Git 1.6.6.3

Signed-off-by: Junio C Hamano <gitster@pobox.com>
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index f0d2e96..ac02a58 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -1,185 +1,187 @@
-GIT-BUILD-OPTIONS
-GIT-CFLAGS
-GIT-GUI-VARS
-GIT-VERSION-FILE
-git
-git-add
-git-add--interactive
-git-am
-git-annotate
-git-apply
-git-archimport
-git-archive
-git-bisect
-git-bisect--helper
-git-blame
-git-branch
-git-bundle
-git-cat-file
-git-check-attr
-git-check-ref-format
-git-checkout
-git-checkout-index
-git-cherry
-git-cherry-pick
-git-clean
-git-clone
-git-commit
-git-commit-tree
-git-config
-git-count-objects
-git-cvsexportcommit
-git-cvsimport
-git-cvsserver
-git-daemon
-git-diff
-git-diff-files
-git-diff-index
-git-diff-tree
-git-difftool
-git-difftool--helper
-git-describe
-git-fast-export
-git-fast-import
-git-fetch
-git-fetch--tool
-git-fetch-pack
-git-filter-branch
-git-fmt-merge-msg
-git-for-each-ref
-git-format-patch
-git-fsck
-git-fsck-objects
-git-gc
-git-get-tar-commit-id
-git-grep
-git-hash-object
-git-help
-git-http-fetch
-git-http-push
-git-imap-send
-git-index-pack
-git-init
-git-init-db
-git-instaweb
-git-log
-git-lost-found
-git-ls-files
-git-ls-remote
-git-ls-tree
-git-mailinfo
-git-mailsplit
-git-merge
-git-merge-base
-git-merge-index
-git-merge-file
-git-merge-tree
-git-merge-octopus
-git-merge-one-file
-git-merge-ours
-git-merge-recursive
-git-merge-resolve
-git-merge-subtree
-git-mergetool
-git-mergetool--lib
-git-mktag
-git-mktree
-git-name-rev
-git-mv
-git-pack-redundant
-git-pack-objects
-git-pack-refs
-git-parse-remote
-git-patch-id
-git-peek-remote
-git-prune
-git-prune-packed
-git-pull
-git-push
-git-quiltimport
-git-read-tree
-git-rebase
-git-rebase--interactive
-git-receive-pack
-git-reflog
-git-relink
-git-remote
-git-remote-curl
-git-repack
-git-replace
-git-repo-config
-git-request-pull
-git-rerere
-git-reset
-git-rev-list
-git-rev-parse
-git-revert
-git-rm
-git-send-email
-git-send-pack
-git-sh-setup
-git-shell
-git-shortlog
-git-show
-git-show-branch
-git-show-index
-git-show-ref
-git-stage
-git-stash
-git-status
-git-stripspace
-git-submodule
-git-svn
-git-symbolic-ref
-git-tag
-git-tar-tree
-git-unpack-file
-git-unpack-objects
-git-update-index
-git-update-ref
-git-update-server-info
-git-upload-archive
-git-upload-pack
-git-var
-git-verify-pack
-git-verify-tag
-git-web--browse
-git-whatchanged
-git-write-tree
-git-core-*/?*
-gitk-wish
-gitweb/gitweb.cgi
-test-chmtime
-test-ctype
-test-date
-test-delta
-test-dump-cache-tree
-test-genrandom
-test-match-trees
-test-parse-options
-test-path-utils
-test-sha1
-test-sigchain
-common-cmds.h
+/GIT-BUILD-OPTIONS
+/GIT-CFLAGS
+/GIT-GUI-VARS
+/GIT-VERSION-FILE
+/git
+/git-add
+/git-add--interactive
+/git-am
+/git-annotate
+/git-apply
+/git-archimport
+/git-archive
+/git-bisect
+/git-bisect--helper
+/git-blame
+/git-branch
+/git-bundle
+/git-cat-file
+/git-check-attr
+/git-check-ref-format
+/git-checkout
+/git-checkout-index
+/git-cherry
+/git-cherry-pick
+/git-clean
+/git-clone
+/git-commit
+/git-commit-tree
+/git-config
+/git-count-objects
+/git-cvsexportcommit
+/git-cvsimport
+/git-cvsserver
+/git-daemon
+/git-diff
+/git-diff-files
+/git-diff-index
+/git-diff-tree
+/git-difftool
+/git-difftool--helper
+/git-describe
+/git-fast-export
+/git-fast-import
+/git-fetch
+/git-fetch--tool
+/git-fetch-pack
+/git-filter-branch
+/git-fmt-merge-msg
+/git-for-each-ref
+/git-format-patch
+/git-fsck
+/git-fsck-objects
+/git-gc
+/git-get-tar-commit-id
+/git-grep
+/git-hash-object
+/git-help
+/git-http-backend
+/git-http-fetch
+/git-http-push
+/git-imap-send
+/git-index-pack
+/git-init
+/git-init-db
+/git-instaweb
+/git-log
+/git-lost-found
+/git-ls-files
+/git-ls-remote
+/git-ls-tree
+/git-mailinfo
+/git-mailsplit
+/git-merge
+/git-merge-base
+/git-merge-index
+/git-merge-file
+/git-merge-tree
+/git-merge-octopus
+/git-merge-one-file
+/git-merge-ours
+/git-merge-recursive
+/git-merge-resolve
+/git-merge-subtree
+/git-mergetool
+/git-mergetool--lib
+/git-mktag
+/git-mktree
+/git-name-rev
+/git-mv
+/git-notes
+/git-pack-redundant
+/git-pack-objects
+/git-pack-refs
+/git-parse-remote
+/git-patch-id
+/git-peek-remote
+/git-prune
+/git-prune-packed
+/git-pull
+/git-push
+/git-quiltimport
+/git-read-tree
+/git-rebase
+/git-rebase--interactive
+/git-receive-pack
+/git-reflog
+/git-relink
+/git-remote
+/git-remote-curl
+/git-repack
+/git-replace
+/git-repo-config
+/git-request-pull
+/git-rerere
+/git-reset
+/git-rev-list
+/git-rev-parse
+/git-revert
+/git-rm
+/git-send-email
+/git-send-pack
+/git-sh-setup
+/git-shell
+/git-shortlog
+/git-show
+/git-show-branch
+/git-show-index
+/git-show-ref
+/git-stage
+/git-stash
+/git-status
+/git-stripspace
+/git-submodule
+/git-svn
+/git-symbolic-ref
+/git-tag
+/git-tar-tree
+/git-unpack-file
+/git-unpack-objects
+/git-update-index
+/git-update-ref
+/git-update-server-info
+/git-upload-archive
+/git-upload-pack
+/git-var
+/git-verify-pack
+/git-verify-tag
+/git-web--browse
+/git-whatchanged
+/git-write-tree
+/git-core-*/?*
+/gitk-git/gitk-wish
+/gitweb/gitweb.cgi
+/test-chmtime
+/test-ctype
+/test-date
+/test-delta
+/test-dump-cache-tree
+/test-genrandom
+/test-match-trees
+/test-parse-options
+/test-path-utils
+/test-sha1
+/test-sigchain
+/common-cmds.h
 *.tar.gz
 *.dsc
 *.deb
-git.spec
+/git.spec
 *.exe
 *.[aos]
 *.py[co]
 *+
-config.mak
-autom4te.cache
-config.cache
-config.log
-config.status
-config.mak.autogen
-config.mak.append
-configure
-tags
-TAGS
-cscope*
+/config.mak
+/autom4te.cache
+/config.cache
+/config.log
+/config.status
+/config.mak.autogen
+/config.mak.append
+/configure
+/tags
+/TAGS
+/cscope*
 *.obj
 *.lib
 *.sln
@@ -189,5 +191,5 @@
 *.user
 *.idb
 *.pdb
-Debug/
-Release/
+/Debug/
+/Release/
diff --git a/Documentation/Makefile b/Documentation/Makefile
index 037220f..4797b2d 100644
--- a/Documentation/Makefile
+++ b/Documentation/Makefile
@@ -17,6 +17,7 @@
 ARTICLES = howto-index
 ARTICLES += everyday
 ARTICLES += git-tools
+ARTICLES += git-bisect-lk2009
 # with their own formatting rules.
 SP_ARTICLES = howto/revert-branch-rebase howto/using-merge-subtree user-manual
 API_DOCS = $(patsubst %.txt,%,$(filter-out technical/api-index-skel.txt technical/api-index.txt, $(wildcard technical/api-*.txt)))
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f1d0a4a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,37 @@
+Git v1.6.6.1 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.6
+------------------
+
+ * "git blame" did not work well when commit lacked the author name.
+
+ * "git branch -a name" wasn't diagnosed as an error.
+
+ * "git count-objects" did not handle packfiles that are bigger than 4G on
+   platforms with 32-bit off_t.
+
+ * "git checkout -m other" while on a branch that does not have any commit
+   segfaulted, instead of failing.
+
+ * "git fast-import" choked when fed a tag that do not point at a
+   commit.
+
+ * "git grep" finding from work tree files could have fed garbage to
+   the underlying regexec(3).
+
+ * "git grep -L" didn't show empty files (they should never match, and
+   they should always appear in -L output as unmatching).
+
+ * "git rebase -i" did not abort cleanly if it failed to launch the editor.
+
+ * "git reset --hard" did not work correctly when GIT_WORK_TREE environment
+   variable is used to point at the root of the true work tree.
+
+ * http-backend was not listed in the command list in the documentation.
+
+ * Building on FreeBSD (both 7 and 8) needs OLD_ICONV set in the Makefile
+
+ * "git checkout -m some-branch" while on an unborn branch crashed.
+
+Other minor documentation updates are included.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..4eaddc0
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,46 @@
+Git v1.6.6.2 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.6.1
+--------------------
+
+ * recursive merge didn't correctly diagnose its own programming errors,
+   and instead caused the caller to segfault.
+
+ * The new "smart http" aware clients probed the web servers to see if
+   they support smart http, but did not fall back to dumb http transport
+   correctly with some servers.
+
+ * Time based reflog syntax e.g. "@{yesterday}" didn't diagnose a misspelled
+   time specification and instead assumed "@{now}".
+
+ * "git archive HEAD -- no-such-directory" produced an empty archive
+   without complaining.
+
+ * "git blame -L start,end -- file" misbehaved when given a start that is
+   larger than the number of lines in the file.
+
+ * "git checkout -m" didn't correctly call custom merge backend supplied
+   by the end user.
+
+ * "git config -f <file>" misbehaved when run from a subdirectory.
+
+ * "git cvsserver" didn't like having regex metacharacters (e.g. '+') in
+   CVSROOT environment.
+
+ * "git fast-import" did not correctly handle large blobs that may
+   bust the pack size limit.
+
+ * "git gui" is supposed to work even when launched from inside a .git
+   directory.
+
+ * "git gui" misbehaved when applying a hunk that ends with deletion.
+
+ * "git imap-send" did not honor imap.preformattedHTML as documented.
+
+ * "git log" family incorrectly showed the commit notes unconditionally by
+   mistake, which was especially irritating when running "git log --oneline".
+
+ * "git status" shouldn't require an write access to the repository.
+
+Other minor documentation updates are included.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..04e205c
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes-1.6.6.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,224 @@
+Git v1.6.6 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Notes on behaviour change
+-------------------------
+
+ * In this release, "git fsck" defaults to "git fsck --full" and
+   checks packfiles, and because of this it will take much longer to
+   complete than before.  If you prefer a quicker check only on loose
+   objects (the old default), you can say "git fsck --no-full".  This
+   has been supported by 1.5.4 and newer versions of git, so it is
+   safe to write it in your script even if you use slightly older git
+   on some of your machines.
+
+Preparing yourselves for compatibility issues in 1.7.0
+------------------------------------------------------
+
+In git 1.7.0, which is planned to be the release after 1.6.6, there will
+be a handful of behaviour changes that will break backward compatibility.
+
+These changes were discussed long time ago and existing behaviours have
+been identified as more problematic to the userbase than keeping them for
+the sake of backward compatibility.
+
+When necessary, a transition strategy for existing users has been designed
+not to force them running around setting configuration variables and
+updating their scripts in order to either keep the traditional behaviour
+or adjust to the new behaviour, on the day their sysadmin decides to install
+the new version of git.  When we switched from "git-foo" to "git foo" in
+1.6.0, even though the change had been advertised and the transition
+guide had been provided for a very long time, the users procrastinated
+during the entire transtion period, and ended up panicking on the day
+their sysadmins updated their git installation.  We are trying to avoid
+repeating that unpleasantness in the 1.7.0 release.
+
+For changes decided to be in 1.7.0, commands that will be affected
+have been much louder to strongly discourage such procrastination, and
+they continue to be in this release.  If you have been using recent
+versions of git, you would have seen warnings issued when you used
+features whose behaviour will change, with a clear instruction on how
+to keep the existing behaviour if you want to.  You hopefully are
+already well prepared.
+
+Of course, we have also been giving "this and that will change in
+1.7.0; prepare yourselves" warnings in the release notes and
+announcement messages for the past few releases.  Let's see how well
+users will fare this time.
+
+ * "git push" into a branch that is currently checked out (i.e. pointed by
+   HEAD in a repository that is not bare) will be refused by default.
+
+   Similarly, "git push $there :$killed" to delete the branch $killed
+   in a remote repository $there, when $killed branch is the current
+   branch pointed at by its HEAD, will be refused by default.
+
+   Setting the configuration variables receive.denyCurrentBranch and
+   receive.denyDeleteCurrent to 'ignore' in the receiving repository
+   can be used to override these safety features.  Versions of git
+   since 1.6.2 have issued a loud warning when you tried to do these
+   operations without setting the configuration, so repositories of
+   people who still need to be able to perform such a push should
+   already have been future proofed.
+
+   Please refer to:
+
+   http://git.or.cz/gitwiki/GitFaq#non-bare
+   http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/107758/focus=108007
+
+   for more details on the reason why this change is needed and the
+   transition process that already took place so far.
+
+ * "git send-email" will not make deep threads by default when sending a
+   patch series with more than two messages.  All messages will be sent
+   as a reply to the first message, i.e. cover letter.  Git 1.6.6 (this
+   release) will issue a warning about the upcoming default change, when
+   it uses the traditional "deep threading" behaviour as the built-in
+   default.  To squelch the warning but still use the "deep threading"
+   behaviour, give --chain-reply-to option or set sendemail.chainreplyto
+   to true.
+
+   It has been possible to configure send-email to send "shallow thread"
+   by setting sendemail.chainreplyto configuration variable to false.
+   The only thing 1.7.0 release will do is to change the default when
+   you haven't configured that variable.
+
+ * "git status" will not be "git commit --dry-run".  This change does not
+   affect you if you run the command without pathspec.
+
+   Nobody sane found the current behaviour of "git status Makefile" useful
+   nor meaningful, and it confused users.  "git commit --dry-run" has been
+   provided as a way to get the current behaviour of this command since
+   1.6.5.
+
+ * "git diff" traditionally treated various "ignore whitespace" options
+   only as a way to filter the patch output.  "git diff --exit-code -b"
+   exited with non-zero status even if all changes were about changing the
+   ammount of whitespace and nothing else.  and "git diff -b" showed the
+   "diff --git" header line for such a change without patch text.
+
+   In 1.7.0, the "ignore whitespaces" will affect the semantics of the
+   diff operation itself.  A change that does not affect anything but
+   whitespaces will be reported with zero exit status when run with
+   --exit-code, and there will not be "diff --git" header for such a
+   change.
+
+
+Updates since v1.6.5
+--------------------
+
+(subsystems)
+
+ * various gitk updates including use of themed widgets under Tk 8.5,
+   Japanese translation, a fix to a bug when running "gui blame" from
+   a subdirectory, etc.
+
+ * various git-gui updates including new translations, wm states fixes,
+   Tk bug workaround after quitting, improved heuristics to trigger gc,
+   etc.
+
+ * various git-svn updates.
+
+ * "git fetch" over http learned a new mode that is different from the
+   traditional "dumb commit walker".
+
+(portability)
+
+ * imap-send can be built on mingw port.
+
+(performance)
+
+ * "git diff -B" has smaller memory footprint.
+
+(usability, bells and whistles)
+
+ * The object replace mechanism can be bypassed with --no-replace-objects
+   global option given to the "git" program.
+
+ * In configuration files, a few variables that name paths can begin with ~/
+   and ~username/ and they are expanded as expected.
+
+ * "git subcmd -h" now shows short usage help for many more subcommands.
+
+ * "git bisect reset" can reset to an arbitrary commit.
+
+ * "git checkout frotz" when there is no local branch "frotz" but there
+   is only one remote tracking branch "frotz" is taken as a request to
+   start the named branch at the corresponding remote tracking branch.
+
+ * "git commit -c/-C/--amend" can be told with a new "--reset-author" option
+   to ignore authorship information in the commit it is taking the message
+   from.
+
+ * "git describe" can be told to add "-dirty" suffix with "--dirty" option.
+
+ * "git diff" learned --submodule option to show a list of one-line logs
+   instead of differences between the commit object names.
+
+ * "git diff" learned to honor diff.color.func configuration to paint
+   function name hint printed on the hunk header "@@ -j,k +l,m @@" line
+   in the specified color.
+
+ * "git fetch" learned --all and --multiple options, to run fetch from
+   many repositories, and --prune option to remove remote tracking
+   branches that went stale.  These make "git remote update" and "git
+   remote prune" less necessary (there is no plan to remove "remote
+   update" nor "remote prune", though).
+
+ * "git fsck" by default checks the packfiles (i.e. "--full" is the
+   default); you can turn it off with "git fsck --no-full".
+
+ * "git grep" can use -F (fixed strings) and -i (ignore case) together.
+
+ * import-tars contributed fast-import frontend learned more types of
+   compressed tarballs.
+
+ * "git instaweb" knows how to talk with mod_cgid to apache2.
+
+ * "git log --decorate" shows the location of HEAD as well.
+
+ * "git log" and "git rev-list" learned to take revs and pathspecs from
+   the standard input with the new "--stdin" option.
+
+ * "--pretty=format" option to "log" family of commands learned:
+
+   . to wrap text with the "%w()" specifier.
+   . to show reflog information with "%g[sdD]" specifier.
+
+ * "git notes" command to annotate existing commits.
+
+ * "git merge" (and "git pull") learned --ff-only option to make it fail
+   if the merge does not result in a fast-forward.
+
+ * "git mergetool" learned to use p4merge.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" learned "reword" that acts like "edit" but immediately
+   starts an editor to tweak the log message without returning control to
+   the shell, which is done by "edit" to give an opportunity to tweak the
+   contents.
+
+ * "git send-email" can be told with "--envelope-sender=auto" to use the
+   same address as "From:" address as the envelope sender address.
+
+ * "git send-email" will issue a warning when it defaults to the
+   --chain-reply-to behaviour without being told by the user and
+   instructs to prepare for the change of the default in 1.7.0 release.
+
+ * In "git submodule add <repository> <path>", <path> is now optional and
+   inferred from <repository> the same way "git clone <repository>" does.
+
+ * "git svn" learned to read SVN 1.5+ and SVK merge tickets.
+
+ * "git svn" learned to recreate empty directories tracked only by SVN.
+
+ * "gitweb" can optionally render its "blame" output incrementally (this
+   requires JavaScript on the client side).
+
+ * Author names shown in gitweb output are links to search commits by the
+   author.
+
+Fixes since v1.6.5
+------------------
+
+All of the fixes in v1.6.5.X maintenance series are included in this
+release, unless otherwise noted.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..11483ac
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,23 @@
+Git v1.6.6.3 Release Notes
+==========================
+
+Fixes since v1.6.6.2
+--------------------
+
+ * An overlong line after ".gitdir: " in a git file caused out of bounds
+   access to an array on the stack.
+
+ * "git bisect $path" did not correctly diagnose an error when given a
+   non-existent path.
+
+ * "git blame -L $start,$end" segfaulted when too large $start was given.
+
+ * "git imap-send" did not write draft box with CRLF line endings per RFC.
+
+ * "git rev-parse --parseopt --stop-at-non-option" did not stop at non option
+   when --keep-dashdash was in effect.
+
+ * "gitweb" can sometimes be tricked into parrotting a filename argument
+   given in a request without properly quoting.
+
+Other minor fixes and documentation updates are included.
diff --git a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
index 76fc84d..c686f86 100644
--- a/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
+++ b/Documentation/SubmittingPatches
@@ -280,6 +280,20 @@
 their trees themselves.
 
 ------------------------------------------------
+Know the status of your patch after submission
+
+* You can use Git itself to find out when your patch is merged in
+  master. 'git pull --rebase' will automatically skip already-applied
+  patches, and will let you know. This works only if you rebase on top
+  of the branch in which your patch has been merged (i.e. it will not
+  tell you if your patch is merged in pu if you rebase on top of
+  master).
+
+* Read the git mailing list, the maintainer regularly posts messages
+  entitled "What's cooking in git.git" and "What's in git.git" giving
+  the status of various proposed changes.
+
+------------------------------------------------
 MUA specific hints
 
 Some of patches I receive or pick up from the list share common
diff --git a/Documentation/blame-options.txt b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
index 1625ffc..4833cac 100644
--- a/Documentation/blame-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
@@ -98,8 +98,10 @@
 	files that were modified in the same commit.  This is
 	useful when you reorganize your program and move code
 	around across files.  When this option is given twice,
-	the command additionally looks for copies from all other
-	files in the parent for the commit that creates the file.
+	the command additionally looks for copies from other
+	files in the commit that creates the file. When this
+	option is given three times, the command additionally
+	looks for copies from other files in any commit.
 +
 <num> is optional but it is the lower bound on the number of
 alphanumeric characters that git must detect as moving
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index 35e2697..b16a20b 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -135,7 +135,11 @@
 core.fileMode::
 	If false, the executable bit differences between the index and
 	the working copy are ignored; useful on broken filesystems like FAT.
-	See linkgit:git-update-index[1]. True by default.
+	See linkgit:git-update-index[1].
++
+The default is true, except linkgit:git-clone[1] or linkgit:git-init[1]
+will probe and set core.fileMode false if appropriate when the
+repository is created.
 
 core.ignoreCygwinFSTricks::
 	This option is only used by Cygwin implementation of Git. If false,
@@ -148,6 +152,18 @@
 	is true, in which case ignoreCygwinFSTricks is ignored as Cygwin's
 	POSIX emulation is required to support core.filemode.
 
+core.ignorecase::
+	If true, this option enables various workarounds to enable
+	git to work better on filesystems that are not case sensitive,
+	like FAT. For example, if a directory listing finds
+	"makefile" when git expects "Makefile", git will assume
+	it is really the same file, and continue to remember it as
+	"Makefile".
++
+The default is false, except linkgit:git-clone[1] or linkgit:git-init[1]
+will probe and set core.ignorecase true if appropriate when the repository
+is created.
+
 core.trustctime::
 	If false, the ctime differences between the index and the
 	working copy are ignored; useful when the inode change time
@@ -228,7 +244,11 @@
 	contain the link text. linkgit:git-update-index[1] and
 	linkgit:git-add[1] will not change the recorded type to regular
 	file. Useful on filesystems like FAT that do not support
-	symbolic links. True by default.
+	symbolic links.
++
+The default is true, except linkgit:git-clone[1] or linkgit:git-init[1]
+will probe and set core.symlinks false if appropriate when the repository
+is created.
 
 core.gitProxy::
 	A "proxy command" to execute (as 'command host port') instead
@@ -277,17 +297,24 @@
 = true).
 
 core.worktree::
-	Set the path to the working tree.  The value will not be
-	used in combination with repositories found automatically in
-	a .git directory (i.e. $GIT_DIR is not set).
+	Set the path to the root of the work tree.
 	This can be overridden by the GIT_WORK_TREE environment
 	variable and the '--work-tree' command line option. It can be
-	a absolute path or relative path to the directory specified by
-	--git-dir or GIT_DIR.
-	Note: If --git-dir or GIT_DIR are specified but none of
+	an absolute path or a relative path to the .git directory,
+	either specified by --git-dir or GIT_DIR, or automatically
+	discovered.
+	If --git-dir or GIT_DIR are specified but none of
 	--work-tree, GIT_WORK_TREE and core.worktree is specified,
-	the current working directory is regarded as the top directory
-	of your working tree.
+	the current working directory is regarded as the root of the
+	work tree.
++
+Note that this variable is honored even when set in a configuration
+file in a ".git" subdirectory of a directory, and its value differs
+from the latter directory (e.g. "/path/to/.git/config" has
+core.worktree set to "/different/path"), which is most likely a
+misconfiguration.  Running git commands in "/path/to" directory will
+still use "/different/path" as the root of the work tree and can cause
+great confusion to the users.
 
 core.logAllRefUpdates::
 	Enable the reflog. Updates to a ref <ref> is logged to the file
@@ -382,6 +409,20 @@
 +
 Common unit suffixes of 'k', 'm', or 'g' are supported.
 
+core.bigFileThreshold::
+	Files larger than this size are stored deflated, without
+	attempting delta compression.  Storing large files without
+	delta compression avoids excessive memory usage, at the
+	slight expense of increased disk usage.
++
+Default is 512 MiB on all platforms.  This should be reasonable
+for most projects as source code and other text files can still
+be delta compressed, but larger binary media files won't be.
++
+Common unit suffixes of 'k', 'm', or 'g' are supported.
++
+Currently only linkgit:git-fast-import[1] honors this setting.
+
 core.excludesfile::
 	In addition to '.gitignore' (per-directory) and
 	'.git/info/exclude', git looks into this file for patterns
@@ -393,9 +434,7 @@
 	Commands such as `commit` and `tag` that lets you edit
 	messages by launching an editor uses the value of this
 	variable when it is set, and the environment variable
-	`GIT_EDITOR` is not set.  The order of preference is
-	`GIT_EDITOR` environment, `core.editor`, `VISUAL` and
-	`EDITOR` environment variables and then finally `vi`.
+	`GIT_EDITOR` is not set.  See linkgit:git-var[1].
 
 core.pager::
 	The command that git will use to paginate output.  Can
@@ -464,6 +503,19 @@
 Set this config setting to 'rename' there; However, This will remove the
 check that makes sure that existing object files will not get overwritten.
 
+core.notesRef::
+	When showing commit messages, also show notes which are stored in
+	the given ref.  This ref is expected to contain files named
+	after the full SHA-1 of the commit they annotate.
++
+If such a file exists in the given ref, the referenced blob is read, and
+appended to the commit message, separated by a "Notes:" line.  If the
+given ref itself does not exist, it is not an error, but means that no
+notes should be printed.
++
+This setting defaults to "refs/notes/commits", and can be overridden by
+the `GIT_NOTES_REF` environment variable.
+
 add.ignore-errors::
 	Tells 'git-add' to continue adding files when some files cannot be
 	added due to indexing errors. Equivalent to the '--ignore-errors'
@@ -499,7 +551,7 @@
 	as the '--whitespace' option. See linkgit:git-apply[1].
 
 branch.autosetupmerge::
-	Tells 'git-branch' and 'git-checkout' to setup new branches
+	Tells 'git-branch' and 'git-checkout' to set up new branches
 	so that linkgit:git-pull[1] will appropriately merge from the
 	starting point branch. Note that even if this option is not set,
 	this behavior can be chosen per-branch using the `--track`
@@ -604,10 +656,10 @@
 	Use customized color for diff colorization.  `<slot>` specifies
 	which part of the patch to use the specified color, and is one
 	of `plain` (context text), `meta` (metainformation), `frag`
-	(hunk header), `old` (removed lines), `new` (added lines),
-	`commit` (commit headers), or `whitespace` (highlighting
-	whitespace errors). The values of these variables may be specified as
-	in color.branch.<slot>.
+	(hunk header), 'func' (function in hunk header), `old` (removed lines),
+	`new` (added lines), `commit` (commit headers), or `whitespace`
+	(highlighting whitespace errors). The values of these variables may be
+	specified as in color.branch.<slot>.
 
 color.grep::
 	When set to `always`, always highlight matches.  When `false` (or
@@ -687,7 +739,7 @@
 	contents in the work tree match the contents in the
 	index.  This option defaults to true.  Note that this
 	affects only 'git-diff' Porcelain, and not lower level
-	'diff' commands, such as 'git-diff-files'.
+	'diff' commands such as 'git-diff-files'.
 
 diff.external::
 	If this config variable is set, diff generation is not
@@ -803,8 +855,8 @@
 
 format.thread::
 	The default threading style for 'git-format-patch'.  Can be
-	either a boolean value, `shallow` or `deep`.  `shallow`
-	threading makes every mail a reply to the head of the series,
+	a boolean value, or `shallow` or `deep`.  `shallow` threading
+	makes every mail a reply to the head of the series,
 	where the head is chosen from the cover letter, the
 	`\--in-reply-to`, and the first patch mail, in this order.
 	`deep` threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one.
@@ -837,15 +889,12 @@
 	default	value is 50.  Setting this to 0 disables it.
 
 gc.packrefs::
-	'git-gc' does not run `git pack-refs` in a bare repository by
-	default so that older dumb-transport clients can still fetch
-	from the repository.  Setting this to `true` lets 'git-gc'
-	to run `git pack-refs`.  Setting this to `false` tells
-	'git-gc' never to run `git pack-refs`. The default setting is
-	`notbare`. Enable it only when you know you do not have to
-	support such clients.  The default setting will change to `true`
-	at some stage, and setting this to `false` will continue to
-	prevent `git pack-refs` from being run from 'git-gc'.
+	Running `git pack-refs` in a repository renders it
+	unclonable by Git versions prior to 1.5.1.2 over dumb
+	transports such as HTTP.  This variable determines whether
+	'git gc' runs `git pack-refs`. This can be set to "nobare"
+	to enable it within all non-bare repos or it can be set to a
+	boolean value.  The default is `true`.
 
 gc.pruneexpire::
 	When 'git-gc' is run, it will call 'prune --expire 2.weeks.ago'.
@@ -1101,6 +1150,14 @@
 	How many HTTP requests to launch in parallel. Can be overridden
 	by the 'GIT_HTTP_MAX_REQUESTS' environment variable. Default is 5.
 
+http.postBuffer::
+	Maximum size in bytes of the buffer used by smart HTTP
+	transports when POSTing data to the remote system.
+	For requests larger than this buffer size, HTTP/1.1 and
+	Transfer-Encoding: chunked is used to avoid creating a
+	massive pack file locally.  Default is 1 MiB, which is
+	sufficient for most requests.
+
 http.lowSpeedLimit, http.lowSpeedTime::
 	If the HTTP transfer speed is less than 'http.lowSpeedLimit'
 	for longer than 'http.lowSpeedTime' seconds, the transfer is aborted.
@@ -1368,7 +1425,7 @@
 
 receive.denyNonFastForwards::
 	If set to true, git-receive-pack will deny a ref update which is
-	not a fast forward. Use this to prevent such an update via a push,
+	not a fast-forward. Use this to prevent such an update via a push,
 	even if that push is forced. This configuration variable is
 	set when initializing a shared repository.
 
@@ -1402,7 +1459,13 @@
 
 remote.<name>.skipDefaultUpdate::
 	If true, this remote will be skipped by default when updating
-	using the update subcommand of linkgit:git-remote[1].
+	using linkgit:git-fetch[1] or the `update` subcommand of
+	linkgit:git-remote[1].
+
+remote.<name>.skipFetchAll::
+	If true, this remote will be skipped by default when updating
+	using linkgit:git-fetch[1] or the `update` subcommand of
+	linkgit:git-remote[1].
 
 remote.<name>.receivepack::
 	The default program to execute on the remote side when pushing.  See
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index 9276fae..8707d0e 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,8 @@
 
 ifdef::git-format-patch[]
 -p::
-	Generate patches without diffstat.
+--no-stat::
+	Generate plain patches without any diffstats.
 endif::git-format-patch[]
 
 ifndef::git-format-patch[]
@@ -27,33 +28,40 @@
 -U<n>::
 --unified=<n>::
 	Generate diffs with <n> lines of context instead of
-	the usual three. Implies "-p".
+	the usual three.
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
+	Implies `-p`.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
 
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
 --raw::
 	Generate the raw format.
 	{git-diff-core? This is the default.}
+endif::git-format-patch[]
 
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
 --patch-with-raw::
-	Synonym for "-p --raw".
+	Synonym for `-p --raw`.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
 
 --patience::
 	Generate a diff using the "patience diff" algorithm.
 
 --stat[=width[,name-width]]::
 	Generate a diffstat.  You can override the default
-	output width for 80-column terminal by "--stat=width".
+	output width for 80-column terminal by `--stat=width`.
 	The width of the filename part can be controlled by
 	giving another width to it separated by a comma.
 
 --numstat::
-	Similar to \--stat, but shows number of added and
+	Similar to `\--stat`, but shows number of added and
 	deleted lines in decimal notation and pathname without
 	abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly.  For
 	binary files, outputs two `-` instead of saying
 	`0 0`.
 
 --shortstat::
-	Output only the last line of the --stat format containing total
+	Output only the last line of the `--stat` format containing total
 	number of modified files, as well as number of added and deleted
 	lines.
 
@@ -61,24 +69,39 @@
 	Output the distribution of relative amount of changes (number of lines added or
 	removed) for each sub-directory. Directories with changes below
 	a cut-off percent (3% by default) are not shown. The cut-off percent
-	can be set with "--dirstat=limit". Changes in a child directory is not
-	counted for the parent directory, unless "--cumulative" is used.
+	can be set with `--dirstat=limit`. Changes in a child directory is not
+	counted for the parent directory, unless `--cumulative` is used.
 
 --dirstat-by-file[=limit]::
-	Same as --dirstat, but counts changed files instead of lines.
+	Same as `--dirstat`, but counts changed files instead of lines.
 
 --summary::
 	Output a condensed summary of extended header information
 	such as creations, renames and mode changes.
 
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
 --patch-with-stat::
-	Synonym for "-p --stat".
-	{git-format-patch? This is the default.}
+	Synonym for `-p --stat`.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
+
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
 
 -z::
-	NUL-line termination on output.  This affects the --raw
-	output field terminator.  Also output from commands such
-	as "git-log" will be delimited with NUL between commits.
+ifdef::git-log[]
+	Separate the commits with NULs instead of with new newlines.
++
+Also, when `--raw` or `--numstat` has been given, do not munge
+pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.
+endif::git-log[]
+ifndef::git-log[]
+	When `--raw` or `--numstat` has been given, do not munge
+	pathnames and use NULs as output field terminators.
+endif::git-log[]
++
+Without this option, each pathname output will have TAB, LF, double quotes,
+and backslash characters replaced with `\t`, `\n`, `\"`, and `\\`,
+respectively, and the pathname will be enclosed in double quotes if
+any of those replacements occurred.
 
 --name-only::
 	Show only names of changed files.
@@ -87,6 +110,13 @@
 	Show only names and status of changed files. See the description
 	of the `--diff-filter` option on what the status letters mean.
 
+--submodule[=<format>]::
+	Chose the output format for submodule differences. <format> can be one of
+	'short' and 'log'. 'short' just shows pairs of commit names, this format
+	is used when this option is not given. 'log' is the default value for this
+	option and lists the commits in that commit range like the 'summary'
+	option of linkgit:git-submodule[1] does.
+
 --color::
 	Show colored diff.
 
@@ -110,16 +140,19 @@
 linkgit:gitattributes[1] or linkgit:git-config[1].  Giving it explicitly
 overrides any diff driver or configuration setting.  Diff drivers
 override configuration settings.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
 
 --no-renames::
 	Turn off rename detection, even when the configuration
 	file gives the default to do so.
 
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
 --check::
 	Warn if changes introduce trailing whitespace
 	or an indent that uses a space before a tab. Exits with
 	non-zero status if problems are found. Not compatible with
 	--exit-code.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
 
 --full-index::
 	Instead of the first handful of characters, show the full
@@ -127,16 +160,16 @@
 	line when generating patch format output.
 
 --binary::
-	In addition to --full-index, output "binary diff" that
-	can be applied with "git apply".
+	In addition to `--full-index`, output a binary diff that
+	can be applied with `git-apply`.
 
 --abbrev[=<n>]::
 	Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal object
 	name in diff-raw format output and diff-tree header
 	lines, show only a partial prefix.  This is
-	independent of --full-index option above, which controls
+	independent of the `--full-index` option above, which controls
 	the diff-patch output format.  Non default number of
-	digits can be specified with --abbrev=<n>.
+	digits can be specified with `--abbrev=<n>`.
 
 -B::
 	Break complete rewrite changes into pairs of delete and create.
@@ -147,6 +180,7 @@
 -C::
 	Detect copies as well as renames.  See also `--find-copies-harder`.
 
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
 --diff-filter=[ACDMRTUXB*]::
 	Select only files that are Added (`A`), Copied (`C`),
 	Deleted (`D`), Modified (`M`), Renamed (`R`), have their
@@ -158,6 +192,7 @@
 	paths are selected if there is any file that matches
 	other criteria in the comparison; if there is no file
 	that matches other criteria, nothing is selected.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
 
 --find-copies-harder::
 	For performance reasons, by default, `-C` option finds copies only
@@ -169,12 +204,13 @@
 	`-C` option has the same effect.
 
 -l<num>::
-	-M and -C options require O(n^2) processing time where n
+	The `-M` and `-C` options require O(n^2) processing time where n
 	is the number of potential rename/copy targets.  This
 	option prevents rename/copy detection from running if
 	the number of rename/copy targets exceeds the specified
 	number.
 
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
 -S<string>::
 	Look for differences that introduce or remove an instance of
 	<string>. Note that this is different than the string simply
@@ -182,18 +218,20 @@
 	linkgit:gitdiffcore[7] for more details.
 
 --pickaxe-all::
-	When -S finds a change, show all the changes in that
+	When `-S` finds a change, show all the changes in that
 	changeset, not just the files that contain the change
 	in <string>.
 
 --pickaxe-regex::
 	Make the <string> not a plain string but an extended POSIX
 	regex to match.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
 
 -O<orderfile>::
 	Output the patch in the order specified in the
 	<orderfile>, which has one shell glob pattern per line.
 
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
 -R::
 	Swap two inputs; that is, show differences from index or
 	on-disk file to tree contents.
@@ -205,6 +243,7 @@
 	not in a subdirectory (e.g. in a bare repository), you
 	can name which subdirectory to make the output relative
 	to by giving a <path> as an argument.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
 
 -a::
 --text::
@@ -229,13 +268,15 @@
 	Show the context between diff hunks, up to the specified number
 	of lines, thereby fusing hunks that are close to each other.
 
+ifndef::git-format-patch[]
 --exit-code::
 	Make the program exit with codes similar to diff(1).
 	That is, it exits with 1 if there were differences and
 	0 means no differences.
 
 --quiet::
-	Disable all output of the program. Implies --exit-code.
+	Disable all output of the program. Implies `--exit-code`.
+endif::git-format-patch[]
 
 --ext-diff::
 	Allow an external diff helper to be executed. If you set an
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index 2886874..ab6419f 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -1,3 +1,6 @@
+--all::
+	Fetch all remotes.
+
 -a::
 --append::
 	Append ref names and object names of fetched refs to the
@@ -9,6 +12,11 @@
 	`git clone` with `--depth=<depth>` option (see linkgit:git-clone[1])
 	by the specified number of commits.
 
+ifndef::git-pull[]
+--dry-run::
+	Show what would be done, without making any changes.
+endif::git-pull[]
+
 -f::
 --force::
 	When 'git-fetch' is used with `<rbranch>:<lbranch>`
@@ -21,6 +29,16 @@
 --keep::
 	Keep downloaded pack.
 
+ifndef::git-pull[]
+--multiple::
+	Allow several <repository> and <group> arguments to be
+	specified. No <refspec>s may be specified.
+
+--prune::
+	After fetching, remove any remote tracking branches which
+	no longer exist	on the remote.
+endif::git-pull[]
+
 ifdef::git-pull[]
 --no-tags::
 endif::git-pull[]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-add.txt b/Documentation/git-add.txt
index 1f1b199..d0b279b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-add.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-add.txt
@@ -153,7 +153,7 @@
 and its subdirectories:
 +
 ------------
-$ git add Documentation/\\*.txt
+$ git add Documentation/\*.txt
 ------------
 +
 Note that the asterisk `\*` is quoted from the shell in this
diff --git a/Documentation/git-apply.txt b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
index 5ee8c91..c2528a7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-apply.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-apply.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@
 
 NAME
 ----
-git-apply - Apply a patch on a git index file and/or a working tree
+git-apply - Apply a patch to files and/or to the index
 
 
 SYNOPSIS
@@ -20,8 +20,11 @@
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
-Reads supplied 'diff' output and applies it on a git index file
-and a work tree.
+Reads the supplied diff output (i.e. "a patch") and applies it to files.
+With the `--index` option the patch is also applied to the index, and
+with the `--cache` option the patch is only applied to the index.
+Without these options, the command applies the patch only to files,
+and does not require them to be in a git repository.
 
 OPTIONS
 -------
@@ -34,7 +37,7 @@
 	input.  Turns off "apply".
 
 --numstat::
-	Similar to \--stat, but shows the number of added and
+	Similar to `--stat`, but shows the number of added and
 	deleted lines in decimal notation and the pathname without
 	abbreviation, to make it more machine friendly.  For
 	binary files, outputs two `-` instead of saying
@@ -48,22 +51,22 @@
 
 --check::
 	Instead of applying the patch, see if the patch is
-	applicable to the current work tree and/or the index
+	applicable to the current working tree and/or the index
 	file and detects errors.  Turns off "apply".
 
 --index::
-	When --check is in effect, or when applying the patch
+	When `--check` is in effect, or when applying the patch
 	(which is the default when none of the options that
 	disables it is in effect), make sure the patch is
 	applicable to what the current index file records.  If
-	the file to be patched in the work tree is not
+	the file to be patched in the working tree is not
 	up-to-date, it is flagged as an error.  This flag also
 	causes the index file to be updated.
 
 --cached::
 	Apply a patch without touching the working tree. Instead take the
 	cached data, apply the patch, and store the result in the index
-	without using the working tree. This implies '--index'.
+	without using the working tree. This implies `--index`.
 
 --build-fake-ancestor=<file>::
 	Newer 'git-diff' output has embedded 'index information'
@@ -87,11 +90,13 @@
 	rejected hunks in corresponding *.rej files.
 
 -z::
-	When showing the index information, do not munge paths,
-	but use NUL terminated machine readable format.  Without
-	this flag, the pathnames output will have TAB, LF, and
-	backslash characters replaced with `\t`, `\n`, and `\\`,
-	respectively.
+	When `--numstat` has been given, do not munge pathnames,
+	but use a NUL-terminated machine-readable format.
++
+Without this option, each pathname output will have TAB, LF, double quotes,
+and backslash characters replaced with `\t`, `\n`, `\"`, and `\\`,
+respectively, and the pathname will be enclosed in double quotes if
+any of those replacements occurred.
 
 -p<n>::
 	Remove <n> leading slashes from traditional diff paths. The
@@ -107,8 +112,8 @@
 	By default, 'git-apply' expects that the patch being
 	applied is a unified diff with at least one line of context.
 	This provides good safety measures, but breaks down when
-	applying a diff generated with --unified=0. To bypass these
-	checks use '--unidiff-zero'.
+	applying a diff generated with `--unified=0`. To bypass these
+	checks use `--unidiff-zero`.
 +
 Note, for the reasons stated above usage of context-free patches is
 discouraged.
@@ -144,7 +149,7 @@
 	be useful when importing patchsets, where you want to include certain
 	files or directories.
 +
-When --exclude and --include patterns are used, they are examined in the
+When `--exclude` and `--include` patterns are used, they are examined in the
 order they appear on the command line, and the first match determines if a
 patch to each path is used.  A patch to a path that does not match any
 include/exclude pattern is used by default if there is no include pattern
@@ -227,13 +232,13 @@
 If the patch contains any changes to submodules then 'git-apply'
 treats these changes as follows.
 
-If --index is specified (explicitly or implicitly), then the submodule
+If `--index` is specified (explicitly or implicitly), then the submodule
 commits must match the index exactly for the patch to apply.  If any
 of the submodules are checked-out, then these check-outs are completely
 ignored, i.e., they are not required to be up-to-date or clean and they
 are not updated.
 
