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git-rebase - Rebase local commits to a new head
'git-rebase' [-v] [--merge] [--onto <newbase>] <upstream> [<branch>]
'git-rebase' --continue | --skip | --abort
git-rebase replaces <branch> with a new branch of the same name. When
the --onto option is provided the new branch starts out with a HEAD equal
to <newbase>, otherwise it is equal to <upstream>. It then attempts to
create a new commit for each commit from the original <branch> that does
not exist in the <upstream> branch.
It is possible that a merge failure will prevent this process from being
completely automatic. You will have to resolve any such merge failure
and run `git rebase --continue`. Another option is to bypass the commit
that caused the merge failure with `git rebase --skip`. To restore the
original <branch> and remove the .dotest working files, use the command
`git rebase --abort` instead.
Note that if <branch> is not specified on the command line, the currently
checked out branch is used.
Assume the following history exists and the current branch is "topic":
A---B---C topic
D---E---F---G master
From this point, the result of either of the following commands:
git-rebase master
git-rebase master topic
would be:
A'--B'--C' topic
D---E---F---G master
The latter form is just a short-hand of `git checkout topic`
followed by `git rebase master`.
Here is how you would transplant a topic branch based on one
branch to another, to pretend that you forked the topic branch
from the latter branch, using `rebase --onto`.
First let's assume your 'topic' is based on branch 'next'.
For example feature developed in 'topic' depends on some
functionality which is found in 'next'.
o---o---o---o---o master
o---o---o---o---o next
o---o---o topic
We would want to make 'topic' forked from branch 'master',
for example because the functionality 'topic' branch depend on
got merged into more stable 'master' branch, like this:
o---o---o---o---o master
| \
| o'--o'--o' topic
o---o---o---o---o next
We can get this using the following command:
git-rebase --onto master next topic
Another example of --onto option is to rebase part of a
branch. If we have the following situation:
H---I---J topicB
E---F---G topicA
A---B---C---D master
then the command
git-rebase --onto master topicA topicB
would result in:
H'--I'--J' topicB
| E---F---G topicA
A---B---C---D master
This is useful when topicB does not depend on topicA.
In case of conflict, git-rebase will stop at the first problematic commit
and leave conflict markers in the tree. You can use git diff to locate
the markers (<<<<<<) and make edits to resolve the conflict. For each
file you edit, you need to tell git that the conflict has been resolved,
typically this would be done with
git update-index <filename>
After resolving the conflict manually and updating the index with the
desired resolution, you can continue the rebasing process with
git rebase --continue
Alternatively, you can undo the git-rebase with
git rebase --abort
Starting point at which to create the new commits. If the
--onto option is not specified, the starting point is
Upstream branch to compare against.
Working branch; defaults to HEAD.
Restart the rebasing process after having resolved a merge conflict.
Restore the original branch and abort the rebase operation.
Restart the rebasing process by skipping the current patch.
Use merging strategies to rebase. When the recursive (default) merge
strategy is used, this allows rebase to be aware of renames on the
upstream side.
-s <strategy>, \--strategy=<strategy>::
Use the given merge strategy; can be supplied more than
once to specify them in the order they should be tried.
If there is no `-s` option, a built-in list of strategies
is used instead (`git-merge-recursive` when merging a single
head, `git-merge-octopus` otherwise). This implies --merge.
-v, \--verbose::
Display a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last rebase.
When you rebase a branch, you are changing its history in a way that
will cause problems for anyone who already has a copy of the branch
in their repository and tries to pull updates from you. You should
understand the implications of using 'git rebase' on a repository that
you share.
When the git rebase command is run, it will first execute a "pre-rebase"
hook if one exists. You can use this hook to do sanity checks and
reject the rebase if it isn't appropriate. Please see the template
pre-rebase hook script for an example.
You must be in the top directory of your project to start (or continue)
a rebase. Upon completion, <branch> will be the current branch.
Written by Junio C Hamano <>
Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <>.
Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite