 +209,7 @@
 		int err;
 		struct grep_opt *o = grep_opt_dup(opt);
 		o->output = strbuf_out;
+		o->debug = 0;
 		compile_grep_patterns(o);
 		err = pthread_create(&threads[i], NULL, run, o);
 
@@ -772,6 +773,9 @@
 			   "indicate hit with exit status without output"),
 		OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "all-match", &opt.all_match,
 			"show only matches from files that match all patterns"),
+		{ OPTION_SET_INT, 0, "debug", &opt.debug, NULL,
+		  "show parse tree for grep expression",
+		  PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN, NULL, 1 },
 		OPT_GROUP(""),
 		{ OPTION_STRING, 'O', "open-files-in-pager", &show_in_pager,
 			"pager", "show matching files in the pager",
@@ -928,7 +932,7 @@
 	if (!seen_dashdash) {
 		int j;
 		for (j = i; j < argc; j++)
-			verify_filename(prefix, argv[j]);
+			verify_filename(prefix, argv[j], j == i);
 	}
 
 	paths = get_pathspec(prefix, argv + i);
diff --git a/builtin/help.c b/builtin/help.c
index 61ff798..efea4f5 100644
--- a/builtin/help.c
+++ b/builtin/help.c
@@ -9,8 +9,13 @@
 #include "common-cmds.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
 #include "run-command.h"
+#include "column.h"
 #include "help.h"
 
+#ifndef DEFAULT_HELP_FORMAT
+#define DEFAULT_HELP_FORMAT "man"
+#endif
+
 static struct man_viewer_list {
 	struct man_viewer_list *next;
 	char name[FLEX_ARRAY];
@@ -29,7 +34,10 @@
 	HELP_FORMAT_WEB
 };
 
+static const char *html_path;
+
 static int show_all = 0;
+static unsigned int colopts;
 static enum help_format help_format = HELP_FORMAT_NONE;
 static struct option builtin_help_options[] = {
 	OPT_BOOLEAN('a', "all", &show_all, "print all available commands"),
@@ -54,7 +62,7 @@
 		return HELP_FORMAT_INFO;
 	if (!strcmp(format, "web") || !strcmp(format, "html"))
 		return HELP_FORMAT_WEB;
-	die("unrecognized help format '%s'", format);
+	die(_("unrecognized help format '%s'"), format);
 }
 
 static const char *get_man_viewer_info(const char *name)
@@ -82,7 +90,7 @@
 	ec_process.err = -1;
 	ec_process.stdout_to_stderr = 1;
 	if (start_command(&ec_process))
-		return error("Failed to start emacsclient.");
+		return error(_("Failed to start emacsclient."));
 
 	strbuf_read(&buffer, ec_process.err, 20);
 	close(ec_process.err);
@@ -95,7 +103,7 @@
 
 	if (prefixcmp(buffer.buf, "emacsclient")) {
 		strbuf_release(&buffer);
-		return error("Failed to parse emacsclient version.");
+		return error(_("Failed to parse emacsclient version."));
 	}
 
 	strbuf_remove(&buffer, 0, strlen("emacsclient"));
@@ -103,7 +111,7 @@
 
 	if (version < 22) {
 		strbuf_release(&buffer);
-		return error("emacsclient version '%d' too old (< 22).",
+		return error(_("emacsclient version '%d' too old (< 22)."),
 			version);
 	}
 
@@ -121,7 +129,7 @@
 			path = "emacsclient";
 		strbuf_addf(&man_page, "(woman \"%s\")", page);
 		execlp(path, "emacsclient", "-e", man_page.buf, (char *)NULL);
-		warning("failed to exec '%s': %s", path, strerror(errno));
+		warning(_("failed to exec '%s': %s"), path, strerror(errno));
 	}
 }
 
@@ -149,7 +157,7 @@
 			path = "kfmclient";
 		strbuf_addf(&man_page, "man:%s(1)", page);
 		execlp(path, filename, "newTab", man_page.buf, (char *)NULL);
-		warning("failed to exec '%s': %s", path, strerror(errno));
+		warning(_("failed to exec '%s': %s"), path, strerror(errno));
 	}
 }
 
@@ -158,7 +166,7 @@
 	if (!path)
 		path = "man";
 	execlp(path, "man", page, (char *)NULL);
-	warning("failed to exec '%s': %s", path, strerror(errno));
+	warning(_("failed to exec '%s': %s"), path, strerror(errno));
 }
 
 static void exec_man_cmd(const char *cmd, const char *page)
@@ -166,7 +174,7 @@
 	struct strbuf shell_cmd = STRBUF_INIT;
 	strbuf_addf(&shell_cmd, "%s %s", cmd, page);
 	execl("/bin/sh", "sh", "-c", shell_cmd.buf, (char *)NULL);
-	warning("failed to exec '%s': %s", cmd, strerror(errno));
+	warning(_("failed to exec '%s': %s"), cmd, strerror(errno));
 }
 
 static void add_man_viewer(const char *name)
@@ -206,8 +214,8 @@
 	if (supported_man_viewer(name, len))
 		do_add_man_viewer_info(name, len, value);
 	else
-		warning("'%s': path for unsupported man viewer.\n"
-			"Please consider using 'man.<tool>.cmd' instead.",
+		warning(_("'%s': path for unsupported man viewer.\n"
+			  "Please consider using 'man.<tool>.cmd' instead."),
 			name);
 
 	return 0;
@@ -218,8 +226,8 @@
 			      const char *value)
 {
 	if (supported_man_viewer(name, len))
-		warning("'%s': cmd for supported man viewer.\n"
-			"Please consider using 'man.<tool>.path' instead.",
+		warning(_("'%s': cmd for supported man viewer.\n"
+			  "Please consider using 'man.<tool>.path' instead."),
 			name);
 	else
 		do_add_man_viewer_info(name, len, value);
@@ -251,12 +259,20 @@
 
 static int git_help_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
 {
+	if (!prefixcmp(var, "column."))
+		return git_column_config(var, value, "help", &colopts);
 	if (!strcmp(var, "help.format")) {
 		if (!value)
 			return config_error_nonbool(var);
 		help_format = parse_help_format(value);
 		return 0;
 	}
+	if (!strcmp(var, "help.htmlpath")) {
+		if (!value)
+			return config_error_nonbool(var);
+		html_path = xstrdup(value);
+		return 0;
+	}
 	if (!strcmp(var, "man.viewer")) {
 		if (!value)
 			return config_error_nonbool(var);
@@ -280,11 +296,11 @@
 			longest = strlen(common_cmds[i].name);
 	}
 
-	puts("The most commonly used git commands are:");
+	puts(_("The most commonly used git commands are:"));
 	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(common_cmds); i++) {
 		printf("   %s   ", common_cmds[i].name);
 		mput_char(' ', longest - strlen(common_cmds[i].name));
-		puts(common_cmds[i].help);
+		puts(_(common_cmds[i].help));
 	}
 }
 
@@ -348,7 +364,7 @@
 	else if (info)
 		exec_man_cmd(info, page);
 	else
-		warning("'%s': unknown man viewer.", name);
+		warning(_("'%s': unknown man viewer."), name);
 }
 
 static void show_man_page(const char *git_cmd)
@@ -365,7 +381,7 @@
 	if (fallback)
 		exec_viewer(fallback, page);
 	exec_viewer("man", page);
-	die("no man viewer handled the request");
+	die(_("no man viewer handled the request"));
 }
 
 static void show_info_page(const char *git_cmd)
@@ -373,18 +389,21 @@
 	const char *page = cmd_to_page(git_cmd);
 	setenv("INFOPATH", system_path(GIT_INFO_PATH), 1);
 	execlp("info", "info", "gitman", page, (char *)NULL);
-	die("no info viewer handled the request");
+	die(_("no info viewer handled the request"));
 }
 
 static void get_html_page_path(struct strbuf *page_path, const char *page)
 {
 	struct stat st;
-	const char *html_path = system_path(GIT_HTML_PATH);
+	if (!html_path)
+		html_path = system_path(GIT_HTML_PATH);
 
 	/* Check that we have a git documentation directory. */
-	if (stat(mkpath("%s/git.html", html_path), &st)
-	    || !S_ISREG(st.st_mode))
-		die("'%s': not a documentation directory.", html_path);
+	if (!strstr(html_path, "://")) {
+		if (stat(mkpath("%s/git.html", html_path), &st)
+		    || !S_ISREG(st.st_mode))
+			die("'%s': not a documentation directory.", html_path);
+	}
 
 	strbuf_init(page_path, 0);
 	strbuf_addf(page_path, "%s/%s.html", html_path, page);
@@ -424,16 +443,17 @@
 	parsed_help_format = help_format;
 
 	if (show_all) {
-		printf("usage: %s\n\n", git_usage_string);
-		list_commands("git commands", &main_cmds, &other_cmds);
-		printf("%s\n", git_more_info_string);
+		git_config(git_help_config, NULL);
+		printf(_("usage: %s%s"), _(git_usage_string), "\n\n");
+		list_commands(colopts, &main_cmds, &other_cmds);
+		printf("%s\n", _(git_more_info_string));
 		return 0;
 	}
 
 	if (!argv[0]) {
-		printf("usage: %s\n\n", git_usage_string);
+		printf(_("usage: %s%s"), _(git_usage_string), "\n\n");
 		list_common_cmds_help();
-		printf("\n%s\n", git_more_info_string);
+		printf("\n%s\n", _(git_more_info_string));
 		return 0;
 	}
 
@@ -442,10 +462,12 @@
 
 	if (parsed_help_format != HELP_FORMAT_NONE)
 		help_format = parsed_help_format;
+	if (help_format == HELP_FORMAT_NONE)
+		help_format = parse_help_format(DEFAULT_HELP_FORMAT);
 
 	alias = alias_lookup(argv[0]);
 	if (alias && !is_git_command(argv[0])) {
-		printf("`git %s' is aliased to `%s'\n", argv[0], alias);
+		printf_ln(_("`git %s' is aliased to `%s'"), argv[0], alias);
 		return 0;
 	}
 
diff --git a/builtin/index-pack.c b/builtin/index-pack.c
index dd1c5c9..953dd30 100644
--- a/builtin/index-pack.c
+++ b/builtin/index-pack.c
@@ -9,6 +9,8 @@
 #include "progress.h"
 #include "fsck.h"
 #include "exec_cmd.h"
+#include "streaming.h"
+#include "thread-utils.h"
 
 static const char index_pack_usage[] =
 "git index-pack [-v] [-o <index-file>] [--keep | --keep=<msg>] [--verify] [--strict] (<pack-file> | --stdin [--fix-thin] [<pack-file>])";
@@ -38,6 +40,19 @@
 	int ofs_first, ofs_last;
 };
 
+#if !defined(NO_PTHREADS) && defined(NO_THREAD_SAFE_PREAD)
+/* pread() emulation is not thread-safe. Disable threading. */
+#define NO_PTHREADS
+#endif
+
+struct thread_local {
+#ifndef NO_PTHREADS
+	pthread_t thread;
+#endif
+	struct base_data *base_cache;
+	size_t base_cache_used;
+};
+
 /*
  * Even if sizeof(union delta_base) == 24 on 64-bit archs, we really want
  * to memcmp() only the first 20 bytes.
@@ -54,11 +69,11 @@
 
 static struct object_entry *objects;
 static struct delta_entry *deltas;
-static struct base_data *base_cache;
-static size_t base_cache_used;
+static struct thread_local nothread_data;
 static int nr_objects;
 static int nr_deltas;
 static int nr_resolved_deltas;
+static int nr_threads;
 
 static int from_stdin;
 static int strict;
@@ -75,13 +90,84 @@
 static uint32_t input_crc32;
 static int input_fd, output_fd, pack_fd;
 
+#ifndef NO_PTHREADS
+
+static struct thread_local *thread_data;
+static int nr_dispatched;
+static int threads_active;
+
+static pthread_mutex_t read_mutex;
+#define read_lock()		lock_mutex(&read_mutex)
+#define read_unlock()		unlock_mutex(&read_mutex)
+
+static pthread_mutex_t counter_mutex;
+#define counter_lock()		lock_mutex(&counter_mutex)
+#define counter_unlock()	unlock_mutex(&counter_mutex)
+
+static pthread_mutex_t work_mutex;
+#define work_lock()		lock_mutex(&work_mutex)
+#define work_unlock()		unlock_mutex(&work_mutex)
+
+static pthread_key_t key;
+
+static inline void lock_mutex(pthread_mutex_t *mutex)
+{
+	if (threads_active)
+		pthread_mutex_lock(mutex);
+}
+
+static inline void unlock_mutex(pthread_mutex_t *mutex)
+{
+	if (threads_active)
+		pthread_mutex_unlock(mutex);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Mutex and conditional variable can't be statically-initialized on Windows.
+ */
+static void init_thread(void)
+{
+	init_recursive_mutex(&read_mutex);
+	pthread_mutex_init(&counter_mutex, NULL);
+	pthread_mutex_init(&work_mutex, NULL);
+	pthread_key_create(&key, NULL);
+	thread_data = xcalloc(nr_threads, sizeof(*thread_data));
+	threads_active = 1;
+}
+
+static void cleanup_thread(void)
+{
+	if (!threads_active)
+		return;
+	threads_active = 0;
+	pthread_mutex_destroy(&read_mutex);
+	pthread_mutex_destroy(&counter_mutex);
+	pthread_mutex_destroy(&work_mutex);
+	pthread_key_delete(key);
+	free(thread_data);
+}
+
+#else
+
+#define read_lock()
+#define read_unlock()
+
+#define counter_lock()
+#define counter_unlock()
+
+#define work_lock()
+#define work_unlock()
+
+#endif
+
+
 static int mark_link(struct object *obj, int type, void *data)
 {
 	if (!obj)
 		return -1;
 
 	if (type != OBJ_ANY && obj->type != type)
-		die("object type mismatch at %s", sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
+		die(_("object type mismatch at %s"), sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
 
 	obj->flags |= FLAG_LINK;
 	return 0;
@@ -101,7 +187,7 @@
 		unsigned long size;
 		int type = sha1_object_info(obj->sha1, &size);
 		if (type != obj->type || type <= 0)
-			die("object of unexpected type");
+			die(_("object of unexpected type"));
 		obj->flags |= FLAG_CHECKED;
 		return;
 	}
@@ -138,15 +224,18 @@
 	if (min <= input_len)
 		return input_buffer + input_offset;
 	if (min > sizeof(input_buffer))
-		die("cannot fill %d bytes", min);
+		die(Q_("cannot fill %d byte",
+		       "cannot fill %d bytes",
+		       min),
+		    min);
 	flush();
 	do {
 		ssize_t ret = xread(input_fd, input_buffer + input_len,
 				sizeof(input_buffer) - input_len);
 		if (ret <= 0) {
 			if (!ret)
-				die("early EOF");
-			die_errno("read error on input");
+				die(_("early EOF"));
+			die_errno(_("read error on input"));
 		}
 		input_len += ret;
 		if (from_stdin)
@@ -158,14 +247,14 @@
 static void use(int bytes)
 {
 	if (bytes > input_len)
-		die("used more bytes than were available");
+		die(_("used more bytes than were available"));
 	input_crc32 = crc32(input_crc32, input_buffer + input_offset, bytes);
 	input_len -= bytes;
 	input_offset += bytes;
 
 	/* make sure off_t is sufficiently large not to wrap */
 	if (signed_add_overflows(consumed_bytes, bytes))
-		die("pack too large for current definition of off_t");
+		die(_("pack too large for current definition of off_t"));
 	consumed_bytes += bytes;
 }
 
@@ -181,12 +270,12 @@
 		} else
 			output_fd = open(pack_name, O_CREAT|O_EXCL|O_RDWR, 0600);
 		if (output_fd < 0)
-			die_errno("unable to create '%s'", pack_name);
+			die_errno(_("unable to create '%s'"), pack_name);
 		pack_fd = output_fd;
 	} else {
 		input_fd = open(pack_name, O_RDONLY);
 		if (input_fd < 0)
-			die_errno("cannot open packfile '%s'", pack_name);
+			die_errno(_("cannot open packfile '%s'"), pack_name);
 		output_fd = -1;
 		pack_fd = input_fd;
 	}
@@ -200,7 +289,7 @@
 
 	/* Header consistency check */
 	if (hdr->hdr_signature != htonl(PACK_SIGNATURE))
-		die("pack signature mismatch");
+		die(_("pack signature mismatch"));
 	if (!pack_version_ok(hdr->hdr_version))
 		die("pack version %"PRIu32" unsupported",
 			ntohl(hdr->hdr_version));
@@ -220,9 +309,28 @@
 	va_start(params, format);
 	vsnprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), format, params);
 	va_end(params);
-	die("pack has bad object at offset %lu: %s", offset, buf);
+	die(_("pack has bad object at offset %lu: %s"), offset, buf);
 }
 
+static inline struct thread_local *get_thread_data(void)
+{
+#ifndef NO_PTHREADS
+	if (threads_active)
+		return pthread_getspecific(key);
+	assert(!threads_active &&
+	       "This should only be reached when all threads are gone");
+#endif
+	return &nothread_data;
+}
+
+#ifndef NO_PTHREADS
+static void set_thread_data(struct thread_local *data)
+{
+	if (threads_active)
+		pthread_setspecific(key, data);
+}
+#endif
+
 static struct base_data *alloc_base_data(void)
 {
 	struct base_data *base = xmalloc(sizeof(struct base_data));
@@ -237,15 +345,16 @@
 	if (c->data) {
 		free(c->data);
 		c->data = NULL;
-		base_cache_used -= c->size;
+		get_thread_data()->base_cache_used -= c->size;
 	}
 }
 
 static void prune_base_data(struct base_data *retain)
 {
 	struct base_data *b;
-	for (b = base_cache;
-	     base_cache_used > delta_base_cache_limit && b;
+	struct thread_local *data = get_thread_data();
+	for (b = data->base_cache;
+	     data->base_cache_used > delta_base_cache_limit && b;
 	     b = b->child) {
 		if (b->data && b != retain)
 			free_base_data(b);
@@ -257,12 +366,12 @@
 	if (base)
 		base->child = c;
 	else
-		base_cache = c;
+		get_thread_data()->base_cache = c;
 
 	c->base = base;
 	c->child = NULL;
 	if (c->data)
-		base_cache_used += c->size;
+		get_thread_data()->base_cache_used += c->size;
 	prune_base_data(c);
 }
 
@@ -272,34 +381,66 @@
 	if (base)
 		base->child = NULL;
 	else
-		base_cache = NULL;
+		get_thread_data()->base_cache = NULL;
 	free_base_data(c);
 }
 
-static void *unpack_entry_data(unsigned long offset, unsigned long size)
+static int is_delta_type(enum object_type type)
 {
+	return (type == OBJ_REF_DELTA || type == OBJ_OFS_DELTA);
+}
+
+static void *unpack_entry_data(unsigned long offset, unsigned long size,
+			       enum object_type type, unsigned char *sha1)
+{
+	static char fixed_buf[8192];
 	int status;
 	git_zstream stream;
-	void *buf = xmalloc(size);
+	void *buf;
+	git_SHA_CTX c;
+	char hdr[32];
+	int hdrlen;
+
+	if (!is_delta_type(type)) {
+		hdrlen = sprintf(hdr, "%s %lu", typename(type), size) + 1;
+		git_SHA1_Init(&c);
+		git_SHA1_Update(&c, hdr, hdrlen);
+	} else
+		sha1 = NULL;
+	if (type == OBJ_BLOB && size > big_file_threshold)
+		buf = fixed_buf;
+	else
+		buf = xmalloc(size);
 
 	memset(&stream, 0, sizeof(stream));
 	git_inflate_init(&stream);
 	stream.next_out = buf;
-	stream.avail_out = size;
+	stream.avail_out = buf == fixed_buf ? sizeof(fixed_buf) : size;
 
 	do {
+		unsigned char *last_out = stream.next_out;
 		stream.next_in = fill(1);
 		stream.avail_in = input_len;
 		status = git_inflate(&stream, 0);
 		use(input_len - stream.avail_in);
+		if (sha1)
+			git_SHA1_Update(&c, last_out, stream.next_out - last_out);
+		if (buf == fixed_buf) {
+			stream.next_out = buf;
+			stream.avail_out = sizeof(fixed_buf);
+		}
 	} while (status == Z_OK);
 	if (stream.total_out != size || status != Z_STREAM_END)
-		bad_object(offset, "inflate returned %d", status);
+		bad_object(offset, _("inflate returned %d"), status);
 	git_inflate_end(&stream);
-	return buf;
+	if (sha1)
+		git_SHA1_Final(sha1, &c);
+	return buf == fixed_buf ? NULL : buf;
 }
 
-static void *unpack_raw_entry(struct object_entry *obj, union delta_base *delta_base)
+static void *unpack_raw_entry(struct object_entry *obj,
+			      union delta_base *delta_base,
+			      unsigned char *sha1)
 {
 	unsigned char *p;
 	unsigned long size, c;
@@ -339,7 +480,7 @@
 		while (c & 128) {
 			base_offset += 1;
 			if (!base_offset || MSB(base_offset, 7))
-				bad_object(obj->idx.offset, "offset value overflow for delta base object");
+				bad_object(obj->idx.offset, _("offset value overflow for delta base object"));
 			p = fill(1);
 			c = *p;
 			use(1);
@@ -347,7 +488,7 @@
 		}
 		delta_base->offset = obj->idx.offset - base_offset;
 		if (delta_base->offset <= 0 || delta_base->offset >= obj->idx.offset)
-			bad_object(obj->idx.offset, "delta base offset is out of bound");
+			bad_object(obj->idx.offset, _("delta base offset is out of bound"));
 		break;
 	case OBJ_COMMIT:
 	case OBJ_TREE:
@@ -355,16 +496,18 @@
 	case OBJ_TAG:
 		break;
 	default:
-		bad_object(obj->idx.offset, "unknown object type %d", obj->type);
+		bad_object(obj->idx.offset, _("unknown object type %d"), obj->type);
 	}
 	obj->hdr_size = consumed_bytes - obj->idx.offset;
 
-	data = unpack_entry_data(obj->idx.offset, obj->size);
+	data = unpack_entry_data(obj->idx.offset, obj->size, obj->type, sha1);
 	obj->idx.crc32 = input_crc32;
 	return data;
 }
 
-static void *get_data_from_pack(struct object_entry *obj)
+static void *unpack_data(struct object_entry *obj,
+			 int (*consume)(const unsigned char *, unsigned long, void *),
+			 void *cb_data)
 {
 	off_t from = obj[0].idx.offset + obj[0].hdr_size;
 	unsigned long len = obj[1].idx.offset - from;
@@ -372,37 +515,62 @@
 	git_zstream stream;
 	int status;
 
-	data = xmalloc(obj->size);
+	data = xmalloc(consume ? 64*1024 : obj->size);
 	inbuf = xmalloc((len < 64*1024) ? len : 64*1024);
 
 	memset(&stream, 0, sizeof(stream));
 	git_inflate_init(&stream);
 	stream.next_out = data;
-	stream.avail_out = obj->size;
+	stream.avail_out = consume ? 64*1024 : obj->size;
 
 	do {
 		ssize_t n = (len < 64*1024) ? len : 64*1024;
 		n = pread(pack_fd, inbuf, n, from);
 		if (n < 0)
-			die_errno("cannot pread pack file");
+			die_errno(_("cannot pread pack file"));
 		if (!n)
-			die("premature end of pack file, %lu bytes missing", len);
+			die(Q_("premature end of pack file, %lu byte missing",
+			       "premature end of pack file, %lu bytes missing",
+			       len),
+			    len);
 		from += n;
 		len -= n;
 		stream.next_in = inbuf;
 		stream.avail_in = n;
-		status = git_inflate(&stream, 0);
+		if (!consume)
+			status = git_inflate(&stream, 0);
+		else {
+			do {
+				status = git_inflate(&stream, 0);
+				if (consume(data, stream.next_out - data, cb_data)) {
+					free(inbuf);
+					free(data);
+					return NULL;
+				}
+				stream.next_out = data;
+				stream.avail_out = 64*1024;
+			} while (status == Z_OK && stream.avail_in);
+		}
 	} while (len && status == Z_OK && !stream.avail_in);
 
 	/* This has been inflated OK when first encountered, so... */
 	if (status != Z_STREAM_END || stream.total_out != obj->size)
-		die("serious inflate inconsistency");
+		die(_("serious inflate inconsistency"));
 
 	git_inflate_end(&stream);
 	free(inbuf);
+	if (consume) {
+		free(data);
+		data = NULL;
+	}
 	return data;
 }
 
+static void *get_data_from_pack(struct object_entry *obj)
+{
+	return unpack_data(obj, NULL, NULL);
+}
+
 static int compare_delta_bases(const union delta_base *base1,
 			       const union delta_base *base2,
 			       enum object_type type1,
@@ -457,45 +625,130 @@
 	*last_index = last;
 }
 
-static void sha1_object(const void *data, unsigned long size,
-			enum object_type type, unsigned char *sha1)
+struct compare_data {
+	struct object_entry *entry;
+	struct git_istream *st;
+	unsigned char *buf;
+	unsigned long buf_size;
+};
+
+static int compare_objects(const unsigned char *buf, unsigned long size,
+			   void *cb_data)
 {
-	hash_sha1_file(data, size, typename(type), sha1);
-	if (has_sha1_file(sha1)) {
+	struct compare_data *data = cb_data;
+
+	if (data->buf_size < size) {
+		free(data->buf);
+		data->buf = xmalloc(size);
+		data->buf_size = size;
+	}
+
+	while (size) {
+		ssize_t len = read_istream(data->st, data->buf, size);
+		if (len == 0)
+			die(_("SHA1 COLLISION FOUND WITH %s !"),
+			    sha1_to_hex(data->entry->idx.sha1));
+		if (len < 0)
+			die(_("unable to read %s"),
+			    sha1_to_hex(data->entry->idx.sha1));
+		if (memcmp(buf, data->buf, len))
+			die(_("SHA1 COLLISION FOUND WITH %s !"),
+			    sha1_to_hex(data->entry->idx.sha1));
+		size -= len;
+		buf += len;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int check_collison(struct object_entry *entry)
+{
+	struct compare_data data;
+	enum object_type type;
+	unsigned long size;
+
+	if (entry->size <= big_file_threshold || entry->type != OBJ_BLOB)
+		return -1;
+
+	memset(&data, 0, sizeof(data));
+	data.entry = entry;
+	data.st = open_istream(entry->idx.sha1, &type, &size, NULL);
+	if (!data.st)
+		return -1;
+	if (size != entry->size || type != entry->type)
+		die(_("SHA1 COLLISION FOUND WITH %s !"),
+		    sha1_to_hex(entry->idx.sha1));
+	unpack_data(entry, compare_objects, &data);
+	close_istream(data.st);
+	free(data.buf);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static void sha1_object(const void *data, struct object_entry *obj_entry,
+			unsigned long size, enum object_type type,
+			const unsigned char *sha1)
+{
+	void *new_data = NULL;
+	int collision_test_needed;
+
+	assert(data || obj_entry);
+
+	read_lock();
+	collision_test_needed = has_sha1_file(sha1);
+	read_unlock();
+
+	if (collision_test_needed && !data) {
+		read_lock();
+		if (!check_collison(obj_entry))
+			collision_test_needed = 0;
+		read_unlock();
+	}
+	if (collision_test_needed) {
 		void *has_data;
 		enum object_type has_type;
 		unsigned long has_size;
+		read_lock();
+		has_type = sha1_object_info(sha1, &has_size);
+		if (has_type != type || has_size != size)
+			die(_("SHA1 COLLISION FOUND WITH %s !"), sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 		has_data = read_sha1_file(sha1, &has_type, &has_size);
+		read_unlock();
+		if (!data)
+			data = new_data = get_data_from_pack(obj_entry);
 		if (!has_data)
-			die("cannot read existing object %s", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+			die(_("cannot read existing object %s"), sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 		if (size != has_size || type != has_type ||
 		    memcmp(data, has_data, size) != 0)
-			die("SHA1 COLLISION FOUND WITH %s !", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+			die(_("SHA1 COLLISION FOUND WITH %s !"), sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 		free(has_data);
 	}
+
 	if (strict) {
+		read_lock();
 		if (type == OBJ_BLOB) {
 			struct blob *blob = lookup_blob(sha1);
 			if (blob)
 				blob->object.flags |= FLAG_CHECKED;
 			else
-				die("invalid blob object %s", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+				die(_("invalid blob object %s"), sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 		} else {
 			struct object *obj;
 			int eaten;
 			void *buf = (void *) data;
 
+			if (!buf)
+				buf = new_data = get_data_from_pack(obj_entry);
+
 			/*
 			 * we do not need to free the memory here, as the
 			 * buf is deleted by the caller.
 			 */
 			obj = parse_object_buffer(sha1, type, size, buf, &eaten);
 			if (!obj)
-				die("invalid %s", typename(type));
+				die(_("invalid %s"), typename(type));
 			if (fsck_object(obj, 1, fsck_error_function))
-				die("Error in object");
+				die(_("Error in object"));
 			if (fsck_walk(obj, mark_link, NULL))
-				die("Not all child objects of %s are reachable", sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
+				die(_("Not all child objects of %s are reachable"), sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
 
 			if (obj->type == OBJ_TREE) {
 				struct tree *item = (struct tree *) obj;
@@ -507,12 +760,10 @@
 			}
 			obj->flags |= FLAG_CHECKED;
 		}
+		read_unlock();
 	}
-}
 
-static int is_delta_type(enum object_type type)
-{
-	return (type == OBJ_REF_DELTA || type == OBJ_OFS_DELTA);
+	free(new_data);
 }
 
 /*
@@ -552,7 +803,7 @@
 		if (!delta_nr) {
 			c->data = get_data_from_pack(obj);
 			c->size = obj->size;
-			base_cache_used += c->size;
+			get_thread_data()->base_cache_used += c->size;
 			prune_base_data(c);
 		}
 		for (; delta_nr > 0; delta_nr--) {
@@ -567,8 +818,8 @@
 				&c->size);
 			free(raw);
 			if (!c->data)
-				bad_object(obj->idx.offset, "failed to apply delta");
-			base_cache_used += c->size;
+				bad_object(obj->idx.offset, _("failed to apply delta"));
+			get_thread_data()->base_cache_used += c->size;
 			prune_base_data(c);
 		}
 		free(delta);
@@ -593,10 +844,14 @@
 				   delta_data, delta_obj->size, &result->size);
 	free(delta_data);
 	if (!result->data)
-		bad_object(delta_obj->idx.offset, "failed to apply delta");
-	sha1_object(result->data, result->size, delta_obj->real_type,
+		bad_object(delta_obj->idx.offset, _("failed to apply delta"));
+	hash_sha1_file(result->data, result->size,
+		       typename(delta_obj->real_type), delta_obj->idx.sha1);
+	sha1_object(result->data, NULL, result->size, delta_obj->real_type,
 		    delta_obj->idx.sha1);
+	counter_lock();
 	nr_resolved_deltas++;
+	counter_unlock();
 }
 
 static struct base_data *find_unresolved_deltas_1(struct base_data *base,
@@ -682,33 +937,68 @@
 				   objects[delta_b->obj_no].type);
 }
 
-/* Parse all objects and return the pack content SHA1 hash */
+static void resolve_base(struct object_entry *obj)
+{
+	struct base_data *base_obj = alloc_base_data();
+	base_obj->obj = obj;
+	base_obj->data = NULL;
+	find_unresolved_deltas(base_obj);
+}
+
+#ifndef NO_PTHREADS
+static void *threaded_second_pass(void *data)
+{
+	set_thread_data(data);
+	for (;;) {
+		int i;
+		work_lock();
+		display_progress(progress, nr_resolved_deltas);
+		while (nr_dispatched < nr_objects &&
+		       is_delta_type(objects[nr_dispatched].type))
+			nr_dispatched++;
+		if (nr_dispatched >= nr_objects) {
+			work_unlock();
+			break;
+		}
+		i = nr_dispatched++;
+		work_unlock();
+
+		resolve_base(&objects[i]);
+	}
+	return NULL;
+}
+#endif
+
+/*
+ * First pass:
+ * - find locations of all objects;
+ * - calculate SHA1 of all non-delta objects;
+ * - remember base (SHA1 or offset) for all deltas.
+ */
 static void parse_pack_objects(unsigned char *sha1)
 {
-	int i;
+	int i, nr_delays = 0;
 	struct delta_entry *delta = deltas;
 	struct stat st;
 
-	/*
-	 * First pass:
-	 * - find locations of all objects;
-	 * - calculate SHA1 of all non-delta objects;
-	 * - remember base (SHA1 or offset) for all deltas.
-	 */
 	if (verbose)
 		progress = start_progress(
-				from_stdin ? "Receiving objects" : "Indexing objects",
+				from_stdin ? _("Receiving objects") : _("Indexing objects"),
 				nr_objects);
 	for (i = 0; i < nr_objects; i++) {
 		struct object_entry *obj = &objects[i];
-		void *data = unpack_raw_entry(obj, &delta->base);
+		void *data = unpack_raw_entry(obj, &delta->base, obj->idx.sha1);
 		obj->real_type = obj->type;
 		if (is_delta_type(obj->type)) {
 			nr_deltas++;
 			delta->obj_no = i;
 			delta++;
+		} else if (!data) {
+			/* large blobs, check later */
+			obj->real_type = OBJ_BAD;
+			nr_delays++;
 		} else
-			sha1_object(data, obj->size, obj->type, obj->idx.sha1);
+			sha1_object(data, NULL, obj->size, obj->type, obj->idx.sha1);
 		free(data);
 		display_progress(progress, i+1);
 	}
@@ -719,15 +1009,39 @@
 	flush();
 	git_SHA1_Final(sha1, &input_ctx);
 	if (hashcmp(fill(20), sha1))
-		die("pack is corrupted (SHA1 mismatch)");
+		die(_("pack is corrupted (SHA1 mismatch)"));
 	use(20);
 
 	/* If input_fd is a file, we should have reached its end now. */
 	if (fstat(input_fd, &st))
-		die_errno("cannot fstat packfile");
+		die_errno(_("cannot fstat packfile"));
 	if (S_ISREG(st.st_mode) &&
 			lseek(input_fd, 0, SEEK_CUR) - input_len != st.st_size)
-		die("pack has junk at the end");
+		die(_("pack has junk at the end"));
+
+	for (i = 0; i < nr_objects; i++) {
+		struct object_entry *obj = &objects[i];
+		if (obj->real_type != OBJ_BAD)
+			continue;
+		obj->real_type = obj->type;
+		sha1_object(NULL, obj, obj->size, obj->type, obj->idx.sha1);
+		nr_delays--;
+	}
+	if (nr_delays)
+		die(_("confusion beyond insanity in parse_pack_objects()"));
+}
+
+/*
+ * Second pass:
+ * - for all non-delta objects, look if it is used as a base for
+ *   deltas;
+ * - if used as a base, uncompress the object and apply all deltas,
+ *   recursively checking if the resulting object is used as a base
+ *   for some more deltas.
+ */
+static void resolve_deltas(void)
+{
+	int i;
 
 	if (!nr_deltas)
 		return;
@@ -736,29 +1050,83 @@
 	qsort(deltas, nr_deltas, sizeof(struct delta_entry),
 	      compare_delta_entry);
 
-	/*
-	 * Second pass:
-	 * - for all non-delta objects, look if it is used as a base for
-	 *   deltas;
-	 * - if used as a base, uncompress the object and apply all deltas,
-	 *   recursively checking if the resulting object is used as a base
-	 *   for some more deltas.
-	 */
 	if (verbose)
-		progress = start_progress("Resolving deltas", nr_deltas);
+		progress = start_progress(_("Resolving deltas"), nr_deltas);
+
+#ifndef NO_PTHREADS
+	nr_dispatched = 0;
+	if (nr_threads > 1 || getenv("GIT_FORCE_THREADS")) {
+		init_thread();
+		for (i = 0; i < nr_threads; i++) {
+			int ret = pthread_create(&thread_data[i].thread, NULL,
+						 threaded_second_pass, thread_data + i);
+			if (ret)
+				die("unable to create thread: %s", strerror(ret));
+		}
+		for (i = 0; i < nr_threads; i++)
+			pthread_join(thread_data[i].thread, NULL);
+		cleanup_thread();
+		return;
+	}
+#endif
+
 	for (i = 0; i < nr_objects; i++) {
 		struct object_entry *obj = &objects[i];
-		struct base_data *base_obj = alloc_base_data();
 
 		if (is_delta_type(obj->type))
 			continue;
-		base_obj->obj = obj;
-		base_obj->data = NULL;
-		find_unresolved_deltas(base_obj);
+		resolve_base(obj);
 		display_progress(progress, nr_resolved_deltas);
 	}
 }
 
+/*
+ * Third pass:
+ * - append objects to convert thin pack to full pack if required
+ * - write the final 20-byte SHA-1
+ */
+static void fix_unresolved_deltas(struct sha1file *f, int nr_unresolved);
+static void conclude_pack(int fix_thin_pack, const char *curr_pack, unsigned char *pack_sha1)
+{
+	if (nr_deltas == nr_resolved_deltas) {
+		stop_progress(&progress);
+		/* Flush remaining pack final 20-byte SHA1. */
+		flush();
+		return;
+	}
+
+	if (fix_thin_pack) {
+		struct sha1file *f;
+		unsigned char read_sha1[20], tail_sha1[20];
+		char msg[48];
+		int nr_unresolved = nr_deltas - nr_resolved_deltas;
+		int nr_objects_initial = nr_objects;
+		if (nr_unresolved <= 0)
+			die(_("confusion beyond insanity"));
+		objects = xrealloc(objects,
+				   (nr_objects + nr_unresolved + 1)
+				   * sizeof(*objects));
+		f = sha1fd(output_fd, curr_pack);
+		fix_unresolved_deltas(f, nr_unresolved);
+		sprintf(msg, "completed with %d local objects",
+			nr_objects - nr_objects_initial);
+		stop_progress_msg(&progress, msg);
+		sha1close(f, tail_sha1, 0);
+		hashcpy(read_sha1, pack_sha1);
+		fixup_pack_header_footer(output_fd, pack_sha1,
+					 curr_pack, nr_objects,
+					 read_sha1, consumed_bytes-20);
+		if (hashcmp(read_sha1, tail_sha1) != 0)
+			die("Unexpected tail checksum for %s "
+			    "(disk corruption?)", curr_pack);
+	}
+	if (nr_deltas != nr_resolved_deltas)
+		die(Q_("pack has %d unresolved delta",
+		       "pack has %d unresolved deltas",
+		       nr_deltas - nr_resolved_deltas),
+		    nr_deltas - nr_resolved_deltas);
+}
+
 static int write_compressed(struct sha1file *f, void *in, unsigned int size)
 {
 	git_zstream stream;
@@ -778,7 +1146,7 @@
 	} while (status == Z_OK);
 
 	if (status != Z_STREAM_END)
-		die("unable to deflate appended object (%d)", status);
+		die(_("unable to deflate appended object (%d)"), status);
 	size = stream.total_out;
 	git_deflate_end(&stream);
 	return size;
@@ -857,7 +1225,7 @@
 
 		if (check_sha1_signature(d->base.sha1, base_obj->data,
 				base_obj->size, typename(type)))
-			die("local object %s is corrupt", sha1_to_hex(d->base.sha1));
+			die(_("local object %s is corrupt"), sha1_to_hex(d->base.sha1));
 		base_obj->obj = append_obj_to_pack(f, d->base.sha1,
 					base_obj->data, base_obj->size, type);
 		find_unresolved_deltas(base_obj);
@@ -881,7 +1249,7 @@
 		fsync_or_die(output_fd, curr_pack_name);
 		err = close(output_fd);
 		if (err)
-			die_errno("error while closing pack file");
+			die_errno(_("error while closing pack file"));
 	}
 
 	if (keep_msg) {
@@ -894,7 +1262,7 @@
 
 		if (keep_fd < 0) {
 			if (errno != EEXIST)
-				die_errno("cannot write keep file '%s'",
+				die_errno(_("cannot write keep file '%s'"),
 					  keep_name);
 		} else {
 			if (keep_msg_len > 0) {
@@ -902,7 +1270,7 @@
 				write_or_die(keep_fd, "\n", 1);
 			}
 			if (close(keep_fd) != 0)
-				die_errno("cannot close written keep file '%s'",
+				die_errno(_("cannot close written keep file '%s'"),
 				    keep_name);
 			report = "keep";
 		}
@@ -915,7 +1283,7 @@
 			final_pack_name = name;
 		}
 		if (move_temp_to_file(curr_pack_name, final_pack_name))
-			die("cannot store pack file");
+			die(_("cannot store pack file"));
 	} else if (from_stdin)
 		chmod(final_pack_name, 0444);
 
@@ -926,7 +1294,7 @@
 			final_index_name = name;
 		}
 		if (move_temp_to_file(curr_index_name, final_index_name))
-			die("cannot store index file");
+			die(_("cannot store index file"));
 	} else
 		chmod(final_index_name, 0444);
 
@@ -962,6 +1330,18 @@
 			die("bad pack.indexversion=%"PRIu32, opts->version);
 		return 0;
 	}
+	if (!strcmp(k, "pack.threads")) {
+		nr_threads = git_config_int(k, v);
+		if (nr_threads < 0)
+			die("invalid number of threads specified (%d)",
+			    nr_threads);
+#ifdef NO_PTHREADS
+		if (nr_threads != 1)
+			warning("no threads support, ignoring %s", k);
+		nr_threads = 1;
+#endif
+		return 0;
+	}
 	return git_default_config(k, v, cb);
 }
 
@@ -1015,9 +1395,9 @@
 	struct packed_git *p = add_packed_git(pack_name, strlen(pack_name), 1);
 
 	if (!p)
-		die("Cannot open existing pack file '%s'", pack_name);
+		die(_("Cannot open existing pack file '%s'"), pack_name);
 	if (open_pack_index(p))
-		die("Cannot open existing pack idx file for '%s'", pack_name);
+		die(_("Cannot open existing pack idx file for '%s'"), pack_name);
 
 	/* Read the attributes from the existing idx file */
 	opts->version = p->index_version;
@@ -1064,15 +1444,18 @@
 	}
 
 	if (baseobjects)
-		printf("non delta: %d object%s\n",
-		       baseobjects, baseobjects > 1 ? "s" : "");
+		printf_ln(Q_("non delta: %d object",
+			     "non delta: %d objects",
+			     baseobjects),
+			  baseobjects);
 	for (i = 0; i < deepest_delta; i++) {
 		if (!chain_histogram[i])
 			continue;
-		printf("chain length = %d: %lu object%s\n",
-		       i + 1,
-		       chain_histogram[i],
-		       chain_histogram[i] > 1 ? "s" : "");
+		printf_ln(Q_("chain length = %d: %lu object",
+			     "chain length = %d: %lu objects",
+			     chain_histogram[i]),
+			  i + 1,
+			  chain_histogram[i]);
 	}
 }
 