-If --index is not specified, then the submodule commits in the patch
+If `--index` is not specified, then the submodule commits in the patch
 are ignored and only the absence or presence of the corresponding
 subdirectory is checked and (if possible) updated.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..6b7b2e5
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,1358 @@
+Fighting regressions with git bisect
+====================================
+:Author: Christian Couder
+:Email: chriscool@tuxfamily.org
+:Date: 2009/11/08
+
+Abstract
+--------
+
+"git bisect" enables software users and developers to easily find the
+commit that introduced a regression. We show why it is important to
+have good tools to fight regressions. We describe how "git bisect"
+works from the outside and the algorithms it uses inside. Then we
+explain how to take advantage of "git bisect" to improve current
+practices. And we discuss how "git bisect" could improve in the
+future.
+
+
+Introduction to "git bisect"
+----------------------------
+
+Git is a Distributed Version Control system (DVCS) created by Linus
+Torvalds and maintained by Junio Hamano.
+
+In Git like in many other Version Control Systems (VCS), the different
+states of the data that is managed by the system are called
+commits. And, as VCS are mostly used to manage software source code,
+sometimes "interesting" changes of behavior in the software are
+introduced in some commits.
+
+In fact people are specially interested in commits that introduce a
+"bad" behavior, called a bug or a regression. They are interested in
+these commits because a commit (hopefully) contains a very small set
+of source code changes. And it's much easier to understand and
+properly fix a problem when you only need to check a very small set of
+changes, than when you don't know where look in the first place.
+
+So to help people find commits that introduce a "bad" behavior, the
+"git bisect" set of commands was invented. And it follows of course
+that in "git bisect" parlance, commits where the "interesting
+behavior" is present are called "bad" commits, while other commits are
+called "good" commits. And a commit that introduce the behavior we are
+interested in is called a "first bad commit". Note that there could be
+more than one "first bad commit" in the commit space we are searching.
+
+So "git bisect" is designed to help find a "first bad commit". And to
+be as efficient as possible, it tries to perform a binary search.
+
+
+Fighting regressions overview
+-----------------------------
+
+Regressions: a big problem
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Regressions are a big problem in the software industry. But it's
+difficult to put some real numbers behind that claim.
+
+There are some numbers about bugs in general, like a NIST study in
+2002 <<1>> that said:
+
+_____________
+Software bugs, or errors, are so prevalent and so detrimental that
+they cost the U.S. economy an estimated $59.5 billion annually, or
+about 0.6 percent of the gross domestic product, according to a newly
+released study commissioned by the Department of Commerce's National
+Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). At the national level,
+over half of the costs are borne by software users and the remainder
+by software developers/vendors.  The study also found that, although
+all errors cannot be removed, more than a third of these costs, or an
+estimated $22.2 billion, could be eliminated by an improved testing
+infrastructure that enables earlier and more effective identification
+and removal of software defects. These are the savings associated with
+finding an increased percentage (but not 100 percent) of errors closer
+to the development stages in which they are introduced. Currently,
+over half of all errors are not found until "downstream" in the
+development process or during post-sale software use.
+_____________
+
+And then:
+
+_____________
+Software developers already spend approximately 80 percent of
+development costs on identifying and correcting defects, and yet few
+products of any type other than software are shipped with such high
+levels of errors.
+_____________
+
+Eventually the conclusion started with:
+
+_____________
+The path to higher software quality is significantly improved software
+testing.
+_____________
+
+There are other estimates saying that 80% of the cost related to
+software is about maintenance <<2>>.
+
+Though, according to Wikipedia <<3>>:
+
+_____________
+A common perception of maintenance is that it is merely fixing
+bugs. However, studies and surveys over the years have indicated that
+the majority, over 80%, of the maintenance effort is used for
+non-corrective actions (Pigosky 1997). This perception is perpetuated
+by users submitting problem reports that in reality are functionality
+enhancements to the system.
+_____________
+
+But we can guess that improving on existing software is very costly
+because you have to watch out for regressions. At least this would
+make the above studies consistent among themselves.
+
+Of course some kind of software is developed, then used during some
+time without being improved on much, and then finally thrown away. In
+this case, of course, regressions may not be a big problem. But on the
+other hand, there is a lot of big software that is continually
+developed and maintained during years or even tens of years by a lot
+of people. And as there are often many people who depend (sometimes
+critically) on such software, regressions are a really big problem.
+
+One such software is the linux kernel. And if we look at the linux
+kernel, we can see that a lot of time and effort is spent to fight
+regressions. The release cycle start with a 2 weeks long merge
+window. Then the first release candidate (rc) version is tagged. And
+after that about 7 or 8 more rc versions will appear with around one
+week between each of them, before the final release.
+
+The time between the first rc release and the final release is
+supposed to be used to test rc versions and fight bugs and especially
+regressions. And this time is more than 80% of the release cycle
+time. But this is not the end of the fight yet, as of course it
+continues after the release.
+
+And then this is what Ingo Molnar (a well known linux kernel
+developer) says about his use of git bisect:
+
+_____________
+I most actively use it during the merge window (when a lot of trees
+get merged upstream and when the influx of bugs is the highest) - and
+yes, there have been cases that i used it multiple times a day. My
+average is roughly once a day.
+_____________
+
+So regressions are fought all the time by developers, and indeed it is
+well known that bugs should be fixed as soon as possible, so as soon
+as they are found. That's why it is interesting to have good tools for
+this purpose.
+
+Other tools to fight regressions
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+So what are the tools used to fight regressions? They are nearly the
+same as those used to fight regular bugs. The only specific tools are
+test suites and tools similar as "git bisect".
+
+Test suites are very nice. But when they are used alone, they are
+supposed to be used so that all the tests are checked after each
+commit. This means that they are not very efficient, because many
+tests are run for no interesting result, and they suffer from
+combinational explosion.
+
+In fact the problem is that big software often has many different
+configuration options and that each test case should pass for each
+configuration after each commit. So if you have for each release: N
+configurations, M commits and T test cases, you should perform:
+
+-------------
+N * M * T tests
+-------------
+
+where N, M and T are all growing with the size your software.
+
+So very soon it will not be possible to completely test everything.
+
+And if some bugs slip through your test suite, then you can add a test
+to your test suite. But if you want to use your new improved test
+suite to find where the bug slipped in, then you will either have to
+emulate a bisection process or you will perhaps bluntly test each
+commit backward starting from the "bad" commit you have which may be
+very wasteful.
+
+"git bisect" overview
+---------------------
+
+Starting a bisection
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The first "git bisect" subcommand to use is "git bisect start" to
+start the search. Then bounds must be set to limit the commit
+space. This is done usually by giving one "bad" and at least one
+"good" commit. They can be passed in the initial call to "git bisect
+start" like this:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect start [BAD [GOOD...]]
+-------------
+
+or they can be set using:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect bad [COMMIT]
+-------------
+
+and:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect good [COMMIT...]
+-------------
+
+where BAD, GOOD and COMMIT are all names that can be resolved to a
+commit.
+
+Then "git bisect" will checkout a commit of its choosing and ask the
+user to test it, like this:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect start v2.6.27 v2.6.25
+Bisecting: 10928 revisions left to test after this (roughly 14 steps)
+[2ec65f8b89ea003c27ff7723525a2ee335a2b393] x86: clean up using max_low_pfn on 32-bit
+-------------
+
+Note that the example that we will use is really a toy example, we
+will be looking for the first commit that has a version like
+"2.6.26-something", that is the commit that has a "SUBLEVEL = 26" line
+in the top level Makefile. This is a toy example because there are
+better ways to find this commit with git than using "git bisect" (for
+example "git blame" or "git log -S<string>").
+
+Driving a bisection manually
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+At this point there are basically 2 ways to drive the search. It can
+be driven manually by the user or it can be driven automatically by a
+script or a command.
+
+If the user is driving it, then at each step of the search, the user
+will have to test the current commit and say if it is "good" or "bad"
+using the "git bisect good" or "git bisect bad" commands respectively
+that have been described above. For example:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect bad
+Bisecting: 5480 revisions left to test after this (roughly 13 steps)
+[66c0b394f08fd89236515c1c84485ea712a157be] KVM: kill file->f_count abuse in kvm
+-------------
+
+And after a few more steps like that, "git bisect" will eventually
+find a first bad commit:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect bad
+2ddcca36c8bcfa251724fe342c8327451988be0d is the first bad commit
+commit 2ddcca36c8bcfa251724fe342c8327451988be0d
+Author: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
+Date:   Sat May 3 11:59:44 2008 -0700
+
+    Linux 2.6.26-rc1
+
+:100644 100644 5cf8258195331a4dbdddff08b8d68642638eea57 4492984efc09ab72ff6219a7bc21fb6a957c4cd5 M      Makefile
+-------------
+
+At this point we can see what the commit does, check it out (if it's
+not already checked out) or tinker with it, for example:
+
+-------------
+$ git show HEAD
+commit 2ddcca36c8bcfa251724fe342c8327451988be0d
+Author: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
+Date:   Sat May 3 11:59:44 2008 -0700
+
+    Linux 2.6.26-rc1
+
+diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
+index 5cf8258..4492984 100644
+--- a/Makefile
++++ b/Makefile
+@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
+ VERSION = 2
+ PATCHLEVEL = 6
+-SUBLEVEL = 25
+-EXTRAVERSION =
++SUBLEVEL = 26
++EXTRAVERSION = -rc1
+ NAME = Funky Weasel is Jiggy wit it
+
+ # *DOCUMENTATION*
+-------------
+
+And when we are finished we can use "git bisect reset" to go back to
+the branch we were in before we started bisecting:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect reset
+Checking out files: 100% (21549/21549), done.
+Previous HEAD position was 2ddcca3... Linux 2.6.26-rc1
+Switched to branch 'master'
+-------------
+
+Driving a bisection automatically
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+The other way to drive the bisection process is to tell "git bisect"
+to launch a script or command at each bisection step to know if the
+current commit is "good" or "bad". To do that, we use the "git bisect
+run" command. For example:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect start v2.6.27 v2.6.25
+Bisecting: 10928 revisions left to test after this (roughly 14 steps)
+[2ec65f8b89ea003c27ff7723525a2ee335a2b393] x86: clean up using max_low_pfn on 32-bit
+$
+$ git bisect run grep '^SUBLEVEL = 25' Makefile
+running grep ^SUBLEVEL = 25 Makefile
+Bisecting: 5480 revisions left to test after this (roughly 13 steps)
+[66c0b394f08fd89236515c1c84485ea712a157be] KVM: kill file->f_count abuse in kvm
+running grep ^SUBLEVEL = 25 Makefile
+SUBLEVEL = 25
+Bisecting: 2740 revisions left to test after this (roughly 12 steps)
+[671294719628f1671faefd4882764886f8ad08cb] V4L/DVB(7879): Adding cx18 Support for mxl5005s
+...
+...
+running grep ^SUBLEVEL = 25 Makefile
+Bisecting: 0 revisions left to test after this (roughly 0 steps)
+[2ddcca36c8bcfa251724fe342c8327451988be0d] Linux 2.6.26-rc1
+running grep ^SUBLEVEL = 25 Makefile
+2ddcca36c8bcfa251724fe342c8327451988be0d is the first bad commit
+commit 2ddcca36c8bcfa251724fe342c8327451988be0d
+Author: Linus Torvalds <torvalds@linux-foundation.org>
+Date:   Sat May 3 11:59:44 2008 -0700
+
+    Linux 2.6.26-rc1
+
+:100644 100644 5cf8258195331a4dbdddff08b8d68642638eea57 4492984efc09ab72ff6219a7bc21fb6a957c4cd5 M      Makefile
+bisect run success
+-------------
+
+In this example, we passed "grep '^SUBLEVEL = 25' Makefile" as
+parameter to "git bisect run". This means that at each step, the grep
+command we passed will be launched. And if it exits with code 0 (that
+means success) then git bisect will mark the current state as
+"good". If it exits with code 1 (or any code between 1 and 127
+included, except the special code 125), then the current state will be
+marked as "bad".
+
+Exit code between 128 and 255 are special to "git bisect run". They
+make it stop immediately the bisection process. This is useful for
+example if the command passed takes too long to complete, because you
+can kill it with a signal and it will stop the bisection process.
+
+It can also be useful in scripts passed to "git bisect run" to "exit
+255" if some very abnormal situation is detected.
+
+Avoiding untestable commits
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Sometimes it happens that the current state cannot be tested, for
+example if it does not compile because there was a bug preventing it
+at that time. This is what the special exit code 125 is for. It tells
+"git bisect run" that the current commit should be marked as
+untestable and that another one should be chosen and checked out.
+
+If the bisection process is driven manually, you can use "git bisect
+skip" to do the same thing. (In fact the special exit code 125 makes
+"git bisect run" use "git bisect skip" in the background.)
+
+Or if you want more control, you can inspect the current state using
+for example "git bisect visualize". It will launch gitk (or "git log"
+if the DISPLAY environment variable is not set) to help you find a
+better bisection point.
+
+Either way, if you have a string of untestable commits, it might
+happen that the regression you are looking for has been introduced by
+one of these untestable commits. In this case it's not possible to
+tell for sure which commit introduced the regression.
+
+So if you used "git bisect skip" (or the run script exited with
+special code 125) you could get a result like this:
+
+-------------
+There are only 'skip'ped commits left to test.
+The first bad commit could be any of:
+15722f2fa328eaba97022898a305ffc8172db6b1
+78e86cf3e850bd755bb71831f42e200626fbd1e0
+e15b73ad3db9b48d7d1ade32f8cd23a751fe0ace
+070eab2303024706f2924822bfec8b9847e4ac1b
+We cannot bisect more!
+-------------
+
+Saving a log and replaying it
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+If you want to show other people your bisection process, you can get a
+log using for example:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect log > bisect_log.txt
+-------------
+
+And it is possible to replay it using:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect replay bisect_log.txt
+-------------
+
+
+"git bisect" details
+--------------------
+
+Bisection algorithm
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+As the Git commits form a directed acyclic graph (DAG), finding the
+best bisection commit to test at each step is not so simple. Anyway
+Linus found and implemented a "truly stupid" algorithm, later improved
+by Junio Hamano, that works quite well.
+
+So the algorithm used by "git bisect" to find the best bisection
+commit when there are no skipped commits is the following:
+
+1) keep only the commits that:
+
+a) are ancestor of the "bad" commit (including the "bad" commit itself),
+b) are not ancestor of a "good" commit (excluding the "good" commits).
+
+This means that we get rid of the uninteresting commits in the DAG.
+
+For example if we start with a graph like this:
+
+-------------
+G-Y-G-W-W-W-X-X-X-X
+	   \ /
+	    W-W-B
+	   /
+Y---G-W---W
+ \ /   \
+Y-Y     X-X-X-X
+
+-> time goes this way ->
+-------------
+
+where B is the "bad" commit, "G" are "good" commits and W, X, and Y
+are other commits, we will get the following graph after this first
+step:
+
+-------------
+W-W-W
+     \
+      W-W-B
+     /
+W---W
+-------------
+
+So only the W and B commits will be kept. Because commits X and Y will
+have been removed by rules a) and b) respectively, and because commits
+G are removed by rule b) too.
+
+Note for git users, that it is equivalent as keeping only the commit
+given by:
+
+-------------
+git rev-list BAD --not GOOD1 GOOD2...
+-------------
+
+Also note that we don't require the commits that are kept to be
+descendants of a "good" commit. So in the following example, commits W
+and Z will be kept:
+
+-------------
+G-W-W-W-B
+   /
+Z-Z
+-------------
+
+2) starting from the "good" ends of the graph, associate to each
+commit the number of ancestors it has plus one
+
+For example with the following graph where H is the "bad" commit and A
+and D are some parents of some "good" commits:
+
+-------------
+A-B-C
+     \
+      F-G-H
+     /
+D---E
+-------------
+
+this will give:
+
+-------------
+1 2 3
+A-B-C
+     \6 7 8
+      F-G-H
+1   2/
+D---E
+-------------
+
+3) associate to each commit: min(X, N - X)
+
+where X is the value associated to the commit in step 2) and N is the
+total number of commits in the graph.
+
+In the above example we have N = 8, so this will give:
+
+-------------
+1 2 3
+A-B-C
+     \2 1 0
+      F-G-H
+1   2/
+D---E
+-------------
+
+4) the best bisection point is the commit with the highest associated
+number
+
+So in the above example the best bisection point is commit C.
+
+5) note that some shortcuts are implemented to speed up the algorithm
+
+As we know N from the beginning, we know that min(X, N - X) can't be
+greater than N/2. So during steps 2) and 3), if we would associate N/2
+to a commit, then we know this is the best bisection point. So in this
+case we can just stop processing any other commit and return the
+current commit.
+
+Bisection algorithm debugging
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+For any commit graph, you can see the number associated with each
+commit using "git rev-list --bisect-all".
+
+For example, for the above graph, a command like:
+
+-------------
+$ git rev-list --bisect-all BAD --not GOOD1 GOOD2
+-------------
+
+would output something like:
+
+-------------
+e15b73ad3db9b48d7d1ade32f8cd23a751fe0ace (dist=3)
+15722f2fa328eaba97022898a305ffc8172db6b1 (dist=2)
+78e86cf3e850bd755bb71831f42e200626fbd1e0 (dist=2)
+a1939d9a142de972094af4dde9a544e577ddef0e (dist=2)
+070eab2303024706f2924822bfec8b9847e4ac1b (dist=1)
+a3864d4f32a3bf5ed177ddef598490a08760b70d (dist=1)
+a41baa717dd74f1180abf55e9341bc7a0bb9d556 (dist=1)
+9e622a6dad403b71c40979743bb9d5be17b16bd6 (dist=0)
+-------------
+
+Bisection algorithm discussed
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+First let's define "best bisection point". We will say that a commit X
+is a best bisection point or a best bisection commit if knowing its
+state ("good" or "bad") gives as much information as possible whether
+the state of the commit happens to be "good" or "bad".
+
+This means that the best bisection commits are the commits where the
+following function is maximum:
+
+-------------
+f(X) = min(information_if_good(X), information_if_bad(X))
+-------------
+
+where information_if_good(X) is the information we get if X is good
+and information_if_bad(X) is the information we get if X is bad.
+
+Now we will suppose that there is only one "first bad commit". This
+means that all its descendants are "bad" and all the other commits are
+"good". And we will suppose that all commits have an equal probability
+of being good or bad, or of being the first bad commit, so knowing the
+state of c commits gives always the same amount of information
+wherever these c commits are on the graph and whatever c is. (So we
+suppose that these commits being for example on a branch or near a
+good or a bad commit does not give more or less information).
+
+Let's also suppose that we have a cleaned up graph like one after step
+1) in the bisection algorithm above. This means that we can measure
+the information we get in terms of number of commit we can remove from
+the graph..
+
+And let's take a commit X in the graph.
+
+If X is found to be "good", then we know that its ancestors are all
+"good", so we want to say that:
+
+-------------
+information_if_good(X) = number_of_ancestors(X)  (TRUE)
+-------------
+
+And this is true because at step 1) b) we remove the ancestors of the
+"good" commits.
+
+If X is found to be "bad", then we know that its descendants are all
+"bad", so we want to say that:
+
+-------------
+information_if_bad(X) = number_of_descendants(X)  (WRONG)
+-------------
+
+But this is wrong because at step 1) a) we keep only the ancestors of
+the bad commit. So we get more information when a commit is marked as
+"bad", because we also know that the ancestors of the previous "bad"
+commit that are not ancestors of the new "bad" commit are not the
+first bad commit. We don't know if they are good or bad, but we know
+that they are not the first bad commit because they are not ancestor
+of the new "bad" commit.
+
+So when a commit is marked as "bad" we know we can remove all the
+commits in the graph except those that are ancestors of the new "bad"
+commit. This means that:
+
+-------------
+information_if_bad(X) = N - number_of_ancestors(X)  (TRUE)
+-------------
+
+where N is the number of commits in the (cleaned up) graph.
+
+So in the end this means that to find the best bisection commits we
+should maximize the function:
+
+-------------
+f(X) = min(number_of_ancestors(X), N - number_of_ancestors(X))
+-------------
+
+And this is nice because at step 2) we compute number_of_ancestors(X)
+and so at step 3) we compute f(X).
+
+Let's take the following graph as an example:
+
+-------------
+	    G-H-I-J
+	   /       \
+A-B-C-D-E-F         O
+	   \       /
+	    K-L-M-N
+-------------
+
+If we compute the following non optimal function on it:
+
+-------------
+g(X) = min(number_of_ancestors(X), number_of_descendants(X))
+-------------
+
+we get:
+
+-------------
+	    4 3 2 1
+	    G-H-I-J
+1 2 3 4 5 6/       \0
+A-B-C-D-E-F         O
+	   \       /
+	    K-L-M-N
+	    4 3 2 1
+-------------
+
+but with the algorithm used by git bisect we get:
+
+-------------
+	    7 7 6 5
+	    G-H-I-J
+1 2 3 4 5 6/       \0
+A-B-C-D-E-F         O
+	   \       /
+	    K-L-M-N
+	    7 7 6 5
+-------------
+
+So we chose G, H, K or L as the best bisection point, which is better
+than F. Because if for example L is bad, then we will know not only
+that L, M and N are bad but also that G, H, I and J are not the first
+bad commit (since we suppose that there is only one first bad commit
+and it must be an ancestor of L).
+
+So the current algorithm seems to be the best possible given what we
+initially supposed.
+
+Skip algorithm
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+When some commits have been skipped (using "git bisect skip"), then
+the bisection algorithm is the same for step 1) to 3). But then we use
+roughly the following steps:
+
+6) sort the commit by decreasing associated value
+
+7) if the first commit has not been skipped, we can return it and stop
+here
+
+8) otherwise filter out all the skipped commits in the sorted list
+
+9) use a pseudo random number generator (PRNG) to generate a random
+number between 0 and 1
+
+10) multiply this random number with its square root to bias it toward
+0
+
+11) multiply the result by the number of commits in the filtered list
+to get an index into this list
+
+12) return the commit at the computed index
+
+Skip algorithm discussed
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+After step 7) (in the skip algorithm), we could check if the second
+commit has been skipped and return it if it is not the case. And in
+fact that was the algorithm we used from when "git bisect skip" was
+developed in git version 1.5.4 (released on February 1st 2008) until
+git version 1.6.4 (released July 29th 2009).
+
+But Ingo Molnar and H. Peter Anvin (another well known linux kernel
+developer) both complained that sometimes the best bisection points
+all happened to be in an area where all the commits are
+untestable. And in this case the user was asked to test many
+untestable commits, which could be very inefficient.
+
+Indeed untestable commits are often untestable because a breakage was
+introduced at one time, and that breakage was fixed only after many
+other commits were introduced.
+
+This breakage is of course most of the time unrelated to the breakage
+we are trying to locate in the commit graph. But it prevents us to
+know if the interesting "bad behavior" is present or not.
+
+So it is a fact that commits near an untestable commit have a high
+probability of being untestable themselves. And the best bisection
+commits are often found together too (due to the bisection algorithm).
+
+This is why it is a bad idea to just chose the next best unskipped
+bisection commit when the first one has been skipped.
+
+We found that most commits on the graph may give quite a lot of
+information when they are tested. And the commits that will not on
+average give a lot of information are the one near the good and bad
+commits.
+
+So using a PRNG with a bias to favor commits away from the good and
+bad commits looked like a good choice.
+
+One obvious improvement to this algorithm would be to look for a
+commit that has an associated value near the one of the best bisection
+commit, and that is on another branch, before using the PRNG. Because
+if such a commit exists, then it is not very likely to be untestable
+too, so it will probably give more information than a nearly randomly
+chosen one.
+
+Checking merge bases
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+There is another tweak in the bisection algorithm that has not been
+described in the "bisection algorithm" above.
+
+We supposed in the previous examples that the "good" commits were
+ancestors of the "bad" commit. But this is not a requirement of "git
+bisect".
+
+Of course the "bad" commit cannot be an ancestor of a "good" commit,
+because the ancestors of the good commits are supposed to be
+"good". And all the "good" commits must be related to the bad commit.
+They cannot be on a branch that has no link with the branch of the
+"bad" commit. But it is possible for a good commit to be related to a
+bad commit and yet not be neither one of its ancestor nor one of its
+descendants.
+
+For example, there can be a "main" branch, and a "dev" branch that was
+forked of the main branch at a commit named "D" like this:
+
+-------------
+A-B-C-D-E-F-G  <--main
+       \
+	H-I-J  <--dev
+-------------
+
+The commit "D" is called a "merge base" for branch "main" and "dev"
+because it's the best common ancestor for these branches for a merge.
+
+Now let's suppose that commit J is bad and commit G is good and that
+we apply the bisection algorithm like it has been previously
+described.
+
+As described in step 1) b) of the bisection algorithm, we remove all
+the ancestors of the good commits because they are supposed to be good
+too.
+
+So we would be left with only:
+
+-------------
+H-I-J
+-------------
+
+But what happens if the first bad commit is "B" and if it has been
+fixed in the "main" branch by commit "F"?
+
+The result of such a bisection would be that we would find that H is
+the first bad commit, when in fact it's B. So that would be wrong!
+
+And yes it's can happen in practice that people working on one branch
+are not aware that people working on another branch fixed a bug! It
+could also happen that F fixed more than one bug or that it is a
+revert of some big development effort that was not ready to be
+released.
+
+In fact development teams often maintain both a development branch and
+a maintenance branch, and it would be quite easy for them if "git
+bisect" just worked when they want to bisect a regression on the
+development branch that is not on the maintenance branch. They should
+be able to start bisecting using:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect start dev main
+-------------
+
+To enable that additional nice feature, when a bisection is started
+and when some good commits are not ancestors of the bad commit, we
+first compute the merge bases between the bad and the good commits and
+we chose these merge bases as the first commits that will be checked
+out and tested.
+
+If it happens that one merge base is bad, then the bisection process
+is stopped with a message like:
+
+-------------
+The merge base BBBBBB is bad.
+This means the bug has been fixed between BBBBBB and [GGGGGG,...].
+-------------
+
+where BBBBBB is the sha1 hash of the bad merge base and [GGGGGG,...]
+is a comma separated list of the sha1 of the good commits.
+
+If some of the merge bases are skipped, then the bisection process
+continues, but the following message is printed for each skipped merge
+base:
+
+-------------
+Warning: the merge base between BBBBBB and [GGGGGG,...] must be skipped.
+So we cannot be sure the first bad commit is between MMMMMM and BBBBBB.
+We continue anyway.
+-------------
+
+where BBBBBB is the sha1 hash of the bad commit, MMMMMM is the sha1
+hash of the merge base that is skipped and [GGGGGG,...]  is a comma
+separated list of the sha1 of the good commits.
+
+So if there is no bad merge base, the bisection process continues as
+usual after this step.
+
+Best bisecting practices
+------------------------
+
+Using test suites and git bisect together
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+If you both have a test suite and use git bisect, then it becomes less
+important to check that all tests pass after each commit. Though of
+course it is probably a good idea to have some checks to avoid
+breaking too many things because it could make bisecting other bugs
+more difficult.
+
+You can focus your efforts to check at a few points (for example rc
+and beta releases) that all the T test cases pass for all the N
+configurations. And when some tests don't pass you can use "git
+bisect" (or better "git bisect run"). So you should perform roughly:
+
+-------------
+c * N * T + b * M * log2(M) tests
+-------------
+
+where c is the number of rounds of test (so a small constant) and b is
+the ratio of bug per commit (hopefully a small constant too).
+
+So of course it's much better as it's O(N \* T) vs O(N \* T \* M) if
+you would test everything after each commit.
+
+This means that test suites are good to prevent some bugs from being
+committed and they are also quite good to tell you that you have some
+bugs. But they are not so good to tell you where some bugs have been
+introduced. To tell you that efficiently, git bisect is needed.
+
+The other nice thing with test suites, is that when you have one, you
+already know how to test for bad behavior. So you can use this
+knowledge to create a new test case for "git bisect" when it appears
+that there is a regression. So it will be easier to bisect the bug and
+fix it. And then you can add the test case you just created to your
+test suite.
+
+So if you know how to create test cases and how to bisect, you will be
+subject to a virtuous circle:
+
+more tests => easier to create tests => easier to bisect => more tests
+
+So test suites and "git bisect" are complementary tools that are very
+powerful and efficient when used together.
+
+Bisecting build failures
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+You can very easily automatically bisect broken builds using something
+like:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect start BAD GOOD
+$ git bisect run make
+-------------
+
+Passing sh -c "some commands" to "git bisect run"
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+For example:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect run sh -c "make || exit 125; ./my_app | grep 'good output'"
+-------------
+
+On the other hand if you do this often, then it can be worth having
+scripts to avoid too much typing.
+
+Finding performance regressions
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Here is an example script that comes slightly modified from a real
+world script used by Junio Hamano <<4>>.
+
+This script can be passed to "git bisect run" to find the commit that
+introduced a performance regression:
+
+-------------
+#!/bin/sh
+
+# Build errors are not what I am interested in.
+make my_app || exit 255
+
+# We are checking if it stops in a reasonable amount of time, so
+# let it run in the background...
+
+./my_app >log 2>&1 &
+
+# ... and grab its process ID.
+pid=$!
+
+# ... and then wait for sufficiently long.
+sleep $NORMAL_TIME
+
+# ... and then see if the process is still there.
+if kill -0 $pid
+then
+	# It is still running -- that is bad.
+	kill $pid; sleep 1; kill $pid;
+	exit 1
+else
+	# It has already finished (the $pid process was no more),
+	# and we are happy.
+	exit 0
+fi
+-------------
+
+Following general best practices
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+It is obviously a good idea not to have commits with changes that
+knowingly break things, even if some other commits later fix the
+breakage.
+
+It is also a good idea when using any VCS to have only one small
+logical change in each commit.
+
+The smaller the changes in your commit, the most effective "git
+bisect" will be. And you will probably need "git bisect" less in the
+first place, as small changes are easier to review even if they are
+only reviewed by the commiter.
+
+Another good idea is to have good commit messages. They can be very
+helpful to understand why some changes were made.
+
+These general best practices are very helpful if you bisect often.
+
+Avoiding bug prone merges
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+First merges by themselves can introduce some regressions even when
+the merge needs no source code conflict resolution. This is because a
+semantic change can happen in one branch while the other branch is not
+aware of it.
+
+For example one branch can change the semantic of a function while the
+other branch add more calls to the same function.
+
+This is made much worse if many files have to be fixed to resolve
+conflicts. That's why such merges are called "evil merges". They can
+make regressions very difficult to track down. It can even be
+misleading to know the first bad commit if it happens to be such a
+merge, because people might think that the bug comes from bad conflict
+resolution when it comes from a semantic change in one branch.
+
+Anyway "git rebase" can be used to linearize history. This can be used
+either to avoid merging in the first place. Or it can be used to
+bisect on a linear history instead of the non linear one, as this
+should give more information in case of a semantic change in one
+branch.
+
+Merges can be also made simpler by using smaller branches or by using
+many topic branches instead of only long version related branches.
+
+And testing can be done more often in special integration branches
+like linux-next for the linux kernel.
+
+Adapting your work-flow
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+A special work-flow to process regressions can give great results.
+
+Here is an example of a work-flow used by Andreas Ericsson:
+
+* write, in the test suite, a test script that exposes the regression
+* use "git bisect run" to find the commit that introduced it
+* fix the bug that is often made obvious by the previous step
+* commit both the fix and the test script (and if needed more tests)
+
+And here is what Andreas said about this work-flow <<5>>:
+
+_____________
+To give some hard figures, we used to have an average report-to-fix
+cycle of 142.6 hours (according to our somewhat weird bug-tracker
+which just measures wall-clock time). Since we moved to git, we've
+lowered that to 16.2 hours. Primarily because we can stay on top of
+the bug fixing now, and because everyone's jockeying to get to fix
+bugs (we're quite proud of how lazy we are to let git find the bugs
+for us). Each new release results in ~40% fewer bugs (almost certainly
+due to how we now feel about writing tests).
+_____________
+
+Clearly this work-flow uses the virtuous circle between test suites
+and "git bisect". In fact it makes it the standard procedure to deal
+with regression.
+
+In other messages Andreas says that they also use the "best practices"
+described above: small logical commits, topic branches, no evil
+merge,... These practices all improve the bisectability of the commit
+graph, by making it easier and more useful to bisect.
+
+So a good work-flow should be designed around the above points. That
+is making bisecting easier, more useful and standard.
+
+Involving QA people and if possible end users
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+One nice about "git bisect" is that it is not only a developer
+tool. It can effectively be used by QA people or even end users (if
+they have access to the source code or if they can get access to all
+the builds).
+
+There was a discussion at one point on the linux kernel mailing list
+of whether it was ok to always ask end user to bisect, and very good
+points were made to support the point of view that it is ok.
+
+For example David Miller wrote <<6>>:
+
+_____________
+What people don't get is that this is a situation where the "end node
+principle" applies. When you have limited resources (here: developers)
+you don't push the bulk of the burden upon them. Instead you push
+things out to the resource you have a lot of, the end nodes (here:
+users), so that the situation actually scales.
+_____________
+
+This means that it is often "cheaper" if QA people or end users can do
+it.
+
+What is interesting too is that end users that are reporting bugs (or
+QA people that reproduced a bug) have access to the environment where
+the bug happens. So they can often more easily reproduce a
+regression. And if they can bisect, then more information will be
+extracted from the environment where the bug happens, which means that
+it will be easier to understand and then fix the bug.
+
+For open source projects it can be a good way to get more useful
+contributions from end users, and to introduce them to QA and
+development activities.
+
+Using complex scripts
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+In some cases like for kernel development it can be worth developing
+complex scripts to be able to fully automate bisecting.
+
+Here is what Ingo Molnar says about that <<7>>:
+
+_____________
+i have a fully automated bootup-hang bisection script. It is based on
+"git-bisect run". I run the script, it builds and boots kernels fully
+automatically, and when the bootup fails (the script notices that via
+the serial log, which it continuously watches - or via a timeout, if
+the system does not come up within 10 minutes it's a "bad" kernel),
+the script raises my attention via a beep and i power cycle the test
+box. (yeah, i should make use of a managed power outlet to 100%
+automate it)
+_____________
+
+Combining test suites, git bisect and other systems together
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+We have seen that test suites an git bisect are very powerful when
+used together. It can be even more powerful if you can combine them
+with other systems.
+
+For example some test suites could be run automatically at night with
+some unusual (or even random) configurations. And if a regression is
+found by a test suite, then "git bisect" can be automatically
+launched, and its result can be emailed to the author of the first bad
+commit found by "git bisect", and perhaps other people too. And a new
+entry in the bug tracking system could be automatically created too.
+
+
+The future of bisecting
+-----------------------
+
+"git replace"
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+We saw earlier that "git bisect skip" is now using a PRNG to try to
+avoid areas in the commit graph where commits are untestable. The
+problem is that sometimes the first bad commit will be in an
+untestable area.
+
+To simplify the discussion we will suppose that the untestable area is
+a simple string of commits and that it was created by a breakage
+introduced by one commit (let's call it BBC for bisect breaking
+commit) and later fixed by another one (let's call it BFC for bisect
+fixing commit).
+
+For example:
+
+-------------
+...-Y-BBC-X1-X2-X3-X4-X5-X6-BFC-Z-...
+-------------
+
+where we know that Y is good and BFC is bad, and where BBC and X1 to
+X6 are untestable.
+
+In this case if you are bisecting manually, what you can do is create
+a special branch that starts just before the BBC. The first commit in
+this branch should be the BBC with the BFC squashed into it. And the
+other commits in the branch should be the commits between BBC and BFC
+rebased on the first commit of the branch and then the commit after
+BFC also rebased on.
+
+For example:
+
+-------------
+      (BBC+BFC)-X1'-X2'-X3'-X4'-X5'-X6'-Z'
+     /
+...-Y-BBC-X1-X2-X3-X4-X5-X6-BFC-Z-...
+-------------
+
+where commits quoted with ' have been rebased.
+
+You can easily create such a branch with Git using interactive rebase.
+
+For example using:
+
+-------------
+$ git rebase -i Y Z
+-------------
+
+and then moving BFC after BBC and squashing it.
+
+After that you can start bisecting as usual in the new branch and you
+should eventually find the first bad commit.
+
+For example:
+
+-------------
+$ git bisect start Z' Y
+-------------
+
+If you are using "git bisect run", you can use the same manual fix up
+as above, and then start another "git bisect run" in the special
+branch. Or as the "git bisect" man page says, the script passed to
+"git bisect run" can apply a patch before it compiles and test the
+software <<8>>. The patch should turn a current untestable commits
+into a testable one. So the testing will result in "good" or "bad" and
+"git bisect" will be able to find the first bad commit. And the script
+should not forget to remove the patch once the testing is done before
+exiting from the script.
+
+(Note that instead of a patch you can use "git cherry-pick BFC" to
+apply the fix, and in this case you should use "git reset --hard
+HEAD^" to revert the cherry-pick after testing and before returning
+from the script.)
+
+But the above ways to work around untestable areas are a little bit
+clunky. Using special branches is nice because these branches can be
+shared by developers like usual branches, but the risk is that people
+will get many such branches. And it disrupts the normal "git bisect"
+work-flow. So, if you want to use "git bisect run" completely
+automatically, you have to add special code in your script to restart
+bisection in the special branches.
+
+Anyway one can notice in the above special branch example that the Z'
+and Z commits should point to the same source code state (the same
+"tree" in git parlance). That's because Z' result from applying the
+same changes as Z just in a slightly different order.
+
+So if we could just "replace" Z by Z' when we bisect, then we would
+not need to add anything to a script. It would just work for anyone in
+the project sharing the special branches and the replacements.
+
+With the example above that would give:
+
+-------------
+      (BBC+BFC)-X1'-X2'-X3'-X4'-X5'-X6'-Z'-...
+     /
+...-Y-BBC-X1-X2-X3-X4-X5-X6-BFC-Z
+-------------
+
+That's why the "git replace" command was created. Technically it
+stores replacements "refs" in the "refs/replace/" hierarchy. These
+"refs" are like branches (that are stored in "refs/heads/") or tags
+(that are stored in "refs/tags"), and that means that they can
+automatically be shared like branches or tags among developers.
+
+"git replace" is a very powerful mechanism. It can be used to fix
+commits in already released history, for example to change the commit
+message or the author. And it can also be used instead of git "grafts"
+to link a repository with another old repository.
+
+In fact it's this last feature that "sold" it to the git community, so
+it is now in the "master" branch of git's git repository and it should
+be released in git 1.6.5 in October or November 2009.
+
+One problem with "git replace" is that currently it stores all the
+replacements refs in "refs/replace/", but it would be perhaps better
+if the replacement refs that are useful only for bisecting would be in
+"refs/replace/bisect/". This way the replacement refs could be used
+only for bisecting, while other refs directly in "refs/replace/" would
+be used nearly all the time.
+
+Bisecting sporadic bugs
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Another possible improvement to "git bisect" would be to optionally
+add some redundancy to the tests performed so that it would be more
+reliable when tracking sporadic bugs.
+
+This has been requested by some kernel developers because some bugs
+called sporadic bugs do not appear in all the kernel builds because
+they are very dependent on the compiler output.
+
+The idea is that every 3 test for example, "git bisect" could ask the
+user to test a commit that has already been found to be "good" or
+"bad" (because one of its descendants or one of its ancestors has been
+found to be "good" or "bad" respectively). If it happens that a commit
+has been previously incorrectly classified then the bisection can be
+aborted early, hopefully before too many mistakes have been made. Then
+the user will have to look at what happened and then restart the
+bisection using a fixed bisect log.
+
+There is already a project called BBChop created by Ealdwulf Wuffinga
+on Github that does something like that using Bayesian Search Theory
+<<9>>:
+
+_____________
+BBChop is like 'git bisect' (or equivalent), but works when your bug
+is intermittent. That is, it works in the presence of false negatives
+(when a version happens to work this time even though it contains the
+bug). It assumes that there are no false positives (in principle, the
+same approach would work, but adding it may be non-trivial).
+_____________
+
+But BBChop is independent of any VCS and it would be easier for Git
+users to have something integrated in Git.
+
+Conclusion
+----------
+
+We have seen that regressions are an important problem, and that "git
+bisect" has nice features that complement very well practices and
+other tools, especially test suites, that are generally used to fight
+regressions. But it might be needed to change some work-flows and
+(bad) habits to get the most out of it.
+
+Some improvements to the algorithms inside "git bisect" are possible
+and some new features could help in some cases, but overall "git
+bisect" works already very well, is used a lot, and is already very
+useful. To back up that last claim, let's give the final word to Ingo
+Molnar when he was asked by the author how much time does he think
+"git bisect" saves him when he uses it:
+
+_____________
+a _lot_.
+
+About ten years ago did i do my first 'bisection' of a Linux patch
+queue. That was prior the Git (and even prior the BitKeeper) days. I
+literally days spent sorting out patches, creating what in essence
+were standalone commits that i guessed to be related to that bug.
+
+It was a tool of absolute last resort. I'd rather spend days looking
+at printk output than do a manual 'patch bisection'.
+
+With Git bisect it's a breeze: in the best case i can get a ~15 step
+kernel bisection done in 20-30 minutes, in an automated way. Even with
+manual help or when bisecting multiple, overlapping bugs, it's rarely
+more than an hour.
+
+In fact it's invaluable because there are bugs i would never even
+_try_ to debug if it wasn't for git bisect. In the past there were bug
+patterns that were immediately hopeless for me to debug - at best i
+could send the crash/bug signature to lkml and hope that someone else
+can think of something.
+
+And even if a bisection fails today it tells us something valuable
+about the bug: that it's non-deterministic - timing or kernel image
+layout dependent.
+
+So git bisect is unconditional goodness - and feel free to quote that
+;-)
+_____________
+
+Acknowledgements
+----------------
+
+Many thanks to Junio Hamano for his help in reviewing this paper, for
+reviewing the patches I sent to the git mailing list, for discussing
+some ideas and helping me improve them, for improving "git bisect" a
+lot and for his awesome work in maintaining and developing Git.
+
+Many thanks to Ingo Molnar for giving me very useful information that
+appears in this paper, for commenting on this paper, for his
+suggestions to improve "git bisect" and for evangelizing "git bisect"
+on the linux kernel mailing lists.
+
+Many thanks to Linus Torvalds for inventing, developing and
+evangelizing "git bisect", Git and Linux.
+
+Many thanks to the many other great people who helped one way or
+another when I worked on git, especially to Andreas Ericsson, Johannes
+Schindelin, H. Peter Anvin, Daniel Barkalow, Bill Lear, John Hawley,
+Shawn O. Pierce, Jeff King, Sam Vilain, Jon Seymour.
+
+Many thanks to the Linux-Kongress program committee for choosing the
+author to given a talk and for publishing this paper.
+
+References
+----------
+
+- [[[1]]] http://www.nist.gov/public_affairs/releases/n02-10.htm['Software Errors Cost U.S. Economy $59.5 Billion Annually'. Nist News Release.]
+- [[[2]]] http://java.sun.com/docs/codeconv/html/CodeConventions.doc.html#16712['Code Conventions for the Java Programming Language'. Sun Microsystems.]
+- [[[3]]] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_maintenance['Software maintenance'. Wikipedia.]
+- [[[4]]] http://article.gmane.org/gmane.comp.version-control.git/45195/[Junio C Hamano. 'Automated bisect success story'. Gmane.]
+- [[[5]]] http://lwn.net/Articles/317154/[Christian Couder. 'Fully automated bisecting with "git bisect run"'. LWN.net.]
+- [[[6]]] http://lwn.net/Articles/277872/[Jonathan Corbet. 'Bisection divides users and developers'. LWN.net.]
+- [[[7]]] http://article.gmane.org/gmane.linux.scsi/36652/[Ingo Molnar. 'Re: BUG 2.6.23-rc3 can't see sd partitions on Alpha'. Gmane.]
+- [[[8]]] http://www.kernel.org/pub/software/scm/git/docs/git-bisect.html[Junio C Hamano and the git-list. 'git-bisect(1) Manual Page'. Linux Kernel Archives.]
+- [[[9]]] http://github.com/Ealdwulf/bbchop[Ealdwulf. 'bbchop'. GitHub.]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index 63e7a42..c39d957 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@
  git bisect bad [<rev>]
  git bisect good [<rev>...]
  git bisect skip [(<rev>|<range>)...]
- git bisect reset [<branch>]
+ git bisect reset [<commit>]
  git bisect visualize
  git bisect replay <logfile>
  git bisect log
@@ -81,16 +81,27 @@
 Bisect reset
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-To return to the original head after a bisect session, issue the
-following command:
+After a bisect session, to clean up the bisection state and return to
+the original HEAD, issue the following command:
 
 ------------------------------------------------
 $ git bisect reset
 ------------------------------------------------
 
-This resets the tree to the original branch instead of being on the
-bisection commit ("git bisect start" will also do that, as it resets
-the bisection state).
+By default, this will return your tree to the commit that was checked
+out before `git bisect start`.  (A new `git bisect start` will also do
+that, as it cleans up the old bisection state.)
+
+With an optional argument, you can return to a different commit
+instead:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git bisect reset <commit>
+------------------------------------------------
+
+For example, `git bisect reset HEAD` will leave you on the current
+bisection commit and avoid switching commits at all, while `git bisect
+reset bisect/bad` will check out the first bad revision.
 
 Bisect visualize
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -319,6 +330,11 @@
 -------------
 Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.
 
+SEE ALSO
+--------
+link:git-bisect-lk2009.html[Fighting regressions with git bisect],
+linkgit:git-blame[1].
+
 GIT
 ---
 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-blame.txt b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
index 8c7b7b0..b786471 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-blame.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-blame.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
 --------
 [verse]
 'git blame' [-c] [-b] [-l] [--root] [-t] [-f] [-n] [-s] [-p] [-w] [--incremental] [-L n,m]
-            [-S <revs-file>] [-M] [-C] [-C] [--since=<date>]
+	    [-S <revs-file>] [-M] [-C] [-C] [-C] [--since=<date>]
 	    [<rev> | --contents <file> | --reverse <rev>] [--] <file>
 
 DESCRIPTION
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
index e9b3b40..7422185 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
@@ -9,6 +9,7 @@
 --------
 [verse]
 'git check-ref-format' <refname>
+'git check-ref-format' --print <refname>
 'git check-ref-format' --branch <branchname-shorthand>
 
 DESCRIPTION
@@ -42,7 +43,7 @@
 
 . They cannot contain a sequence `@{`.
 
-- They cannot contain a `\\`.
+. They cannot contain a `\`.
 
 These rules make it easy for shell script based tools to parse
 reference names, pathname expansion by the shell when a reference name is used
@@ -63,19 +64,31 @@
 
 . at-open-brace `@{` is used as a notation to access a reflog entry.
 
+With the `--print` option, if 'refname' is acceptable, it prints the
+canonicalized name of a hypothetical reference with that name.  That is,
+it prints 'refname' with any extra `/` characters removed.
+
 With the `--branch` option, it expands the ``previous branch syntax''
 `@{-n}`.  For example, `@{-1}` is a way to refer the last branch you
 were on.  This option should be used by porcelains to accept this
 syntax anywhere a branch name is expected, so they can act as if you
 typed the branch name.
 
-EXAMPLE
--------
+EXAMPLES
+--------
 
-git check-ref-format --branch @{-1}::
+* Print the name of the previous branch:
++
+------------
+$ git check-ref-format --branch @{-1}
+------------
 
-Print the name of the previous branch.
-
+* Determine the reference name to use for a new branch:
++
+------------
+$ ref=$(git check-ref-format --print "refs/heads/$newbranch") ||
+die "we do not like '$newbranch' as a branch name."
+------------
 
 GIT
 ---
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index 7ccd742..b49de66 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -181,7 +181,7 @@
 Examples
 --------
 
-Clone from upstream::
+* Clone from upstream:
 +
 ------------
 $ git clone git://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/.../linux-2.6 my2.6
@@ -190,7 +190,7 @@
 ------------
 
 
-Make a local clone that borrows from the current directory, without checking things out::
+* Make a local clone that borrows from the current directory, without checking things out:
 +
 ------------
 $ git clone -l -s -n . ../copy
@@ -199,7 +199,7 @@
 ------------
 
 
-Clone from upstream while borrowing from an existing local directory::
+* Clone from upstream while borrowing from an existing local directory:
 +
 ------------
 $ git clone --reference my2.6 \
@@ -209,14 +209,14 @@
 ------------
 
 
-Create a bare repository to publish your changes to the public::
+* Create a bare repository to publish your changes to the public:
 +
 ------------
 $ git clone --bare -l /home/proj/.git /pub/scm/proj.git
 ------------
 
 
-Create a repository on the kernel.org machine that borrows from Linus::
+* Create a repository on the kernel.org machine that borrows from Linus:
 +
 ------------
 $ git clone --bare -l -s /pub/scm/.../torvalds/linux-2.6.git \
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 0578a40..d227cec 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
 --------
 [verse]
 'git commit' [-a | --interactive] [-s] [-v] [-u<mode>] [--amend] [--dry-run]
-	   [(-c | -C) <commit>] [-F <file> | -m <msg>]
+	   [(-c | -C) <commit>] [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author]
 	   [--allow-empty] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
 	   [--cleanup=<mode>] [--] [[-i | -o ]<file>...]
 
@@ -69,6 +69,11 @@
 	Like '-C', but with '-c' the editor is invoked, so that
 	the user can further edit the commit message.
 
+--reset-author::
+	When used with -C/-c/--amend options, declare that the
+	authorship of the resulting commit now belongs of the committer.
+	This also renews the author timestamp.
+
 -F <file>::
 --file=<file>::
 	Take the commit message from the given file.  Use '-' to
@@ -323,7 +328,7 @@
 The editor used to edit the commit log message will be chosen from the
 GIT_EDITOR environment variable, the core.editor configuration variable, the
 VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable (in that
-order).
+order).  See linkgit:git-var[1] for details.
 
 HOOKS
 -----
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
index 785779e..99a7c14 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cvsserver.txt
@@ -182,10 +182,9 @@
 ----------------
 
 'git-cvsserver' uses one database per git head (i.e. CVS module) to
-store information about the repository for faster access. The
-database doesn't contain any persistent data and can be completely
-regenerated from the git repository at any time. The database
-needs to be updated (i.e. written to) after every commit.
+store information about the repository to maintain consistent
+CVS revision numbers. The database needs to be
+updated (i.e. written to) after every commit.
 
 If the commit is done directly by using `git` (as opposed to
 using 'git-cvsserver') the update will need to happen on the
@@ -204,6 +203,18 @@
 'git-cvsserver' write access to the database file without granting
 them write access to the directory, too.
 
+The database can not be reliably regenerated in a
+consistent form after the branch it is tracking has changed.
+Example: For merged branches, 'git-cvsserver' only tracks
+one branch of development, and after a 'git-merge' an
+incrementally updated database may track a different branch
+than a database regenerated from scratch, causing inconsistent
+CVS revision numbers. `git-cvsserver` has no way of knowing which
+branch it would have picked if it had been run incrementally
+pre-merge. So if you have to fully or partially (from old
+backup) regenerate the database, you should be suspicious
+of pre-existing CVS sandboxes.
+
 You can configure the database backend with the following
 configuration variables:
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-describe.txt b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
index 2f97916..78b9808 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-describe.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,9 @@
 
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
+[verse]
 'git describe' [--all] [--tags] [--contains] [--abbrev=<n>] <committish>...
+'git describe' [--all] [--tags] [--contains] [--abbrev=<n>] --dirty[=<mark>]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -27,6 +29,11 @@
 <committish>...::
 	Committish object names to describe.
 
+--dirty[=<mark>]::
+	Describe the working tree.
+	It means describe HEAD and appends <mark> (`-dirty` by
+	default) if the working tree is dirty.
+
 --all::
 	Instead of using only the annotated tags, use any ref
 	found in `.git/refs/`.  This option enables matching
diff --git a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
index 96a6c51..8e9aed6 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-difftool.txt
@@ -31,7 +31,7 @@
 	Use the diff tool specified by <tool>.
 	Valid merge tools are:
 	kdiff3, kompare, tkdiff, meld, xxdiff, emerge, vimdiff, gvimdiff,
-	ecmerge, diffuse, opendiff and araxis.
+	ecmerge, diffuse, opendiff, p4merge and araxis.
 +
 If a diff tool is not specified, 'git-difftool'
 will use the configuration variable `diff.tool`.  If the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
index c2f483a..79c5f69 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
@@ -50,6 +50,12 @@
 	importers may wish to lower this, such as to ensure the
 	resulting packfiles fit on CDs.
 
+--big-file-threshold=<n>::
+	Maximum size of a blob that fast-import will attempt to
+	create a delta for, expressed in bytes.  The default is 512m
+	(512 MiB).  Some importers may wish to lower this on systems
+	with constrained memory.
+
 --depth=<n>::
 	Maximum delta depth, for blob and tree deltification.
 	Default is 10.
@@ -311,12 +317,12 @@
 ....
 	'commit' SP <ref> LF
 	mark?
-	('author' SP <name> SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF)?
-	'committer' SP <name> SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF
+	('author' (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF)?
+	'committer' (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF
 	data
 	('from' SP <committish> LF)?
 	('merge' SP <committish> LF)?
-	(filemodify | filedelete | filecopy | filerename | filedeleteall)*
+	(filemodify | filedelete | filecopy | filerename | filedeleteall | notemodify)*
 	LF?
 ....
 
@@ -339,14 +345,13 @@
 and are not interpreted by Git.  Currently they must be encoded in
 UTF-8, as fast-import does not permit other encodings to be specified.
 
-Zero or more `filemodify`, `filedelete`, `filecopy`, `filerename`
-and `filedeleteall` commands
+Zero or more `filemodify`, `filedelete`, `filecopy`, `filerename`,
+`filedeleteall` and `notemodify` commands
 may be included to update the contents of the branch prior to
 creating the commit.  These commands may be supplied in any order.
 However it is recommended that a `filedeleteall` command precede
-all `filemodify`, `filecopy` and `filerename` commands in the same
-commit, as `filedeleteall`
-wipes the branch clean (see below).
+all `filemodify`, `filecopy`, `filerename` and `notemodify` commands in
+the same commit, as `filedeleteall` wipes the branch clean (see below).
 
 The `LF` after the command is optional (it used to be required).
 
@@ -595,6 +600,40 @@
 projects); so frontends that can easily obtain only the affected
 paths for a commit are encouraged to do so.
 