@@ -1095,7 +1478,7 @@
 	reset_pack_idx_option(&opts);
 	git_config(git_index_pack_config, &opts);
 	if (prefix && chdir(prefix))
-		die("Cannot come back to cwd");
+		die(_("Cannot come back to cwd"));
 
 	for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {
 		const char *arg = argv[i];
@@ -1120,6 +1503,17 @@
 				keep_msg = "";
 			} else if (!prefixcmp(arg, "--keep=")) {
 				keep_msg = arg + 7;
+			} else if (!prefixcmp(arg, "--threads=")) {
+				char *end;
+				nr_threads = strtoul(arg+10, &end, 0);
+				if (!arg[10] || *end || nr_threads < 0)
+					usage(index_pack_usage);
+#ifdef NO_PTHREADS
+				if (nr_threads != 1)
+					warning("no threads support, "
+						"ignoring %s", arg);
+				nr_threads = 1;
+#endif
 			} else if (!prefixcmp(arg, "--pack_header=")) {
 				struct pack_header *hdr;
 				char *c;
@@ -1128,10 +1522,10 @@
 				hdr->hdr_signature = htonl(PACK_SIGNATURE);
 				hdr->hdr_version = htonl(strtoul(arg + 14, &c, 10));
 				if (*c != ',')
-					die("bad %s", arg);
+					die(_("bad %s"), arg);
 				hdr->hdr_entries = htonl(strtoul(c + 1, &c, 10));
 				if (*c)
-					die("bad %s", arg);
+					die(_("bad %s"), arg);
 				input_len = sizeof(*hdr);
 			} else if (!strcmp(arg, "-v")) {
 				verbose = 1;
@@ -1143,11 +1537,11 @@
 				char *c;
 				opts.version = strtoul(arg + 16, &c, 10);
 				if (opts.version > 2)
-					die("bad %s", arg);
+					die(_("bad %s"), arg);
 				if (*c == ',')
 					opts.off32_limit = strtoul(c+1, &c, 0);
 				if (*c || opts.off32_limit & 0x80000000)
-					die("bad %s", arg);
+					die(_("bad %s"), arg);
 			} else
 				usage(index_pack_usage);
 			continue;
@@ -1161,11 +1555,11 @@
 	if (!pack_name && !from_stdin)
 		usage(index_pack_usage);
 	if (fix_thin_pack && !from_stdin)
-		die("--fix-thin cannot be used without --stdin");
+		die(_("--fix-thin cannot be used without --stdin"));
 	if (!index_name && pack_name) {
 		int len = strlen(pack_name);
 		if (!has_extension(pack_name, ".pack"))
-			die("packfile name '%s' does not end with '.pack'",
+			die(_("packfile name '%s' does not end with '.pack'"),
 			    pack_name);
 		index_name_buf = xmalloc(len);
 		memcpy(index_name_buf, pack_name, len - 5);
@@ -1175,7 +1569,7 @@
 	if (keep_msg && !keep_name && pack_name) {
 		int len = strlen(pack_name);
 		if (!has_extension(pack_name, ".pack"))
-			die("packfile name '%s' does not end with '.pack'",
+			die(_("packfile name '%s' does not end with '.pack'"),
 			    pack_name);
 		keep_name_buf = xmalloc(len);
 		memcpy(keep_name_buf, pack_name, len - 5);
@@ -1184,52 +1578,29 @@
 	}
 	if (verify) {
 		if (!index_name)
-			die("--verify with no packfile name given");
+			die(_("--verify with no packfile name given"));
 		read_idx_option(&opts, index_name);
 		opts.flags |= WRITE_IDX_VERIFY | WRITE_IDX_STRICT;
 	}
 	if (strict)
 		opts.flags |= WRITE_IDX_STRICT;
 
+#ifndef NO_PTHREADS
+	if (!nr_threads) {
+		nr_threads = online_cpus();
+		/* An experiment showed that more threads does not mean faster */
+		if (nr_threads > 3)
+			nr_threads = 3;
+	}
+#endif
+
 	curr_pack = open_pack_file(pack_name);
 	parse_pack_header();
 	objects = xcalloc(nr_objects + 1, sizeof(struct object_entry));
 	deltas = xcalloc(nr_objects, sizeof(struct delta_entry));
 	parse_pack_objects(pack_sha1);
-	if (nr_deltas == nr_resolved_deltas) {
-		stop_progress(&progress);
-		/* Flush remaining pack final 20-byte SHA1. */
-		flush();
-	} else {
-		if (fix_thin_pack) {
-			struct sha1file *f;
-			unsigned char read_sha1[20], tail_sha1[20];
-			char msg[48];
-			int nr_unresolved = nr_deltas - nr_resolved_deltas;
-			int nr_objects_initial = nr_objects;
-			if (nr_unresolved <= 0)
-				die("confusion beyond insanity");
-			objects = xrealloc(objects,
-					   (nr_objects + nr_unresolved + 1)
-					   * sizeof(*objects));
-			f = sha1fd(output_fd, curr_pack);
-			fix_unresolved_deltas(f, nr_unresolved);
-			sprintf(msg, "completed with %d local objects",
-				nr_objects - nr_objects_initial);
-			stop_progress_msg(&progress, msg);
-			sha1close(f, tail_sha1, 0);
-			hashcpy(read_sha1, pack_sha1);
-			fixup_pack_header_footer(output_fd, pack_sha1,
-						 curr_pack, nr_objects,
-						 read_sha1, consumed_bytes-20);
-			if (hashcmp(read_sha1, tail_sha1) != 0)
-				die("Unexpected tail checksum for %s "
-				    "(disk corruption?)", curr_pack);
-		}
-		if (nr_deltas != nr_resolved_deltas)
-			die("pack has %d unresolved deltas",
-			    nr_deltas - nr_resolved_deltas);
-	}
+	resolve_deltas();
+	conclude_pack(fix_thin_pack, curr_pack, pack_sha1);
 	free(deltas);
 	if (strict)
 		check_objects();
diff --git a/builtin/init-db.c b/builtin/init-db.c
index 0dacb8b..244fb7f 100644
--- a/builtin/init-db.c
+++ b/builtin/init-db.c
@@ -290,6 +290,7 @@
 		strcpy(path + len, "CoNfIg");
 		if (!access(path, F_OK))
 			git_config_set("core.ignorecase", "true");
+		probe_utf8_pathname_composition(path, len);
 	}
 
 	return reinit;
diff --git a/builtin/log.c b/builtin/log.c
index 8a47012..dff7921 100644
--- a/builtin/log.c
+++ b/builtin/log.c
@@ -20,6 +20,8 @@
 #include "string-list.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
 #include "branch.h"
+#include "streaming.h"
+#include "version.h"
 
 /* Set a default date-time format for git log ("log.date" config variable) */
 static const char *default_date_mode = NULL;
@@ -107,9 +109,9 @@
 			     PARSE_OPT_KEEP_ARGV0 | PARSE_OPT_KEEP_UNKNOWN |
 			     PARSE_OPT_KEEP_DASHDASH);
 
-	argc = setup_revisions(argc, argv, rev, opt);
 	if (quiet)
 		rev->diffopt.output_format |= DIFF_FORMAT_NO_OUTPUT;
+	argc = setup_revisions(argc, argv, rev, opt);
 
 	/* Any arguments at this point are not recognized */
 	if (argc > 1)
@@ -365,6 +367,7 @@
 	rev.simplify_history = 0;
 	memset(&opt, 0, sizeof(opt));
 	opt.def = "HEAD";
+	opt.revarg_opt = REVARG_COMMITTISH;
 	cmd_log_init(argc, argv, prefix, &rev, &opt);
 	if (!rev.diffopt.output_format)
 		rev.diffopt.output_format = DIFF_FORMAT_RAW;
@@ -383,8 +386,13 @@
 	strbuf_release(&out);
 }
 
-static int show_object(const unsigned char *sha1, int show_tag_object,
-	struct rev_info *rev)
+static int show_blob_object(const unsigned char *sha1, struct rev_info *rev)
+{
+	fflush(stdout);
+	return stream_blob_to_fd(1, sha1, NULL, 0);
+}
+
+static int show_tag_object(const unsigned char *sha1, struct rev_info *rev)
 {
 	unsigned long size;
 	enum object_type type;
@@ -394,16 +402,16 @@
 	if (!buf)
 		return error(_("Could not read object %s"), sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 
-	if (show_tag_object)
-		while (offset < size && buf[offset] != '\n') {
-			int new_offset = offset + 1;
-			while (new_offset < size && buf[new_offset++] != '\n')
-				; /* do nothing */
-			if (!prefixcmp(buf + offset, "tagger "))
-				show_tagger(buf + offset + 7,
-					    new_offset - offset - 7, rev);
-			offset = new_offset;
-		}
+	assert(type == OBJ_TAG);
+	while (offset < size && buf[offset] != '\n') {
+		int new_offset = offset + 1;
+		while (new_offset < size && buf[new_offset++] != '\n')
+			; /* do nothing */
+		if (!prefixcmp(buf + offset, "tagger "))
+			show_tagger(buf + offset + 7,
+				    new_offset - offset - 7, rev);
+		offset = new_offset;
+	}
 
 	if (offset < size)
 		fwrite(buf + offset, size - offset, 1, stdout);
@@ -448,7 +456,7 @@
 	init_revisions(&rev, prefix);
 	rev.diff = 1;
 	rev.always_show_header = 1;
-	rev.no_walk = 1;
+	rev.no_walk = REVISION_WALK_NO_WALK_SORTED;
 	rev.diffopt.stat_width = -1; 	/* Scale to real terminal size */
 
 	memset(&opt, 0, sizeof(opt));
@@ -456,6 +464,9 @@
 	opt.tweak = show_rev_tweak_rev;
 	cmd_log_init(argc, argv, prefix, &rev, &opt);
 
+	if (!rev.no_walk)
+		return cmd_log_walk(&rev);
+
 	count = rev.pending.nr;
 	objects = rev.pending.objects;
 	for (i = 0; i < count && !ret; i++) {
@@ -463,7 +474,7 @@
 		const char *name = objects[i].name;
 		switch (o->type) {
 		case OBJ_BLOB:
-			ret = show_object(o->sha1, 0, NULL);
+			ret = show_blob_object(o->sha1, NULL);
 			break;
 		case OBJ_TAG: {
 			struct tag *t = (struct tag *)o;
@@ -474,7 +485,7 @@
 					diff_get_color_opt(&rev.diffopt, DIFF_COMMIT),
 					t->tag,
 					diff_get_color_opt(&rev.diffopt, DIFF_RESET));
-			ret = show_object(o->sha1, 1, &rev);
+			ret = show_tag_object(o->sha1, &rev);
 			rev.shown_one = 1;
 			if (ret)
 				break;
@@ -547,6 +558,7 @@
 	rev.always_show_header = 1;
 	memset(&opt, 0, sizeof(opt));
 	opt.def = "HEAD";
+	opt.revarg_opt = REVARG_COMMITTISH;
 	cmd_log_init(argc, argv, prefix, &rev, &opt);
 	return cmd_log_walk(&rev);
 }
@@ -657,7 +669,8 @@
 static const char *output_directory = NULL;
 static int outdir_offset;
 
-static int reopen_stdout(struct commit *commit, struct rev_info *rev, int quiet)
+static int reopen_stdout(struct commit *commit, const char *subject,
+			 struct rev_info *rev, int quiet)
 {
 	struct strbuf filename = STRBUF_INIT;
 	int suffix_len = strlen(fmt_patch_suffix) + 1;
@@ -671,7 +684,7 @@
 			strbuf_addch(&filename, '/');
 	}
 
-	get_patch_filename(commit, rev->nr, fmt_patch_suffix, &filename);
+	get_patch_filename(commit, subject, rev->nr, fmt_patch_suffix, &filename);
 
 	if (!quiet)
 		fprintf(realstdout, "%s\n", filename.buf + outdir_offset);
@@ -731,15 +744,10 @@
 
 static void gen_message_id(struct rev_info *info, char *base)
 {
-	const char *committer = git_committer_info(IDENT_WARN_ON_NO_NAME);
-	const char *email_start = strrchr(committer, '<');
-	const char *email_end = strrchr(committer, '>');
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
-	if (!email_start || !email_end || email_start > email_end - 1)
-		die(_("Could not extract email from committer identity."));
-	strbuf_addf(&buf, "%s.%lu.git.%.*s", base,
+	strbuf_addf(&buf, "%s.%lu.git.%s", base,
 		    (unsigned long) time(NULL),
-		    (int)(email_end - email_start - 1), email_start + 1);
+		    git_committer_info(IDENT_NO_NAME|IDENT_NO_DATE|IDENT_STRICT));
 	info->message_id = strbuf_detach(&buf, NULL);
 }
 
@@ -778,7 +786,6 @@
 	const char *encoding = "UTF-8";
 	struct diff_options opts;
 	int need_8bit_cte = 0;
-	struct commit *commit = NULL;
 	struct pretty_print_context pp = {0};
 
 	if (rev->commit_format != CMIT_FMT_EMAIL)
@@ -786,31 +793,10 @@
 
 	committer = git_committer_info(0);
 
-	if (!numbered_files) {
-		/*
-		 * We fake a commit for the cover letter so we get the filename
-		 * desired.
-		 */
-		commit = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*commit));
-		commit->buffer = xmalloc(400);
-		snprintf(commit->buffer, 400,
-			"tree 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000\n"
-			"parent %s\n"
-			"author %s\n"
-			"committer %s\n\n"
-			"cover letter\n",
-			sha1_to_hex(head->object.sha1), committer, committer);
-	}
-
-	if (!use_stdout && reopen_stdout(commit, rev, quiet))
+	if (!use_stdout &&
+	    reopen_stdout(NULL, numbered_files ? NULL : "cover-letter", rev, quiet))
 		return;
 
-	if (commit) {
-
-		free(commit->buffer);
-		free(commit);
-	}
-
 	log_write_email_headers(rev, head, &pp.subject, &pp.after_subject,
 				&need_8bit_cte);
 
@@ -1148,6 +1134,7 @@
 	rev.subject_prefix = fmt_patch_subject_prefix;
 	memset(&s_r_opt, 0, sizeof(s_r_opt));
 	s_r_opt.def = "HEAD";
+	s_r_opt.revarg_opt = REVARG_COMMITTISH;
 
 	if (default_attach) {
 		rev.mime_boundary = default_attach;
@@ -1167,7 +1154,7 @@
 	if (do_signoff) {
 		const char *committer;
 		const char *endpos;
-		committer = git_committer_info(IDENT_ERROR_ON_NO_NAME);
+		committer = git_committer_info(IDENT_STRICT);
 		endpos = strchr(committer, '>');
 		if (!endpos)
 			die(_("bogus committer info %s"), committer);
@@ -1405,8 +1392,8 @@
 			gen_message_id(&rev, sha1_to_hex(commit->object.sha1));
 		}
 
-		if (!use_stdout && reopen_stdout(numbered_files ? NULL : commit,
-						 &rev, quiet))
+		if (!use_stdout &&
+		    reopen_stdout(numbered_files ? NULL : commit, NULL, &rev, quiet))
 			die(_("Failed to create output files"));
 		shown = log_tree_commit(&rev, commit);
 		free(commit->buffer);
diff --git a/builtin/ls-files.c b/builtin/ls-files.c
index 7cff175..31b3f2d 100644
--- a/builtin/ls-files.c
+++ b/builtin/ls-files.c
@@ -200,9 +200,19 @@
 	}
 }
 
+static int ce_excluded(struct path_exclude_check *check, struct cache_entry *ce)
+{
+	int dtype = ce_to_dtype(ce);
+	return path_excluded(check, ce->name, ce_namelen(ce), &dtype);
+}
+
 static void show_files(struct dir_struct *dir)
 {
 	int i;
+	struct path_exclude_check check;
+
+	if ((dir->flags & DIR_SHOW_IGNORED))
+		path_exclude_check_init(&check, dir);
 
 	/* For cached/deleted files we don't need to even do the readdir */
 	if (show_others || show_killed) {
@@ -215,9 +225,8 @@
 	if (show_cached | show_stage) {
 		for (i = 0; i < active_nr; i++) {
 			struct cache_entry *ce = active_cache[i];
-			int dtype = ce_to_dtype(ce);
-			if (dir->flags & DIR_SHOW_IGNORED &&
-			    !excluded(dir, ce->name, &dtype))
+			if ((dir->flags & DIR_SHOW_IGNORED) &&
+			    !ce_excluded(&check, ce))
 				continue;
 			if (show_unmerged && !ce_stage(ce))
 				continue;
@@ -232,9 +241,8 @@
 			struct cache_entry *ce = active_cache[i];
 			struct stat st;
 			int err;
-			int dtype = ce_to_dtype(ce);
-			if (dir->flags & DIR_SHOW_IGNORED &&
-			    !excluded(dir, ce->name, &dtype))
+			if ((dir->flags & DIR_SHOW_IGNORED) &&
+			    !ce_excluded(&check, ce))
 				continue;
 			if (ce->ce_flags & CE_UPDATE)
 				continue;
@@ -247,6 +255,9 @@
 				show_ce_entry(tag_modified, ce);
 		}
 	}
+
+	if ((dir->flags & DIR_SHOW_IGNORED))
+		path_exclude_check_clear(&check);
 }
 
 /*
diff --git a/builtin/ls-remote.c b/builtin/ls-remote.c
index 41c88a9..25e83cf 100644
--- a/builtin/ls-remote.c
+++ b/builtin/ls-remote.c
@@ -5,7 +5,7 @@
 
 static const char ls_remote_usage[] =
 "git ls-remote [--heads] [--tags]  [-u <exec> | --upload-pack <exec>]\n"
-"                     [-q|--quiet] [--exit-code] [<repository> [<refs>...]]";
+"                     [-q|--quiet] [--exit-code] [--get-url] [<repository> [<refs>...]]";
 
 /*
  * Is there one among the list of patterns that match the tail part
diff --git a/builtin/mailinfo.c b/builtin/mailinfo.c
index eaf9e15..fe12857 100644
--- a/builtin/mailinfo.c
+++ b/builtin/mailinfo.c
@@ -19,9 +19,6 @@
 static enum  {
 	TE_DONTCARE, TE_QP, TE_BASE64
 } transfer_encoding;
-static enum  {
-	TYPE_TEXT, TYPE_OTHER
-} message_type;
 
 static struct strbuf charset = STRBUF_INIT;
 static int patch_lines;
@@ -160,10 +157,9 @@
 	const char *ends, *ap = strcasestr(line, name);
 	size_t sz;
 
-	if (!ap) {
-		strbuf_setlen(attr, 0);
+	strbuf_setlen(attr, 0);
+	if (!ap)
 		return 0;
-	}
 	ap += strlen(name);
 	if (*ap == '"') {
 		ap++;
@@ -185,8 +181,6 @@
 	struct strbuf *boundary = xmalloc(sizeof(struct strbuf));
 	strbuf_init(boundary, line->len);
 
-	if (!strcasestr(line->buf, "text/"))
-		 message_type = TYPE_OTHER;
 	if (slurp_attr(line->buf, "boundary=", boundary)) {
 		strbuf_insert(boundary, 0, "--", 2);
 		if (++content_top > &content[MAX_BOUNDARIES]) {
@@ -232,7 +226,9 @@
 		case 'r': case 'R':
 			if (subject->len <= at + 3)
 				break;
-			if (!memcmp(subject->buf + at + 1, "e:", 2)) {
+			if ((subject->buf[at + 1] == 'e' ||
+			     subject->buf[at + 1] == 'E') &&
+			    subject->buf[at + 2] == ':') {
 				strbuf_remove(subject, at, 3);
 				continue;
 			}
@@ -680,7 +676,6 @@
 	/* set some defaults */
 	transfer_encoding = TE_DONTCARE;
 	strbuf_reset(&charset);
-	message_type = TYPE_TEXT;
 
 	/* slurp in this section's info */
 	while (read_one_header_line(&line, fin))
@@ -894,11 +889,6 @@
 			strbuf_insert(&line, 0, prev.buf, prev.len);
 			strbuf_reset(&prev);
 
-			/* binary data most likely doesn't have newlines */
-			if (message_type != TYPE_TEXT) {
-				handle_filter(&line);
-				break;
-			}
 			/*
 			 * This is a decoded line that may contain
 			 * multiple new lines.  Pass only one chunk
diff --git a/builtin/merge-file.c b/builtin/merge-file.c
index 237abd3..6f0efef 100644
--- a/builtin/merge-file.c
+++ b/builtin/merge-file.c
@@ -63,7 +63,7 @@
 	if (quiet) {
 		if (!freopen("/dev/null", "w", stderr))
 			return error("failed to redirect stderr to /dev/null: "
-				     "%s\n", strerror(errno));
+				     "%s", strerror(errno));
 	}
 
 	if (prefix)
@@ -76,7 +76,7 @@
 		if (read_mmfile(mmfs + i, fname))
 			return -1;
 		if (buffer_is_binary(mmfs[i].ptr, mmfs[i].size))
-			return error("Cannot merge binary files: %s\n",
+			return error("Cannot merge binary files: %s",
 					argv[i]);
 	}
 
diff --git a/builtin/merge.c b/builtin/merge.c
index 470fc57..e81fde6 100644
--- a/builtin/merge.c
+++ b/builtin/merge.c
@@ -404,8 +404,7 @@
 		opts.output_format |=
 			DIFF_FORMAT_SUMMARY | DIFF_FORMAT_DIFFSTAT;
 		opts.detect_rename = DIFF_DETECT_RENAME;
-		if (diff_setup_done(&opts) < 0)
-			die(_("diff_setup_done failed"));
+		diff_setup_done(&opts);
 		diff_tree_sha1(head, new_head, "", &opts);
 		diffcore_std(&opts);
 		diff_flush(&opts);
@@ -1447,7 +1446,7 @@
 		refresh_cache(REFRESH_QUIET);
 		if (allow_trivial && !fast_forward_only) {
 			/* See if it is really trivial. */
-			git_committer_info(IDENT_ERROR_ON_NO_NAME);
+			git_committer_info(IDENT_STRICT);
 			printf(_("Trying really trivial in-index merge...\n"));
 			if (!read_tree_trivial(common->item->object.sha1,
 					       head_commit->object.sha1,
@@ -1490,7 +1489,7 @@
 		die(_("Not possible to fast-forward, aborting."));
 
 	/* We are going to make a new commit. */
-	git_committer_info(IDENT_ERROR_ON_NO_NAME);
+	git_committer_info(IDENT_STRICT);
 
 	/*
 	 * At this point, we need a real merge.  No matter what strategy
diff --git a/builtin/pack-objects.c b/builtin/pack-objects.c
index 1861093..782e7d0 100644
--- a/builtin/pack-objects.c
+++ b/builtin/pack-objects.c
@@ -16,6 +16,7 @@
 #include "list-objects.h"
 #include "progress.h"
 #include "refs.h"
+#include "streaming.h"
 #include "thread-utils.h"
 
 static const char *pack_usage[] = {
@@ -150,6 +151,46 @@
 	return stream.total_out;
 }
 
+static unsigned long write_large_blob_data(struct git_istream *st, struct sha1file *f,
+					   const unsigned char *sha1)
+{
+	git_zstream stream;
+	unsigned char ibuf[1024 * 16];
+	unsigned char obuf[1024 * 16];
+	unsigned long olen = 0;
+
+	memset(&stream, 0, sizeof(stream));
+	git_deflate_init(&stream, pack_compression_level);
+
+	for (;;) {
+		ssize_t readlen;
+		int zret = Z_OK;
+		readlen = read_istream(st, ibuf, sizeof(ibuf));
+		if (readlen == -1)
+			die(_("unable to read %s"), sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+
+		stream.next_in = ibuf;
+		stream.avail_in = readlen;
+		while ((stream.avail_in || readlen == 0) &&
+		       (zret == Z_OK || zret == Z_BUF_ERROR)) {
+			stream.next_out = obuf;
+			stream.avail_out = sizeof(obuf);
+			zret = git_deflate(&stream, readlen ? 0 : Z_FINISH);
+			sha1write(f, obuf, stream.next_out - obuf);
+			olen += stream.next_out - obuf;
+		}
+		if (stream.avail_in)
+			die(_("deflate error (%d)"), zret);
+		if (readlen == 0) {
+			if (zret != Z_STREAM_END)
+				die(_("deflate error (%d)"), zret);
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+	git_deflate_end(&stream);
+	return olen;
+}
+
 /*
  * we are going to reuse the existing object data as is.  make
  * sure it is not corrupt.
@@ -200,22 +241,198 @@
 }
 