+`notemodify`
+^^^^^^^^^^^^
+Included in a `commit` command to add a new note (annotating a given
+commit) or change the content of an existing note.  This command has
+two different means of specifying the content of the note.
+
+External data format::
+	The data content for the note was already supplied by a prior
+	`blob` command.  The frontend just needs to connect it to the
+	commit that is to be annotated.
++
+....
+	'N' SP <dataref> SP <committish> LF
+....
++
+Here `<dataref>` can be either a mark reference (`:<idnum>`)
+set by a prior `blob` command, or a full 40-byte SHA-1 of an
+existing Git blob object.
+
+Inline data format::
+	The data content for the note has not been supplied yet.
+	The frontend wants to supply it as part of this modify
+	command.
++
+....
+	'N' SP 'inline' SP <committish> LF
+	data
+....
++
+See below for a detailed description of the `data` command.
+
+In both formats `<committish>` is any of the commit specification
+expressions also accepted by `from` (see above).
+
 `mark`
 ~~~~~~
 Arranges for fast-import to save a reference to the current object, allowing
@@ -624,7 +663,7 @@
 ....
 	'tag' SP <name> LF
 	'from' SP <committish> LF
-	'tagger' SP <name> SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF
+	'tagger' (SP <name>)? SP LT <email> GT SP <when> LF
 	data
 ....
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
index f2483d6..9b9e568 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
@@ -10,11 +10,17 @@
 --------
 'git fetch' <options> <repository> <refspec>...
 
+'git fetch' <options> <group>
+
+'git fetch' --multiple <options> [<repository> | <group>]...
+
+'git fetch' --all <options>
+
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
-Fetches named heads or tags from another repository, along with
-the objects necessary to complete them.
+Fetches named heads or tags from one or more other repositories,
+along with the objects necessary to complete them.
 
 The ref names and their object names of fetched refs are stored
 in `.git/FETCH_HEAD`.  This information is left for a later merge
@@ -28,6 +34,10 @@
 those missing tags.  If the other end has tags that point at
 branches you are not interested in, you will not get them.
 
+'git fetch' can fetch from either a single named repository, or
+or from several repositories at once if <group> is given and
+there is a remotes.<group> entry in the configuration file.
+(See linkgit:git-config[1]).
 
 OPTIONS
 -------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
index 2b40bab..394a77a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-filter-branch.txt
@@ -159,7 +159,18 @@
 --subdirectory-filter <directory>::
 	Only look at the history which touches the given subdirectory.
 	The result will contain that directory (and only that) as its
-	project root.
+	project root.  Implies --remap-to-ancestor.
+
+--remap-to-ancestor::
+	Rewrite refs to the nearest rewritten ancestor instead of
+	ignoring them.
++
+Normally, positive refs on the command line are only changed if the
+commit they point to was rewritten.  However, you can limit the extent
+of this rewriting by using linkgit:rev-list[1] arguments, e.g., path
+limiters.  Refs pointing to such excluded commits would then normally
+be ignored.  With this option, they are instead rewritten to point at
+the nearest ancestor that was not excluded.
 
 --prune-empty::
 	Some kind of filters will generate empty commits, that left the tree
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index 687e667..f1fd0df 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -43,28 +43,28 @@
 
 The first rule takes precedence in the case of a single <commit>.  To
 apply the second rule, i.e., format everything since the beginning of
-history up until <commit>, use the '\--root' option: "git format-patch
-\--root <commit>".  If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
-can do this with "git format-patch -1 <commit>".
+history up until <commit>, use the '\--root' option: `git format-patch
+\--root <commit>`.  If you want to format only <commit> itself, you
+can do this with `git format-patch -1 <commit>`.
 
 By default, each output file is numbered sequentially from 1, and uses the
 first line of the commit message (massaged for pathname safety) as
-the filename. With the --numbered-files option, the output file names
+the filename. With the `--numbered-files` option, the output file names
 will only be numbers, without the first line of the commit appended.
 The names of the output files are printed to standard
-output, unless the --stdout option is specified.
+output, unless the `--stdout` option is specified.
 
-If -o is specified, output files are created in <dir>.  Otherwise
+If `-o` is specified, output files are created in <dir>.  Otherwise
 they are created in the current working directory.
 
 By default, the subject of a single patch is "[PATCH] First Line" and
 the subject when multiple patches are output is "[PATCH n/m] First
-Line". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use -n.  To omit
-patch numbers from the subject, use -N
+Line". To force 1/1 to be added for a single patch, use `-n`.  To omit
+patch numbers from the subject, use `-N`.
 
-If given --thread, 'git-format-patch' will generate In-Reply-To and
-References headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
-as replies to the first mail; this also generates a Message-Id header to
+If given `--thread`, `git-format-patch` will generate `In-Reply-To` and
+`References` headers to make the second and subsequent patch mails appear
+as replies to the first mail; this also generates a `Message-Id` header to
 reference.
 
 OPTIONS
@@ -112,7 +112,7 @@
 --attach[=<boundary>]::
 	Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
 	which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
-	second part, with "Content-Disposition: attachment".
+	second part, with `Content-Disposition: attachment`.
 
 --no-attach::
 	Disable the creation of an attachment, overriding the
@@ -121,13 +121,13 @@
 --inline[=<boundary>]::
 	Create multipart/mixed attachment, the first part of
 	which is the commit message and the patch itself in the
-	second part, with "Content-Disposition: inline".
+	second part, with `Content-Disposition: inline`.
 
 --thread[=<style>]::
 --no-thread::
-	Controls addition of In-Reply-To and References headers to
+	Controls addition of `In-Reply-To` and `References` headers to
 	make the second and subsequent mails appear as replies to the
-	first.  Also controls generation of the Message-Id header to
+	first.  Also controls generation of the `Message-Id` header to
 	reference.
 +
 The optional <style> argument can be either `shallow` or `deep`.
@@ -136,16 +136,16 @@
 `\--in-reply-to`, and the first patch mail, in this order.  'deep'
 threading makes every mail a reply to the previous one.
 +
-The default is --no-thread, unless the 'format.thread' configuration
-is set.  If --thread is specified without a style, it defaults to the
+The default is `--no-thread`, unless the 'format.thread' configuration
+is set.  If `--thread` is specified without a style, it defaults to the
 style specified by 'format.thread' if any, or else `shallow`.
 +
 Beware that the default for 'git send-email' is to thread emails
-itself.  If you want 'git format-patch' to take care of hreading, you
-will want to ensure that threading is disabled for 'git send-email'.
+itself.  If you want `git format-patch` to take care of threading, you
+will want to ensure that threading is disabled for `git send-email`.
 
 --in-reply-to=Message-Id::
-	Make the first mail (or all the mails with --no-thread) appear as a
+	Make the first mail (or all the mails with `--no-thread`) appear as a
 	reply to the given Message-Id, which avoids breaking threads to
 	provide a new patch series.
 
@@ -160,16 +160,16 @@
 	Instead of the standard '[PATCH]' prefix in the subject
 	line, instead use '[<Subject-Prefix>]'. This
 	allows for useful naming of a patch series, and can be
-	combined with the --numbered option.
+	combined with the `--numbered` option.
 
 --cc=<email>::
-	Add a "Cc:" header to the email headers. This is in addition
+	Add a `Cc:` header to the email headers. This is in addition
 	to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
 
 --add-header=<header>::
 	Add an arbitrary header to the email headers.  This is in addition
 	to any configured headers, and may be used multiple times.
-	For example, --add-header="Organization: git-foo"
+	For example, `--add-header="Organization: git-foo"`
 
 --cover-letter::
 	In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
index 287c4fc..6fe9484 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@
 --------
 [verse]
 'git fsck' [--tags] [--root] [--unreachable] [--cache] [--no-reflogs]
-	 [--full] [--strict] [--verbose] [--lost-found] [<object>*]
+	 [--[no-]full] [--strict] [--verbose] [--lost-found] [<object>*]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -52,7 +52,8 @@
 	or $GIT_DIR/objects/info/alternates,
 	and in packed git archives found in $GIT_DIR/objects/pack
 	and corresponding pack subdirectories in alternate
-	object pools.
+	object pools.  This is now default; you can turn it off
+	with --no-full.
 
 --strict::
 	Enable more strict checking, namely to catch a file mode
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt b/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..67aec06
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-backend.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,178 @@
+git-http-backend(1)
+===================
+
+NAME
+----
+git-http-backend - Server side implementation of Git over HTTP
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-http-backend'
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+A simple CGI program to serve the contents of a Git repository to Git
+clients accessing the repository over http:// and https:// protocols.
+The program supports clients fetching using both the smart HTTP protcol
+and the backwards-compatible dumb HTTP protocol, as well as clients
+pushing using the smart HTTP protocol.
+
+By default, only the `upload-pack` service is enabled, which serves
+'git-fetch-pack' and 'git-ls-remote' clients, which are invoked from
+'git-fetch', 'git-pull', and 'git-clone'.  If the client is authenticated,
+the `receive-pack` service is enabled, which serves 'git-send-pack'
+clients, which is invoked from 'git-push'.
+
+SERVICES
+--------
+These services can be enabled/disabled using the per-repository
+configuration file:
+
+http.getanyfile::
+	This serves older Git clients which are unable to use the
+	upload pack service.  When enabled, clients are able to read
+	any file within the repository, including objects that are
+	no longer reachable from a branch but are still present.
+	It is enabled by default, but a repository can disable it
+	by setting this configuration item to `false`.
+
+http.uploadpack::
+	This serves 'git-fetch-pack' and 'git-ls-remote' clients.
+	It is enabled by default, but a repository can disable it
+	by setting this configuration item to `false`.
+
+http.receivepack::
+	This serves 'git-send-pack' clients, allowing push.  It is
+	disabled by default for anonymous users, and enabled by
+	default for users authenticated by the web server.  It can be
+	disabled by setting this item to `false`, or enabled for all
+	users, including anonymous users, by setting it to `true`.
+
+URL TRANSLATION
+---------------
+To determine the location of the repository on disk, 'git-http-backend'
+concatenates the environment variables PATH_INFO, which is set
+automatically by the web server, and GIT_PROJECT_ROOT, which must be set
+manually in the web server configuration.  If GIT_PROJECT_ROOT is not
+set, 'git-http-backend' reads PATH_TRANSLATED, which is also set
+automatically by the web server.
+
+EXAMPLES
+--------
+All of the following examples map 'http://$hostname/git/foo/bar.git'
+to '/var/www/git/foo/bar.git'.
+
+Apache 2.x::
+	Ensure mod_cgi, mod_alias, and mod_env are enabled, set
+	GIT_PROJECT_ROOT (or DocumentRoot) appropriately, and
+	create a ScriptAlias to the CGI:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+SetEnv GIT_PROJECT_ROOT /var/www/git
+ScriptAlias /git/ /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/
+----------------------------------------------------------------
++
+To enable anonymous read access but authenticated write access,
+require authorization with a LocationMatch directive:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+<LocationMatch "^/git/.*/git-receive-pack$">
+	AuthType Basic
+	AuthName "Git Access"
+	Require group committers
+	...
+</LocationMatch>
+----------------------------------------------------------------
++
+To require authentication for both reads and writes, use a Location
+directive around the repository, or one of its parent directories:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+<Location /git/private>
+	AuthType Basic
+	AuthName "Private Git Access"
+	Require group committers
+	...
+</Location>
+----------------------------------------------------------------
++
+To serve gitweb at the same url, use a ScriptAliasMatch to only
+those URLs that 'git-http-backend' can handle, and forward the
+rest to gitweb:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+ScriptAliasMatch \
+	"(?x)^/git/(.*/(HEAD | \
+			info/refs | \
+			objects/(info/[^/]+ | \
+				 [0-9a-f]{2}/[0-9a-f]{38} | \
+				 pack/pack-[0-9a-f]{40}\.(pack|idx)) | \
+			git-(upload|receive)-pack))$" \
+	/usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/$1
+
+ScriptAlias /git/ /var/www/cgi-bin/gitweb.cgi/
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+
+Accelerated static Apache 2.x::
+	Similar to the above, but Apache can be used to return static
+	files that are stored on disk.	On many systems this may
+	be more efficient as Apache can ask the kernel to copy the
+	file contents from the file system directly to the network:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+SetEnv GIT_PROJECT_ROOT /var/www/git
+
+AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/[0-9a-f]{2}/[0-9a-f]{38})$          /var/www/git/$1
+AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/pack/pack-[0-9a-f]{40}.(pack|idx))$ /var/www/git/$1
+ScriptAlias /git/ /usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/
+----------------------------------------------------------------
++
+This can be combined with the gitweb configuration:
++
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+SetEnv GIT_PROJECT_ROOT /var/www/git
+
+AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/[0-9a-f]{2}/[0-9a-f]{38})$          /var/www/git/$1
+AliasMatch ^/git/(.*/objects/pack/pack-[0-9a-f]{40}.(pack|idx))$ /var/www/git/$1
+ScriptAliasMatch \
+	"(?x)^/git/(.*/(HEAD | \
+			info/refs | \
+			objects/info/[^/]+ | \
+			git-(upload|receive)-pack))$" \
+	/usr/libexec/git-core/git-http-backend/$1
+ScriptAlias /git/ /var/www/cgi-bin/gitweb.cgi/
+----------------------------------------------------------------
+
+
+ENVIRONMENT
+-----------
+'git-http-backend' relies upon the CGI environment variables set
+by the invoking web server, including:
+
+* PATH_INFO (if GIT_PROJECT_ROOT is set, otherwise PATH_TRANSLATED)
+* REMOTE_USER
+* REMOTE_ADDR
+* CONTENT_TYPE
+* QUERY_STRING
+* REQUEST_METHOD
+
+The backend process sets GIT_COMMITTER_NAME to '$REMOTE_USER' and
+GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL to '$\{REMOTE_USER}@http.$\{REMOTE_ADDR\}',
+ensuring that any reflogs created by 'git-receive-pack' contain some
+identifying information of the remote user who performed the push.
+
+All CGI environment variables are available to each of the hooks
+invoked by the 'git-receive-pack'.
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>.
+
+Documentation
+--------------
+Documentation by Shawn O. Pearce <spearce@spearce.org>.
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-http-push.txt b/Documentation/git-http-push.txt
index aef383e..ddf7a18 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-http-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-http-push.txt
@@ -82,11 +82,11 @@
 
 Without '--force', the <src> ref is stored at the remote only if
 <dst> does not exist, or <dst> is a proper subset (i.e. an
-ancestor) of <src>.  This check, known as "fast forward check",
+ancestor) of <src>.  This check, known as "fast-forward check",
 is performed in order to avoid accidentally overwriting the
 remote ref and lose other peoples' commits from there.
 
-With '--force', the fast forward check is disabled for all refs.
+With '--force', the fast-forward check is disabled for all refs.
 
 Optionally, a <ref> parameter can be prefixed with a plus '+' sign
 to disable the fast-forward check only on that ref.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt b/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
index 996c3fc..b81ac98 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mailinfo.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@
 
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
-'git mailinfo' [-k] [-u | --encoding=<encoding> | -n] [--scissors] <msg> <patch>
+'git mailinfo' [-k|-b] [-u | --encoding=<encoding> | -n] [--scissors] <msg> <patch>
 
 
 DESCRIPTION
@@ -32,6 +32,11 @@
 	munging, and is most useful when used to read back
 	'git-format-patch -k' output.
 
+-b::
+	When -k is not in effect, all leading strings bracketed with '['
+	and ']' pairs are stripped.  This option limits the stripping to
+	only the pairs whose bracketed string contains the word "PATCH".
+
 -u::
 	The commit log message, author name and author email are
 	taken from the e-mail, and after minimally decoding MIME
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
index 68ed6c0..4a6f7f3 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mergetool.txt
@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@
 	Use the merge resolution program specified by <tool>.
 	Valid merge tools are:
 	kdiff3, tkdiff, meld, xxdiff, emerge, vimdiff, gvimdiff, ecmerge,
-	diffuse, tortoisemerge, opendiff and araxis.
+	diffuse, tortoisemerge, opendiff, p4merge and araxis.
 +
 If a merge resolution program is not specified, 'git-mergetool'
 will use the configuration variable `merge.tool`.  If the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-notes.txt b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..94cceb1
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,60 @@
+git-notes(1)
+============
+
+NAME
+----
+git-notes - Add/inspect commit notes
+
+SYNOPSIS
+--------
+[verse]
+'git-notes' (edit [-F <file> | -m <msg>] | show) [commit]
+
+DESCRIPTION
+-----------
+This command allows you to add notes to commit messages, without
+changing the commit.  To discern these notes from the message stored
+in the commit object, the notes are indented like the message, after
+an unindented line saying "Notes:".
+
+To disable commit notes, you have to set the config variable
+core.notesRef to the empty string.  Alternatively, you can set it
+to a different ref, something like "refs/notes/bugzilla".  This setting
+can be overridden by the environment variable "GIT_NOTES_REF".
+
+
+SUBCOMMANDS
+-----------
+
+edit::
+	Edit the notes for a given commit (defaults to HEAD).
+
+show::
+	Show the notes for a given commit (defaults to HEAD).
+
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+-m <msg>::
+	Use the given note message (instead of prompting).
+	If multiple `-m` (or `-F`) options are given, their
+	values are concatenated as separate paragraphs.
+
+-F <file>::
+	Take the note message from the given file.  Use '-' to
+	read the note message from the standard input.
+	If multiple `-F` (or `-m`) options are given, their
+	values are concatenated as separate paragraphs.
+
+
+Author
+------
+Written by Johannes Schindelin <johannes.schindelin@gmx.de>
+
+Documentation
+-------------
+Documentation by Johannes Schindelin
+
+GIT
+---
+Part of the linkgit:git[7] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index 37c8895..ab1bf99 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -50,9 +50,9 @@
 +
 The object referenced by <src> is used to update the <dst> reference
 on the remote side, but by default this is only allowed if the
-update can fast forward <dst>.  By having the optional leading `{plus}`,
+update can fast-forward <dst>.  By having the optional leading `{plus}`,
 you can tell git to update the <dst> ref even when the update is not a
-fast forward.  This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>.  See
+fast-forward.  This does *not* attempt to merge <src> into <dst>.  See
 EXAMPLES below for details.
 +
 `tag <tag>` means the same as `refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>`.
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@
 Pushing an empty <src> allows you to delete the <dst> ref from
 the remote repository.
 +
-The special refspec `:` (or `{plus}:` to allow non-fast forward updates)
+The special refspec `:` (or `{plus}:` to allow non-fast-forward updates)
 directs git to push "matching" branches: for every branch that exists on
 the local side, the remote side is updated if a branch of the same name
 already exists on the remote side.  This is the default operation mode
@@ -165,21 +165,26 @@
  <flag> \t <from>:<to> \t <summary> (<reason>)
 -------------------------------
 
+The status of up-to-date refs is shown only if --porcelain or --verbose
+option is used.
+
 flag::
-	A single character indicating the status of the ref. This is
-	blank for a successfully pushed ref, `!` for a ref that was
-	rejected or failed to push, and '=' for a ref that was up to
-	date and did not need pushing (note that the status of up to
-	date refs is shown only when `git push` is running verbosely).
+	A single character indicating the status of the ref:
+(space);; for a successfully pushed fast-forward;
+`{plus}`;; for a successful forced update;
+`-`;; for a successfully deleted ref;
+`*`;; for a successfully pushed new ref;
+`!`;; for a ref that was rejected or failed to push; and
+`=`;; for a ref that was up to date and did not need pushing.
 
 summary::
 	For a successfully pushed ref, the summary shows the old and new
 	values of the ref in a form suitable for using as an argument to
 	`git log` (this is `<old>..<new>` in most cases, and
-	`<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast forward updates). For a
+	`<old>...<new>` for forced non-fast-forward updates). For a
 	failed update, more details are given for the failure.
 	The string `rejected` indicates that git did not try to send the
-	ref at all (typically because it is not a fast forward). The
+	ref at all (typically because it is not a fast-forward). The
 	string `remote rejected` indicates that the remote end refused
 	the update; this rejection is typically caused by a hook on the
 	remote side. The string `remote failure` indicates that the
@@ -347,9 +352,9 @@
 
 git push origin {plus}dev:master::
 	Update the origin repository's master branch with the dev branch,
-	allowing non-fast forward updates.  *This can leave unreferenced
+	allowing non-fast-forward updates.  *This can leave unreferenced
 	commits dangling in the origin repository.*  Consider the
-	following situation, where a fast forward is not possible:
+	following situation, where a fast-forward is not possible:
 +
 ----
 	    o---o---o---A---B  origin/master
diff --git a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
index 4a932b0..a10ce4b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-read-tree.txt
@@ -144,7 +144,7 @@
 Typically, this is invoked as `git read-tree -m $H $M`, where $H
 is the head commit of the current repository, and $M is the head
 of a foreign tree, which is simply ahead of $H (i.e. we are in a
-fast forward situation).
+fast-forward situation).
 
 When two trees are specified, the user is telling 'git-read-tree'
 the following:
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index 0aefc34..ca5e1e8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -228,13 +228,23 @@
 	Use merging strategies to rebase.  When the recursive (default) merge
 	strategy is used, this allows rebase to be aware of renames on the
 	upstream side.
++
+Note that a rebase merge works by replaying each commit from the working
+branch on top of the <upstream> branch.  Because of this, when a merge
+conflict happens, the side reported as 'ours' is the so-far rebased
+series, starting with <upstream>, and 'theirs' is the working branch.  In
+other words, the sides are swapped.
 
 -s <strategy>::
 --strategy=<strategy>::
 	Use the given merge strategy.
-	If there is no `-s` option, a built-in list of strategies
-	is used instead ('git-merge-recursive' when merging a single
-	head, 'git-merge-octopus' otherwise).  This implies --merge.
+	If there is no `-s` option 'git-merge-recursive' is used
+	instead.  This implies --merge.
++
+Because 'git-rebase' replays each commit from the working branch
+on top of the <upstream> branch using the given strategy, using
+the 'ours' strategy simply discards all patches from the <branch>,
+which makes little sense.
 
 -q::
 --quiet::
@@ -368,14 +378,17 @@
 the files and/or the commit message, amend the commit, and continue
 rebasing.
 
+If you just want to edit the commit message for a commit, replace the
+command "pick" with the command "reword".
+
 If you want to fold two or more commits into one, replace the command
 "pick" with "squash" for the second and subsequent commit.  If the
 commits had different authors, it will attribute the squashed commit to
 the author of the first commit.
 
-In both cases, or when a "pick" does not succeed (because of merge
-errors), the loop will stop to let you fix things, and you can continue
-the loop with `git rebase --continue`.
+'git-rebase' will stop when "pick" has been replaced with "edit" or
+when a command fails due to merge errors. When you are done editing
+and/or resolving conflicts you can continue with `git rebase --continue`.
 
 For example, if you want to reorder the last 5 commits, such that what
 was HEAD~4 becomes the new HEAD. To achieve that, you would call
diff --git a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
index 514f03c..cb5f405 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-receive-pack.txt
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@
 program pair is meant to be used to push updates to remote
 repository.  For pull operations, see linkgit:git-fetch-pack[1].
 
-The command allows for creation and fast forwarding of sha1 refs
+The command allows for creation and fast-forwarding of sha1 refs
 (heads/tags) on the remote end (strictly speaking, it is the
 local end 'git-receive-pack' runs, but to the user who is sitting at
 the send-pack end, it is updating the remote.  Confused?)
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
index 7f7a544..6b44ee1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
@@ -18,9 +18,7 @@
 [verse]
 'git reflog expire' [--dry-run] [--stale-fix] [--verbose]
 	[--expire=<time>] [--expire-unreachable=<time>] [--all] <refs>...
-+
 'git reflog delete' ref@\{specifier\}...
-+
 'git reflog' ['show'] [log-options] [<ref>]
 
 Reflog is a mechanism to record when the tip of branches are
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txt b/Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txt
index 173ee23..8beb42d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote-helpers.txt
@@ -34,15 +34,51 @@
 	value of the ref. A space-separated list of attributes follows
 	the name; unrecognized attributes are ignored. After the
 	complete list, outputs a blank line.
++
+If 'push' is supported this may be called as 'list for-push'
+to obtain the current refs prior to sending one or more 'push'
+commands to the helper.
+
+'option' <name> <value>::
+	Set the transport helper option <name> to <value>.  Outputs a
+	single line containing one of 'ok' (option successfully set),
+	'unsupported' (option not recognized) or 'error <msg>'
+	(option <name> is supported but <value> is not correct
+	for it).  Options should be set before other commands,
+	and may how those commands behave.
++
+Supported if the helper has the "option" capability.
 
 'fetch' <sha1> <name>::
-	Fetches the given object, writing the necessary objects to the
-	database. Outputs a blank line when the fetch is
-	complete. Only objects which were reported in the ref list
-	with a sha1 may be fetched this way.
+	Fetches the given object, writing the necessary objects
+	to the database.  Fetch commands are sent in a batch, one
+	per line, and the batch is terminated with a blank line.
+	Outputs a single blank line when all fetch commands in the
+	same batch are complete. Only objects which were reported
+	in the ref list with a sha1 may be fetched this way.
++
+Optionally may output a 'lock <file>' line indicating a file under
+GIT_DIR/objects/pack which is keeping a pack until refs can be
+suitably updated.
 +
 Supported if the helper has the "fetch" capability.
 
+'push' +<src>:<dst>::
+	Pushes the given <src> commit or branch locally to the
+	remote branch described by <dst>.  A batch sequence of
+	one or more push commands is terminated with a blank line.
++
+Zero or more protocol options may be entered after the last 'push'
+command, before the batch's terminating blank line.
++
+When the push is complete, outputs one or more 'ok <dst>' or
+'error <dst> <why>?' lines to indicate success or failure of
+each pushed ref.  The status report output is terminated by
+a blank line.  The option field <why> may be quoted in a C
+style string if it contains an LF.
++
+Supported if the helper has the "push" capability.
+
 If a fatal error occurs, the program writes the error message to
 stderr and exits. The caller should expect that a suitable error
 message has been printed if the child closes the connection without
@@ -57,10 +93,49 @@
 'fetch'::
 	This helper supports the 'fetch' command.
 
+'option'::
+	This helper supports the option command.
+
+'push'::
+	This helper supports the 'push' command.
+
 REF LIST ATTRIBUTES
 -------------------
 
-None are defined yet, but the caller must accept any which are supplied.
+'for-push'::
+	The caller wants to use the ref list to prepare push
+	commands.  A helper might chose to acquire the ref list by
+	opening a different type of connection to the destination.
+
+OPTIONS
+-------
+'option verbosity' <N>::
+	Change the level of messages displayed by the helper.
+	When N is 0 the end-user has asked the process to be
+	quiet, and the helper should produce only error output.
+	N of 1 is the default level of verbosity, higher values
+	of N correspond to the number of -v flags passed on the
+	command line.
+
+'option progress' \{'true'|'false'\}::
+	Enable (or disable) progress messages displayed by the
+	transport helper during a command.
+
+'option depth' <depth>::
+	Deepen the history of a shallow repository.
+
+'option followtags' \{'true'|'false'\}::
+	If enabled the helper should automatically fetch annotated
+	tag objects if the object the tag points at was transferred
+	during the fetch command.  If the tag is not fetched by
+	the helper a second fetch command will usually be sent to
+	ask for the tag specifically.  Some helpers may be able to
+	use this option to avoid a second network connection.
+
+'option dry-run' \{'true'|'false'\}:
+	If true, pretend the operation completed successfully,
+	but don't actually change any repository data.	For most
+	helpers this only applies to the 'push', if supported.
 
 Documentation
 -------------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-replace.txt b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
index 915cb77..65a0da5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-replace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-replace.txt
@@ -17,12 +17,36 @@
 Adds a 'replace' reference in `.git/refs/replace/`
 
 The name of the 'replace' reference is the SHA1 of the object that is
-replaced. The content of the replace reference is the SHA1 of the
+replaced. The content of the 'replace' reference is the SHA1 of the
 replacement object.
 
-Unless `-f` is given, the replace reference must not yet exist in
+Unless `-f` is given, the 'replace' reference must not yet exist in
 `.git/refs/replace/` directory.
 
+Replacement references will be used by default by all git commands
+except those doing reachability traversal (prune, pack transfer and
+fsck).
+
+It is possible to disable use of replacement references for any
+command using the `--no-replace-objects` option just after 'git'.
+
+For example if commit 'foo' has been replaced by commit 'bar':
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git --no-replace-objects cat-file commit foo
+------------------------------------------------
+
+shows information about commit 'foo', while:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+$ git cat-file commit foo
+------------------------------------------------
+
+shows information about commit 'bar'.
+
+The 'GIT_NO_REPLACE_OBJECTS' environment variable can be set to
+achieve the same effect as the `--no-replace-objects` option.
+
 OPTIONS
 -------
 -f::
@@ -54,6 +78,7 @@
 --------
 linkgit:git-tag[1]
 linkgit:git-branch[1]
+linkgit:git[1]
 
 Author
 ------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reset.txt b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
index 469cf6d..2d27e40 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reset.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reset.txt
@@ -150,7 +150,7 @@
 $ git reset --hard                 <2>
 $ git pull . topic/branch          <3>
 Updating from 41223... to 13134...
-Fast forward
+Fast-forward
 $ git reset --hard ORIG_HEAD       <4>
 ------------
 +
@@ -161,7 +161,7 @@
 which is a synonym for "git reset --hard HEAD" clears the mess
 from the index file and the working tree.
 <3> Merge a topic branch into the current branch, which resulted
-in a fast forward.
+in a fast-forward.
 <4> But you decided that the topic branch is not ready for public
 consumption yet.  "pull" or "merge" always leaves the original
 tip of the current branch in ORIG_HEAD, so resetting hard to it
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index 767cf4d..8c482f4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -60,8 +60,8 @@
 The --cc option must be repeated for each user you want on the cc list.
 
 --compose::
-	Use $GIT_EDITOR, core.editor, $VISUAL, or $EDITOR to edit an
-	introductory message for the patch series.
+	Invoke a text editor (see GIT_EDITOR in linkgit:git-var[1])
+	to edit an introductory message for the patch series.
 +
 When '--compose' is used, git send-email will use the From, Subject, and
 In-Reply-To headers specified in the message. If the body of the message
@@ -108,9 +108,10 @@
 --envelope-sender=<address>::
 	Specify the envelope sender used to send the emails.
 	This is useful if your default address is not the address that is
-	subscribed to a list. If you use the sendmail binary, you must have
-	suitable privileges for the -f parameter. Default is the value of
-	the 'sendemail.envelopesender' configuration variable; if that is
+	subscribed to a list. In order to use the 'From' address, set the
+	value to "auto". If you use the sendmail binary, you must have
+	suitable privileges for the -f parameter.  Default is the value of the
+	'sendemail.envelopesender' configuration variable; if that is
 	unspecified, choosing the envelope sender is left to your MTA.
 
 --smtp-encryption=<encryption>::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
index 3998218..5a04c6e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
@@ -105,11 +105,11 @@
 
 Without '--force', the <src> ref is stored at the remote only if
 <dst> does not exist, or <dst> is a proper subset (i.e. an
-ancestor) of <src>.  This check, known as "fast forward check",
+ancestor) of <src>.  This check, known as "fast-forward check",
 is performed in order to avoid accidentally overwriting the
 remote ref and lose other peoples' commits from there.
 
-With '--force', the fast forward check is disabled for all refs.
+With '--force', the fast-forward check is disabled for all refs.
 
 Optionally, a <ref> parameter can be prefixed with a plus '+' sign
 to disable the fast-forward check only on that ref.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
index f4429bd..70f400b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git show-ref' [-q|--quiet] [--verify] [-h|--head] [-d|--dereference]
+'git show-ref' [-q|--quiet] [--verify] [--head] [-d|--dereference]
 	     [-s|--hash[=<n>]] [--abbrev[=<n>]] [--tags]
 	     [--heads] [--] <pattern>...
 'git show-ref' --exclude-existing[=<pattern>] < ref-list
@@ -30,7 +30,6 @@
 OPTIONS
 -------
 
--h::
 --head::
 
 	Show the HEAD reference.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stash.txt b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
index fafe728..3f14b72 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stash.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
@@ -78,8 +78,7 @@
 ----------------------------------------------------------------
 +
 The command takes options applicable to the 'git-log'
-command to control what is shown and how. If no options are set, the
-default is `-n 10`. See linkgit:git-log[1].
+command to control what is shown and how. See linkgit:git-log[1].
 
 show [<stash>]::
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index 5ccdd18..4ef70c4 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@
 --------
 [verse]
 'git submodule' [--quiet] add [-b branch]
-	      [--reference <repository>] [--] <repository> <path>
+	      [--reference <repository>] [--] <repository> [<path>]
 'git submodule' [--quiet] status [--cached] [--recursive] [--] [<path>...]
 'git submodule' [--quiet] init [--] [<path>...]
 'git submodule' [--quiet] update [--init] [-N|--no-fetch] [--rebase]
@@ -69,7 +69,11 @@
 	to the changeset to be committed next to the current
 	project: the current project is termed the "superproject".
 +
-This requires two arguments: <repository> and <path>.
+This requires at least one argument: <repository>. The optional
+argument <path> is the relative location for the cloned submodule
+to exist in the superproject. If <path> is not given, the
+"humanish" part of the source repository is used ("repo" for
+"/path/to/repo.git" and "foo" for "host.xz:foo/.git").
 +
 <repository> is the URL of the new submodule's origin repository.
 This may be either an absolute URL, or (if it begins with ./
diff --git a/Documentation/git-svn.txt b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
index 1812890..4cdca0d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-svn.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-svn.txt
@@ -320,6 +320,13 @@
 	directories.  The output is suitable for appending to
 	the $GIT_DIR/info/exclude file.
 
+'mkdirs'::
+	Attempts to recreate empty directories that core git cannot track
+	based on information in $GIT_DIR/svn/<refname>/unhandled.log files.
+	Empty directories are automatically recreated when using
+	"git svn clone" and "git svn rebase", so "mkdirs" is intended
+	for use after commands like "git checkout" or "git reset".
+
 'commit-diff'::
 	Commits the diff of two tree-ish arguments from the
 	command-line.  This command does not rely on being inside an `git svn
@@ -735,6 +742,16 @@
 that is a mirror of an SVN branch, 'dcommit' may commit to the wrong
 branch.
 
+If you do merge, note the following rule: 'git svn dcommit' will
+attempt to commit on top of the SVN commit named in
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+git log --grep=^git-svn-id: --first-parent -1
+------------------------------------------------------------------------
+You 'must' therefore ensure that the most recent commit of the branch
+you want to dcommit to is the 'first' parent of the merge.  Chaos will
+ensue otherwise, especially if the first parent is an older commit on
+the same SVN branch.
+
 'git clone' does not clone branches under the refs/remotes/ hierarchy or
 any 'git svn' metadata, or config.  So repositories created and managed with
 using 'git svn' should use 'rsync' for cloning, if cloning is to be done
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index 25e0bbe..6052484 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -99,6 +99,10 @@
 thus, in case the assumed-untracked file is changed upstream,
 you will need to handle the situation manually.
 
+--really-refresh::
+	Like '--refresh', but checks stat information unconditionally,
+	without regard to the "assume unchanged" setting.
+
 -g::
 --again::
 	Runs 'git-update-index' itself on the paths whose index
@@ -308,7 +312,7 @@
 -------------
 
 The command honors `core.filemode` configuration variable.  If
-your repository is on an filesystem whose executable bits are
+your repository is on a filesystem whose executable bits are
 unreliable, this should be set to 'false' (see linkgit:git-config[1]).
 This causes the command to ignore differences in file modes recorded
 in the index and the file mode on the filesystem if they differ only on
diff --git a/Documentation/git-var.txt b/Documentation/git-var.txt
index e2f4c09..ef6aa81 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-var.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-var.txt
@@ -36,6 +36,20 @@
 GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT::
     The person who put a piece of code into git.
 
+GIT_EDITOR::
+    Text editor for use by git commands.  The value is meant to be
+    interpreted by the shell when it is used.  Examples: `~/bin/vi`,
+    `$SOME_ENVIRONMENT_VARIABLE`, `"C:\Program Files\Vim\gvim.exe"
+    --nofork`.  The order of preference is the `$GIT_EDITOR`
+    environment variable, then `core.editor` configuration, then
+    `$VISUAL`, then `$EDITOR`, and then finally 'vi'.
+
+GIT_PAGER::
+    Text viewer for use by git commands (e.g., 'less').  The value
+    is meant to be interpreted by the shell.  The order of preference
+    is the `$GIT_PAGER` environment variable, then `core.pager`
+    configuration, then `$PAGER`, and then finally 'less'.
+
 Diagnostics
 -----------
 You don't exist. Go away!::
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index 46558c8..b4c2bcc 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@
 --------
 [verse]
 'git' [--version] [--exec-path[=GIT_EXEC_PATH]] [--html-path]
-    [-p|--paginate|--no-pager]
+    [-p|--paginate|--no-pager] [--no-replace-objects]
     [--bare] [--git-dir=GIT_DIR] [--work-tree=GIT_WORK_TREE]
     [--help] COMMAND [ARGS]
 
@@ -43,6 +43,13 @@
 branch of the `git.git` repository.
 Documentation for older releases are available here:
 
+* link:v1.6.6.2/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.6.2]
+
+* release notes for
+  link:RelNotes-1.6.6.2.txt[1.6.6.2],
+  link:RelNotes-1.6.6.1.txt[1.6.6.1],
+  link:RelNotes-1.6.6.txt[1.6.6].
+
 * link:v1.6.5.8/git.html[documentation for release 1.6.5.8]
 
 * release notes for
@@ -245,6 +252,10 @@
 	environment is not set, it is set to the current working
 	directory.
 
+--no-replace-objects::
+	Do not use replacement refs to replace git objects. See
+	linkgit:git-replace[1] for more information.
+
 
 FURTHER DOCUMENTATION
 ---------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
index 0382d2c..f762dca 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitcore-tutorial.txt
@@ -185,7 +185,7 @@
 regular file), and you can see the contents with
 
 ----------------
-$ git cat-file "blob" 557db03
+$ git cat-file blob 557db03
 ----------------
 
 which will print out "Hello World". The object `557db03` is nothing
@@ -993,7 +993,7 @@
 
 ----------------
 Updating from ae3a2da... to a80b4aa....
-Fast forward (no commit created; -m option ignored)
+Fast-forward (no commit created; -m option ignored)
  example |    1 +
  hello   |    1 +
  2 files changed, 2 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
@@ -1003,7 +1003,7 @@
 already been merged into the `master` branch, the merge operation did
 not actually do a merge. Instead, it just updated the top of
 the tree of your branch to that of the `master` branch. This is
-often called 'fast forward' merge.
+often called 'fast-forward' merge.
 
 You can run `gitk \--all` again to see how the commit ancestry
 looks like, or run 'show-branch', which tells you this.
@@ -1186,9 +1186,9 @@
 * [master] Some fun.
  ! [mybranch] Some work.
 --
- + [mybranch] Some work.
 *  [master] Some fun.
-*+ [mybranch^] New day.
+ + [mybranch] Some work.
+*+ [master^] Initial commit
 ------------
 
 Now we are ready to experiment with the merge by hand.
@@ -1204,11 +1204,11 @@
 The command writes the commit object name of the common ancestor
 to the standard output, so we captured its output to a variable,
 because we will be using it in the next step.  By the way, the common
-ancestor commit is the "New day." commit in this case.  You can
+ancestor commit is the "Initial commit" commit in this case.  You can
 tell it by:
 
 ------------
-$ git name-rev $mb
+$ git name-rev --name-only --tags $mb
 my-first-tag
 ------------
 
@@ -1237,8 +1237,8 @@
 ------------
 $ git ls-files --stage
 100644 7f8b141b65fdcee47321e399a2598a235a032422 0	example
-100644 263414f423d0e4d70dae8fe53fa34614ff3e2860 1	hello
-100644 06fa6a24256dc7e560efa5687fa84b51f0263c3a 2	hello
+100644 557db03de997c86a4a028e1ebd3a1ceb225be238 1	hello
+100644 ba42a2a96e3027f3333e13ede4ccf4498c3ae942 2	hello
 100644 cc44c73eb783565da5831b4d820c962954019b69 3	hello
 ------------
 
@@ -1253,8 +1253,8 @@
 
 ------------
 $ git ls-files --unmerged
-100644 263414f423d0e4d70dae8fe53fa34614ff3e2860 1	hello
-100644 06fa6a24256dc7e560efa5687fa84b51f0263c3a 2	hello
+100644 557db03de997c86a4a028e1ebd3a1ceb225be238 1	hello
+100644 ba42a2a96e3027f3333e13ede4ccf4498c3ae942 2	hello
 100644 cc44c73eb783565da5831b4d820c962954019b69 3	hello
 ------------
 
@@ -1283,8 +1283,8 @@
 ------------
 $ git ls-files --stage
 100644 7f8b141b65fdcee47321e399a2598a235a032422 0	example
-100644 263414f423d0e4d70dae8fe53fa34614ff3e2860 1	hello
-100644 06fa6a24256dc7e560efa5687fa84b51f0263c3a 2	hello
+100644 557db03de997c86a4a028e1ebd3a1ceb225be238 1	hello
+100644 ba42a2a96e3027f3333e13ede4ccf4498c3ae942 2	hello
 100644 cc44c73eb783565da5831b4d820c962954019b69 3	hello
 ------------
 
diff --git a/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt b/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
index e8041bc..3cd21b6 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitdiffcore.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@
 
 NAME
 ----
-gitdiffcore - Tweaking diff output (June 2005)
+gitdiffcore - Tweaking diff output
 
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
diff --git a/Documentation/githooks.txt b/Documentation/githooks.txt
index 3ab4f4d..29eeae7 100644
--- a/Documentation/githooks.txt
+++ b/Documentation/githooks.txt
@@ -229,7 +229,7 @@
 This hook can be used to prevent 'forced' update on certain refs by
 making sure that the object name is a commit object that is a
 descendant of the commit object named by the old object name.
-That is, to enforce a "fast forward only" policy.
+That is, to enforce a "fast-forward only" policy.
 
 It could also be used to log the old..new status.  However, it
 does not know the entire set of branches, so it would end up
diff --git a/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt b/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
index 91c0eea..065441d 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitworkflows.txt
@@ -229,7 +229,7 @@
 .Verify 'master' is a superset of 'maint'
 [caption="Recipe: "]
 =====================================
-git log master..maint
+`git log master..maint`
 =====================================
 
 This command should not list any commits.  Otherwise, check out
diff --git a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
index 43d84d1..1f029f8 100644
--- a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
+++ b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
@@ -124,7 +124,7 @@
 	An evil merge is a <<def_merge,merge>> that introduces changes that
 	do not appear in any <<def_parent,parent>>.
 
-[[def_fast_forward]]fast forward::
+[[def_fast_forward]]fast-forward::
 	A fast-forward is a special type of <<def_merge,merge>> where you have a
 	<<def_revision,revision>> and you are "merging" another
 	<<def_branch,branch>>'s changes that happen to be a descendant of what
@@ -220,7 +220,7 @@
 	conflict, manual intervention may be required to complete the
 	merge.
 +
-As a noun: unless it is a <<def_fast_forward,fast forward>>, a
+As a noun: unless it is a <<def_fast_forward,fast-forward>>, a
 successful merge results in the creation of a new <<def_commit,commit>>
 representing the result of the merge, and having as
 <<def_parent,parents>> the tips of the merged <<def_branch,branches>>.
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt b/Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt
index 4357e26..d527b30 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/maintain-git.txt
@@ -59,7 +59,7 @@
    not yet pass the criteria set for 'next'.
 
  - The tips of 'master', 'maint' and 'next' branches will always
-   fast forward, to allow people to build their own
+   fast-forward, to allow people to build their own
    customization on top of them.
 
  - Usually 'master' contains all of 'maint', 'next' contains all
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt b/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt
index e70d8a3..8c32da6 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/revert-branch-rebase.txt
@@ -85,7 +85,7 @@
 
 ------------------------------------------------
 $ git checkout master
-$ git merge revert-c99 ;# this should be a fast forward
+$ git merge revert-c99 ;# this should be a fast-forward
 Updating from 10d781b9caa4f71495c7b34963bef137216f86a8 to e3a693c...
  cache.h        |    8 ++++----
  commit.c       |    2 +-
@@ -95,7 +95,7 @@
  5 files changed, 8 insertions(+), 8 deletions(-)
 ------------------------------------------------
 
-There is no need to redo the test at this point.  We fast forwarded
+There is no need to redo the test at this point.  We fast-forwarded
 and we know 'master' matches 'revert-c99' exactly.  In fact:
 
 ------------------------------------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/howto/update-hook-example.txt b/Documentation/howto/update-hook-example.txt
index 697d918..b7f8d41 100644
--- a/Documentation/howto/update-hook-example.txt
+++ b/Documentation/howto/update-hook-example.txt
@@ -76,7 +76,7 @@
     if expr "$2" : '0*$' >/dev/null; then
       info "The branch '$1' is new..."
     else
-      # updating -- make sure it is a fast forward
+      # updating -- make sure it is a fast-forward
       mb=$(git-merge-base "$2" "$3")
       case "$mb,$2" in
         "$2,$mb") info "Update is fast-forward" ;;
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-config.txt b/Documentation/merge-config.txt
index c0f96e7..a403155 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-config.txt
@@ -23,7 +23,7 @@
 	Controls which merge resolution program is used by
 	linkgit:git-mergetool[1].  Valid built-in values are: "kdiff3",
 	"tkdiff", "meld", "xxdiff", "emerge", "vimdiff", "gvimdiff",
-	"diffuse", "ecmerge", "tortoisemerge", "araxis", and
+	"diffuse", "ecmerge", "tortoisemerge", "p4merge", "araxis" and
 	"opendiff".  Any other value is treated is custom merge tool
 	and there must be a corresponding mergetool.<tool>.cmd option.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-options.txt b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
index 48d04a5..fec3394 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-options.txt
@@ -49,6 +49,11 @@
 With --no-squash perform the merge and commit the result. This
 option can be used to override --squash.
 
+--ff-only::
+	Refuse to merge and exit with a non-zero status unless the
+	current `HEAD` is already up-to-date or the merge can be
+	resolved as a fast-forward.
+
 -s <strategy>::
 --strategy=<strategy>::
 	Use the given merge strategy; can be supplied more than
diff --git a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
index 4365b7e..42910a3 100644
--- a/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
+++ b/Documentation/merge-strategies.txt
@@ -29,8 +29,9 @@
 	pulling or merging more than one branch.
 
 ours::
-	This resolves any number of heads, but the result of the
-	merge is always the current branch head.  It is meant to
+	This resolves any number of heads, but the resulting tree of the
+	merge is always that of the current branch head, effectively
+	ignoring all changes from all other branches.  It is meant to
 	be used to supersede old development history of side
 	branches.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
index 2a845b1..53a9168 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-formats.txt
@@ -123,6 +123,10 @@
 - '%s': subject
 - '%f': sanitized subject line, suitable for a filename
 - '%b': body
+- '%N': commit notes
+- '%gD': reflog selector, e.g., `refs/stash@\{1\}`
+- '%gd': shortened reflog selector, e.g., `stash@\{1\}`
+- '%gs': reflog subject
 - '%Cred': switch color to red
 - '%Cgreen': switch color to green
 - '%Cblue': switch color to blue
@@ -131,6 +135,22 @@
 - '%m': left, right or boundary mark
 - '%n': newline
 - '%x00': print a byte from a hex code
+- '%w([<w>[,<i1>[,<i2>]]])': switch line wrapping, like the -w option of
+  linkgit:git-shortlog[1].
+
+NOTE: Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the
+revision traversal engine. For example, the `%g*` reflog options will
+insert an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by
+`git log -g`). The `%d` placeholder will use the "short" decoration
+format if `--decorate` was not already provided on the command line.
+
+If you add a `{plus}` (plus sign) after '%' of a placeholder, a line-feed
+is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the
+placeholder expands to a non-empty string.
+
+If you add a `-` (minus sign) after '%' of a placeholder, line-feeds that
+immediately precede the expansion are deleted if and only if the
+placeholder expands to an empty string.
 
 * 'tformat:'
 +
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
index bff9499..aa96cae 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
@@ -28,3 +28,11 @@
 	command to re-code the commit log message in the encoding
 	preferred by the user.  For non plumbing commands this
 	defaults to UTF-8.
+
+--no-notes::
+--show-notes::
+	Show the notes (see linkgit:git-notes[1]) that annotate the
+	commit, when showing the commit log message.  This is the default
+	for `git log`, `git show` and `git whatchanged` commands when
+	there is no `--pretty`, `--format` nor `--oneline` option is
+	given on the command line.
diff --git a/Documentation/pt_BR/gittutorial.txt b/Documentation/pt_BR/gittutorial.txt
index 81e7ad7..beba065 100644
--- a/Documentation/pt_BR/gittutorial.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pt_BR/gittutorial.txt
@@ -1,15 +1,15 @@
 gittutorial(7)
 ==============
 
-NAME
+NOME
 ----
 gittutorial - Um tutorial de introdução ao git (para versão 1.5.1 ou mais nova)
 
-SYNOPSIS
+SINOPSE
 --------
 git *
 
-DESCRIPTION
+DESCRIÇÃO
 -----------
 
 Este tutorial explica como importar um novo projeto para o git,
@@ -64,11 +64,11 @@
 Initialized empty Git repository in .git/
 ------------------------------------------------
 
-Você agora iniciou seu diretório de trabalho--você deve ter notado um
-novo diretório criado, com o nome de ".git".
+Agora que você iniciou seu diretório de trabalho, você deve ter notado que um
+novo diretório foi criado com o nome de ".git".
 
 A seguir, diga ao git para gravar um instantâneo do conteúdo de todos os
-arquivos sob o diretório corrente (note o '.'), com 'git-add':
+arquivos sob o diretório atual (note o '.'), com 'git-add':
 
 ------------------------------------------------
 $ git add .
@@ -126,8 +126,8 @@
 $ git commit
 ------------------------------------------------
 
-Isto irá novamente te pedir por uma mensagem descrevendo a mudança, e,
-então, gravar a nova versão do projeto.
+Ao executar esse comando, ele irá te pedir uma mensagem descrevendo a mudança,
+e, então, irá gravar a nova versão do projeto.
 
 Alternativamente, ao invés de executar 'git-add' antes, você pode usar
 
@@ -143,7 +143,7 @@
 caracteres) linha sumarizando a mudança, seguida de uma linha em branco
 e, então, uma descrição mais detalhada. Ferramentas que transformam
 commits em email, por exemplo, usam a primeira linha no campo de
-cabeçalho Subject: e o resto no corpo.
+cabeçalho "Subject:" e o resto no corpo.
 
 Git rastreia conteúdo, não arquivos
 ----------------------------
@@ -155,7 +155,7 @@
 em ambos os casos, ele tira o instantâneo dos arquivos dados e armazena
 o conteúdo no índice, pronto para inclusão do próximo commit.
 
-Visualizando história do projeto
+Visualizando a história do projeto
 -----------------------
 
 Em qualquer ponto você pode visualizar a história das suas mudanças
@@ -165,7 +165,7 @@
 $ git log
 ------------------------------------------------
 
-Se você também quer ver a diferença completa a cada passo, use
+Se você também quiser ver a diferença completa a cada passo, use
 
 ------------------------------------------------
 $ git log -p
diff --git a/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt b/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
index f9811f2..0551ebd 100644
--- a/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pull-fetch-param.txt
@@ -4,6 +4,13 @@
 	(see the section <<URLS,GIT URLS>> below) or the name
 	of a remote (see the section <<REMOTES,REMOTES>> below).
 
+ifndef::git-pull[]
+<group>::
+	A name referring to a list of repositories as the value
+	of remotes.<group> in the configuration file.
+	(See linkgit:git-config[1]).
+endif::git-pull[]
+
 <refspec>::
 	The format of a <refspec> parameter is an optional plus
 	`{plus}`, followed by the source ref <src>, followed
@@ -11,9 +18,9 @@
 +
 The remote ref that matches <src>
 is fetched, and if <dst> is not empty string, the local
-ref that matches it is fast forwarded using <src>.
+ref that matches it is fast-forwarded using <src>.
 If the optional plus `+` is used, the local ref
-is updated even if it does not result in a fast forward
+is updated even if it does not result in a fast-forward
 update.
 +
 [NOTE]
diff --git a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
index bf66116..1f57aed 100644
--- a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
@@ -243,12 +243,23 @@
 	Pretend as if all the refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/remotes` are listed
 	on the command line as '<commit>'.
 
-ifdef::git-rev-list[]
+ifndef::git-rev-list[]
+--bisect::
+
+	Pretend as if the bad bisection ref `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/bad`
+	was listed and as if it was followed by `--not` and the good
+	bisection refs `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/good-*` on the command
+	line.
+endif::git-rev-list[]
+
 --stdin::
 
 	In addition to the '<commit>' listed on the command
-	line, read them from the standard input.
+	line, read them from the standard input. If a '--' separator is
+	seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the
+	result.
 
+ifdef::git-rev-list[]
 --quiet::
 
 	Don't print anything to standard output.  This form
@@ -536,7 +547,11 @@
 --bisect::
 
 Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between
-the included and excluded commits. Thus, if
+included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref
+`$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/bad` is added to the included commits (if it
+exists) and the good bisection refs `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/good-*` are
+added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there
+are no refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/`, if
 
 -----------------------------------------------------------------------
 	$ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz
@@ -556,22 +571,24 @@
 
 --bisect-vars::
 
-This calculates the same as `--bisect`, but outputs text ready
-to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the name of
-the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
-expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is
-tested to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be
-tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`,
-the expected number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev`
-turns out to be bad to `bisect_bad`, and the number of commits
-we are bisecting right now to `bisect_all`.
+This calculates the same as `--bisect`, except that refs in
+`$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/` are not used, and except that this outputs
+text ready to be eval'ed by the shell. These lines will assign the
+name of the midpoint revision to the variable `bisect_rev`, and the
+expected number of commits to be tested after `bisect_rev` is tested
+to `bisect_nr`, the expected number of commits to be tested if
+`bisect_rev` turns out to be good to `bisect_good`, the expected
+number of commits to be tested if `bisect_rev` turns out to be bad to
+`bisect_bad`, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to
+`bisect_all`.
 
 --bisect-all::
 
 This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded
 commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded
-commits. The farthest from them is displayed first. (This is the only
-one displayed by `--bisect`.)
+commits. Refs in `$GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/` are not used. The farthest
+from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by
+`--bisect`.)
 +
 This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to
 test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt
index b26c281..8994859 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt
@@ -64,8 +64,8 @@
 `start_async`::
 
 	Run a function asynchronously. Takes a pointer to a `struct
-	async` that specifies the details and returns a pipe FD
-	from which the caller reads. See below for details.
+	async` that specifies the details and returns a set of pipe FDs
+	for communication with the function. See below for details.
 
 `finish_async`::
 
@@ -135,7 +135,7 @@
 
 	.in: The FD must be readable; it becomes child's stdin.
 	.out: The FD must be writable; it becomes child's stdout.
-	.err > 0 is not supported.
+	.err: The FD must be writable; it becomes child's stderr.
 
   The specified FD is closed by start_command(), even if it fails to
   run the sub-process!
@@ -180,17 +180,47 @@
    struct async variable;
 2. initializes .proc and .data;
 3. calls start_async();
-4. processes the data by reading from the fd in .out;
-5. closes .out;
+4. processes communicates with proc through .in and .out;
+5. closes .in and .out;
 6. calls finish_async().
 
+The members .in, .out are used to provide a set of fd's for
+communication between the caller and the callee as follows:
+
+. Specify 0 to have no file descriptor passed.  The callee will
+  receive -1 in the corresponding argument.
+
+. Specify < 0 to have a pipe allocated; start_async() replaces
+  with the pipe FD in the following way:
+
+	.in: Returns the writable pipe end into which the caller
+	writes; the readable end of the pipe becomes the function's
+	in argument.
+
+	.out: Returns the readable pipe end from which the caller
+	reads; the writable end of the pipe becomes the function's
+	out argument.
+
+  The caller of start_async() must close the returned FDs after it
+  has completed reading from/writing from them.
+
+. Specify a file descriptor > 0 to be used by the function:
+
+	.in: The FD must be readable; it becomes the function's in.
+	.out: The FD must be writable; it becomes the function's out.
+
+  The specified FD is closed by start_async(), even if it fails to
+  run the function.
+
 The function pointer in .proc has the following signature:
 
-	int proc(int fd, void *data);
+	int proc(int in, int out, void *data);
 
-. fd specifies a writable file descriptor to which the function must
-  write the data that it produces. The function *must* close this
-  descriptor before it returns.
+. in, out specifies a set of file descriptors to which the function
+  must read/write the data that it needs/produces.  The function
+  *must* close these descriptors before it returns.  A descriptor
+  may be -1 if the caller did not configure a descriptor for that
+  direction.
 
 . data is the value that the caller has specified in the .data member
   of struct async.
@@ -205,8 +235,8 @@
 UNIX, but by a thread in the same address space on Windows:
 
 . It cannot change the program's state (global variables, environment,
-  etc.) in a way that the caller notices; in other words, .out is the
-  only communication channel to the caller.
+  etc.) in a way that the caller notices; in other words, .in and .out
+  are the only communication channels to the caller.
 
 . It must not change the program's state that the caller of the
   facility also uses.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
index 9cd48b4..7950eee 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
@@ -1,41 +1,494 @@
-Pack transfer protocols
-=======================
+Packfile transfer protocols
+===========================
 