 /* Return 0 if we will bust the pack-size limit */
+static unsigned long write_no_reuse_object(struct sha1file *f, struct object_entry *entry,
+					   unsigned long limit, int usable_delta)
+{
+	unsigned long size, datalen;
+	unsigned char header[10], dheader[10];
+	unsigned hdrlen;
+	enum object_type type;
+	void *buf;
+	struct git_istream *st = NULL;
+
+	if (!usable_delta) {
+		if (entry->type == OBJ_BLOB &&
+		    entry->size > big_file_threshold &&
+		    (st = open_istream(entry->idx.sha1, &type, &size, NULL)) != NULL)
+			buf = NULL;
+		else {
+			buf = read_sha1_file(entry->idx.sha1, &type, &size);
+			if (!buf)
+				die(_("unable to read %s"), sha1_to_hex(entry->idx.sha1));
+		}
+		/*
+		 * make sure no cached delta data remains from a
+		 * previous attempt before a pack split occurred.
+		 */
+		free(entry->delta_data);
+		entry->delta_data = NULL;
+		entry->z_delta_size = 0;
+	} else if (entry->delta_data) {
+		size = entry->delta_size;
+		buf = entry->delta_data;
+		entry->delta_data = NULL;
+		type = (allow_ofs_delta && entry->delta->idx.offset) ?
+			OBJ_OFS_DELTA : OBJ_REF_DELTA;
+	} else {
+		buf = get_delta(entry);
+		size = entry->delta_size;
+		type = (allow_ofs_delta && entry->delta->idx.offset) ?
+			OBJ_OFS_DELTA : OBJ_REF_DELTA;
+	}
+
+	if (st)	/* large blob case, just assume we don't compress well */
+		datalen = size;
+	else if (entry->z_delta_size)
+		datalen = entry->z_delta_size;
+	else
+		datalen = do_compress(&buf, size);
+
+	/*
+	 * The object header is a byte of 'type' followed by zero or
+	 * more bytes of length.
+	 */
+	hdrlen = encode_in_pack_object_header(type, size, header);
+
+	if (type == OBJ_OFS_DELTA) {
+		/*
+		 * Deltas with relative base contain an additional
+		 * encoding of the relative offset for the delta
+		 * base from this object's position in the pack.
+		 */
+		off_t ofs = entry->idx.offset - entry->delta->idx.offset;
+		unsigned pos = sizeof(dheader) - 1;
+		dheader[pos] = ofs & 127;
+		while (ofs >>= 7)
+			dheader[--pos] = 128 | (--ofs & 127);
+		if (limit && hdrlen + sizeof(dheader) - pos + datalen + 20 >= limit) {
+			if (st)
+				close_istream(st);
+			free(buf);
+			return 0;
+		}
+		sha1write(f, header, hdrlen);
+		sha1write(f, dheader + pos, sizeof(dheader) - pos);
+		hdrlen += sizeof(dheader) - pos;
+	} else if (type == OBJ_REF_DELTA) {
+		/*
+		 * Deltas with a base reference contain
+		 * an additional 20 bytes for the base sha1.
+		 */
+		if (limit && hdrlen + 20 + datalen + 20 >= limit) {
+			if (st)
+				close_istream(st);
+			free(buf);
+			return 0;
+		}
+		sha1write(f, header, hdrlen);
+		sha1write(f, entry->delta->idx.sha1, 20);
+		hdrlen += 20;
+	} else {
+		if (limit && hdrlen + datalen + 20 >= limit) {
+			if (st)
+				close_istream(st);
+			free(buf);
+			return 0;
+		}
+		sha1write(f, header, hdrlen);
+	}
+	if (st) {
+		datalen = write_large_blob_data(st, f, entry->idx.sha1);
+		close_istream(st);
+	} else {
+		sha1write(f, buf, datalen);
+		free(buf);
+	}
+
+	return hdrlen + datalen;
+}
+
+/* Return 0 if we will bust the pack-size limit */
+static unsigned long write_reuse_object(struct sha1file *f, struct object_entry *entry,
+					unsigned long limit, int usable_delta)
+{
+	struct packed_git *p = entry->in_pack;
+	struct pack_window *w_curs = NULL;
+	struct revindex_entry *revidx;
+	off_t offset;
+	enum object_type type = entry->type;
+	unsigned long datalen;
+	unsigned char header[10], dheader[10];
+	unsigned hdrlen;
+
+	if (entry->delta)
+		type = (allow_ofs_delta && entry->delta->idx.offset) ?
+			OBJ_OFS_DELTA : OBJ_REF_DELTA;
+	hdrlen = encode_in_pack_object_header(type, entry->size, header);
+
+	offset = entry->in_pack_offset;
+	revidx = find_pack_revindex(p, offset);
+	datalen = revidx[1].offset - offset;
+	if (!pack_to_stdout && p->index_version > 1 &&
+	    check_pack_crc(p, &w_curs, offset, datalen, revidx->nr)) {
+		error("bad packed object CRC for %s", sha1_to_hex(entry->idx.sha1));
+		unuse_pack(&w_curs);
+		return write_no_reuse_object(f, entry, limit, usable_delta);
+	}
+
+	offset += entry->in_pack_header_size;
+	datalen -= entry->in_pack_header_size;
+
+	if (!pack_to_stdout && p->index_version == 1 &&
+	    check_pack_inflate(p, &w_curs, offset, datalen, entry->size)) {
+		error("corrupt packed object for %s", sha1_to_hex(entry->idx.sha1));
+		unuse_pack(&w_curs);
+		return write_no_reuse_object(f, entry, limit, usable_delta);
+	}
+
+	if (type == OBJ_OFS_DELTA) {
+		off_t ofs = entry->idx.offset - entry->delta->idx.offset;
+		unsigned pos = sizeof(dheader) - 1;
+		dheader[pos] = ofs & 127;
+		while (ofs >>= 7)
+			dheader[--pos] = 128 | (--ofs & 127);
+		if (limit && hdrlen + sizeof(dheader) - pos + datalen + 20 >= limit) {
+			unuse_pack(&w_curs);
+			return 0;
+		}
+		sha1write(f, header, hdrlen);
+		sha1write(f, dheader + pos, sizeof(dheader) - pos);
+		hdrlen += sizeof(dheader) - pos;
+		reused_delta++;
+	} else if (type == OBJ_REF_DELTA) {
+		if (limit && hdrlen + 20 + datalen + 20 >= limit) {
+			unuse_pack(&w_curs);
+			return 0;
+		}
+		sha1write(f, header, hdrlen);
+		sha1write(f, entry->delta->idx.sha1, 20);
+		hdrlen += 20;
+		reused_delta++;
+	} else {
+		if (limit && hdrlen + datalen + 20 >= limit) {
+			unuse_pack(&w_curs);
+			return 0;
+		}
+		sha1write(f, header, hdrlen);
+	}
+	copy_pack_data(f, p, &w_curs, offset, datalen);
+	unuse_pack(&w_curs);
+	reused++;
+	return hdrlen + datalen;
+}
+
+/* Return 0 if we will bust the pack-size limit */
 static unsigned long write_object(struct sha1file *f,
 				  struct object_entry *entry,
 				  off_t write_offset)
 {
-	unsigned long size, limit, datalen;
-	void *buf;
-	unsigned char header[10], dheader[10];
-	unsigned hdrlen;
-	enum object_type type;
+	unsigned long limit, len;
 	int usable_delta, to_reuse;
 
 	if (!pack_to_stdout)
 		crc32_begin(f);
 
-	type = entry->type;
-
 	/* apply size limit if limited packsize and not first object */
 	if (!pack_size_limit || !nr_written)
 		limit = 0;
@@ -243,11 +460,11 @@
 		to_reuse = 0;	/* explicit */
 	else if (!entry->in_pack)
 		to_reuse = 0;	/* can't reuse what we don't have */
-	else if (type == OBJ_REF_DELTA || type == OBJ_OFS_DELTA)
+	else if (entry->type == OBJ_REF_DELTA || entry->type == OBJ_OFS_DELTA)
 				/* check_object() decided it for us ... */
 		to_reuse = usable_delta;
 				/* ... but pack split may override that */
-	else if (type != entry->in_pack_type)
+	else if (entry->type != entry->in_pack_type)
 		to_reuse = 0;	/* pack has delta which is unusable */
 	else if (entry->delta)
 		to_reuse = 0;	/* we want to pack afresh */
@@ -256,153 +473,19 @@
 				 * and we do not need to deltify it.
 				 */
 
-	if (!to_reuse) {
-		no_reuse:
-		if (!usable_delta) {
-			buf = read_sha1_file(entry->idx.sha1, &type, &size);
-			if (!buf)
-				die("unable to read %s", sha1_to_hex(entry->idx.sha1));
-			/*
-			 * make sure no cached delta data remains from a
-			 * previous attempt before a pack split occurred.
-			 */
-			free(entry->delta_data);
-			entry->delta_data = NULL;
-			entry->z_delta_size = 0;
-		} else if (entry->delta_data) {
-			size = entry->delta_size;
-			buf = entry->delta_data;
-			entry->delta_data = NULL;
-			type = (allow_ofs_delta && entry->delta->idx.offset) ?
-				OBJ_OFS_DELTA : OBJ_REF_DELTA;
-		} else {
-			buf = get_delta(entry);
-			size = entry->delta_size;
-			type = (allow_ofs_delta && entry->delta->idx.offset) ?
-				OBJ_OFS_DELTA : OBJ_REF_DELTA;
-		}
+	if (!to_reuse)
+		len = write_no_reuse_object(f, entry, limit, usable_delta);
+	else
+		len = write_reuse_object(f, entry, limit, usable_delta);
+	if (!len)
+		return 0;
 
-		if (entry->z_delta_size)
-			datalen = entry->z_delta_size;
-		else
-			datalen = do_compress(&buf, size);
-
-		/*
-		 * The object header is a byte of 'type' followed by zero or
-		 * more bytes of length.
-		 */
-		hdrlen = encode_in_pack_object_header(type, size, header);
-
-		if (type == OBJ_OFS_DELTA) {
-			/*
-			 * Deltas with relative base contain an additional
-			 * encoding of the relative offset for the delta
-			 * base from this object's position in the pack.
-			 */
-			off_t ofs = entry->idx.offset - entry->delta->idx.offset;
-			unsigned pos = sizeof(dheader) - 1;
-			dheader[pos] = ofs & 127;
-			while (ofs >>= 7)
-				dheader[--pos] = 128 | (--ofs & 127);
-			if (limit && hdrlen + sizeof(dheader) - pos + datalen + 20 >= limit) {
-				free(buf);
-				return 0;
-			}
-			sha1write(f, header, hdrlen);
-			sha1write(f, dheader + pos, sizeof(dheader) - pos);
-			hdrlen += sizeof(dheader) - pos;
-		} else if (type == OBJ_REF_DELTA) {
-			/*
-			 * Deltas with a base reference contain
-			 * an additional 20 bytes for the base sha1.
-			 */
-			if (limit && hdrlen + 20 + datalen + 20 >= limit) {
-				free(buf);
-				return 0;
-			}
-			sha1write(f, header, hdrlen);
-			sha1write(f, entry->delta->idx.sha1, 20);
-			hdrlen += 20;
-		} else {
-			if (limit && hdrlen + datalen + 20 >= limit) {
-				free(buf);
-				return 0;
-			}
-			sha1write(f, header, hdrlen);
-		}
-		sha1write(f, buf, datalen);
-		free(buf);
-	}
-	else {
-		struct packed_git *p = entry->in_pack;
-		struct pack_window *w_curs = NULL;
-		struct revindex_entry *revidx;
-		off_t offset;
-
-		if (entry->delta)
-			type = (allow_ofs_delta && entry->delta->idx.offset) ?
-				OBJ_OFS_DELTA : OBJ_REF_DELTA;
-		hdrlen = encode_in_pack_object_header(type, entry->size, header);
-
-		offset = entry->in_pack_offset;
-		revidx = find_pack_revindex(p, offset);
-		datalen = revidx[1].offset - offset;
-		if (!pack_to_stdout && p->index_version > 1 &&
-		    check_pack_crc(p, &w_curs, offset, datalen, revidx->nr)) {
-			error("bad packed object CRC for %s", sha1_to_hex(entry->idx.sha1));
-			unuse_pack(&w_curs);
-			goto no_reuse;
-		}
-
-		offset += entry->in_pack_header_size;
-		datalen -= entry->in_pack_header_size;
-		if (!pack_to_stdout && p->index_version == 1 &&
-		    check_pack_inflate(p, &w_curs, offset, datalen, entry->size)) {
-			error("corrupt packed object for %s", sha1_to_hex(entry->idx.sha1));
-			unuse_pack(&w_curs);
-			goto no_reuse;
-		}
-
-		if (type == OBJ_OFS_DELTA) {
-			off_t ofs = entry->idx.offset - entry->delta->idx.offset;
-			unsigned pos = sizeof(dheader) - 1;
-			dheader[pos] = ofs & 127;
-			while (ofs >>= 7)
-				dheader[--pos] = 128 | (--ofs & 127);
-			if (limit && hdrlen + sizeof(dheader) - pos + datalen + 20 >= limit) {
-				unuse_pack(&w_curs);
-				return 0;
-			}
-			sha1write(f, header, hdrlen);
-			sha1write(f, dheader + pos, sizeof(dheader) - pos);
-			hdrlen += sizeof(dheader) - pos;
-			reused_delta++;
-		} else if (type == OBJ_REF_DELTA) {
-			if (limit && hdrlen + 20 + datalen + 20 >= limit) {
-				unuse_pack(&w_curs);
-				return 0;
-			}
-			sha1write(f, header, hdrlen);
-			sha1write(f, entry->delta->idx.sha1, 20);
-			hdrlen += 20;
-			reused_delta++;
-		} else {
-			if (limit && hdrlen + datalen + 20 >= limit) {
-				unuse_pack(&w_curs);
-				return 0;
-			}
-			sha1write(f, header, hdrlen);
-		}
-		copy_pack_data(f, p, &w_curs, offset, datalen);
-		unuse_pack(&w_curs);
-		reused++;
-	}
 	if (usable_delta)
 		written_delta++;
 	written++;
 	if (!pack_to_stdout)
 		entry->idx.crc32 = crc32_end(f);
-	return hdrlen + datalen;
+	return len;
 }
 
 enum write_one_status {
@@ -1327,7 +1410,7 @@
 	for (i = 0; i < nr_objects; i++) {
 		struct object_entry *entry = sorted_by_offset[i];
 		check_object(entry);
-		if (big_file_threshold <= entry->size)
+		if (big_file_threshold < entry->size)
 			entry->no_try_delta = 1;
 	}
 
@@ -2290,7 +2373,7 @@
 			}
 			die("not a rev '%s'", line);
 		}
-		if (handle_revision_arg(line, &revs, flags, 1))
+		if (handle_revision_arg(line, &revs, flags, REVARG_CANNOT_BE_FILENAME))
 			die("bad revision '%s'", line);
 	}
 
diff --git a/builtin/prune.c b/builtin/prune.c
index b99b635..6cb9944 100644
--- a/builtin/prune.c
+++ b/builtin/prune.c
@@ -25,7 +25,8 @@
 		return error("Could not stat '%s'", fullpath);
 	if (st.st_mtime > expire)
 		return 0;
-	printf("Removing stale temporary file %s\n", fullpath);
+	if (show_only || verbose)
+		printf("Removing stale temporary file %s\n", fullpath);
 	if (!show_only)
 		unlink_or_warn(fullpath);
 	return 0;
diff --git a/builtin/push.c b/builtin/push.c
index 6936713..fdfcc6c 100644
--- a/builtin/push.c
+++ b/builtin/push.c
@@ -76,7 +76,44 @@
 	return remote->url_nr;
 }
 
-static void setup_push_upstream(struct remote *remote)
+static NORETURN int die_push_simple(struct branch *branch, struct remote *remote) {
+	/*
+	 * There's no point in using shorten_unambiguous_ref here,
+	 * as the ambiguity would be on the remote side, not what
+	 * we have locally. Plus, this is supposed to be the simple
+	 * mode. If the user is doing something crazy like setting
+	 * upstream to a non-branch, we should probably be showing
+	 * them the big ugly fully qualified ref.
+	 */
+	const char *advice_maybe = "";
+	const char *short_upstream =
+		skip_prefix(branch->merge[0]->src, "refs/heads/");
+
+	if (!short_upstream)
+		short_upstream = branch->merge[0]->src;
+	/*
+	 * Don't show advice for people who explicitely set
+	 * push.default.
+	 */
+	if (push_default == PUSH_DEFAULT_UNSPECIFIED)
+		advice_maybe = _("\n"
+				 "To choose either option permanently, "
+				 "see push.default in 'git help config'.");
+	die(_("The upstream branch of your current branch does not match\n"
+	      "the name of your current branch.  To push to the upstream branch\n"
+	      "on the remote, use\n"
+	      "\n"
+	      "    git push %s HEAD:%s\n"
+	      "\n"
+	      "To push to the branch of the same name on the remote, use\n"
+	      "\n"
+	      "    git push %s %s\n"
+	      "%s"),
+	    remote->name, short_upstream,
+	    remote->name, branch->name, advice_maybe);
+}
+
+static void setup_push_upstream(struct remote *remote, int simple)
 {
 	struct strbuf refspec = STRBUF_INIT;
 	struct branch *branch = branch_get(NULL);
@@ -103,6 +140,8 @@
 		      "your current branch '%s', without telling me what to push\n"
 		      "to update which remote branch."),
 		    remote->name, branch->name);
+	if (simple && strcmp(branch->refname, branch->merge[0]->src))
+		die_push_simple(branch, remote);
 
 	strbuf_addf(&refspec, "%s:%s", branch->name, branch->merge[0]->src);
 	add_refspec(refspec.buf);
@@ -119,8 +158,12 @@
 		add_refspec(":");
 		break;
 
+	case PUSH_DEFAULT_SIMPLE:
+		setup_push_upstream(remote, 1);
+		break;
+
 	case PUSH_DEFAULT_UPSTREAM:
-		setup_push_upstream(remote);
+		setup_push_upstream(remote, 0);
 		break;
 
 	case PUSH_DEFAULT_CURRENT:
@@ -284,13 +327,21 @@
 				   const char *arg, int unset)
 {
 	int *flags = opt->value;
+
+	if (*flags & (TRANSPORT_RECURSE_SUBMODULES_CHECK |
+		      TRANSPORT_RECURSE_SUBMODULES_ON_DEMAND))
+		die("%s can only be used once.", opt->long_name);
+
 	if (arg) {
 		if (!strcmp(arg, "check"))
 			*flags |= TRANSPORT_RECURSE_SUBMODULES_CHECK;
+		else if (!strcmp(arg, "on-demand"))
+			*flags |= TRANSPORT_RECURSE_SUBMODULES_ON_DEMAND;
 		else
 			die("bad %s argument: %s", opt->long_name, arg);
 	} else
-		die("option %s needs an argument (check)", opt->long_name);
+		die("option %s needs an argument (check|on-demand)",
+				opt->long_name);
 
 	return 0;
 }
diff --git a/builtin/receive-pack.c b/builtin/receive-pack.c
index 0afb8b2..165a633 100644
--- a/builtin/receive-pack.c
+++ b/builtin/receive-pack.c
@@ -12,6 +12,7 @@
 #include "string-list.h"
 #include "sha1-array.h"
 #include "connected.h"
+#include "version.h"
 
 static const char receive_pack_usage[] = "git receive-pack <git-dir>";
 
@@ -121,10 +122,11 @@
 	if (sent_capabilities)
 		packet_write(1, "%s %s\n", sha1_to_hex(sha1), path);
 	else
-		packet_write(1, "%s %s%c%s%s\n",
+		packet_write(1, "%s %s%c%s%s agent=%s\n",
 			     sha1_to_hex(sha1), path, 0,
 			     " report-status delete-refs side-band-64k quiet",
-			     prefer_ofs_delta ? " ofs-delta" : "");
+			     prefer_ofs_delta ? " ofs-delta" : "",
+			     git_user_agent_sanitized());
 	sent_capabilities = 1;
 }
 
@@ -699,7 +701,7 @@
 
 	if (unpacker_error) {
 		for (cmd = commands; cmd; cmd = cmd->next)
-			cmd->error_string = "n/a (unpacker error)";
+			cmd->error_string = "unpacker error";
 		return;
 	}
 
@@ -799,7 +801,7 @@
 
 static const char *pack_lockfile;
 
-static const char *unpack(void)
+static const char *unpack(int err_fd)
 {
 	struct pack_header hdr;
 	const char *hdr_err;
@@ -819,6 +821,7 @@
 
 	if (ntohl(hdr.hdr_entries) < unpack_limit) {
 		int code, i = 0;
+		struct child_process child;
 		const char *unpacker[5];
 		unpacker[i++] = "unpack-objects";
 		if (quiet)
@@ -827,7 +830,12 @@
 			unpacker[i++] = "--strict";
 		unpacker[i++] = hdr_arg;
 		unpacker[i++] = NULL;
-		code = run_command_v_opt(unpacker, RUN_GIT_CMD);
+		memset(&child, 0, sizeof(child));
+		child.argv = unpacker;
+		child.no_stdout = 1;
+		child.err = err_fd;
+		child.git_cmd = 1;
+		code = run_command(&child);
 		if (!code)
 			return NULL;
 		return "unpack-objects abnormal exit";
@@ -852,6 +860,7 @@
 		memset(&ip, 0, sizeof(ip));
 		ip.argv = keeper;
 		ip.out = -1;
+		ip.err = err_fd;
 		ip.git_cmd = 1;
 		status = start_command(&ip);
 		if (status) {
@@ -868,6 +877,26 @@
 	}
 }
 