-There are two Pack push-pull protocols.
+Git supports transferring data in packfiles over the ssh://, git:// and
+file:// transports.  There exist two sets of protocols, one for pushing
+data from a client to a server and another for fetching data from a
+server to a client.  All three transports (ssh, git, file) use the same
+protocol to transfer data.
 
-upload-pack (S) | fetch/clone-pack (C) protocol:
+The processes invoked in the canonical Git implementation are 'upload-pack'
+on the server side and 'fetch-pack' on the client side for fetching data;
+then 'receive-pack' on the server and 'send-pack' on the client for pushing
+data.  The protocol functions to have a server tell a client what is
+currently on the server, then for the two to negotiate the smallest amount
+of data to send in order to fully update one or the other.
 
-	# Tell the puller what commits we have and what their names are
-	S: SHA1 name
-	S: ...
-	S: SHA1 name
-	S: # flush -- it's your turn
-	# Tell the pusher what commits we want, and what we have
-	C: want name
-	C: ..
-	C: want name
-	C: have SHA1
-	C: have SHA1
-	C: ...
-	C: # flush -- occasionally ask "had enough?"
-	S: NAK
-	C: have SHA1
-	C: ...
-	C: have SHA1
-	S: ACK
-	C: done
-	S: XXXXXXX -- packfile contents.
+Transports
+----------
+There are three transports over which the packfile protocol is
+initiated.  The Git transport is a simple, unauthenticated server that
+takes the command (almost always 'upload-pack', though Git
+servers can be configured to be globally writable, in which 'receive-
+pack' initiation is also allowed) with which the client wishes to
+communicate and executes it and connects it to the requesting
+process.
 
-send-pack | receive-pack protocol.
+In the SSH transport, the client just runs the 'upload-pack'
+or 'receive-pack' process on the server over the SSH protocol and then
+communicates with that invoked process over the SSH connection.
 
-	# Tell the pusher what commits we have and what their names are
-	C: SHA1 name
-	C: ...
-	C: SHA1 name
-	C: # flush -- it's your turn
-	# Tell the puller what the pusher has
-	S: old-SHA1 new-SHA1 name
-	S: old-SHA1 new-SHA1 name
-	S: ...
-	S: # flush -- done with the list
-	S: XXXXXXX --- packfile contents.
+The file:// transport runs the 'upload-pack' or 'receive-pack'
+process locally and communicates with it over a pipe.
+
+Git Transport
+-------------
+
+The Git transport starts off by sending the command and repository
+on the wire using the pkt-line format, followed by a NUL byte and a
+hostname paramater, terminated by a NUL byte.
+
+   0032git-upload-pack /project.git\0host=myserver.com\0
+
+--
+   git-proto-request = request-command SP pathname NUL [ host-parameter NUL ]
+   request-command   = "git-upload-pack" / "git-receive-pack" /
+		       "git-upload-archive"   ; case sensitive
+   pathname          = *( %x01-ff ) ; exclude NUL
+   host-parameter    = "host=" hostname [ ":" port ]
+--
+
+Only host-parameter is allowed in the git-proto-request. Clients
+MUST NOT attempt to send additional parameters. It is used for the
+git-daemon name based virtual hosting.  See --interpolated-path
+option to git daemon, with the %H/%CH format characters.
+
+Basically what the Git client is doing to connect to an 'upload-pack'
+process on the server side over the Git protocol is this:
+
+   $ echo -e -n \
+     "0039git-upload-pack /schacon/gitbook.git\0host=example.com\0" |
+     nc -v example.com 9418
+
+
+SSH Transport
+-------------
+
+Initiating the upload-pack or receive-pack processes over SSH is
+executing the binary on the server via SSH remote execution.
+It is basically equivalent to running this:
+
+   $ ssh git.example.com "git-upload-pack '/project.git'"
+
+For a server to support Git pushing and pulling for a given user over
+SSH, that user needs to be able to execute one or both of those
+commands via the SSH shell that they are provided on login.  On some
+systems, that shell access is limited to only being able to run those
+two commands, or even just one of them.
+
+In an ssh:// format URI, it's absolute in the URI, so the '/' after
+the host name (or port number) is sent as an argument, which is then
+read by the remote git-upload-pack exactly as is, so it's effectively
+an absolute path in the remote filesystem.
+
+       git clone ssh://user@example.com/project.git
+		    |
+		    v
+    ssh user@example.com "git-upload-pack '/project.git'"
+
+In a "user@host:path" format URI, its relative to the user's home
+directory, because the Git client will run:
+
+     git clone user@example.com:project.git
+		    |
+		    v
+  ssh user@example.com "git-upload-pack 'project.git'"
+
+The exception is if a '~' is used, in which case
+we execute it without the leading '/'.
+
+      ssh://user@example.com/~alice/project.git,
+		     |
+		     v
+   ssh user@example.com "git-upload-pack '~alice/project.git'"
+
+A few things to remember here:
+
+- The "command name" is spelled with dash (e.g. git-upload-pack), but
+  this can be overridden by the client;
+
+- The repository path is always quoted with single quotes.
+
+Fetching Data From a Server
+===========================
+
+When one Git repository wants to get data that a second repository
+has, the first can 'fetch' from the second.  This operation determines
+what data the server has that the client does not then streams that
+data down to the client in packfile format.
+
+
+Reference Discovery
+-------------------
+
+When the client initially connects the server will immediately respond
+with a listing of each reference it has (all branches and tags) along
+with the object name that each reference currently points to.
+
+   $ echo -e -n "0039git-upload-pack /schacon/gitbook.git\0host=example.com\0" |
+      nc -v example.com 9418
+   00887217a7c7e582c46cec22a130adf4b9d7d950fba0 HEAD\0multi_ack thin-pack side-band side-band-64k ofs-delta shallow no-progress include-tag
+   00441d3fcd5ced445d1abc402225c0b8a1299641f497 refs/heads/integration
+   003f7217a7c7e582c46cec22a130adf4b9d7d950fba0 refs/heads/master
+   003cb88d2441cac0977faf98efc80305012112238d9d refs/tags/v0.9
+   003c525128480b96c89e6418b1e40909bf6c5b2d580f refs/tags/v1.0
+   003fe92df48743b7bc7d26bcaabfddde0a1e20cae47c refs/tags/v1.0^{}
+   0000
+
+Server SHOULD terminate each non-flush line using LF ("\n") terminator;
+client MUST NOT complain if there is no terminator.
+
+The returned response is a pkt-line stream describing each ref and
+its current value.  The stream MUST be sorted by name according to
+the C locale ordering.
+
+If HEAD is a valid ref, HEAD MUST appear as the first advertised
+ref.  If HEAD is not a valid ref, HEAD MUST NOT appear in the
+advertisement list at all, but other refs may still appear.
+
+The stream MUST include capability declarations behind a NUL on the
+first ref. The peeled value of a ref (that is "ref^{}") MUST be
+immediately after the ref itself, if presented. A conforming server
+MUST peel the ref if its an annotated tag.
+
+----
+  advertised-refs  =  (no-refs / list-of-refs)
+		      flush-pkt
+
+  no-refs          =  PKT-LINE(zero-id SP "capabilities^{}"
+		      NUL capability-list LF)
+
+  list-of-refs     =  first-ref *other-ref
+  first-ref        =  PKT-LINE(obj-id SP refname
+		      NUL capability-list LF)
+
+  other-ref        =  PKT-LINE(other-tip / other-peeled)
+  other-tip        =  obj-id SP refname LF
+  other-peeled     =  obj-id SP refname "^{}" LF
+
+  capability-list  =  capability *(SP capability)
+  capability       =  1*(LC_ALPHA / DIGIT / "-" / "_")
+  LC_ALPHA         =  %x61-7A
+----
+
+Server and client MUST use lowercase for obj-id, both MUST treat obj-id
+as case-insensitive.
+
+See protocol-capabilities.txt for a list of allowed server capabilities
+and descriptions.
+
+Packfile Negotiation
+--------------------
+After reference and capabilities discovery, the client can decide
+to terminate the connection by sending a flush-pkt, telling the
+server it can now gracefully terminate (as happens with the ls-remote
+command) or it can enter the negotiation phase, where the client and
+server determine what the minimal packfile necessary for transport is.
+
+Once the client has the initial list of references that the server
+has, as well as the list of capabilities, it will begin telling the
+server what objects it wants and what objects it has, so the server
+can make a packfile that only contains the objects that the client needs.
+The client will also send a list of the capabilities it wants to be in
+effect, out of what the server said it could do with the first 'want' line.
+
+----
+  upload-request    =  want-list
+		       have-list
+		       compute-end
+
+  want-list         =  first-want
+		       *additional-want
+		       flush-pkt
+
+  first-want        =  PKT-LINE("want" SP obj-id SP capability-list LF)
+  additional-want   =  PKT-LINE("want" SP obj-id LF)
+
+  have-list         =  *have-line
+  have-line         =  PKT-LINE("have" SP obj-id LF)
+  compute-end       =  flush-pkt / PKT-LINE("done")
+----
+
+Clients MUST send all the obj-ids it wants from the reference
+discovery phase as 'want' lines. Clients MUST send at least one
+'want' command in the request body. Clients MUST NOT mention an
+obj-id in a 'want' command which did not appear in the response
+obtained through ref discovery.
+
+If client is requesting a shallow clone, it will now send a 'deepen'
+line with the depth it is requesting.
+
+Once all the "want"s (and optional 'deepen') are transferred,
+clients MUST send a flush-pkt. If the client has all the references
+on the server, client flushes and disconnects.
+
+TODO: shallow/unshallow response and document the deepen command in the ABNF.
+
+Now the client will send a list of the obj-ids it has using 'have'
+lines.  In multi_ack mode, the canonical implementation will send up
+to 32 of these at a time, then will send a flush-pkt.  The canonical
+implementation will skip ahead and send the next 32 immediately,
+so that there is always a block of 32 "in-flight on the wire" at a
+time.
+
+If the server reads 'have' lines, it then will respond by ACKing any
+of the obj-ids the client said it had that the server also has. The
+server will ACK obj-ids differently depending on which ack mode is
+chosen by the client.
+
+In multi_ack mode:
+
+  * the server will respond with 'ACK obj-id continue' for any common
+    commits.
+
+  * once the server has found an acceptable common base commit and is
+    ready to make a packfile, it will blindly ACK all 'have' obj-ids
+    back to the client.
+
+  * the server will then send a 'NACK' and then wait for another response
+    from the client - either a 'done' or another list of 'have' lines.
+
+In multi_ack_detailed mode:
+
+  * the server will differentiate the ACKs where it is signaling
+    that it is ready to send data with 'ACK obj-id ready' lines, and
+    signals the identified common commits with 'ACK obj-id common' lines.
+
+Without either multi_ack or multi_ack_detailed:
+
+ * upload-pack sends "ACK obj-id" on the first common object it finds.
+   After that it says nothing until the client gives it a "done".
+
+ * upload-pack sends "NAK" on a flush-pkt if no common object
+   has been found yet.  If one has been found, and thus an ACK
+   was already sent, its silent on the flush-pkt.
+
+After the client has gotten enough ACK responses that it can determine
+that the server has enough information to send an efficient packfile
+(in the canonical implementation, this is determined when it has received
+enough ACKs that it can color everything left in the --date-order queue
+as common with the server, or the --date-order queue is empty), or the
+client determines that it wants to give up (in the canonical implementation,
+this is determined when the client sends 256 'have' lines without getting
+any of them ACKed by the server - meaning there is nothing in common and
+the server should just send all it's objects), then the client will send
+a 'done' command.  The 'done' command signals to the server that the client
+is ready to receive it's packfile data.
+
+However, the 256 limit *only* turns on in the canonical client
+implementation if we have received at least one "ACK %s continue"
+during a prior round.  This helps to ensure that at least one common
+ancestor is found before we give up entirely.
+
+Once the 'done' line is read from the client, the server will either
+send a final 'ACK obj-id' or it will send a 'NAK'. The server only sends
+ACK after 'done' if there is at least one common base and multi_ack or
+multi_ack_detailed is enabled. The server always sends NAK after 'done'
+if there is no common base found.
+
+Then the server will start sending it's packfile data.
+
+----
+  server-response = *ack_multi ack / nak
+  ack_multi       = PKT-LINE("ACK" SP obj-id ack_status LF)
+  ack_status      = "continue" / "common" / "ready"
+  ack             = PKT-LINE("ACK SP obj-id LF)
+  nak             = PKT-LINE("NAK" LF)
+----
+
+A simple clone may look like this (with no 'have' lines):
+
+----
+   C: 0054want 74730d410fcb6603ace96f1dc55ea6196122532d\0multi_ack \
+     side-band-64k ofs-delta\n
+   C: 0032want 7d1665144a3a975c05f1f43902ddaf084e784dbe\n
+   C: 0032want 5a3f6be755bbb7deae50065988cbfa1ffa9ab68a\n
+   C: 0032want 7e47fe2bd8d01d481f44d7af0531bd93d3b21c01\n
+   C: 0032want 74730d410fcb6603ace96f1dc55ea6196122532d\n
+   C: 0000
+   C: 0009done\n
+
+   S: 0008NAK\n
+   S: [PACKFILE]
+----
+
+An incremental update (fetch) response might look like this:
+
+----
+   C: 0054want 74730d410fcb6603ace96f1dc55ea6196122532d\0multi_ack \
+     side-band-64k ofs-delta\n
+   C: 0032want 7d1665144a3a975c05f1f43902ddaf084e784dbe\n
+   C: 0032want 5a3f6be755bbb7deae50065988cbfa1ffa9ab68a\n
+   C: 0000
+   C: 0032have 7e47fe2bd8d01d481f44d7af0531bd93d3b21c01\n
+   C: [30 more have lines]
+   C: 0032have 74730d410fcb6603ace96f1dc55ea6196122532d\n
+   C: 0000
+
+   S: 003aACK 7e47fe2bd8d01d481f44d7af0531bd93d3b21c01 continue\n
+   S: 003aACK 74730d410fcb6603ace96f1dc55ea6196122532d continue\n
+   S: 0008NAK\n
+
+   C: 0009done\n
+
+   S: 003aACK 74730d410fcb6603ace96f1dc55ea6196122532d\n
+   S: [PACKFILE]
+----
+
+
+Packfile Data
+-------------
+
+Now that the client and server have finished negotiation about what
+the minimal amount of data that needs to be sent to the client is, the server
+will construct and send the required data in packfile format.
+
+See pack-format.txt for what the packfile itself actually looks like.
+
+If 'side-band' or 'side-band-64k' capabilities have been specified by
+the client, the server will send the packfile data multiplexed.
+
+Each packet starting with the packet-line length of the amount of data
+that follows, followed by a single byte specifying the sideband the
+following data is coming in on.
+
+In 'side-band' mode, it will send up to 999 data bytes plus 1 control
+code, for a total of up to 1000 bytes in a pkt-line.  In 'side-band-64k'
+mode it will send up to 65519 data bytes plus 1 control code, for a
+total of up to 65520 bytes in a pkt-line.
+
+The sideband byte will be a '1', '2' or a '3'. Sideband '1' will contain
+packfile data, sideband '2' will be used for progress information that the
+client will generally print to stderr and sideband '3' is used for error
+information.
+
+If no 'side-band' capability was specified, the server will stream the
+entire packfile without multiplexing.
+
+
+Pushing Data To a Server
+========================
+
+Pushing data to a server will invoke the 'receive-pack' process on the
+server, which will allow the client to tell it which references it should
+update and then send all the data the server will need for those new
+references to be complete.  Once all the data is received and validated,
+the server will then update its references to what the client specified.
+
+Authentication
+--------------
+
+The protocol itself contains no authentication mechanisms.  That is to be
+handled by the transport, such as SSH, before the 'receive-pack' process is
+invoked.  If 'receive-pack' is configured over the Git transport, those
+repositories will be writable by anyone who can access that port (9418) as
+that transport is unauthenticated.
+
+Reference Discovery
+-------------------
+
+The reference discovery phase is done nearly the same way as it is in the
+fetching protocol. Each reference obj-id and name on the server is sent
+in packet-line format to the client, followed by a flush-pkt.  The only
+real difference is that the capability listing is different - the only
+possible values are 'report-status', 'delete-refs' and 'ofs-delta'.
+
+Reference Update Request and Packfile Transfer
+----------------------------------------------
+
+Once the client knows what references the server is at, it can send a
+list of reference update requests.  For each reference on the server
+that it wants to update, it sends a line listing the obj-id currently on
+the server, the obj-id the client would like to update it to and the name
+of the reference.
+
+This list is followed by a flush-pkt and then the packfile that should
+contain all the objects that the server will need to complete the new
+references.
+
+----
+  update-request    =  command-list [pack-file]
+
+  command-list      =  PKT-LINE(command NUL capability-list LF)
+		       *PKT-LINE(command LF)
+		       flush-pkt
+
+  command           =  create / delete / update
+  create            =  zero-id SP new-id  SP name
+  delete            =  old-id  SP zero-id SP name
+  update            =  old-id  SP new-id  SP name
+
+  old-id            =  obj-id
+  new-id            =  obj-id
+
+  pack-file         = "PACK" 28*(OCTET)
+----
+
+If the receiving end does not support delete-refs, the sending end MUST
+NOT ask for delete command.
+
+The pack-file MUST NOT be sent if the only command used is 'delete'.
+
+A pack-file MUST be sent if either create or update command is used,
+even if the server already has all the necessary objects.  In this
+case the client MUST send an empty pack-file.   The only time this
+is likely to happen is if the client is creating
+a new branch or a tag that points to an existing obj-id.
+
+The server will receive the packfile, unpack it, then validate each
+reference that is being updated that it hasn't changed while the request
+was being processed (the obj-id is still the same as the old-id), and
+it will run any update hooks to make sure that the update is acceptable.
+If all of that is fine, the server will then update the references.
+
+Report Status
+-------------
+
+After receiving the pack data from the sender, the receiver sends a
+report if 'report-status' capability is in effect.
+It is a short listing of what happened in that update.  It will first
+list the status of the packfile unpacking as either 'unpack ok' or
+'unpack [error]'.  Then it will list the status for each of the references
+that it tried to update.  Each line is either 'ok [refname]' if the
+update was successful, or 'ng [refname] [error]' if the update was not.
+
+----
+  report-status     = unpack-status
+		      1*(command-status)
+		      flush-pkt
+
+  unpack-status     = PKT-LINE("unpack" SP unpack-result LF)
+  unpack-result     = "ok" / error-msg
+
+  command-status    = command-ok / command-fail
+  command-ok        = PKT-LINE("ok" SP refname LF)
+  command-fail      = PKT-LINE("ng" SP refname SP error-msg LF)
+
+  error-msg         = 1*(OCTECT) ; where not "ok"
+----
+
+Updates can be unsuccessful for a number of reasons.  The reference can have
+changed since the reference discovery phase was originally sent, meaning
+someone pushed in the meantime.  The reference being pushed could be a
+non-fast-forward reference and the update hooks or configuration could be
+set to not allow that, etc.  Also, some references can be updated while others
+can be rejected.
+
+An example client/server communication might look like this:
+
+----
+   S: 007c74730d410fcb6603ace96f1dc55ea6196122532d refs/heads/local\0report-status delete-refs ofs-delta\n
+   S: 003e7d1665144a3a975c05f1f43902ddaf084e784dbe refs/heads/debug\n
+   S: 003f74730d410fcb6603ace96f1dc55ea6196122532d refs/heads/master\n
+   S: 003f74730d410fcb6603ace96f1dc55ea6196122532d refs/heads/team\n
+   S: 0000
+
+   C: 003e7d1665144a3a975c05f1f43902ddaf084e784dbe 74730d410fcb6603ace96f1dc55ea6196122532d refs/heads/debug\n
+   C: 003e74730d410fcb6603ace96f1dc55ea6196122532d 5a3f6be755bbb7deae50065988cbfa1ffa9ab68a refs/heads/master\n
+   C: 0000
+   C: [PACKDATA]
+
+   S: 000aunpack ok\n
+   S: 0014ok refs/heads/debug\n
+   S: 0026ng refs/heads/master non-fast-forward\n
+----
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt b/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1892d3e
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/protocol-capabilities.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,187 @@
+Git Protocol Capabilities
+=========================
+
+Servers SHOULD support all capabilities defined in this document.
+
+On the very first line of the initial server response of either
+receive-pack and upload-pack the first reference is followed by
+a NUL byte and then a list of space delimited server capabilities.
+These allow the server to declare what it can and cannot support
+to the client.
+
+Client will then send a space separated list of capabilities it wants
+to be in effect. The client MUST NOT ask for capabilities the server
+did not say it supports.
+
+Server MUST diagnose and abort if capabilities it does not understand
+was sent.  Server MUST NOT ignore capabilities that client requested
+and server advertised.  As a consequence of these rules, server MUST
+NOT advertise capabilities it does not understand.
+
+The 'report-status' and 'delete-refs' capabilities are sent and
+recognized by the receive-pack (push to server) process.
+
+The 'ofs-delta' capability is sent and recognized by both upload-pack
+and receive-pack protocols.
+
+All other capabilities are only recognized by the upload-pack (fetch
+from server) process.
+
+multi_ack
+---------
+
+The 'multi_ack' capability allows the server to return "ACK obj-id
+continue" as soon as it finds a commit that it can use as a common
+base, between the client's wants and the client's have set.
+
+By sending this early, the server can potentially head off the client
+from walking any further down that particular branch of the client's
+repository history.  The client may still need to walk down other
+branches, sending have lines for those, until the server has a
+complete cut across the DAG, or the client has said "done".
+
+Without multi_ack, a client sends have lines in --date-order until
+the server has found a common base.  That means the client will send
+have lines that are already known by the server to be common, because
+they overlap in time with another branch that the server hasn't found
+a common base on yet.
+
+For example suppose the client has commits in caps that the server
+doesn't and the server has commits in lower case that the client
+doesn't, as in the following diagram:
+
+       +---- u ---------------------- x
+      /              +----- y
+     /              /
+    a -- b -- c -- d -- E -- F
+       \
+	+--- Q -- R -- S
+
+If the client wants x,y and starts out by saying have F,S, the server
+doesn't know what F,S is.  Eventually the client says "have d" and
+the server sends "ACK d continue" to let the client know to stop
+walking down that line (so don't send c-b-a), but its not done yet,
+it needs a base for x. The client keeps going with S-R-Q, until a
+gets reached, at which point the server has a clear base and it all
+ends.
+
+Without multi_ack the client would have sent that c-b-a chain anyway,
+interleaved with S-R-Q.
+
+thin-pack
+---------
+
+This capability means that the server can send a 'thin' pack, a pack
+which does not contain base objects; if those base objects are available
+on client side. Client requests 'thin-pack' capability when it
+understands how to "thicken" it by adding required delta bases making
+it self-contained.
+
+Client MUST NOT request 'thin-pack' capability if it cannot turn a thin
+pack into a self-contained pack.
+
+
+side-band, side-band-64k
+------------------------
+
+This capability means that server can send, and client understand multiplexed
+progress reports and error info interleaved with the packfile itself.
+
+These two options are mutually exclusive. A modern client always
+favors 'side-band-64k'.
+
+Either mode indicates that the packfile data will be streamed broken
+up into packets of up to either 1000 bytes in the case of 'side_band',
+or 65520 bytes in the case of 'side_band_64k'. Each packet is made up
+of a leading 4-byte pkt-line length of how much data is in the packet,
+followed by a 1-byte stream code, followed by the actual data.
+
+The stream code can be one of:
+
+ 1 - pack data
+ 2 - progress messages
+ 3 - fatal error message just before stream aborts
+
+The "side-band-64k" capability came about as a way for newer clients
+that can handle much larger packets to request packets that are
+actually crammed nearly full, while maintaining backward compatibility
+for the older clients.
+
+Further, with side-band and its up to 1000-byte messages, it's actually
+999 bytes of payload and 1 byte for the stream code. With side-band-64k,
+same deal, you have up to 65519 bytes of data and 1 byte for the stream
+code.
+
+The client MUST send only maximum of one of "side-band" and "side-
+band-64k".  Server MUST diagnose it as an error if client requests
+both.
+
+ofs-delta
+---------
+
+Server can send, and client understand PACKv2 with delta refering to
+its base by position in pack rather than by an obj-id.  That is, they can
+send/read OBJ_OFS_DELTA (aka type 6) in a packfile.
+
+shallow
+-------
+
+This capability adds "deepen", "shallow" and "unshallow" commands to
+the  fetch-pack/upload-pack protocol so clients can request shallow
+clones.
+
+no-progress
+-----------
+
+The client was started with "git clone -q" or something, and doesn't
+want that side band 2.  Basically the client just says "I do not
+wish to receive stream 2 on sideband, so do not send it to me, and if
+you did, I will drop it on the floor anyway".  However, the sideband
+channel 3 is still used for error responses.
+
+include-tag
+-----------
+
+The 'include-tag' capability is about sending annotated tags if we are
+sending objects they point to.  If we pack an object to the client, and
+a tag object points exactly at that object, we pack the tag object too.
+In general this allows a client to get all new annotated tags when it
+fetches a branch, in a single network connection.
+
+Clients MAY always send include-tag, hardcoding it into a request when
+the server advertises this capability. The decision for a client to
+request include-tag only has to do with the client's desires for tag
+data, whether or not a server had advertised objects in the
+refs/tags/* namespace.
+
+Servers MUST pack the tags if their referrant is packed and the client
+has requested include-tags.
+
+Clients MUST be prepared for the case where a server has ignored
+include-tag and has not actually sent tags in the pack.  In such
+cases the client SHOULD issue a subsequent fetch to acquire the tags
+that include-tag would have otherwise given the client.
+
+The server SHOULD send include-tag, if it supports it, regardless
+of whether or not there are tags available.
+
+report-status
+-------------
+
+The upload-pack process can receive a 'report-status' capability,
+which tells it that the client wants a report of what happened after
+a packfile upload and reference update.  If the pushing client requests
+this capability, after unpacking and updating references the server
+will respond with whether the packfile unpacked successfully and if
+each reference was updated successfully.  If any of those were not
+successful, it will send back an error message.  See pack-protocol.txt
+for example messages.
+
+delete-refs
+-----------
+
+If the server sends back the 'delete-refs' capability, it means that
+it is capable of accepting an zero-id value as the target
+value of a reference update.  It is not sent back by the client, it
+simply informs the client that it can be sent zero-id values
+to delete references.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/protocol-common.txt b/Documentation/technical/protocol-common.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d30a1b9
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/protocol-common.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,96 @@
+Documentation Common to Pack and Http Protocols
+===============================================
+
+ABNF Notation
+-------------
+
+ABNF notation as described by RFC 5234 is used within the protocol documents,
+except the following replacement core rules are used:
+----
+  HEXDIG    =  DIGIT / "a" / "b" / "c" / "d" / "e" / "f"
+----
+
+We also define the following common rules:
+----
+  NUL       =  %x00
+  zero-id   =  40*"0"
+  obj-id    =  40*(HEXDIGIT)
+
+  refname  =  "HEAD"
+  refname /=  "refs/" <see discussion below>
+----
+
+A refname is a hierarchical octet string beginning with "refs/" and
+not violating the 'git-check-ref-format' command's validation rules.
+More specifically, they:
+
+. They can include slash `/` for hierarchical (directory)
+  grouping, but no slash-separated component can begin with a
+  dot `.`.
+
+. They must contain at least one `/`. This enforces the presence of a
+  category like `heads/`, `tags/` etc. but the actual names are not
+  restricted.
+
+. They cannot have two consecutive dots `..` anywhere.
+
+. They cannot have ASCII control characters (i.e. bytes whose
+  values are lower than \040, or \177 `DEL`), space, tilde `~`,
+  caret `{caret}`, colon `:`, question-mark `?`, asterisk `*`,
+  or open bracket `[` anywhere.
+
+. They cannot end with a slash `/` nor a dot `.`.
+
+. They cannot end with the sequence `.lock`.
+
+. They cannot contain a sequence `@{`.
+
+. They cannot contain a `\\`.
+
+
+pkt-line Format
+---------------
+
+Much (but not all) of the payload is described around pkt-lines.
+
+A pkt-line is a variable length binary string.  The first four bytes
+of the line, the pkt-len, indicates the total length of the line,
+in hexadecimal.  The pkt-len includes the 4 bytes used to contain
+the length's hexadecimal representation.
+
+A pkt-line MAY contain binary data, so implementors MUST ensure
+pkt-line parsing/formatting routines are 8-bit clean.
+
+A non-binary line SHOULD BE terminated by an LF, which if present
+MUST be included in the total length.
+
+The maximum length of a pkt-line's data component is 65520 bytes.
+Implementations MUST NOT send pkt-line whose length exceeds 65524
+(65520 bytes of payload + 4 bytes of length data).
+
+Implementations SHOULD NOT send an empty pkt-line ("0004").
+
+A pkt-line with a length field of 0 ("0000"), called a flush-pkt,
+is a special case and MUST be handled differently than an empty
+pkt-line ("0004").
+
+----
+  pkt-line     =  data-pkt / flush-pkt
+
+  data-pkt     =  pkt-len pkt-payload
+  pkt-len      =  4*(HEXDIG)
+  pkt-payload  =  (pkt-len - 4)*(OCTET)
+
+  flush-pkt    = "0000"
+----
+
+Examples (as C-style strings):
+
+----
+  pkt-line          actual value
+  ---------------------------------
+  "0006a\n"         "a\n"
+  "0005a"           "a"
+  "000bfoobar\n"    "foobar\n"
+  "0004"            ""
+----
diff --git a/Documentation/urls.txt b/Documentation/urls.txt
index d813ceb..459a394 100644
--- a/Documentation/urls.txt
+++ b/Documentation/urls.txt
@@ -4,7 +4,6 @@
 One of the following notations can be used
 to name the remote repository:
 
-===============================================================
 - rsync://host.xz/path/to/repo.git/
 - http://host.xz{startsb}:port{endsb}/path/to/repo.git/
 - https://host.xz{startsb}:port{endsb}/path/to/repo.git/
@@ -14,7 +13,6 @@
 - ssh://{startsb}user@{endsb}host.xz/path/to/repo.git/
 - ssh://{startsb}user@{endsb}host.xz/~user/path/to/repo.git/
 - ssh://{startsb}user@{endsb}host.xz/~/path/to/repo.git
-===============================================================
 
 SSH is the default transport protocol over the network.  You can
 optionally specify which user to log-in as, and an alternate,
@@ -23,18 +21,14 @@
 only the former supports port specification. The following
 three are identical to the last three above, respectively:
 
-===============================================================
 - {startsb}user@{endsb}host.xz:/path/to/repo.git/
 - {startsb}user@{endsb}host.xz:~user/path/to/repo.git/
 - {startsb}user@{endsb}host.xz:path/to/repo.git