+static const char *unpack_with_sideband(void)
+{
+	struct async muxer;
+	const char *ret;
+
+	if (!use_sideband)
+		return unpack(0);
+
+	memset(&muxer, 0, sizeof(muxer));
+	muxer.proc = copy_to_sideband;
+	muxer.in = -1;
+	if (start_async(&muxer))
+		return NULL;
+
+	ret = unpack(muxer.in);
+
+	finish_async(&muxer);
+	return ret;
+}
+
 static void report(struct command *commands, const char *unpack_status)
 {
 	struct command *cmd;
@@ -965,7 +994,7 @@
 		const char *unpack_status = NULL;
 
 		if (!delete_only(commands))
-			unpack_status = unpack();
+			unpack_status = unpack_with_sideband();
 		execute_commands(commands, unpack_status);
 		if (pack_lockfile)
 			unlink_or_warn(pack_lockfile);
@@ -977,7 +1006,8 @@
 			const char *argv_gc_auto[] = {
 				"gc", "--auto", "--quiet", NULL,
 			};
-			run_command_v_opt(argv_gc_auto, RUN_GIT_CMD);
+			int opt = RUN_GIT_CMD | RUN_COMMAND_STDOUT_TO_STDERR;
+			run_command_v_opt(argv_gc_auto, opt);
 		}
 		if (auto_update_server_info)
 			update_server_info(0);
diff --git a/builtin/reflog.c b/builtin/reflog.c
index 062d7da..b3c9e27 100644
--- a/builtin/reflog.c
+++ b/builtin/reflog.c
@@ -330,8 +330,10 @@
 		printf("keep %s", message);
 	return 0;
  prune:
-	if (!cb->newlog || cb->cmd->verbose)
-		printf("%sprune %s", cb->newlog ? "" : "would ", message);
+	if (!cb->newlog)
+		printf("would prune %s", message);
+	else if (cb->cmd->verbose)
+		printf("prune %s", message);
 	return 0;
 }
 
diff --git a/builtin/remote.c b/builtin/remote.c
index fec92bc..357d59d 100644
--- a/builtin/remote.c
+++ b/builtin/remote.c
@@ -9,15 +9,15 @@
 
 static const char * const builtin_remote_usage[] = {
 	"git remote [-v | --verbose]",
-	"git remote add [-t <branch>] [-m <master>] [-f] [--mirror=<fetch|push>] <name> <url>",
+	"git remote add [-t <branch>] [-m <master>] [-f] [--tags|--no-tags] [--mirror=<fetch|push>] <name> <url>",
 	"git remote rename <old> <new>",
-	"git remote rm <name>",
+	"git remote remove <name>",
 	"git remote set-head <name> (-a | -d | <branch>)",
 	"git remote [-v | --verbose] show [-n] <name>",
 	"git remote prune [-n | --dry-run] <name>",
 	"git remote [-v | --verbose] update [-p | --prune] [(<group> | <remote>)...]",
 	"git remote set-branches [--add] <name> <branch>...",
-	"git remote set-url <name> <newurl> [<oldurl>]",
+	"git remote set-url [--push] <name> <newurl> [<oldurl>]",
 	"git remote set-url --add <name> <newurl>",
 	"git remote set-url --delete <name> <url>",
 	NULL
@@ -34,7 +34,7 @@
 };
 
 static const char * const builtin_remote_rm_usage[] = {
-	"git remote rm <name>",
+	"git remote remove <name>",
 	NULL
 };
 
@@ -95,9 +95,9 @@
 		argv[1] = "-v";
 		argv[2] = name;
 	}
-	printf("Updating %s\n", name);
+	printf_ln(_("Updating %s"), name);
 	if (run_command_v_opt(argv, RUN_GIT_CMD))
-		return error("Could not fetch %s", name);
+		return error(_("Could not fetch %s"), name);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -127,8 +127,8 @@
 }
 
 static const char mirror_advice[] =
-"--mirror is dangerous and deprecated; please\n"
-"\t use --mirror=fetch or --mirror=push instead";
+N_("--mirror is dangerous and deprecated; please\n"
+   "\t use --mirror=fetch or --mirror=push instead");
 
 static int parse_mirror_opt(const struct option *opt, const char *arg, int not)
 {
@@ -136,7 +136,7 @@
 	if (not)
 		*mirror = MIRROR_NONE;
 	else if (!arg) {
-		warning("%s", mirror_advice);
+		warning("%s", _(mirror_advice));
 		*mirror = MIRROR_BOTH;
 	}
 	else if (!strcmp(arg, "fetch"))
@@ -144,7 +144,7 @@
 	else if (!strcmp(arg, "push"))
 		*mirror = MIRROR_PUSH;
 	else
-		return error("unknown mirror argument: %s", arg);
+		return error(_("unknown mirror argument: %s"), arg);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -182,9 +182,9 @@
 		usage_with_options(builtin_remote_add_usage, options);
 
 	if (mirror && master)
-		die("specifying a master branch makes no sense with --mirror");
+		die(_("specifying a master branch makes no sense with --mirror"));
 	if (mirror && !(mirror & MIRROR_FETCH) && track.nr)
-		die("specifying branches to track makes sense only with fetch mirrors");
+		die(_("specifying branches to track makes sense only with fetch mirrors"));
 
 	name = argv[0];
 	url = argv[1];
@@ -192,11 +192,11 @@
 	remote = remote_get(name);
 	if (remote && (remote->url_nr > 1 || strcmp(name, remote->url[0]) ||
 			remote->fetch_refspec_nr))
-		die("remote %s already exists.", name);
+		die(_("remote %s already exists."), name);
 
 	strbuf_addf(&buf2, "refs/heads/test:refs/remotes/%s/test", name);
 	if (!valid_fetch_refspec(buf2.buf))
-		die("'%s' is not a valid remote name", name);
+		die(_("'%s' is not a valid remote name"), name);
 
 	strbuf_addf(&buf, "remote.%s.url", name);
 	if (git_config_set(buf.buf, url))
@@ -240,7 +240,7 @@
 		strbuf_addf(&buf2, "refs/remotes/%s/%s", name, master);
 
 		if (create_symref(buf.buf, buf2.buf, "remote add"))
-			return error("Could not setup master '%s'", master);
+			return error(_("Could not setup master '%s'"), master);
 	}
 
 	strbuf_release(&buf);
@@ -296,7 +296,7 @@
 		info = item->util;
 		if (type == REMOTE) {
 			if (info->remote_name)
-				warning("more than one %s", orig_key);
+				warning(_("more than one %s"), orig_key);
 			info->remote_name = xstrdup(value);
 		} else if (type == MERGE) {
 			char *space = strchr(value, ' ');
@@ -336,7 +336,7 @@
 
 	for (i = 0; i < states->remote->fetch_refspec_nr; i++)
 		if (get_fetch_map(remote_refs, states->remote->fetch + i, &tail, 1))
-			die("Could not get fetch map for refspec %s",
+			die(_("Could not get fetch map for refspec %s"),
 				states->remote->fetch_refspec[i]);
 
 	states->new.strdup_strings = 1;
@@ -437,7 +437,7 @@
 
 	states->push.strdup_strings = 1;
 	if (!remote->push_refspec_nr) {
-		item = string_list_append(&states->push, "(matching)");
+		item = string_list_append(&states->push, _("(matching)"));
 		info = item->util = xcalloc(sizeof(struct push_info), 1);
 		info->status = PUSH_STATUS_NOTQUERIED;
 		info->dest = xstrdup(item->string);
@@ -445,11 +445,11 @@
 	for (i = 0; i < remote->push_refspec_nr; i++) {
 		struct refspec *spec = remote->push + i;
 		if (spec->matching)
-			item = string_list_append(&states->push, "(matching)");
+			item = string_list_append(&states->push, _("(matching)"));
 		else if (strlen(spec->src))
 			item = string_list_append(&states->push, spec->src);
 		else
-			item = string_list_append(&states->push, "(delete)");
+			item = string_list_append(&states->push, _("(delete)"));
 
 		info = item->util = xcalloc(sizeof(struct push_info), 1);
 		info->forced = spec->force;
@@ -592,19 +592,19 @@
 	strbuf_addf(&buf, "remote.%s.url", remote->name);
 	for (i = 0; i < remote->url_nr; i++)
 		if (git_config_set_multivar(buf.buf, remote->url[i], "^$", 0))
-			return error("Could not append '%s' to '%s'",
+			return error(_("Could not append '%s' to '%s'"),
 					remote->url[i], buf.buf);
 	strbuf_reset(&buf);
 	strbuf_addf(&buf, "remote.%s.push", remote->name);
 	for (i = 0; i < remote->push_refspec_nr; i++)
 		if (git_config_set_multivar(buf.buf, remote->push_refspec[i], "^$", 0))
-			return error("Could not append '%s' to '%s'",
+			return error(_("Could not append '%s' to '%s'"),
 					remote->push_refspec[i], buf.buf);
 	strbuf_reset(&buf);
 	strbuf_addf(&buf, "remote.%s.fetch", remote->name);
 	for (i = 0; i < remote->fetch_refspec_nr; i++)
 		if (git_config_set_multivar(buf.buf, remote->fetch_refspec[i], "^$", 0))
-			return error("Could not append '%s' to '%s'",
+			return error(_("Could not append '%s' to '%s'"),
 					remote->fetch_refspec[i], buf.buf);
 	if (remote->origin == REMOTE_REMOTES)
 		path = git_path("remotes/%s", remote->name);
@@ -636,30 +636,30 @@
 
 	oldremote = remote_get(rename.old);
 	if (!oldremote)
-		die("No such remote: %s", rename.old);
+		die(_("No such remote: %s"), rename.old);
 
 	if (!strcmp(rename.old, rename.new) && oldremote->origin != REMOTE_CONFIG)
 		return migrate_file(oldremote);
 
 	newremote = remote_get(rename.new);
 	if (newremote && (newremote->url_nr > 1 || newremote->fetch_refspec_nr))
-		die("remote %s already exists.", rename.new);
+		die(_("remote %s already exists."), rename.new);
 
 	strbuf_addf(&buf, "refs/heads/test:refs/remotes/%s/test", rename.new);
 	if (!valid_fetch_refspec(buf.buf))
-		die("'%s' is not a valid remote name", rename.new);
+		die(_("'%s' is not a valid remote name"), rename.new);
 
 	strbuf_reset(&buf);
 	strbuf_addf(&buf, "remote.%s", rename.old);
 	strbuf_addf(&buf2, "remote.%s", rename.new);
 	if (git_config_rename_section(buf.buf, buf2.buf) < 1)
-		return error("Could not rename config section '%s' to '%s'",
+		return error(_("Could not rename config section '%s' to '%s'"),
 				buf.buf, buf2.buf);
 
 	strbuf_reset(&buf);
 	strbuf_addf(&buf, "remote.%s.fetch", rename.new);
 	if (git_config_set_multivar(buf.buf, NULL, NULL, 1))
-		return error("Could not remove config section '%s'", buf.buf);
+		return error(_("Could not remove config section '%s'"), buf.buf);
 	strbuf_addf(&old_remote_context, ":refs/remotes/%s/", rename.old);
 	for (i = 0; i < oldremote->fetch_refspec_nr; i++) {
 		char *ptr;
@@ -674,13 +674,13 @@
 				      strlen(rename.old), rename.new,
 				      strlen(rename.new));
 		} else
-			warning("Not updating non-default fetch respec\n"
-				"\t%s\n"
-				"\tPlease update the configuration manually if necessary.",
+			warning(_("Not updating non-default fetch refspec\n"
+				  "\t%s\n"
+				  "\tPlease update the configuration manually if necessary."),
 				buf2.buf);
 
 		if (git_config_set_multivar(buf.buf, buf2.buf, "^$", 0))
-			return error("Could not append '%s'", buf.buf);
+			return error(_("Could not append '%s'"), buf.buf);
 	}
 
 	read_branches();
@@ -691,7 +691,7 @@
 			strbuf_reset(&buf);
 			strbuf_addf(&buf, "branch.%s.remote", item->string);
 			if (git_config_set(buf.buf, rename.new)) {
-				return error("Could not set '%s'", buf.buf);
+				return error(_("Could not set '%s'"), buf.buf);
 			}
 		}
 	}
@@ -713,7 +713,7 @@
 		if (!(flag & REF_ISSYMREF))
 			continue;
 		if (delete_ref(item->string, NULL, REF_NODEREF))
-			die("deleting '%s' failed", item->string);
+			die(_("deleting '%s' failed"), item->string);
 	}
 	for (i = 0; i < remote_branches.nr; i++) {
 		struct string_list_item *item = remote_branches.items + i;
@@ -728,7 +728,7 @@
 		strbuf_addf(&buf2, "remote: renamed %s to %s",
 				item->string, buf.buf);
 		if (rename_ref(item->string, buf.buf, buf2.buf))
-			die("renaming '%s' failed", item->string);
+			die(_("renaming '%s' failed"), item->string);
 	}
 	for (i = 0; i < remote_branches.nr; i++) {
 		struct string_list_item *item = remote_branches.items + i;
@@ -747,7 +747,7 @@
 		strbuf_addf(&buf3, "remote: renamed %s to %s",
 				item->string, buf.buf);
 		if (create_symref(buf.buf, buf2.buf, buf3.buf))
-			die("creating '%s' failed", buf.buf);
+			die(_("creating '%s' failed"), buf.buf);
 	}
 	return 0;
 }
@@ -761,7 +761,7 @@
 		unsigned char *sha1 = item->util;
 
 		if (delete_ref(refname, sha1, 0))
-			result |= error("Could not remove branch %s", refname);
+			result |= error(_("Could not remove branch %s"), refname);
 	}
 	return result;
 }
@@ -789,14 +789,14 @@
 
 	remote = remote_get(argv[1]);
 	if (!remote)
-		die("No such remote: %s", argv[1]);
+		die(_("No such remote: %s"), argv[1]);
 
 	known_remotes.to_delete = remote;
 	for_each_remote(add_known_remote, &known_remotes);
 
 	strbuf_addf(&buf, "remote.%s", remote->name);
 	if (git_config_rename_section(buf.buf, NULL) < 1)
-		return error("Could not remove config section '%s'", buf.buf);
+		return error(_("Could not remove config section '%s'"), buf.buf);
 
 	read_branches();
 	for (i = 0; i < branch_list.nr; i++) {
@@ -830,11 +830,12 @@
 	string_list_clear(&branches, 1);
 
 	if (skipped.nr) {
-		fprintf(stderr, skipped.nr == 1 ?
-			"Note: A branch outside the refs/remotes/ hierarchy was not removed;\n"
-			"to delete it, use:\n" :
-			"Note: Some branches outside the refs/remotes/ hierarchy were not removed;\n"
-			"to delete them, use:\n");
+		fprintf_ln(stderr,
+			   Q_("Note: A branch outside the refs/remotes/ hierarchy was not removed;\n"
+			      "to delete it, use:",
+			      "Note: Some branches outside the refs/remotes/ hierarchy were not removed;\n"
+			      "to delete them, use:",
+			      skipped.nr));
 		for (i = 0; i < skipped.nr; i++)
 			fprintf(stderr, "  git branch -d %s\n",
 				skipped.items[i].string);
@@ -886,7 +887,7 @@
 
 	states->remote = remote_get(name);
 	if (!states->remote)
-		return error("No such remote: %s", name);
+		return error(_("No such remote: %s"), name);
 
 	read_branches();
 
@@ -939,14 +940,14 @@
 		const char *fmt = "%s";
 		const char *arg = "";
 		if (string_list_has_string(&states->new, name)) {
-			fmt = " new (next fetch will store in remotes/%s)";
+			fmt = _(" new (next fetch will store in remotes/%s)");
 			arg = states->remote->name;
 		} else if (string_list_has_string(&states->tracked, name))
-			arg = " tracked";
+			arg = _(" tracked");
 		else if (string_list_has_string(&states->stale, name))
-			arg = " stale (use 'git remote prune' to remove)";
+			arg = _(" stale (use 'git remote prune' to remove)");
 		else
-			arg = " ???";
+			arg = _(" ???");
 		printf("    %-*s", info->width, name);
 		printf(fmt, arg);
 		printf("\n");
@@ -987,21 +988,21 @@
 	int i;
 
 	if (branch_info->rebase && branch_info->merge.nr > 1) {
-		error("invalid branch.%s.merge; cannot rebase onto > 1 branch",
+		error(_("invalid branch.%s.merge; cannot rebase onto > 1 branch"),
 			item->string);
 		return 0;
 	}
 
 	printf("    %-*s ", show_info->width, item->string);
 	if (branch_info->rebase) {
-		printf("rebases onto remote %s\n", merge->items[0].string);
+		printf_ln(_("rebases onto remote %s"), merge->items[0].string);
 		return 0;
 	} else if (show_info->any_rebase) {
-		printf(" merges with remote %s\n", merge->items[0].string);
-		also = "    and with remote";
+		printf_ln(_(" merges with remote %s"), merge->items[0].string);
+		also = _("    and with remote");
 	} else {
-		printf("merges with remote %s\n", merge->items[0].string);
-		also = "   and with remote";
+		printf_ln(_("merges with remote %s"), merge->items[0].string);
+		also = _("   and with remote");
 	}
 	for (i = 1; i < merge->nr; i++)
 		printf("    %-*s %s %s\n", show_info->width, "", also,
@@ -1043,36 +1044,43 @@
 {
 	struct show_info *show_info = cb_data;
 	struct push_info *push_info = item->util;
-	char *src = item->string, *status = NULL;
+	const char *src = item->string, *status = NULL;
 
 	switch (push_info->status) {
 	case PUSH_STATUS_CREATE:
-		status = "create";
+		status = _("create");
 		break;
 	case PUSH_STATUS_DELETE:
-		status = "delete";
-		src = "(none)";
+		status = _("delete");
+		src = _("(none)");
 		break;
 	case PUSH_STATUS_UPTODATE:
-		status = "up to date";
+		status = _("up to date");
 		break;
 	case PUSH_STATUS_FASTFORWARD:
-		status = "fast-forwardable";
+		status = _("fast-forwardable");
 		break;
 	case PUSH_STATUS_OUTOFDATE:
-		status = "local out of date";
+		status = _("local out of date");
 		break;
 	case PUSH_STATUS_NOTQUERIED:
 		break;
 	}
-	if (status)
-		printf("    %-*s %s to %-*s (%s)\n", show_info->width, src,
-			push_info->forced ? "forces" : "pushes",
-			show_info->width2, push_info->dest, status);
-	else
-		printf("    %-*s %s to %s\n", show_info->width, src,
-			push_info->forced ? "forces" : "pushes",
-			push_info->dest);
+	if (status) {
+		if (push_info->forced)
+			printf_ln(_("    %-*s forces to %-*s (%s)"), show_info->width, src,
+			       show_info->width2, push_info->dest, status);
+		else
+			printf_ln(_("    %-*s pushes to %-*s (%s)"), show_info->width, src,
+			       show_info->width2, push_info->dest, status);
+	} else {
+		if (push_info->forced)
+			printf_ln(_("    %-*s forces to %s"), show_info->width, src,
+			       push_info->dest);
+		else
+			printf_ln(_("    %-*s pushes to %s"), show_info->width, src,
+			       push_info->dest);
+	}
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -1107,9 +1115,9 @@
 
 		get_remote_ref_states(*argv, &states, query_flag);
 
-		printf("* remote %s\n", *argv);
-		printf("  Fetch URL: %s\n", states.remote->url_nr > 0 ?
-			states.remote->url[0] : "(no URL)");
+		printf_ln(_("* remote %s"), *argv);
+		printf_ln(_("  Fetch URL: %s"), states.remote->url_nr > 0 ?
+		       states.remote->url[0] : _("(no URL)"));
 		if (states.remote->pushurl_nr) {
 			url = states.remote->pushurl;
 			url_nr = states.remote->pushurl_nr;
@@ -1118,18 +1126,18 @@
 			url_nr = states.remote->url_nr;
 		}
 		for (i = 0; i < url_nr; i++)
-			printf("  Push  URL: %s\n", url[i]);
+			printf_ln(_("  Push  URL: %s"), url[i]);
 		if (!i)
-			printf("  Push  URL: %s\n", "(no URL)");
+			printf_ln(_("  Push  URL: %s"), "(no URL)");
 		if (no_query)
-			printf("  HEAD branch: (not queried)\n");
+			printf_ln(_("  HEAD branch: %s"), "(not queried)");
 		else if (!states.heads.nr)
-			printf("  HEAD branch: (unknown)\n");
+			printf_ln(_("  HEAD branch: %s"), "(unknown)");
 		else if (states.heads.nr == 1)
-			printf("  HEAD branch: %s\n", states.heads.items[0].string);
+			printf_ln(_("  HEAD branch: %s"), states.heads.items[0].string);
 		else {
-			printf("  HEAD branch (remote HEAD is ambiguous,"
-			       " may be one of the following):\n");
+			printf(_("  HEAD branch (remote HEAD is ambiguous,"
+				 " may be one of the following):\n"));
 			for (i = 0; i < states.heads.nr; i++)
 				printf("    %s\n", states.heads.items[i].string);
 		}
@@ -1140,9 +1148,10 @@
 		for_each_string_list(&states.tracked, add_remote_to_show_info, &info);
 		for_each_string_list(&states.stale, add_remote_to_show_info, &info);
 		if (info.list->nr)
-			printf("  Remote branch%s:%s\n",
-			       info.list->nr > 1 ? "es" : "",
-				no_query ? " (status not queried)" : "");
+			printf_ln(Q_("  Remote branch:%s",
+				     "  Remote branches:%s",
+				     info.list->nr),
+				  no_query ? _(" (status not queried)") : "");
 		for_each_string_list(info.list, show_remote_info_item, &info);
 		string_list_clear(info.list, 0);
 
@@ -1151,23 +1160,25 @@
 		info.any_rebase = 0;
 		for_each_string_list(&branch_list, add_local_to_show_info, &info);
 		if (info.list->nr)
-			printf("  Local branch%s configured for 'git pull':\n",
-			       info.list->nr > 1 ? "es" : "");
+			printf_ln(Q_("  Local branch configured for 'git pull':",
+				     "  Local branches configured for 'git pull':",
+				     info.list->nr));
 		for_each_string_list(info.list, show_local_info_item, &info);
 		string_list_clear(info.list, 0);
 
 		/* git push info */
 		if (states.remote->mirror)
-			printf("  Local refs will be mirrored by 'git push'\n");
+			printf_ln(_("  Local refs will be mirrored by 'git push'"));
 
 		info.width = info.width2 = 0;
 		for_each_string_list(&states.push, add_push_to_show_info, &info);
 		qsort(info.list->items, info.list->nr,
 			sizeof(*info.list->items), cmp_string_with_push);
 		if (info.list->nr)
-			printf("  Local ref%s configured for 'git push'%s:\n",
-				info.list->nr > 1 ? "s" : "",
-				no_query ? " (status not queried)" : "");
+			printf_ln(Q_("  Local ref configured for 'git push'%s:",
+				     "  Local refs configured for 'git push'%s:",
+				     info.list->nr),
+				  no_query ? _(" (status not queried)") : "");
 		for_each_string_list(info.list, show_push_info_item, &info);
 		string_list_clear(info.list, 0);
 
@@ -1202,10 +1213,10 @@
 		memset(&states, 0, sizeof(states));
 		get_remote_ref_states(argv[0], &states, GET_HEAD_NAMES);
 		if (!states.heads.nr)
-			result |= error("Cannot determine remote HEAD");
+			result |= error(_("Cannot determine remote HEAD"));
 		else if (states.heads.nr > 1) {
-			result |= error("Multiple remote HEAD branches. "
-					"Please choose one explicitly with:");
+			result |= error(_("Multiple remote HEAD branches. "
+					  "Please choose one explicitly with:"));
 			for (i = 0; i < states.heads.nr; i++)
 				fprintf(stderr, "  git remote set-head %s %s\n",
 					argv[0], states.heads.items[i].string);
@@ -1214,7 +1225,7 @@
 		free_remote_ref_states(&states);
 	} else if (opt_d && !opt_a && argc == 1) {
 		if (delete_ref(buf.buf, NULL, REF_NODEREF))
-			result |= error("Could not delete %s", buf.buf);
+			result |= error(_("Could not delete %s"), buf.buf);
 	} else
 		usage_with_options(builtin_remote_sethead_usage, options);
 
@@ -1222,9 +1233,9 @@
 		strbuf_addf(&buf2, "refs/remotes/%s/%s", argv[0], head_name);
 		/* make sure it's valid */
 		if (!ref_exists(buf2.buf))
-			result |= error("Not a valid ref: %s", buf2.buf);
+			result |= error(_("Not a valid ref: %s"), buf2.buf);
 		else if (create_symref(buf.buf, buf2.buf, "remote set-head"))
-			result |= error("Could not setup %s", buf.buf);
+			result |= error(_("Could not setup %s"), buf.buf);
 		if (opt_a)
 			printf("%s/HEAD set to %s\n", argv[0], head_name);
 		free(head_name);
@@ -1260,18 +1271,18 @@
 	int result = 0, i;
 	struct ref_states states;
 	const char *dangling_msg = dry_run
-		? " %s will become dangling!\n"
-		: " %s has become dangling!\n";
+		? _(" %s will become dangling!")
+		: _(" %s has become dangling!");
 
 	memset(&states, 0, sizeof(states));
 	get_remote_ref_states(remote, &states, GET_REF_STATES);
 
 	if (states.stale.nr) {
-		printf("Pruning %s\n", remote);
-		printf("URL: %s\n",
+		printf_ln(_("Pruning %s"), remote);
+		printf_ln(_("URL: %s"),
 		       states.remote->url_nr
 		       ? states.remote->url[0]
-		       : "(no URL)");
+		       : _("(no URL)"));
 	}
 
 	for (i = 0; i < states.stale.nr; i++) {
@@ -1280,8 +1291,12 @@
 		if (!dry_run)
 			result |= delete_ref(refname, NULL, 0);
 
-		printf(" * [%s] %s\n", dry_run ? "would prune" : "pruned",
-		       abbrev_ref(refname, "refs/remotes/"));
+		if (dry_run)
+			printf_ln(_(" * [would prune] %s"),
+			       abbrev_ref(refname, "refs/remotes/"));
+		else
+			printf_ln(_(" * [pruned] %s"),
+			       abbrev_ref(refname, "refs/remotes/"));
 		warn_dangling_symref(stdout, dangling_msg, refname);
 	}
 
@@ -1369,7 +1384,7 @@
 	strbuf_addf(&key, "remote.%s.fetch", remotename);
 
 	if (!remote_is_configured(remotename))
-		die("No such remote '%s'", remotename);
+		die(_("No such remote '%s'"), remotename);
 	remote = remote_get(remotename);
 
 	if (!add_mode && remove_all_fetch_refspecs(remotename, key.buf)) {
@@ -1396,7 +1411,7 @@
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, NULL, options,
 			     builtin_remote_setbranches_usage, 0);
 	if (argc == 0) {
-		error("no remote specified");
+		error(_("no remote specified"));
 		usage_with_options(builtin_remote_setbranches_usage, options);
 	}
 	argv[argc] = NULL;
@@ -1429,7 +1444,7 @@
 			     PARSE_OPT_KEEP_ARGV0);
 
 	if (add_mode && delete_mode)
-		die("--add --delete doesn't make sense");
+		die(_("--add --delete doesn't make sense"));
 
 	if (argc < 3 || argc > 4 || ((add_mode || delete_mode) && argc != 3))
 		usage_with_options(builtin_remote_seturl_usage, options);
@@ -1443,7 +1458,7 @@
 		oldurl = newurl;
 
 	if (!remote_is_configured(remotename))
-		die("No such remote '%s'", remotename);
+		die(_("No such remote '%s'"), remotename);
 	remote = remote_get(remotename);
 
 	if (push_mode) {
@@ -1469,7 +1484,7 @@
 
 	/* Old URL specified. Demand that one matches. */
 	if (regcomp(&old_regex, oldurl, REG_EXTENDED))
-		die("Invalid old URL pattern: %s", oldurl);
+		die(_("Invalid old URL pattern: %s"), oldurl);
 
 	for (i = 0; i < urlset_nr; i++)
 		if (!regexec(&old_regex, urlset[i], 0, NULL, 0))
@@ -1477,9 +1492,9 @@
 		else
 			negative_matches++;
 	if (!delete_mode && !matches)
-		die("No such URL found: %s", oldurl);
+		die(_("No such URL found: %s"), oldurl);
 	if (delete_mode && !negative_matches && !push_mode)
-		die("Will not delete all non-push URLs");
+		die(_("Will not delete all non-push URLs"));
 
 	regfree(&old_regex);
 
@@ -1565,7 +1580,7 @@
 		result = add(argc, argv);
 	else if (!strcmp(argv[0], "rename"))
 		result = mv(argc, argv);
-	else if (!strcmp(argv[0], "rm"))
+	else if (!strcmp(argv[0], "rm") || !strcmp(argv[0], "remove"))
 		result = rm(argc, argv);
 	else if (!strcmp(argv[0], "set-head"))
 		result = set_head(argc, argv);
@@ -1580,7 +1595,7 @@
 	else if (!strcmp(argv[0], "update"))
 		result = update(argc, argv);
 	else {
-		error("Unknown subcommand: %s", argv[0]);
+		error(_("Unknown subcommand: %s"), argv[0]);
 		usage_with_options(builtin_remote_usage, options);
 	}
 
diff --git a/builtin/reset.c b/builtin/reset.c
index 8c2c1d5..74442bd 100644
--- a/builtin/reset.c
+++ b/builtin/reset.c
@@ -276,7 +276,7 @@
 		 * Otherwise, argv[i] could be either <rev> or <paths> and
 		 * has to be unambiguous.
 		 */
-		else if (!get_sha1(argv[i], sha1)) {
+		else if (!get_sha1_committish(argv[i], sha1)) {
 			/*
 			 * Ok, argv[i] looks like a rev; it should not
 			 * be a filename.
@@ -285,13 +285,19 @@
 			rev = argv[i++];
 		} else {
 			/* Otherwise we treat this as a filename */
-			verify_filename(prefix, argv[i]);
+			verify_filename(prefix, argv[i], 1);
 		}
 	}
 
-	if (get_sha1(rev, sha1))
+	if (get_sha1_committish(rev, sha1))
 		die(_("Failed to resolve '%s' as a valid ref."), rev);
 
+	/*
+	 * NOTE: As "git reset $treeish -- $path" should be usable on
+	 * any tree-ish, this is not strictly correct. We are not
+	 * moving the HEAD to any commit; we are merely resetting the
+	 * entries in the index to that of a treeish.
+	 */
 	commit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
 	if (!commit)
 		die(_("Could not parse object '%s'."), rev);
diff --git a/builtin/rev-parse.c b/builtin/rev-parse.c
index 733f626..25e225f 100644
--- a/builtin/rev-parse.c
+++ b/builtin/rev-parse.c
@@ -195,6 +195,12 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static int show_abbrev(const unsigned char *sha1, void *cb_data)
+{
+	show_rev(NORMAL, sha1, NULL);
+	return 0;
+}
+
 static void show_datestring(const char *flag, const char *datestr)
 {
 	static char buffer[100];
@@ -224,6 +230,7 @@
 	const char *next;
 	const char *this;
 	int symmetric;
+	static const char head_by_default[] = "HEAD";
 
 	if (!(dotdot = strstr(arg, "..")))
 		return 0;
@@ -235,10 +242,21 @@
 	next += symmetric;
 
 	if (!*next)
-		next = "HEAD";
+		next = head_by_default;
 	if (dotdot == arg)
-		this = "HEAD";
-	if (!get_sha1(this, sha1) && !get_sha1(next, end)) {
+		this = head_by_default;
+
+	if (this == head_by_default && next == head_by_default &&
+	    !symmetric) {
+		/*
+		 * Just ".."?  That is not a range but the
+		 * pathspec for the parent directory.
+		 */
+		*dotdot = '.';
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	if (!get_sha1_committish(this, sha1) && !get_sha1_committish(next, end)) {
 		show_rev(NORMAL, end, next);
 		show_rev(symmetric ? NORMAL : REVERSED, sha1, this);
 		if (symmetric) {
@@ -278,7 +296,7 @@
 		return 0;
 
 	*dotdot = 0;
-	if (get_sha1(arg, sha1))
+	if (get_sha1_committish(arg, sha1))
 		return 0;
 
 	if (!parents_only)
@@ -486,7 +504,7 @@
 
 		if (as_is) {
 			if (show_file(arg) && as_is < 2)
-				verify_filename(prefix, arg);
+				verify_filename(prefix, arg, 0);
 			continue;
 		}
 		if (!strcmp(arg,"-n")) {
@@ -589,6 +607,10 @@
 				for_each_ref(show_reference, NULL);
 				continue;
 			}
+			if (!prefixcmp(arg, "--disambiguate=")) {
+				for_each_abbrev(arg + 15, show_abbrev, NULL);
+				continue;
+			}
 			if (!strcmp(arg, "--bisect")) {
 				for_each_ref_in("refs/bisect/bad", show_reference, NULL);
 				for_each_ref_in("refs/bisect/good", anti_reference, NULL);
@@ -734,7 +756,7 @@
 		as_is = 1;
 		if (!show_file(arg))
 			continue;
-		verify_filename(prefix, arg);
+		verify_filename(prefix, arg, 1);
 	}
 	if (verify) {
 		if (revs_count == 1) {
diff --git a/builtin/revert.c b/builtin/revert.c
index 5462e67..98ad641 100644
--- a/builtin/revert.c
+++ b/builtin/revert.c
@@ -115,12 +115,16 @@
 		OPT_END(),
 		OPT_END(),
 		OPT_END(),
+		OPT_END(),
+		OPT_END(),
 	};
 
 	if (opts->action == REPLAY_PICK) {
 		struct option cp_extra[] = {
 			OPT_BOOLEAN('x', NULL, &opts->record_origin, "append commit name"),
 			OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "ff", &opts->allow_ff, "allow fast-forward"),
+			OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "allow-empty", &opts->allow_empty, "preserve initially empty commits"),
+			OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "keep-redundant-commits", &opts->keep_redundant_commits, "keep redundant, empty commits"),
 			OPT_END(),
 		};
 		if (parse_options_concat(options, ARRAY_SIZE(options), cp_extra))
@@ -138,6 +142,10 @@
 				"--abort", rollback,
 				NULL);
 
+	/* implies allow_empty */
+	if (opts->keep_redundant_commits)
+		opts->allow_empty = 1;
+
 	/* Set the subcommand */
 	if (remove_state)
 		opts->subcommand = REPLAY_REMOVE_STATE;
@@ -185,7 +193,7 @@
 		struct setup_revision_opt s_r_opt;
 		opts->revs = xmalloc(sizeof(*opts->revs));
 		init_revisions(opts->revs, NULL);
-		opts->revs->no_walk = 1;
+		opts->revs->no_walk = REVISION_WALK_NO_WALK_UNSORTED;
 		if (argc < 2)
 			usage_with_options(usage_str, options);
 		memset(&s_r_opt, 0, sizeof(s_r_opt));
diff --git a/builtin/send-pack.c b/builtin/send-pack.c
index d5d7105..7d05064 100644
--- a/builtin/send-pack.c
+++ b/builtin/send-pack.c
@@ -8,6 +8,7 @@
 #include "send-pack.h"
 #include "quote.h"
 #include "transport.h"
+#include "version.h"
 
 static const char send_pack_usage[] =
 "git send-pack [--all | --mirror] [--dry-run] [--force] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>] [--verbose] [--thin] [<host>:]<directory> [<ref>...]\n"
@@ -251,6 +252,7 @@
 	int status_report = 0;
 	int use_sideband = 0;
 	int quiet_supported = 0;
+	int agent_supported = 0;
 	unsigned cmds_sent = 0;
 	int ret;
 	struct async demux;
@@ -266,6 +268,8 @@
 		use_sideband = 1;
 	if (server_supports("quiet"))
 		quiet_supported = 1;
+	if (server_supports("agent"))
+		agent_supported = 1;
 
 	if (!remote_refs) {
 		fprintf(stderr, "No refs in common and none specified; doing nothing.\n"
@@ -305,12 +309,17 @@
 			char *new_hex = sha1_to_hex(ref->new_sha1);
 			int quiet = quiet_supported && (args->quiet || !args->progress);
 
-			if (!cmds_sent && (status_report || use_sideband || args->quiet)) {
-				packet_buf_write(&req_buf, "%s %s %s%c%s%s%s",
+			if (!cmds_sent && (status_report || use_sideband ||
+					   quiet || agent_supported)) {
+				packet_buf_write(&req_buf,
+						 "%s %s %s%c%s%s%s%s%s",
 						 old_hex, new_hex, ref->name, 0,
 						 status_report ? " report-status" : "",
 						 use_sideband ? " side-band-64k" : "",
-						 quiet ? " quiet" : "");
+						 quiet ? " quiet" : "",
+						 agent_supported ? " agent=" : "",
+						 agent_supported ? git_user_agent_sanitized() : ""
+						);
 			}
 			else
 				packet_buf_write(&req_buf, "%s %s %s",
diff --git a/builtin/tag.c b/builtin/tag.c
index fe7e5e5..7b1be85 100644
--- a/builtin/tag.c
+++ b/builtin/tag.c
@@ -16,6 +16,7 @@
 #include "revision.h"
 #include "gpg-interface.h"
 #include "sha1-array.h"
+#include "column.h"
 
 static const char * const git_tag_usage[] = {
 	"git tag [-a|-s|-u <key-id>] [-f] [-m <msg>|-F <file>] <tagname> [<head>]",
@@ -33,6 +34,7 @@
 };
 
 static struct sha1_array points_at;
+static unsigned int colopts;
 
 static int match_pattern(const char **patterns, const char *ref)
 {
@@ -263,6 +265,8 @@
 	int status = git_gpg_config(var, value, cb);
 	if (status)
 		return status;
+	if (!prefixcmp(var, "column."))
+		return git_column_config(var, value, "tag", &colopts);
 	return git_default_config(var, value, cb);
 }
 
@@ -328,7 +332,7 @@
 			  sha1_to_hex(object),
 			  typename(type),
 			  tag,
-			  git_committer_info(IDENT_ERROR_ON_NO_NAME));
+			  git_committer_info(IDENT_STRICT));
 
 	if (header_len > sizeof(header_buf) - 1)
 		die(_("tag header too big."));
@@ -459,6 +463,7 @@
 		OPT_STRING('u', "local-user", &keyid, "key-id",
 					"use another key to sign the tag"),
 		OPT__FORCE(&force, "replace the tag if exists"),
+		OPT_COLUMN(0, "column", &colopts, "show tag list in columns"),
 
 		OPT_GROUP("Tag listing options"),
 		{
@@ -495,9 +500,25 @@
 
 	if (list + delete + verify > 1)
 		usage_with_options(git_tag_usage, options);
-	if (list)
-		return list_tags(argv, lines == -1 ? 0 : lines,
-				 with_commit);
+	finalize_colopts(&colopts, -1);
+	if (list && lines != -1) {
+		if (explicitly_enable_column(colopts))
+			die(_("--column and -n are incompatible"));
+		colopts = 0;
+	}
+	if (list) {
+		int ret;
+		if (column_active(colopts)) {
+			struct column_options copts;
+			memset(&copts, 0, sizeof(copts));
+			copts.padding = 2;
+			run_column_filter(colopts, &copts);
+		}
+		ret = list_tags(argv, lines == -1 ? 0 : lines, with_commit);
+		if (column_active(colopts))
+			stop_column_filter();
+		return ret;
+	}
 	if (lines != -1)
 		die(_("-n option is only allowed with -l."));
 	if (with_commit)
diff --git a/builtin/unpack-objects.c b/builtin/unpack-objects.c
index 14e04e6..2217d7b 100644
--- a/builtin/unpack-objects.c
+++ b/builtin/unpack-objects.c
@@ -107,7 +107,7 @@
 		if (stream.total_out == size && ret == Z_STREAM_END)
 			break;
 		if (ret != Z_OK) {
-			error("inflate returned %d\n", ret);
+			error("inflate returned %d", ret);
 			free(buf);
 			buf = NULL;
 			if (!recover)
diff --git a/builtin/update-index.c b/builtin/update-index.c
index a6a23fa..4ce341c 100644
--- a/builtin/update-index.c
+++ b/builtin/update-index.c
@@ -95,7 +95,8 @@
 	size = cache_entry_size(len);
 	ce = xcalloc(1, size);
 	memcpy(ce->name, path, len);
-	ce->ce_flags = len;
+	ce->ce_flags = create_ce_flags(0);
+	ce->ce_namelen = len;
 	fill_stat_cache_info(ce, st);
 	ce->ce_mode = ce_mode_from_stat(old, st->st_mode);
 
@@ -211,12 +212,6 @@
 	if (S_ISDIR(st.st_mode))
 		return process_directory(path, len, &st);
 
-	/*
-	 * Process a regular file
-	 */
-	if (ce && S_ISGITLINK(ce->ce_mode))
-		return error("%s is already a gitlink, not replacing", path);
-
 	return add_one_path(ce, path, len, &st);
 }
 
@@ -235,7 +230,8 @@
 
 	hashcpy(ce->sha1, sha1);
 	memcpy(ce->name, path, len);
-	ce->ce_flags = create_ce_flags(len, stage);
+	ce->ce_flags = create_ce_flags(stage);
+	ce->ce_namelen = len;
 	ce->ce_mode = create_ce_mode(mode);
 	if (assume_unchanged)
 		ce->ce_flags |= CE_VALID;
@@ -433,7 +429,8 @@
 
 	hashcpy(ce->sha1, sha1);
 	memcpy(ce->name, path, namelen);
-	ce->ce_flags = create_ce_flags(namelen, stage);
+	ce->ce_flags = create_ce_flags(stage);
+	ce->ce_namelen = namelen;
 	ce->ce_mode = create_ce_mode(mode);
 	return ce;
 }
@@ -708,6 +705,7 @@
 	int newfd, entries, has_errors = 0, line_termination = '\n';
 	int read_from_stdin = 0;
 	int prefix_length = prefix ? strlen(prefix) : 0;
+	int preferred_index_format = 0;
 	char set_executable_bit = 0;
 	struct refresh_params refresh_args = {0, &has_errors};
 	int lock_error = 0;
@@ -791,6 +789,8 @@
 			"(for porcelains) forget saved unresolved conflicts",
 			PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_NONEG,
 			resolve_undo_clear_callback},
+		OPT_INTEGER(0, "index-version", &preferred_index_format,
+			    "write index in this format"),
 		OPT_END()
 	};
 
@@ -851,6 +851,17 @@
 		}
 	}
 	argc = parse_options_end(&ctx);
+	if (preferred_index_format) {
+		if (preferred_index_format < INDEX_FORMAT_LB ||
+		    INDEX_FORMAT_UB < preferred_index_format)
+			die("index-version %d not in range: %d..%d",
+			    preferred_index_format,
+			    INDEX_FORMAT_LB, INDEX_FORMAT_UB);
+
+		if (the_index.version != preferred_index_format)
+			active_cache_changed = 1;
+		the_index.version = preferred_index_format;
+	}
 
 	if (read_from_stdin) {
 		struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT, nbuf = STRBUF_INIT;
diff --git a/builtin/update-server-info.c b/builtin/update-server-info.c
index b90dce6..0d63c44 100644
--- a/builtin/update-server-info.c
+++ b/builtin/update-server-info.c
@@ -15,6 +15,7 @@
 		OPT_END()
 	};
 
+	git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options,
 			     update_server_info_usage, 0);
 	if (argc > 0)
diff --git a/builtin/var.c b/builtin/var.c
index 99d068a..aedbb53 100644
--- a/builtin/var.c
+++ b/builtin/var.c
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
 {
 	const char *pgm = git_editor();
 
-	if (!pgm && flag & IDENT_ERROR_ON_NO_NAME)
+	if (!pgm && flag & IDENT_STRICT)
 		die("Terminal is dumb, but EDITOR unset");
 
 	return pgm;
@@ -55,7 +55,7 @@
 	val = NULL;
 	for (ptr = git_vars; ptr->read; ptr++) {
 		if (strcmp(var, ptr->name) == 0) {
-			val = ptr->read(IDENT_ERROR_ON_NO_NAME);
+			val = ptr->read(IDENT_STRICT);
 			break;
 		}
 	}
diff --git a/bundle.c b/bundle.c
index 27ab32e..8d12816 100644
--- a/bundle.c
+++ b/bundle.c
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@
 	if (strbuf_getwholeline_fd(&buf, fd, '\n') ||
 	    strcmp(buf.buf, bundle_signature)) {
 		if (report_path)
-			error("'%s' does not look like a v2 bundle file",
+			error(_("'%s' does not look like a v2 bundle file"),
 			      report_path);
 		status = -1;
 		goto abort;
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@
 		    (40 <= buf.len && !isspace(buf.buf[40])) ||
 		    (!is_prereq && buf.len <= 40)) {
 			if (report_path)
-				error("unrecognized header: %s%s (%d)",
+				error(_("unrecognized header: %s%s (%d)"),
 				      (is_prereq ? "-" : ""), buf.buf, (int)buf.len);
 			status = -1;
 			break;
@@ -86,7 +86,7 @@
 	int fd = open(path, O_RDONLY);
 
 	if (fd < 0)
-		return error("could not open '%s'", path);
+		return error(_("could not open '%s'"), path);
 	return parse_bundle_header(fd, header, path);
 }
 
@@ -137,7 +137,7 @@
 	struct object_array refs;
 	struct commit *commit;
 	int i, ret = 0, req_nr;
-	const char *message = "Repository lacks these prerequisite commits:";
+	const char *message = _("Repository lacks these prerequisite commits:");
 
 	init_revisions(&revs, NULL);
 	for (i = 0; i < p->nr; i++) {
@@ -161,7 +161,7 @@
 	revs.leak_pending = 1;
 
 	if (prepare_revision_walk(&revs))
-		die("revision walk setup failed");
+		die(_("revision walk setup failed"));
 
 	i = req_nr;
 	while (i && (commit = get_revision(&revs)))
@@ -183,13 +183,21 @@
 		struct ref_list *r;
 
 		r = &header->references;
-		printf("The bundle contains %d ref%s\n",
-		       r->nr, (1 < r->nr) ? "s" : "");
+		printf_ln(Q_("The bundle contains %d ref",
+			     "The bundle contains %d refs",
+			     r->nr),
+			  r->nr);
 		list_refs(r, 0, NULL);
-		r = &header->prerequisites;
-		printf("The bundle requires these %d ref%s\n",
-		       r->nr, (1 < r->nr) ? "s" : "");
-		list_refs(r, 0, NULL);
+		if (!r->nr) {
+			printf_ln(_("The bundle records a complete history."));
+		} else {
+			r = &header->prerequisites;
+			printf_ln(Q_("The bundle requires this ref",
+				     "The bundle requires these %d refs",
+				     r->nr),
+				  r->nr);
+			list_refs(r, 0, NULL);
+		}
 	}
 	return ret;
 }
@@ -283,13 +291,13 @@
 	strbuf_release(&buf);
 	fclose(rls_fout);
 	if (finish_command(&rls))
-		return error("rev-list died");
+		return error(_("rev-list died"));
 
 	/* write references */
 	argc = setup_revisions(argc, argv, &revs, NULL);
 
 	if (argc > 1)
-		return error("unrecognized argument: %s", argv[1]);
+		return error(_("unrecognized argument: %s"), argv[1]);
 
 	object_array_remove_duplicates(&revs.pending);
 
@@ -324,7 +332,7 @@
 		 * constraints.
 		 */
 		if (!(e->item->flags & SHOWN) && e->item->type == OBJ_COMMIT) {
-			warning("ref '%s' is excluded by the rev-list options",
+			warning(_("ref '%s' is excluded by the rev-list options"),
 				e->name);
 			free(ref);
 			continue;
@@ -369,7 +377,7 @@
 		free(ref);
 	}
 	if (!ref_count)
-		die ("Refusing to create empty bundle.");
+		die(_("Refusing to create empty bundle."));
 
 	/* end header */
 	write_or_die(bundle_fd, "\n", 1);
@@ -387,7 +395,7 @@
 	rls.out = bundle_fd;
 	rls.git_cmd = 1;
 	if (start_command(&rls))
-		return error("Could not spawn pack-objects");
+		return error(_("Could not spawn pack-objects"));
 
 	/*
 	 * start_command closed bundle_fd if it was > 1
@@ -405,10 +413,10 @@
 	}
 	close(rls.in);
 	if (finish_command(&rls))
-		return error ("pack-objects died");
+		return error(_("pack-objects died"));
 	if (!bundle_to_stdout) {
 		if (commit_lock_file(&lock))
-			die_errno("cannot create '%s'", path);
+			die_errno(_("cannot create '%s'"), path);
 	}
 	return 0;
 }
@@ -430,6 +438,6 @@
 	ip.no_stdout = 1;
 	ip.git_cmd = 1;
 	if (run_command(&ip))
-		return error("index-pack died");
+		return error(_("index-pack died"));
 	return 0;
 }
diff --git a/cache.h b/cache.h
index 84b8229..eb4a031 100644
--- a/cache.h
+++ b/cache.h
@@ -105,6 +105,9 @@
 	unsigned int hdr_entries;
 };
 
+#define INDEX_FORMAT_LB 2
+#define INDEX_FORMAT_UB 4
+
 /*
  * The "cache_time" is just the low 32 bits of the
  * time. It doesn't matter if it overflows - we only
@@ -115,48 +118,6 @@
 	unsigned int nsec;
 };
 
-/*
- * dev/ino/uid/gid/size are also just tracked to the low 32 bits
- * Again - this is just a (very strong in practice) heuristic that
- * the inode hasn't changed.
- *
- * We save the fields in big-endian order to allow using the
- * index file over NFS transparently.
- */
-struct ondisk_cache_entry {
-	struct cache_time ctime;
-	struct cache_time mtime;
-	unsigned int dev;
-	unsigned int ino;
-	unsigned int mode;
-	unsigned int uid;
-	unsigned int gid;
-	unsigned int size;
-	unsigned char sha1[20];
-	unsigned short flags;
-	char name[FLEX_ARRAY]; /* more */
-};
-
-/*
- * This struct is used when CE_EXTENDED bit is 1
- * The struct must match ondisk_cache_entry exactly from
- * ctime till flags
- */
-struct ondisk_cache_entry_extended {
-	struct cache_time ctime;
-	struct cache_time mtime;
-	unsigned int dev;
-	unsigned int ino;
-	unsigned int mode;
-	unsigned int uid;
-	unsigned int gid;
-	unsigned int size;
-	unsigned char sha1[20];
-	unsigned short flags;
-	unsigned short flags2;
-	char name[FLEX_ARRAY]; /* more */
-};
-
 struct cache_entry {
 	struct cache_time ce_ctime;
 	struct cache_time ce_mtime;
@@ -167,13 +128,13 @@
 	unsigned int ce_gid;
 	unsigned int ce_size;
 	unsigned int ce_flags;
+	unsigned int ce_namelen;
 	unsigned char sha1[20];
 	struct cache_entry *next;
 	struct cache_entry *dir_next;
 	char name[FLEX_ARRAY]; /* more */
 };
 
-#define CE_NAMEMASK  (0x0fff)
 #define CE_STAGEMASK (0x3000)
 #define CE_EXTENDED  (0x4000)
 #define CE_VALID     (0x8000)
@@ -237,25 +198,13 @@
 	dst->ce_flags = (dst->ce_flags & ~CE_STATE_MASK) | state;
 }
 
-static inline unsigned create_ce_flags(size_t len, unsigned stage)
+static inline unsigned create_ce_flags(unsigned stage)
 {
-	if (len >= CE_NAMEMASK)
-		len = CE_NAMEMASK;
-	return (len | (stage << CE_STAGESHIFT));
+	return (stage << CE_STAGESHIFT);
 }
 
-static inline size_t ce_namelen(const struct cache_entry *ce)
-{
-	size_t len = ce->ce_flags & CE_NAMEMASK;
-	if (len < CE_NAMEMASK)
-		return len;
-	return strlen(ce->name + CE_NAMEMASK) + CE_NAMEMASK;
-}
-
+#define ce_namelen(ce) ((ce)->ce_namelen)
 #define ce_size(ce) cache_entry_size(ce_namelen(ce))
-#define ondisk_ce_size(ce) (((ce)->ce_flags & CE_EXTENDED) ? \
-			    ondisk_cache_entry_extended_size(ce_namelen(ce)) : \
-			    ondisk_cache_entry_size(ce_namelen(ce)))
 #define ce_stage(ce) ((CE_STAGEMASK & (ce)->ce_flags) >> CE_STAGESHIFT)
 #define ce_uptodate(ce) ((ce)->ce_flags & CE_UPTODATE)
 #define ce_skip_worktree(ce) ((ce)->ce_flags & CE_SKIP_WORKTREE)
@@ -306,13 +255,11 @@
 	return S_IFGITLINK;
 }
 
-#define flexible_size(STRUCT,len) ((offsetof(struct STRUCT,name) + (len) + 8) & ~7)
 #define cache_entry_size(len) (offsetof(struct cache_entry,name) + (len) + 1)
-#define ondisk_cache_entry_size(len) flexible_size(ondisk_cache_entry,len)
-#define ondisk_cache_entry_extended_size(len) flexible_size(ondisk_cache_entry_extended,len)
 
 struct index_state {
 	struct cache_entry **cache;
+	unsigned int version;
 	unsigned int cache_nr, cache_alloc, cache_changed;
 	struct string_list *resolve_undo;
 	struct cache_tree *cache_tree;
@@ -453,8 +400,11 @@
 extern char *prefix_path(const char *prefix, int len, const char *path);
 extern const char *prefix_filename(const char *prefix, int len, const char *path);
 extern int check_filename(const char *prefix, const char *name);
-extern void verify_filename(const char *prefix, const char *name);
+extern void verify_filename(const char *prefix,
+			    const char *name,
+			    int diagnose_misspelt_rev);
 extern void verify_non_filename(const char *prefix, const char *name);
+extern int path_inside_repo(const char *prefix, const char *path);
 
 #define INIT_DB_QUIET 0x0001
 
@@ -492,6 +442,7 @@
 extern int unmerged_index(const struct index_state *);
 extern int verify_path(const char *path);
 extern struct cache_entry *index_name_exists(struct index_state *istate, const char *name, int namelen, int igncase);
+extern int index_name_stage_pos(const struct index_state *, const char *name, int namelen, int stage);
 extern int index_name_pos(const struct index_state *, const char *name, int namelen);
 #define ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_ADD 1		/* Ok to add */
 #define ADD_CACHE_OK_TO_REPLACE 2	/* Ok to replace file/directory */
@@ -604,6 +555,7 @@
 extern int fsync_object_files;
 extern int core_preload_index;
 extern int core_apply_sparse_checkout;
+extern int precomposed_unicode;
 
 enum branch_track {
 	BRANCH_TRACK_UNSPECIFIED = -1,
@@ -624,6 +576,7 @@
 enum push_default_type {
 	PUSH_DEFAULT_NOTHING = 0,
 	PUSH_DEFAULT_MATCHING,
+	PUSH_DEFAULT_SIMPLE,
 	PUSH_DEFAULT_UPSTREAM,
 	PUSH_DEFAULT_CURRENT,
 	PUSH_DEFAULT_UNSPECIFIED
@@ -662,6 +615,8 @@
 	__attribute__((format (printf, 3, 4)));
 extern char *git_pathdup(const char *fmt, ...)
 	__attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
+extern char *mkpathdup(const char *fmt, ...)
+	__attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
 
 /* Return a statically allocated filename matching the sha1 signature */
 extern char *mkpath(const char *fmt, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
@@ -751,6 +706,7 @@
 int safe_create_leading_directories(char *path);
 int safe_create_leading_directories_const(const char *path);
 int mkdir_in_gitdir(const char *path);
+extern void home_config_paths(char **global, char **xdg, char *file);
 extern char *expand_user_path(const char *path);
 const char *enter_repo(const char *path, int strict);
 static inline int is_absolute_path(const char *path)
@@ -826,17 +782,25 @@
 	unsigned mode;
 };
 
+#define GET_SHA1_QUIETLY        01
+#define GET_SHA1_COMMIT         02
+#define GET_SHA1_COMMITTISH     04
+#define GET_SHA1_TREE          010
+#define GET_SHA1_TREEISH       020
+#define GET_SHA1_BLOB	       040
+#define GET_SHA1_ONLY_TO_DIE 04000
+
 extern int get_sha1(const char *str, unsigned char *sha1);
-extern int get_sha1_with_mode_1(const char *str, unsigned char *sha1, unsigned *mode, int only_to_die, const char *prefix);
-static inline int get_sha1_with_mode(const char *str, unsigned char *sha1, unsigned *mode)
-{
-	return get_sha1_with_mode_1(str, sha1, mode, 0, NULL);
-}
-extern int get_sha1_with_context_1(const char *name, unsigned char *sha1, struct object_context *orc, int only_to_die, const char *prefix);
-static inline int get_sha1_with_context(const char *str, unsigned char *sha1, struct object_context *orc)
-{
-	return get_sha1_with_context_1(str, sha1, orc, 0, NULL);
-}
+extern int get_sha1_commit(const char *str, unsigned char *sha1);
+extern int get_sha1_committish(const char *str, unsigned char *sha1);
+extern int get_sha1_tree(const char *str, unsigned char *sha1);
+extern int get_sha1_treeish(const char *str, unsigned char *sha1);
+extern int get_sha1_blob(const char *str, unsigned char *sha1);
+extern void maybe_die_on_misspelt_object_name(const char *name, const char *prefix);
+extern int get_sha1_with_context(const char *str, unsigned flags, unsigned char *sha1, struct object_context *orc);
+
+typedef int each_abbrev_fn(const unsigned char *sha1, void *);
+extern int for_each_abbrev(const char *prefix, each_abbrev_fn, void *);
 
 /*
  * Try to read a SHA1 in hexadecimal format from the 40 characters
@@ -900,6 +864,7 @@
 extern int base_name_compare(const char *name1, int len1, int mode1, const char *name2, int len2, int mode2);
 extern int df_name_compare(const char *name1, int len1, int mode1, const char *name2, int len2, int mode2);
 extern int cache_name_compare(const char *name1, int len1, const char *name2, int len2);
+extern int cache_name_stage_compare(const char *name1, int len1, int stage1, const char *name2, int len2, int stage2);
 
 extern void *read_object_with_reference(const unsigned char *sha1,
 					const char *required_type,
@@ -920,10 +885,8 @@
 };
 
 const char *show_date(unsigned long time, int timezone, enum date_mode mode);
-const char *show_date_relative(unsigned long time, int tz,
-			       const struct timeval *now,
-			       char *timebuf,
-			       size_t timebuf_size);
+void show_date_relative(unsigned long time, int tz, const struct timeval *now,
+			struct strbuf *timebuf);
 int parse_date(const char *date, char *buf, int bufsize);
 int parse_date_basic(const char *date, unsigned long *timestamp, int *offset);
 void datestamp(char *buf, int bufsize);
@@ -932,15 +895,19 @@
 unsigned long approxidate_relative(const char *date, const struct timeval *now);
 enum date_mode parse_date_format(const char *format);
 
-#define IDENT_WARN_ON_NO_NAME  1
-#define IDENT_ERROR_ON_NO_NAME 2
-#define IDENT_NO_DATE	       4
+#define IDENT_STRICT	       1
+#define IDENT_NO_DATE	       2
+#define IDENT_NO_NAME	       4
 extern const char *git_author_info(int);
 extern const char *git_committer_info(int);
 extern const char *fmt_ident(const char *name, const char *email, const char *date_str, int);
 extern const char *fmt_name(const char *name, const char *email);
+extern const char *ident_default_name(void);
+extern const char *ident_default_email(void);
+extern const char *ident_default_date(void);
 extern const char *git_editor(void);
 extern const char *git_pager(int stdout_is_tty);
+extern int git_ident_config(const char *, const char *, void *);
 
 struct ident_split {
 	const char *name_begin;
@@ -1071,7 +1038,9 @@
 };
 extern struct ref **get_remote_heads(int in, struct ref **list, unsigned int flags, struct extra_have_objects *);
 extern int server_supports(const char *feature);
-extern const char *parse_feature_request(const char *features, const char *feature);
+extern int parse_feature_request(const char *features, const char *feature);
+extern const char *server_feature_value(const char *feature, int *len_ret);
+extern const char *parse_feature_value(const char *feature_list, const char *feature, int *len_ret);
 
 extern struct packed_git *parse_pack_index(unsigned char *sha1, const char *idx_path);
 
@@ -1141,6 +1110,7 @@
 #define CONFIG_NO_WRITE 4
 #define CONFIG_NOTHING_SET 5
 #define CONFIG_INVALID_PATTERN 6
+#define CONFIG_GENERIC_ERROR 7
 
 typedef int (*config_fn_t)(const char *, const char *, void *);
 extern int git_default_config(const char *, const char *, void *);
@@ -1184,9 +1154,6 @@
 #define CONFIG_INCLUDE_INIT { 0 }
 extern int git_config_include(const char *name, const char *value, void *data);
 
-#define MAX_GITNAME (1000)
-extern char git_default_email[MAX_GITNAME];
-extern char git_default_name[MAX_GITNAME];
 #define IDENT_NAME_GIVEN 01
 #define IDENT_MAIL_GIVEN 02
 #define IDENT_ALL_GIVEN (IDENT_NAME_GIVEN|IDENT_MAIL_GIVEN)
diff --git a/column.c b/column.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..9367ba5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/column.c
@@ -0,0 +1,434 @@
+#include "cache.h"
+#include "column.h"
+#include "string-list.h"
+#include "parse-options.h"
+#include "run-command.h"
+#include "utf8.h"
+
+#define XY2LINEAR(d, x, y) (COL_LAYOUT((d)->colopts) == COL_COLUMN ? \
+			    (x) * (d)->rows + (y) : \
+			    (y) * (d)->cols + (x))
+
+struct column_data {
+	const struct string_list *list;
+	unsigned int colopts;
+	struct column_options opts;
+
+	int rows, cols;
+	int *len;		/* cell length */
+	int *width;	      /* index to the longest row in column */
+};
+
+/* return length of 's' in letters, ANSI escapes stripped */
+static int item_length(unsigned int colopts, const char *s)
+{
+	int len, i = 0;
+	struct strbuf str = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	strbuf_addstr(&str, s);
+	while ((s = strstr(str.buf + i, "\033[")) != NULL) {
+		int len = strspn(s + 2, "0123456789;");
+		i = s - str.buf;
+		strbuf_remove(&str, i, len + 3); /* \033[<len><func char> */
+	}
+	len = utf8_strwidth(str.buf);
+	strbuf_release(&str);
+	return len;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Calculate cell width, rows and cols for a table of equal cells, given
+ * table width and how many spaces between cells.
+ */
+static void layout(struct column_data *data, int *width)
+{
+	int i;
+
+	*width = 0;
+	for (i = 0; i < data->list->nr; i++)
+		if (*width < data->len[i])
+			*width = data->len[i];
+
+	*width += data->opts.padding;
+
+	data->cols = (data->opts.width - strlen(data->opts.indent)) / *width;
+	if (data->cols == 0)
+		data->cols = 1;
+
+	data->rows = DIV_ROUND_UP(data->list->nr, data->cols);
+}
+
+static void compute_column_width(struct column_data *data)
+{
+	int i, x, y;
+	for (x = 0; x < data->cols; x++) {
+		data->width[x] = XY2LINEAR(data, x, 0);
+		for (y = 0; y < data->rows; y++) {
+			i = XY2LINEAR(data, x, y);
+			if (i < data->list->nr &&
+			    data->len[data->width[x]] < data->len[i])
+				data->width[x] = i;
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+/*
+ * Shrink all columns by shortening them one row each time (and adding
+ * more columns along the way). Hopefully the longest cell will be
+ * moved to the next column, column is shrunk so we have more space
+ * for new columns. The process ends when the whole thing no longer
+ * fits in data->total_width.
+ */
+static void shrink_columns(struct column_data *data)
+{
+	data->width = xrealloc(data->width,
+			       sizeof(*data->width) * data->cols);
+	while (data->rows > 1) {
+		int x, total_width, cols, rows;
+		rows = data->rows;
+		cols = data->cols;
+
+		data->rows--;
+		data->cols = DIV_ROUND_UP(data->list->nr, data->rows);
+		if (data->cols != cols)
+			data->width = xrealloc(data->width,
+					       sizeof(*data->width) * data->cols);
+		compute_column_width(data);
+
+		total_width = strlen(data->opts.indent);
+		for (x = 0; x < data->cols; x++) {
+			total_width += data->len[data->width[x]];
+			total_width += data->opts.padding;
+		}
+		if (total_width > data->opts.width) {
+			data->rows = rows;
+			data->cols = cols;
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+	compute_column_width(data);
+}
+
+/* Display without layout when not enabled */
+static void display_plain(const struct string_list *list,
+			  const char *indent, const char *nl)
+{
+	int i;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < list->nr; i++)
+		printf("%s%s%s", indent, list->items[i].string, nl);
+}
+
+/* Print a cell to stdout with all necessary leading/traling space */
+static int display_cell(struct column_data *data, int initial_width,
+			const char *empty_cell, int x, int y)
+{
+	int i, len, newline;
+
+	i = XY2LINEAR(data, x, y);
+	if (i >= data->list->nr)
+		return -1;
+
+	len = data->len[i];
+	if (data->width && data->len[data->width[x]] < initial_width) {
+		/*
+		 * empty_cell has initial_width chars, if real column
+		 * is narrower, increase len a bit so we fill less
+		 * space.
+		 */
+		len += initial_width - data->len[data->width[x]];
+		len -= data->opts.padding;
+	}
+
+	if (COL_LAYOUT(data->colopts) == COL_COLUMN)
+		newline = i + data->rows >= data->list->nr;
+	else
+		newline = x == data->cols - 1 || i == data->list->nr - 1;
+
+	printf("%s%s%s",
+	       x == 0 ? data->opts.indent : "",
+	       data->list->items[i].string,
+	       newline ? data->opts.nl : empty_cell + len);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/* Display COL_COLUMN or COL_ROW */
+static void display_table(const struct string_list *list,
+			  unsigned int colopts,
+			  const struct column_options *opts)
+{
+	struct column_data data;
+	int x, y, i, initial_width;
+	char *empty_cell;
+
+	memset(&data, 0, sizeof(data));
+	data.list = list;
+	data.colopts = colopts;
+	data.opts = *opts;
+
+	data.len = xmalloc(sizeof(*data.len) * list->nr);
+	for (i = 0; i < list->nr; i++)
+		data.len[i] = item_length(colopts, list->items[i].string);
+
+	layout(&data, &initial_width);
+
+	if (colopts & COL_DENSE)
+		shrink_columns(&data);
+
+	empty_cell = xmalloc(initial_width + 1);
+	memset(empty_cell, ' ', initial_width);
+	empty_cell[initial_width] = '\0';
+	for (y = 0; y < data.rows; y++) {
+		for (x = 0; x < data.cols; x++)
+			if (display_cell(&data, initial_width, empty_cell, x, y))
+				break;
+	}
+
+	free(data.len);
+	free(data.width);
+	free(empty_cell);
+}
+
+void print_columns(const struct string_list *list, unsigned int colopts,
+		   const struct column_options *opts)
+{
+	struct column_options nopts;
+
+	if (!list->nr)
+		return;
+	assert((colopts & COL_ENABLE_MASK) != COL_AUTO);
+
+	memset(&nopts, 0, sizeof(nopts));
+	nopts.indent = opts && opts->indent ? opts->indent : "";
+	nopts.nl = opts && opts->nl ? opts->nl : "\n";
+	nopts.padding = opts ? opts->padding : 1;
+	nopts.width = opts && opts->width ? opts->width : term_columns() - 1;
+	if (!column_active(colopts)) {
+		display_plain(list, "", "\n");
+		return;
+	}
+	switch (COL_LAYOUT(colopts)) {
+	case COL_PLAIN:
+		display_plain(list, nopts.indent, nopts.nl);
+		break;
+	case COL_ROW:
+	case COL_COLUMN:
+		display_table(list, colopts, &nopts);
+		break;
+	default:
+		die("BUG: invalid layout mode %d", COL_LAYOUT(colopts));
+	}
+}
+
+int finalize_colopts(unsigned int *colopts, int stdout_is_tty)
+{
+	if ((*colopts & COL_ENABLE_MASK) == COL_AUTO) {
+		if (stdout_is_tty < 0)
+			stdout_is_tty = isatty(1);
+		*colopts &= ~COL_ENABLE_MASK;
+		if (stdout_is_tty)
+			*colopts |= COL_ENABLED;
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+struct colopt {
+	const char *name;
+	unsigned int value;
+	unsigned int mask;
+};
+
+#define LAYOUT_SET 1
+#define ENABLE_SET 2
+
+static int parse_option(const char *arg, int len, unsigned int *colopts,
+			int *group_set)
+{
+	struct colopt opts[] = {
+		{ "always", COL_ENABLED,  COL_ENABLE_MASK },
+		{ "never",  COL_DISABLED, COL_ENABLE_MASK },
+		{ "auto",   COL_AUTO,     COL_ENABLE_MASK },
+		{ "plain",  COL_PLAIN,    COL_LAYOUT_MASK },
+		{ "column", COL_COLUMN,   COL_LAYOUT_MASK },
+		{ "row",    COL_ROW,      COL_LAYOUT_MASK },
+		{ "dense",  COL_DENSE,    0 },
+	};
+	int i;
+
+	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(opts); i++) {
+		int set = 1, arg_len = len, name_len;
+		const char *arg_str = arg;
+
+		if (!opts[i].mask) {
+			if (arg_len > 2 && !strncmp(arg_str, "no", 2)) {
+				arg_str += 2;
+				arg_len -= 2;
+				set = 0;
+			}
+		}
+
+		name_len = strlen(opts[i].name);
+		if (arg_len != name_len ||
+		    strncmp(arg_str, opts[i].name, name_len))
+			continue;
+
+		switch (opts[i].mask) {
+		case COL_ENABLE_MASK:
+			*group_set |= ENABLE_SET;
+			break;
+		case COL_LAYOUT_MASK:
+			*group_set |= LAYOUT_SET;
+			break;
+		}
+
+		if (opts[i].mask)
+			*colopts = (*colopts & ~opts[i].mask) | opts[i].value;
+		else {
+			if (set)
+				*colopts |= opts[i].value;
+			else
+				*colopts &= ~opts[i].value;
+		}
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	return error("unsupported option '%s'", arg);
+}
+
+static int parse_config(unsigned int *colopts, const char *value)
+{
+	const char *sep = " ,";
+	int group_set = 0;
+
+	while (*value) {
+		int len = strcspn(value, sep);
+		if (len) {
+			if (parse_option(value, len, colopts, &group_set))
+				return -1;
+
+			value += len;
+		}
+		value += strspn(value, sep);
+	}
+	/*
+	 * Setting layout implies "always" if neither always, never
+	 * nor auto is specified.
+	 *
+	 * Current value in COL_ENABLE_MASK is disregarded. This means if
+	 * you set column.ui = auto and pass --column=row, then "auto"
+	 * will become "always".
+	 */
+	if ((group_set & LAYOUT_SET) && !(group_set & ENABLE_SET))
+		*colopts = (*colopts & ~COL_ENABLE_MASK) | COL_ENABLED;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int column_config(const char *var, const char *value,
+			 const char *key, unsigned int *colopts)
+{
+	if (!value)
+		return config_error_nonbool(var);
+	if (parse_config(colopts, value))
+		return error("invalid column.%s mode %s", key, value);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+int git_column_config(const char *var, const char *value,
+		      const char *command, unsigned int *colopts)
+{
+	const char *it = skip_prefix(var, "column.");
+	if (!it)
+		return 0;
+
+	if (!strcmp(it, "ui"))
+		return column_config(var, value, "ui", colopts);
+
+	if (command && !strcmp(it, command))
+		return column_config(var, value, it, colopts);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+int parseopt_column_callback(const struct option *opt,
+			     const char *arg, int unset)
+{
+	unsigned int *colopts = opt->value;
+	*colopts |= COL_PARSEOPT;
+	*colopts &= ~COL_ENABLE_MASK;
+	if (unset)		/* --no-column == never */
+		return 0;
+	/* --column == always unless "arg" states otherwise */
+	*colopts |= COL_ENABLED;
+	if (arg)
+		return parse_config(colopts, arg);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int fd_out = -1;
+static struct child_process column_process;
+
+int run_column_filter(int colopts, const struct column_options *opts)
+{
+	const char *av[10];
+	int ret, ac = 0;
+	struct strbuf sb_colopt  = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct strbuf sb_width   = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct strbuf sb_padding = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	if (fd_out != -1)
+		return -1;
+
+	av[ac++] = "column";
+	strbuf_addf(&sb_colopt, "--raw-mode=%d", colopts);
+	av[ac++] = sb_colopt.buf;
+	if (opts && opts->width) {
+		strbuf_addf(&sb_width, "--width=%d", opts->width);
+		av[ac++] = sb_width.buf;
+	}
+	if (opts && opts->indent) {
+		av[ac++] = "--indent";
+		av[ac++] = opts->indent;
+	}
+	if (opts && opts->padding) {
+		strbuf_addf(&sb_padding, "--padding=%d", opts->padding);
+		av[ac++] = sb_padding.buf;
+	}
+	av[ac] = NULL;
+
+	fflush(stdout);
+	memset(&column_process, 0, sizeof(column_process));
+	column_process.in = -1;
+	column_process.out = dup(1);
+	column_process.git_cmd = 1;
+	column_process.argv = av;
+
+	ret = start_command(&column_process);
+
+	strbuf_release(&sb_colopt);
+	strbuf_release(&sb_width);
+	strbuf_release(&sb_padding);
+
+	if (ret)
+		return -2;
+
+	fd_out = dup(1);
+	close(1);
+	dup2(column_process.in, 1);
+	close(column_process.in);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+int stop_column_filter(void)
+{
+	if (fd_out == -1)
+		return -1;
+
+	fflush(stdout);
+	close(1);
+	finish_command(&column_process);
+	dup2(fd_out, 1);
+	close(fd_out);
+	fd_out = -1;
+	return 0;
+}
diff --git a/column.h b/column.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..0a61917
--- /dev/null
+++ b/column.h
@@ -0,0 +1,45 @@
+#ifndef COLUMN_H
+#define COLUMN_H
+
+#define COL_LAYOUT_MASK   0x000F
+#define COL_ENABLE_MASK   0x0030   /* always, never or auto */
+#define COL_PARSEOPT      0x0040   /* --column is given from cmdline */
+#define COL_DENSE         0x0080   /* Shrink columns when possible,
+				      making space for more columns */
+
+#define COL_DISABLED      0x0000   /* must be zero */
+#define COL_ENABLED       0x0010
+#define COL_AUTO          0x0020
+
+#define COL_LAYOUT(c) ((c) & COL_LAYOUT_MASK)
+#define COL_COLUMN             0   /* Fill columns before rows */
+#define COL_ROW                1   /* Fill rows before columns */
+#define COL_PLAIN             15   /* one column */
+
+#define explicitly_enable_column(c) \
+	(((c) & COL_PARSEOPT) && column_active(c))
+
+struct column_options {
+	int width;
+	int padding;
+	const char *indent;
+	const char *nl;
+};
+
+struct option;
+extern int parseopt_column_callback(const struct option *, const char *, int);
+extern int git_column_config(const char *var, const char *value,
+			     const char *command, unsigned int *colopts);
+extern int finalize_colopts(unsigned int *colopts, int stdout_is_tty);
+static inline int column_active(unsigned int colopts)
+{
+	return (colopts & COL_ENABLE_MASK) == COL_ENABLED;
+}
+
+extern void print_columns(const struct string_list *list, unsigned int colopts,
+			  const struct column_options *opts);
+
+extern int run_column_filter(int colopts, const struct column_options *);
+extern int stop_column_filter(void);
+
+#endif
diff --git a/combine-diff.c b/combine-diff.c
index 9786680..bb1cc96 100644
--- a/combine-diff.c
+++ b/combine-diff.c
@@ -111,7 +111,7 @@
 		return xcalloc(1, 1);
 	} else if (textconv) {
 		struct diff_filespec *df = alloc_filespec(path);
-		fill_filespec(df, sha1, mode);
+		fill_filespec(df, sha1, 1, mode);
 		*size = fill_textconv(textconv, df, &blob);
 		free_filespec(df);
 	} else {
@@ -823,7 +823,7 @@
 						   &result_size, NULL, NULL);
 		} else if (textconv) {
 			struct diff_filespec *df = alloc_filespec(elem->path);
-			fill_filespec(df, null_sha1, st.st_mode);
+			fill_filespec(df, null_sha1, 0, st.st_mode);
 			result_size = fill_textconv(textconv, df, &result);
 			free_filespec(df);
 		} else if (0 <= (fd = open(elem->path, O_RDONLY))) {
diff --git a/command-list.txt b/command-list.txt
index a36ee9b..7e8cfec 100644
--- a/command-list.txt
+++ b/command-list.txt
@@ -20,10 +20,14 @@
 git-citool                              mainporcelain
 git-clean                               mainporcelain
 git-clone                               mainporcelain common
+git-column                              purehelpers
 git-commit                              mainporcelain common
 git-commit-tree                         plumbingmanipulators
 git-config                              ancillarymanipulators
 git-count-objects                       ancillaryinterrogators
+git-credential                          purehelpers
+git-credential-cache                    purehelpers
+git-credential-store                    purehelpers
 git-cvsexportcommit                     foreignscminterface
 git-cvsimport                           foreignscminterface
 git-cvsserver                           foreignscminterface
@@ -76,6 +80,7 @@
 git-mv                                  mainporcelain common
 git-name-rev                            plumbinginterrogators
 git-notes                               mainporcelain
+git-p4                                  foreignscminterface
 git-pack-objects                        plumbingmanipulators
 git-pack-redundant                      plumbinginterrogators
 git-pack-refs                           ancillarymanipulators
@@ -111,6 +116,7 @@
 git-show-branch                         ancillaryinterrogators
 git-show-index                          plumbinginterrogators
 git-show-ref                            plumbinginterrogators
+git-sh-i18n                             purehelpers
 git-sh-setup                            purehelpers
 git-stash                               mainporcelain
 git-status                              mainporcelain common
diff --git a/commit.c b/commit.c
index 4b39c19..42af4c1 100644
--- a/commit.c
+++ b/commit.c
@@ -7,6 +7,7 @@
 #include "revision.h"
 #include "notes.h"
 #include "gpg-interface.h"
+#include "mergesort.h"
 
 int save_commit_buffer = 1;
 
@@ -67,7 +68,7 @@
 	unsigned char sha1[20];
 	struct commit *commit;
 
-	if (get_sha1(name, sha1))
+	if (get_sha1_committish(name, sha1))
 		return NULL;
 	commit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
 	if (!commit || parse_commit(commit))
@@ -390,15 +391,31 @@
 	return commit_list_insert(item, pp);
 }
 
+static int commit_list_compare_by_date(const void *a, const void *b)
+{
+	unsigned long a_date = ((const struct commit_list *)a)->item->date;
+	unsigned long b_date = ((const struct commit_list *)b)->item->date;
+	if (a_date < b_date)
+		return 1;
+	if (a_date > b_date)
+		return -1;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static void *commit_list_get_next(const void *a)
+{
+	return ((const struct commit_list *)a)->next;
+}
+
+static void commit_list_set_next(void *a, void *next)
+{
+	((struct commit_list *)a)->next = next;
+}
 
 void commit_list_sort_by_date(struct commit_list **list)
 {
-	struct commit_list *ret = NULL;
-	while (*list) {
-		commit_list_insert_by_date((*list)->item, &ret);
-		*list = (*list)->next;
-	}
-	*list = ret;
+	*list = llist_mergesort(*list, commit_list_get_next, commit_list_set_next,
+				commit_list_compare_by_date);
 }
 
 struct commit *pop_most_recent_commit(struct commit_list **list,
@@ -1137,9 +1154,9 @@
 
 	/* Person/date information */
 	if (!author)
-		author = git_author_info(IDENT_ERROR_ON_NO_NAME);
+		author = git_author_info(IDENT_STRICT);
 	strbuf_addf(&buffer, "author %s\n", author);
-	strbuf_addf(&buffer, "committer %s\n", git_committer_info(IDENT_ERROR_ON_NO_NAME));
+	strbuf_addf(&buffer, "committer %s\n", git_committer_info(IDENT_STRICT));
 	if (!encoding_is_utf8)
 		strbuf_addf(&buffer, "encoding %s\n", git_commit_encoding);
 
@@ -1182,3 +1199,30 @@
 	}
 	return commit;
 }
+
+/*
+ * Append a commit to the end of the commit_list.
+ *
+ * next starts by pointing to the variable that holds the head of an
+ * empty commit_list, and is updated to point to the "next" field of
+ * the last item on the list as new commits are appended.
+ *
+ * Usage example:
+ *
+ *     struct commit_list *list;
+ *     struct commit_list **next = &list;
+ *
+ *     next = commit_list_append(c1, next);
+ *     next = commit_list_append(c2, next);
+ *     assert(commit_list_count(list) == 2);
+ *     return list;
+ */
+struct commit_list **commit_list_append(struct commit *commit,
+					struct commit_list **next)
+{
+	struct commit_list *new = xmalloc(sizeof(struct commit_list));
+	new->item = commit;
+	*next = new;
+	new->next = NULL;
+	return &new->next;
+}
diff --git a/commit.h b/commit.h
index 205eea3..d617fa3 100644
--- a/commit.h
+++ b/commit.h
@@ -53,6 +53,8 @@
 
 struct commit_list *commit_list_insert(struct commit *item,
 					struct commit_list **list);
+struct commit_list **commit_list_append(struct commit *commit,
+					struct commit_list **next);
 unsigned commit_list_count(const struct commit_list *l);
 struct commit_list *commit_list_insert_by_date(struct commit *item,
 				    struct commit_list **list);
diff --git a/compat/mingw.h b/compat/mingw.h
index ef5b150..61a6521 100644
--- a/compat/mingw.h
+++ b/compat/mingw.h
@@ -22,9 +22,10 @@
 #define S_IWOTH 0
 #define S_IXOTH 0
 #define S_IRWXO (S_IROTH | S_IWOTH | S_IXOTH)
-#define S_ISUID 0
-#define S_ISGID 0
-#define S_ISVTX 0
+
+#define S_ISUID 0004000
+#define S_ISGID 0002000
+#define S_ISVTX 0001000
 
 #define WIFEXITED(x) 1
 #define WIFSIGNALED(x) 0
diff --git a/compat/nedmalloc/Readme.txt b/compat/nedmalloc/Readme.txt
index 8763656..e46d8f1 100644
--- a/compat/nedmalloc/Readme.txt
+++ b/compat/nedmalloc/Readme.txt
@@ -100,7 +100,7 @@
 Thanks to Dmitry Chichkov for reporting this. Futher thanks to Aleksey Sanin.
  * Fixed realloc(0, <size>) segfaulting. Thanks to Dmitry Chichkov for
 reporting this.
- * Made config defines #ifndef so they can be overriden by the build system.
+ * Made config defines #ifndef so they can be overridden by the build system.
 Thanks to Aleksey Sanin for suggesting this.
  * Fixed deadlock in nedprealloc() due to unnecessary locking of preferred
 thread mspace when mspace_realloc() always uses the original block's mspace
diff --git a/compat/precompose_utf8.c b/compat/precompose_utf8.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..8cf5955
--- /dev/null
+++ b/compat/precompose_utf8.c
@@ -0,0 +1,184 @@
+/*
+ * Converts filenames from decomposed unicode into precomposed unicode.
+ * Used on MacOS X.
+ */
+
+#define PRECOMPOSE_UNICODE_C
+
+#include "cache.h"
+#include "utf8.h"
+#include "precompose_utf8.h"
+
+typedef char *iconv_ibp;
+static const char *repo_encoding = "UTF-8";
+static const char *path_encoding = "UTF-8-MAC";
+
+static size_t has_non_ascii(const char *s, size_t maxlen, size_t *strlen_c)
+{
+	const uint8_t *ptr = (const uint8_t *)s;
+	size_t strlen_chars = 0;
+	size_t ret = 0;
+
+	if (!ptr || !*ptr)
+		return 0;
+
+	while (*ptr && maxlen) {
+		if (*ptr & 0x80)
+			ret++;
+		strlen_chars++;
+		ptr++;
+		maxlen--;
+	}
+	if (strlen_c)
+		*strlen_c = strlen_chars;
+
+	return ret;
+}
+
+
+void probe_utf8_pathname_composition(char *path, int len)
+{
+	static const char *auml_nfc = "\xc3\xa4";
+	static const char *auml_nfd = "\x61\xcc\x88";
+	int output_fd;
+	if (precomposed_unicode != -1)
+		return; /* We found it defined in the global config, respect it */
+	strcpy(path + len, auml_nfc);
+	output_fd = open(path, O_CREAT|O_EXCL|O_RDWR, 0600);
+	if (output_fd >= 0) {
+		close(output_fd);
+		strcpy(path + len, auml_nfd);
+		/* Indicate to the user, that we can configure it to true */
+		if (!access(path, R_OK))
+			git_config_set("core.precomposeunicode", "false");
+		/* To be backward compatible, set precomposed_unicode to 0 */
+		precomposed_unicode = 0;
+		strcpy(path + len, auml_nfc);
+		if (unlink(path))
+			die_errno(_("failed to unlink '%s'"), path);
+	}
+}
+
+
+void precompose_argv(int argc, const char **argv)
+{
+	int i = 0;
+	const char *oldarg;
+	char *newarg;
+	iconv_t ic_precompose;
+
+	if (precomposed_unicode != 1)
+		return;
+
+	ic_precompose = iconv_open(repo_encoding, path_encoding);
+	if (ic_precompose == (iconv_t) -1)
+		return;
+
+	while (i < argc) {
+		size_t namelen;
+		oldarg = argv[i];
+		if (has_non_ascii(oldarg, (size_t)-1, &namelen)) {
+			newarg = reencode_string_iconv(oldarg, namelen, ic_precompose);
+			if (newarg)
+				argv[i] = newarg;
+		}
+		i++;
+	}
+	iconv_close(ic_precompose);
+}
+
+
+PREC_DIR *precompose_utf8_opendir(const char *dirname)
+{
+	PREC_DIR *prec_dir = xmalloc(sizeof(PREC_DIR));
+	prec_dir->dirent_nfc = xmalloc(sizeof(dirent_prec_psx));
+	prec_dir->dirent_nfc->max_name_len = sizeof(prec_dir->dirent_nfc->d_name);
+
+	prec_dir->dirp = opendir(dirname);
+	if (!prec_dir->dirp) {
+		free(prec_dir->dirent_nfc);
+		free(prec_dir);
+		return NULL;
+	} else {
+		int ret_errno = errno;
+		prec_dir->ic_precompose = iconv_open(repo_encoding, path_encoding);
+		/* if iconv_open() fails, die() in readdir() if needed */
+		errno = ret_errno;
+	}
+
+	return prec_dir;
+}
+
+struct dirent_prec_psx *precompose_utf8_readdir(PREC_DIR *prec_dir)
+{
+	struct dirent *res;
+	res = readdir(prec_dir->dirp);
+	if (res) {
+		size_t namelenz = strlen(res->d_name) + 1; /* \0 */
+		size_t new_maxlen = namelenz;
+
+		int ret_errno = errno;
+
+		if (new_maxlen > prec_dir->dirent_nfc->max_name_len) {
+			size_t new_len = sizeof(dirent_prec_psx) + new_maxlen -
+				sizeof(prec_dir->dirent_nfc->d_name);
+
+			prec_dir->dirent_nfc = xrealloc(prec_dir->dirent_nfc, new_len);
+			prec_dir->dirent_nfc->max_name_len = new_maxlen;
+		}
+
+		prec_dir->dirent_nfc->d_ino  = res->d_ino;
+		prec_dir->dirent_nfc->d_type = res->d_type;
+
+		if ((precomposed_unicode == 1) && has_non_ascii(res->d_name, (size_t)-1, NULL)) {
+			if (prec_dir->ic_precompose == (iconv_t)-1) {
+				die("iconv_open(%s,%s) failed, but needed:\n"
+						"    precomposed unicode is not supported.\n"
+						"    If you wnat to use decomposed unicode, run\n"
+						"    \"git config core.precomposeunicode false\"\n",
+						repo_encoding, path_encoding);
+			} else {
+				iconv_ibp	cp = (iconv_ibp)res->d_name;
+				size_t inleft = namelenz;
+				char *outpos = &prec_dir->dirent_nfc->d_name[0];
+				size_t outsz = prec_dir->dirent_nfc->max