-===============================================================
 
 To sync with a local directory, you can use:
 
-===============================================================
 - /path/to/repo.git/
 - file:///path/to/repo.git/
-===============================================================
 
 ifndef::git-clone[]
 They are mostly equivalent, except when cloning.  See
diff --git a/Documentation/user-manual.txt b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
index c32dd87..b169836 100644
--- a/Documentation/user-manual.txt
+++ b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
@@ -1400,7 +1400,7 @@
 
 However, if the current branch is a descendant of the other--so every
 commit present in the one is already contained in the other--then git
-just performs a "fast forward"; the head of the current branch is moved
+just performs a "fast-forward"; the head of the current branch is moved
 forward to point at the head of the merged-in branch, without any new
 commits being created.
 
@@ -1735,7 +1735,7 @@
 repository that you pulled from.
 
 (But note that no such commit will be created in the case of a
-<<fast-forwards,fast forward>>; instead, your branch will just be
+<<fast-forwards,fast-forward>>; instead, your branch will just be
 updated to point to the latest commit from the upstream branch.)
 
 The `git pull` command can also be given "." as the "remote" repository,
@@ -1959,7 +1959,7 @@
 -------------------------------------------------
 
 As with `git fetch`, `git push` will complain if this does not result in a
-<<fast-forwards,fast forward>>; see the following section for details on
+<<fast-forwards,fast-forward>>; see the following section for details on
 handling this case.
 
 Note that the target of a "push" is normally a
@@ -1992,7 +1992,7 @@
 What to do when a push fails
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-If a push would not result in a <<fast-forwards,fast forward>> of the
+If a push would not result in a <<fast-forwards,fast-forward>> of the
 remote branch, then it will fail with an error like:
 
 -------------------------------------------------
@@ -2131,7 +2131,7 @@
 
 Important note!  If you have any local changes in these branches, then
 this merge will create a commit object in the history (with no local
-changes git will simply do a "Fast forward" merge).  Many people dislike
+changes git will simply do a "fast-forward" merge).  Many people dislike
 the "noise" that this creates in the Linux history, so you should avoid
 doing this capriciously in the "release" branch, as these noisy commits
 will become part of the permanent history when you ask Linus to pull
@@ -2585,7 +2585,7 @@
 Other tools
 -----------
 
-There are numerous other tools, such as StGIT, which exist for the
+There are numerous other tools, such as StGit, which exist for the
 purpose of maintaining a patch series.  These are outside of the scope of
 this manual.
 
@@ -2745,9 +2745,9 @@
 checks to make sure that the most recent commit on the remote
 branch is a descendant of the most recent commit on your copy of the
 branch before updating your copy of the branch to point at the new
-commit.  Git calls this process a <<fast-forwards,fast forward>>.
+commit.  Git calls this process a <<fast-forwards,fast-forward>>.
 
-A fast forward looks something like this:
+A fast-forward looks something like this:
 
 ................................................
  o--o--o--o <-- old head of the branch
@@ -4291,7 +4291,7 @@
 itself!
 
 [[glossary]]
-GIT Glossary
+Git Glossary
 ============
 
 include::glossary-content.txt[]
diff --git a/GIT-VERSION-GEN b/GIT-VERSION-GEN
index 1d79f48..7d16b01 100755
--- a/GIT-VERSION-GEN
+++ b/GIT-VERSION-GEN
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
 #!/bin/sh
 
 GVF=GIT-VERSION-FILE
-DEF_VER=v1.6.5.9
+DEF_VER=v1.6.6.3
 
 LF='
 '
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index 9b94e96..fd7f51e 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -204,6 +204,21 @@
 # memory allocators with the nedmalloc allocator written by Niall Douglas.
 #
 # Define NO_REGEX if you have no or inferior regex support in your C library.
+#
+# Define JSMIN to point to JavaScript minifier that functions as
+# a filter to have gitweb.js minified.
+#
+# Define DEFAULT_PAGER to a sensible pager command (defaults to "less") if
+# you want to use something different.  The value will be interpreted by the
+# shell at runtime when it is used.
+#
+# Define DEFAULT_EDITOR to a sensible editor command (defaults to "vi") if you
+# want to use something different.  The value will be interpreted by the shell
+# if necessary when it is used.  Examples:
+#
+#   DEFAULT_EDITOR='~/bin/vi',
+#   DEFAULT_EDITOR='$GIT_FALLBACK_EDITOR',
+#   DEFAULT_EDITOR='"C:\Program Files\Vim\gvim.exe" --nofork'
 
 GIT-VERSION-FILE: .FORCE-GIT-VERSION-FILE
 	@$(SHELL_PATH) ./GIT-VERSION-GEN
@@ -216,6 +231,12 @@
 uname_P := $(shell sh -c 'uname -p 2>/dev/null || echo not')
 uname_V := $(shell sh -c 'uname -v 2>/dev/null || echo not')
 
+ifdef MSVC
+	# avoid the MingW and Cygwin configuration sections
+	uname_S := Windows
+	uname_O := Windows
+endif
+
 # CFLAGS and LDFLAGS are for the users to override from the command line.
 
 CFLAGS = -g -O2 -Wall
@@ -256,6 +277,9 @@
 # DESTDIR=
 pathsep = :
 
+# JavaScript minifier invocation that can function as filter
+JSMIN =
+
 # default configuration for gitweb
 GITWEB_CONFIG = gitweb_config.perl
 GITWEB_CONFIG_SYSTEM = /etc/gitweb.conf
@@ -271,6 +295,11 @@
 GITWEB_CSS = gitweb.css
 GITWEB_LOGO = git-logo.png
 GITWEB_FAVICON = git-favicon.png
+ifdef JSMIN
+GITWEB_JS = gitweb.min.js
+else
+GITWEB_JS = gitweb.js
+endif
 GITWEB_SITE_HEADER =
 GITWEB_SITE_FOOTER =
 
@@ -325,6 +354,7 @@
 SCRIPT_SH += git-merge-resolve.sh
 SCRIPT_SH += git-mergetool.sh
 SCRIPT_SH += git-mergetool--lib.sh
+SCRIPT_SH += git-notes.sh
 SCRIPT_SH += git-parse-remote.sh
 SCRIPT_SH += git-pull.sh
 SCRIPT_SH += git-quiltimport.sh
@@ -358,6 +388,7 @@
 PROGRAMS += $(EXTRA_PROGRAMS)
 PROGRAMS += git-fast-import$X
 PROGRAMS += git-hash-object$X
+PROGRAMS += git-imap-send$X
 PROGRAMS += git-index-pack$X
 PROGRAMS += git-merge-index$X
 PROGRAMS += git-merge-tree$X
@@ -369,6 +400,7 @@
 PROGRAMS += git-unpack-file$X
 PROGRAMS += git-upload-pack$X
 PROGRAMS += git-var$X
+PROGRAMS += git-http-backend$X
 
 # List built-in command $C whose implementation cmd_$C() is not in
 # builtin-$C.o but is linked in as part of some other command.
@@ -437,6 +469,7 @@
 LIB_H += log-tree.h
 LIB_H += mailmap.h
 LIB_H += merge-recursive.h
+LIB_H += notes.h
 LIB_H += object.h
 LIB_H += pack.h
 LIB_H += pack-refs.h
@@ -457,6 +490,7 @@
 LIB_H += sigchain.h
 LIB_H += strbuf.h
 LIB_H += string-list.h
+LIB_H += submodule.h
 LIB_H += tag.h
 LIB_H += transport.h
 LIB_H += tree.h
@@ -521,6 +555,7 @@
 LIB_OBJS += merge-file.o
 LIB_OBJS += merge-recursive.o
 LIB_OBJS += name-hash.o
+LIB_OBJS += notes.o
 LIB_OBJS += object.o
 LIB_OBJS += pack-check.o
 LIB_OBJS += pack-refs.o
@@ -555,6 +590,7 @@
 LIB_OBJS += sigchain.o
 LIB_OBJS += strbuf.o
 LIB_OBJS += string-list.o
+LIB_OBJS += submodule.o
 LIB_OBJS += symlinks.o
 LIB_OBJS += tag.o
 LIB_OBJS += trace.o
@@ -599,7 +635,6 @@
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin-diff-tree.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin-diff.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin-fast-export.o
-BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin-fetch--tool.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin-fetch-pack.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin-fetch.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin-fmt-merge-msg.o
@@ -793,6 +828,7 @@
 endif
 ifeq ($(uname_S),FreeBSD)
 	NEEDS_LIBICONV = YesPlease
+	OLD_ICONV = YesPlease
 	NO_MEMMEM = YesPlease
 	BASIC_CFLAGS += -I/usr/local/include
 	BASIC_LDFLAGS += -L/usr/local/lib
@@ -899,11 +935,11 @@
 	NO_SYS_SELECT_H = YesPlease
 	SNPRINTF_RETURNS_BOGUS = YesPlease
 endif
-ifdef MSVC
+ifeq ($(uname_S),Windows)
 	GIT_VERSION := $(GIT_VERSION).MSVC
 	pathsep = ;
 	NO_PREAD = YesPlease
-	NO_OPENSSL = YesPlease
+	NEEDS_CRYPTO_WITH_SSL = YesPlease
 	NO_LIBGEN_H = YesPlease
 	NO_SYMLINK_HEAD = YesPlease
 	NO_IPV6 = YesPlease
@@ -933,6 +969,7 @@
 	NO_REGEX = YesPlease
 	NO_CURL = YesPlease
 	NO_PTHREADS = YesPlease
+	BLK_SHA1 = YesPlease
 
 	CC = compat/vcbuild/scripts/clink.pl
 	AR = compat/vcbuild/scripts/lib.pl
@@ -951,14 +988,13 @@
 	BASIC_CFLAGS += -Zi -MTd
 endif
 	X = .exe
-else
+endif
 ifneq (,$(findstring MINGW,$(uname_S)))
 	pathsep = ;
 	NO_PREAD = YesPlease
-	NO_OPENSSL = YesPlease
+	NEEDS_CRYPTO_WITH_SSL = YesPlease
 	NO_LIBGEN_H = YesPlease
 	NO_SYMLINK_HEAD = YesPlease
-	NO_IPV6 = YesPlease
 	NO_SETENV = YesPlease
 	NO_UNSETENV = YesPlease
 	NO_STRCASESTR = YesPlease
@@ -982,6 +1018,7 @@
 	UNRELIABLE_FSTAT = UnfortunatelyYes
 	OBJECT_CREATION_USES_RENAMES = UnfortunatelyNeedsTo
 	NO_REGEX = YesPlease
+	BLK_SHA1 = YesPlease
 	COMPAT_CFLAGS += -D__USE_MINGW_ACCESS -DNOGDI -Icompat -Icompat/fnmatch
 	COMPAT_CFLAGS += -DSTRIP_EXTENSION=\".exe\"
 	COMPAT_OBJS += compat/mingw.o compat/fnmatch/fnmatch.o compat/winansi.o
@@ -1000,7 +1037,6 @@
 	NO_PTHREADS = YesPlease
 endif
 endif
-endif
 
 -include config.mak.autogen
 -include config.mak
@@ -1079,7 +1115,6 @@
 
 ifndef NO_POSIX_ONLY_PROGRAMS
 	PROGRAMS += git-daemon$X
-	PROGRAMS += git-imap-send$X
 endif
 ifndef NO_OPENSSL
 	OPENSSL_LIBSSL = -lssl
@@ -1367,6 +1402,22 @@
 	$(COMPAT_CFLAGS)
 LIB_OBJS += $(COMPAT_OBJS)
 
+# Quote for C
+
+ifdef DEFAULT_EDITOR
+DEFAULT_EDITOR_CQ = "$(subst ",\",$(subst \,\\,$(DEFAULT_EDITOR)))"
+DEFAULT_EDITOR_CQ_SQ = $(subst ','\'',$(DEFAULT_EDITOR_CQ))
+
+BASIC_CFLAGS += -DDEFAULT_EDITOR='$(DEFAULT_EDITOR_CQ_SQ)'
+endif
+
+ifdef DEFAULT_PAGER
+DEFAULT_PAGER_CQ = "$(subst ",\",$(subst \,\\,$(DEFAULT_PAGER)))"
+DEFAULT_PAGER_CQ_SQ = $(subst ','\'',$(DEFAULT_PAGER_CQ))
+
+BASIC_CFLAGS += -DDEFAULT_PAGER='$(DEFAULT_PAGER_CQ_SQ)'
+endif
+
 ALL_CFLAGS += $(BASIC_CFLAGS)
 ALL_LDFLAGS += $(BASIC_LDFLAGS)
 
@@ -1459,8 +1510,13 @@
 	chmod +x $@+ && \
 	mv $@+ $@
 
+ifdef JSMIN
+OTHER_PROGRAMS += gitweb/gitweb.cgi   gitweb/gitweb.min.js
+gitweb/gitweb.cgi: gitweb/gitweb.perl gitweb/gitweb.min.js
+else
 OTHER_PROGRAMS += gitweb/gitweb.cgi
 gitweb/gitweb.cgi: gitweb/gitweb.perl
+endif
 	$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ $@+ && \
 	sed -e '1s|#!.*perl|#!$(PERL_PATH_SQ)|' \
 	    -e 's|++GIT_VERSION++|$(GIT_VERSION)|g' \
@@ -1479,13 +1535,14 @@
 	    -e 's|++GITWEB_CSS++|$(GITWEB_CSS)|g' \
 	    -e 's|++GITWEB_LOGO++|$(GITWEB_LOGO)|g' \
 	    -e 's|++GITWEB_FAVICON++|$(GITWEB_FAVICON)|g' \
+	    -e 's|++GITWEB_JS++|$(GITWEB_JS)|g' \
 	    -e 's|++GITWEB_SITE_HEADER++|$(GITWEB_SITE_HEADER)|g' \
 	    -e 's|++GITWEB_SITE_FOOTER++|$(GITWEB_SITE_FOOTER)|g' \
 	    $< >$@+ && \
 	chmod +x $@+ && \
 	mv $@+ $@
 
-git-instaweb: git-instaweb.sh gitweb/gitweb.cgi gitweb/gitweb.css
+git-instaweb: git-instaweb.sh gitweb/gitweb.cgi gitweb/gitweb.css gitweb/gitweb.js
 	$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ $@+ && \
 	sed -e '1s|#!.*/sh|#!$(SHELL_PATH_SQ)|' \
 	    -e 's/@@GIT_VERSION@@/$(GIT_VERSION)/g' \
@@ -1494,6 +1551,8 @@
 	    -e '/@@GITWEB_CGI@@/d' \
 	    -e '/@@GITWEB_CSS@@/r gitweb/gitweb.css' \
 	    -e '/@@GITWEB_CSS@@/d' \
+	    -e '/@@GITWEB_JS@@/r gitweb/gitweb.js' \
+	    -e '/@@GITWEB_JS@@/d' \
 	    -e 's|@@PERL@@|$(PERL_PATH_SQ)|g' \
 	    $@.sh > $@+ && \
 	chmod +x $@+ && \
@@ -1508,6 +1567,11 @@
 	mv $@+ $@
 endif # NO_PERL
 
+ifdef JSMIN
+gitweb/gitweb.min.js: gitweb/gitweb.js
+	$(QUIET_GEN)$(JSMIN) <$< >$@
+endif # JSMIN
+
 configure: configure.ac
 	$(QUIET_GEN)$(RM) $@ $<+ && \
 	sed -e 's/@@GIT_VERSION@@/$(GIT_VERSION)/g' \
@@ -1835,7 +1899,7 @@
 	$(RM) configure
 
 clean:
-	$(RM) *.o block-sha1/*.o arm/*.o ppc/*.o compat/*.o compat/*/*.o xdiff/*.o \
+	$(RM) *.o block-sha1/*.o ppc/*.o compat/*.o compat/*/*.o xdiff/*.o \
 		$(LIB_FILE) $(XDIFF_LIB)
 	$(RM) $(ALL_PROGRAMS) $(BUILT_INS) git$X
 	$(RM) $(TEST_PROGRAMS)
diff --git a/RelNotes b/RelNotes
index 3c23099..3dad238 120000
--- a/RelNotes
+++ b/RelNotes
@@ -1 +1 @@
-Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.5.9.txt
\ No newline at end of file
+Documentation/RelNotes/1.6.6.3.txt
\ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/archive.c b/archive.c
index 0cc79d2..5b88507 100644
--- a/archive.c
+++ b/archive.c
@@ -31,6 +31,8 @@
 {
 	char *to_free = NULL;
 	struct strbuf fmt = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct pretty_print_context ctx = {0};
+	ctx.date_mode = DATE_NORMAL;
 
 	if (src == buf->buf)
 		to_free = strbuf_detach(buf, NULL);
@@ -48,7 +50,7 @@
 		strbuf_add(&fmt, b + 8, c - b - 8);
 
 		strbuf_add(buf, src, b - src);
-		format_commit_message(commit, fmt.buf, buf, DATE_NORMAL);
+		format_commit_message(commit, fmt.buf, buf, &ctx);
 		len -= c + 1 - src;
 		src  = c + 1;
 	}
@@ -209,10 +211,33 @@
 	return NULL;
 }
 
+static int reject_entry(const unsigned char *sha1, const char *base,
+			int baselen, const char *filename, unsigned mode,
+			int stage, void *context)
+{
+	return -1;
+}
+
+static int path_exists(struct tree *tree, const char *path)
+{
+	const char *pathspec[] = { path, NULL };
+
+	if (read_tree_recursive(tree, "", 0, 0, pathspec, reject_entry, NULL))
+		return 1;
+	return 0;
+}
+
 static void parse_pathspec_arg(const char **pathspec,
 		struct archiver_args *ar_args)
 {
-	ar_args->pathspec = get_pathspec("", pathspec);
+	ar_args->pathspec = pathspec = get_pathspec("", pathspec);
+	if (pathspec) {
+		while (*pathspec) {
+			if (!path_exists(ar_args->tree, *pathspec))
+				die("path not found: %s", *pathspec);
+			pathspec++;
+		}
+	}
 }
 
 static void parse_treeish_arg(const char **argv,
diff --git a/bisect.c b/bisect.c
index dc18db8..e4214c9 100644
--- a/bisect.c
+++ b/bisect.c
@@ -956,7 +956,7 @@
 {
 	struct rev_info revs;
 	struct commit_list *tried;
-	int reaches = 0, all = 0, nr;
+	int reaches = 0, all = 0, nr, steps;
 	const unsigned char *bisect_rev;
 	char bisect_rev_hex[41];
 
@@ -986,6 +986,12 @@
 		exit(1);
 	}
 
+	if (!all) {
+		fprintf(stderr, "No testable commit found.\n"
+			"Maybe you started with bad path parameters?\n");
+		exit(4);
+	}
+
 	bisect_rev = revs.commits->item->object.sha1;
 	memcpy(bisect_rev_hex, sha1_to_hex(bisect_rev), 41);
 
@@ -998,8 +1004,10 @@
 	}
 
 	nr = all - reaches - 1;
-	printf("Bisecting: %d revisions left to test after this "
-	       "(roughly %d steps)\n", nr, estimate_bisect_steps(all));
+	steps = estimate_bisect_steps(all);
+	printf("Bisecting: %d revision%s left to test after this "
+	       "(roughly %d step%s)\n", nr, (nr == 1 ? "" : "s"),
+	       steps, (steps == 1 ? "" : "s"));
 
 	return bisect_checkout(bisect_rev_hex);
 }
diff --git a/builtin-archive.c b/builtin-archive.c
index 446d6bf..faf4554 100644
--- a/builtin-archive.c
+++ b/builtin-archive.c
@@ -67,7 +67,7 @@
 		return NULL;
 	ext++;
 	if (!strcasecmp(ext, "zip"))
-		return "zip";
+		return "--format=zip";
 	return NULL;
 }
 
@@ -81,7 +81,7 @@
 	const char *exec = "git-upload-archive";
 	const char *output = NULL;
 	const char *remote = NULL;
-	const char *format = NULL;
+	const char *format_option = NULL;
 	struct option local_opts[] = {
 		OPT_STRING('o', "output", &output, "file",
 			"write the archive to this file"),
@@ -89,33 +89,31 @@
 			"retrieve the archive from remote repository <repo>"),
 		OPT_STRING(0, "exec", &exec, "cmd",
 			"path to the remote git-upload-archive command"),
-		OPT_STRING(0, "format", &format, "fmt", "archive format"),
 		OPT_END()
 	};
-	char fmt_opt[32];
 
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, local_opts, NULL,
 			     PARSE_OPT_KEEP_ALL);
 
 	if (output) {
 		create_output_file(output);
-		if (!format)
-			format = format_from_name(output);
+		format_option = format_from_name(output);
 	}
 
-	if (format) {
-		sprintf(fmt_opt, "--format=%s", format);
-		/*
-		 * We have enough room in argv[] to muck it in place,
-		 * because either --format and/or --output must have
-		 * been given on the original command line if we get
-		 * to this point, and parse_options() must have eaten
-		 * it, i.e. we can add back one element to the array.
-		 * But argv[] may contain "--"; we should make it the
-		 * first option.
-		 */
+	/*
+	 * We have enough room in argv[] to muck it in place, because
+	 * --output must have been given on the original command line
+	 * if we get to this point, and parse_options() must have eaten
+	 * it, i.e. we can add back one element to the array.
+	 *
+	 * We add a fake --format option at the beginning, with the
+	 * format inferred from our output filename.  This way explicit
+	 * --format options can override it, and the fake option is
+	 * inserted before any "--" that might have been given.
+	 */
+	if (format_option) {
 		memmove(argv + 2, argv + 1, sizeof(*argv) * argc);
-		argv[1] = fmt_opt;
+		argv[1] = format_option;
 		argv[++argc] = NULL;
 	}
 
diff --git a/builtin-blame.c b/builtin-blame.c
index 4094f3c..10f7eac 100644
--- a/builtin-blame.c
+++ b/builtin-blame.c
@@ -2365,6 +2365,7 @@
 			die_errno("cannot stat path '%s'", path);
 	}
 
+	revs.disable_stdin = 1;
 	setup_revisions(argc, argv, &revs, NULL);
 	memset(&sb, 0, sizeof(sb));
 
diff --git a/builtin-branch.c b/builtin-branch.c
index 0c84f9f..ddc9f2d 100644
--- a/builtin-branch.c
+++ b/builtin-branch.c
@@ -389,8 +389,9 @@
 
 		commit = item->commit;
 		if (commit && !parse_commit(commit)) {
+			struct pretty_print_context ctx = {0};
 			pretty_print_commit(CMIT_FMT_ONELINE, commit,
-					    &subject, 0, NULL, NULL, 0, 0);
+					    &subject, &ctx);
 			sub = subject.buf;
 		}
 
diff --git a/builtin-check-ref-format.c b/builtin-check-ref-format.c
index a5ba4ea..b106c65 100644
--- a/builtin-check-ref-format.c
+++ b/builtin-check-ref-format.c
@@ -8,11 +8,36 @@
 #include "strbuf.h"
 
 static const char builtin_check_ref_format_usage[] =
-"git check-ref-format <refname>\n"
+"git check-ref-format [--print] <refname>\n"
 "   or: git check-ref-format --branch <branchname-shorthand>";
 
+/*
+ * Replace each run of adjacent slashes in src with a single slash,
+ * and write the result to dst.
+ *
+ * This function is similar to normalize_path_copy(), but stripped down
+ * to meet check_ref_format's simpler needs.
+ */
+static void collapse_slashes(char *dst, const char *src)
+{
+	char ch;
+	char prev = '\0';
+
+	while ((ch = *src++) != '\0') {
+		if (prev == '/' && ch == prev)
+			continue;
+
+		*dst++ = ch;
+		prev = ch;
+	}
+	*dst = '\0';
+}
+
 int cmd_check_ref_format(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
+	if (argc == 2 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-h"))
+		usage(builtin_check_ref_format_usage);
+
 	if (argc == 3 && !strcmp(argv[1], "--branch")) {
 		struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
 
@@ -21,6 +46,15 @@
 		printf("%s\n", sb.buf + 11);
 		exit(0);
 	}
+	if (argc == 3 && !strcmp(argv[1], "--print")) {
+		char *refname = xmalloc(strlen(argv[2]) + 1);
+
+		if (check_ref_format(argv[2]))
+			exit(1);
+		collapse_slashes(refname, argv[2]);
+		printf("%s\n", refname);
+		exit(0);
+	}
 	if (argc != 2)
 		usage(builtin_check_ref_format_usage);
 	return !!check_ref_format(argv[1]);
diff --git a/builtin-checkout.c b/builtin-checkout.c
index f2786fe..67229fc 100644
--- a/builtin-checkout.c
+++ b/builtin-checkout.c
@@ -167,7 +167,7 @@
 	fill_mm(active_cache[pos+2]->sha1, &theirs);
 
 	status = ll_merge(&result_buf, path, &ancestor,
-			  &ours, "ours", &theirs, "theirs", 1);
+			  &ours, "ours", &theirs, "theirs", 0);
 	free(ancestor.ptr);
 	free(ours.ptr);
 	free(theirs.ptr);
@@ -302,8 +302,9 @@
 static void describe_detached_head(char *msg, struct commit *commit)
 {
 	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct pretty_print_context ctx = {0};
 	parse_commit(commit);
-	pretty_print_commit(CMIT_FMT_ONELINE, commit, &sb, 0, NULL, NULL, 0, 0);
+	pretty_print_commit(CMIT_FMT_ONELINE, commit, &sb, &ctx);
 	fprintf(stderr, "%s %s... %s\n", msg,
 		find_unique_abbrev(commit->object.sha1, DEFAULT_ABBREV), sb.buf);
 	strbuf_release(&sb);
@@ -578,6 +579,40 @@
 	return run_add_interactive(revision, "--patch=checkout", pathspec);
 }
 
+struct tracking_name_data {
+	const char *name;
+	char *remote;
+	int unique;
+};
+
+static int check_tracking_name(const char *refname, const unsigned char *sha1,
+			       int flags, void *cb_data)
+{
+	struct tracking_name_data *cb = cb_data;
+	const char *slash;
+
+	if (prefixcmp(refname, "refs/remotes/"))
+		return 0;
+	slash = strchr(refname + 13, '/');
+	if (!slash || strcmp(slash + 1, cb->name))
+		return 0;
+	if (cb->remote) {
+		cb->unique = 0;
+		return 0;
+	}
+	cb->remote = xstrdup(refname);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static const char *unique_tracking_name(const char *name)
+{
+	struct tracking_name_data cb_data = { name, NULL, 1 };
+	for_each_ref(check_tracking_name, &cb_data);
+	if (cb_data.unique)
+		return cb_data.remote;
+	free(cb_data.remote);
+	return NULL;
+}
 
 int cmd_checkout(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
@@ -588,6 +623,7 @@
 	struct tree *source_tree = NULL;
 	char *conflict_style = NULL;
 	int patch_mode = 0;
+	int dwim_new_local_branch = 1;
 	struct option options[] = {
 		OPT__QUIET(&opts.quiet),
 		OPT_STRING('b', NULL, &opts.new_branch, "new branch", "branch"),
@@ -603,6 +639,9 @@
 		OPT_STRING(0, "conflict", &conflict_style, "style",
 			   "conflict style (merge or diff3)"),
 		OPT_BOOLEAN('p', "patch", &patch_mode, "select hunks interactively"),
+		{ OPTION_BOOLEAN, 0, "guess", &dwim_new_local_branch, NULL,
+		  "second guess 'git checkout no-such-branch'",
+		  PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN },
 		OPT_END(),
 	};
 	int has_dash_dash;
@@ -636,8 +675,6 @@
 		opts.new_branch = argv0 + 1;
 	}
 
-	if (opts.track == BRANCH_TRACK_UNSPECIFIED)
-		opts.track = git_branch_track;
 	if (conflict_style) {
 		opts.merge = 1; /* implied */
 		git_xmerge_config("merge.conflictstyle", conflict_style, NULL);
@@ -661,6 +698,11 @@
 	 *   With no paths, if <something> is a commit, that is to
 	 *   switch to the branch or detach HEAD at it.
 	 *
+	 *   With no paths, if <something> is _not_ a commit, no -t nor -b
+	 *   was given, and there is a tracking branch whose name is
+	 *   <something> in one and only one remote, then this is a short-hand
+	 *   to fork local <something> from that remote tracking branch.
+	 *
 	 *   Otherwise <something> shall not be ambiguous.
 	 *   - If it's *only* a reference, treat it like case (1).
 	 *   - If it's only a path, treat it like case (2).
@@ -683,7 +725,21 @@
 		if (get_sha1(arg, rev)) {
 			if (has_dash_dash)          /* case (1) */
 				die("invalid reference: %s", arg);
-			goto no_reference;          /* case (3 -> 2) */
+			if (!patch_mode &&
+			    dwim_new_local_branch &&
+			    opts.track == BRANCH_TRACK_UNSPECIFIED &&
+			    !opts.new_branch &&
+			    !check_filename(NULL, arg) &&
+			    argc == 1) {
+				const char *remote = unique_tracking_name(arg);
+				if (!remote || get_sha1(remote, rev))
+					goto no_reference;
+				opts.new_branch = arg;
+				arg = remote;
+				/* DWIMmed to create local branch */
+			}
+			else
+				goto no_reference;
 		}
 
 		/* we can't end up being in (2) anymore, eat the argument */
@@ -721,6 +777,10 @@
 	}
 
 no_reference:
+
+	if (opts.track == BRANCH_TRACK_UNSPECIFIED)
+		opts.track = git_branch_track;
+
 	if (argc) {
 		const char **pathspec = get_pathspec(prefix, argv);
 
diff --git a/builtin-commit-tree.c b/builtin-commit-tree.c
index 6467077..ddcb7a4 100644
--- a/builtin-commit-tree.c
+++ b/builtin-commit-tree.c
@@ -105,7 +105,7 @@
 
 	git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
 
-	if (argc < 2)
+	if (argc < 2 || !strcmp(argv[1], "-h"))
 		usage(commit_tree_usage);
 	if (get_sha1(argv[1], tree_sha1))
 		die("Not a valid object name %s", argv[1]);
diff --git a/builtin-commit.c b/builtin-commit.c
index c2ab85e..83b7c35 100644
--- a/builtin-commit.c
+++ b/builtin-commit.c
@@ -51,7 +51,7 @@
 static char *edit_message, *use_message;
 static char *author_name, *author_email, *author_date;
 static int all, edit_flag, also, interactive, only, amend, signoff;
-static int quiet, verbose, no_verify, allow_empty, dry_run;
+static int quiet, verbose, no_verify, allow_empty, dry_run, renew_authorship;
 static char *untracked_files_arg;
 /*
  * The default commit message cleanup mode will remove the lines
@@ -91,8 +91,9 @@
 	OPT_FILENAME('F', "file", &logfile, "read log from file"),
 	OPT_STRING(0, "author", &force_author, "AUTHOR", "override author for commit"),
 	OPT_CALLBACK('m', "message", &message, "MESSAGE", "specify commit message", opt_parse_m),
-	OPT_STRING('c', "reedit-message", &edit_message, "COMMIT", "reuse and edit message from specified commit "),
+	OPT_STRING('c', "reedit-message", &edit_message, "COMMIT", "reuse and edit message from specified commit"),
 	OPT_STRING('C', "reuse-message", &use_message, "COMMIT", "reuse message from specified commit"),
+	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "reset-author", &renew_authorship, "the commit is authored by me now (used with -C-c/--amend)"),
 	OPT_BOOLEAN('s', "signoff", &signoff, "add Signed-off-by:"),
 	OPT_FILENAME('t', "template", &template_file, "use specified template file"),
 	OPT_BOOLEAN('e', "edit", &edit_flag, "force edit of commit"),
@@ -277,11 +278,13 @@
 	 * We still need to refresh the index here.
 	 */
 	if (!pathspec || !*pathspec) {
-		fd = hold_locked_index(&index_lock, 1);
+		fd = hold_locked_index(&index_lock, !is_status);
 		refresh_cache(refresh_flags);
-		if (write_cache(fd, active_cache, active_nr) ||
-		    commit_locked_index(&index_lock))
-			die("unable to write new_index file");
+		if (0 <= fd) {
+			if (write_cache(fd, active_cache, active_nr) ||
+			    commit_locked_index(&index_lock))
+				die("unable to write new_index file");
+		}
 		commit_style = COMMIT_AS_IS;
 		return get_index_file();
 	}
@@ -383,7 +386,7 @@
 	email = getenv("GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL");
 	date = getenv("GIT_AUTHOR_DATE");
 
-	if (use_message) {
+	if (use_message && !renew_authorship) {
 		const char *a, *lb, *rb, *eol;
 
 		a = strstr(use_message_buffer, "\nauthor ");
@@ -416,6 +419,47 @@
 	author_date = date;
 }
 
+static int ends_rfc2822_footer(struct strbuf *sb)
+{
+	int ch;
+	int hit = 0;
+	int i, j, k;
+	int len = sb->len;
+	int first = 1;
+	const char *buf = sb->buf;
+
+	for (i = len - 1; i > 0; i--) {
+		if (hit && buf[i] == '\n')
+			break;
+		hit = (buf[i] == '\n');
+	}
+
+	while (i < len - 1 && buf[i] == '\n')
+		i++;
+
+	for (; i < len; i = k) {
+		for (k = i; k < len && buf[k] != '\n'; k++)
+			; /* do nothing */
+		k++;
+
+		if ((buf[k] == ' ' || buf[k] == '\t') && !first)
+			continue;
+
+		first = 0;
+
+		for (j = 0; i + j < len; j++) {
+			ch = buf[i + j];
+			if (ch == ':')
+				break;
+			if (isalnum(ch) ||
+			    (ch == '-'))
+				continue;
+			return 0;
+		}
+	}
+	return 1;
+}
+
 static int prepare_to_commit(const char *index_file, const char *prefix,
 			     struct wt_status *s)
 {
@@ -491,7 +535,7 @@
 		for (i = sb.len - 1; i > 0 && sb.buf[i - 1] != '\n'; i--)
 			; /* do nothing */
 		if (prefixcmp(sb.buf + i, sob.buf)) {
-			if (prefixcmp(sb.buf + i, sign_off_header))
+			if (!i || !ends_rfc2822_footer(&sb))
 				strbuf_addch(&sb, '\n');
 			strbuf_addbuf(&sb, &sob);
 		}
@@ -686,8 +730,10 @@
 	prepare_revision_walk(&revs);
 	commit = get_revision(&revs);
 	if (commit) {
+		struct pretty_print_context ctx = {0};
+		ctx.date_mode = DATE_NORMAL;
 		strbuf_release(&buf);
-		format_commit_message(commit, "%an <%ae>", &buf, DATE_NORMAL);
+		format_commit_message(commit, "%an <%ae>", &buf, &ctx);
 		return strbuf_detach(&buf, NULL);
 	}
 	die("No existing author found with '%s'", name);
@@ -706,6 +752,9 @@
 	if (force_author && !strchr(force_author, '>'))
 		force_author = find_author_by_nickname(force_author);
 
+	if (force_author && renew_authorship)
+		die("Using both --reset-author and --author does not make sense");
+
 	if (logfile || message.len || use_message)
 		use_editor = 0;
 	if (edit_flag)
@@ -739,6 +788,8 @@
 		use_message = edit_message;
 	if (amend && !use_message)
 		use_message = "HEAD";
+	if (!use_message && renew_authorship)
+		die("--reset-author can be used only with -C, -c or --amend.");
 	if (use_message) {
 		unsigned char sha1[20];
 		static char utf8[] = "UTF-8";
@@ -946,8 +997,10 @@
 		initial_commit ? " (root-commit)" : "");
 
 	if (!log_tree_commit(&rev, commit)) {
+		struct pretty_print_context ctx = {0};
 		struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
-		format_commit_message(commit, format + 7, &buf, DATE_NORMAL);
+		ctx.date_mode = DATE_NORMAL;
+		format_commit_message(commit, format + 7, &buf, &ctx);
 		printf("%s\n", buf.buf);
 		strbuf_release(&buf);
 	}
diff --git a/builtin-config.c b/builtin-config.c
index a2d656e..78724fb 100644
--- a/builtin-config.c
+++ b/builtin-config.c
@@ -340,7 +340,7 @@
 		if (!is_absolute_path(given_config_file) && prefix)
 			config_exclusive_filename = prefix_filename(prefix,
 								    strlen(prefix),
-								    argv[2]);
+								    given_config_file);
 		else
 			config_exclusive_filename = given_config_file;
 	}
diff --git a/builtin-describe.c b/builtin-describe.c
index 7542b57..71be2a9 100644
--- a/builtin-describe.c
+++ b/builtin-describe.c
@@ -5,12 +5,14 @@
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "exec_cmd.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
+#include "diff.h"
 
 #define SEEN		(1u<<0)
 #define MAX_TAGS	(FLAG_BITS - 1)
 
 static const char * const describe_usage[] = {
 	"git describe [options] <committish>*",
+	"git describe [options] --dirty",
 	NULL
 };
 
@@ -23,6 +25,13 @@
 static int found_names;
 static const char *pattern;
 static int always;
+static const char *dirty;
+
+/* diff-index command arguments to check if working tree is dirty. */
+static const char *diff_index_args[] = {
+	"diff-index", "--quiet", "HEAD", "--", NULL
+};
+
 
 struct commit_name {
 	struct tag *tag;
@@ -96,8 +105,6 @@
 	if (!all) {
 		if (!prio)
 			return 0;
-		if (!tags && prio < 2)
-			return 0;
 	}
 	add_to_known_names(all ? path + 5 : path + 10, commit, prio, sha1);
 	return 0;
@@ -180,11 +187,11 @@
 	unsigned char sha1[20];
 	struct commit *cmit, *gave_up_on = NULL;
 	struct commit_list *list;
-	static int initialized = 0;
 	struct commit_name *n;
 	struct possible_tag all_matches[MAX_TAGS];
 	unsigned int match_cnt = 0, annotated_cnt = 0, cur_match;
 	unsigned long seen_commits = 0;
+	unsigned int unannotated_cnt = 0;
 
 	if (get_sha1(arg, sha1))
 		die("Not a valid object name %s", arg);
@@ -192,22 +199,16 @@
 	if (!cmit)
 		die("%s is not a valid '%s' object", arg, commit_type);
 
-	if (!initialized) {
-		initialized = 1;
-		for_each_ref(get_name, NULL);
-	}
-
-	if (!found_names && !always)
-		die("cannot describe '%s'", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
-
 	n = cmit->util;
-	if (n) {
+	if (n && (tags || all || n->prio == 2)) {
 		/*
 		 * Exact match to an existing ref.
 		 */
 		display_name(n);
 		if (longformat)
 			show_suffix(0, n->tag ? n->tag->tagged->sha1 : sha1);
+		if (dirty)
+			printf("%s", dirty);
 		printf("\n");
 		return;
 	}
@@ -226,7 +227,9 @@
 		seen_commits++;
 		n = c->util;
 		if (n) {
-			if (match_cnt < max_candidates) {
+			if (!tags && !all && n->prio < 2) {
+				unannotated_cnt++;
+			} else if (match_cnt < max_candidates) {
 				struct possible_tag *t = &all_matches[match_cnt++];
 				t->name = n;
 				t->depth = seen_commits - 1;
@@ -265,10 +268,20 @@
 	if (!match_cnt) {
 		const unsigned char *sha1 = cmit->object.sha1;
 		if (always) {
-			printf("%s\n", find_unique_abbrev(sha1, abbrev));
+			printf("%s", find_unique_abbrev(sha1, abbrev));
+			if (dirty)
+				printf("%s", dirty);
+			printf("\n");
 			return;
 		}
-		die("cannot describe '%s'", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+		if (unannotated_cnt)
+			die("No annotated tags can describe '%s'.\n"
+			    "However, there were unannotated tags: try --tags.",
+			    sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+		else
+			die("No tags can describe '%s'.\n"
+			    "Try --always, or create some tags.",
+			    sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 	}
 
 	qsort(all_matches, match_cnt, sizeof(all_matches[0]), compare_pt);
@@ -300,6 +313,8 @@
 	display_name(all_matches[0].name);
 	if (abbrev)
 		show_suffix(all_matches[0].depth, cmit->object.sha1);
+	if (dirty)
+		printf("%s", dirty);
 	printf("\n");
 
 	if (!last_one)
@@ -324,6 +339,9 @@
 			   "only consider tags matching <pattern>"),
 		OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "always",     &always,
 			   "show abbreviated commit object as fallback"),
+		{OPTION_STRING, 0, "dirty",  &dirty, "mark",
+			   "append <mark> on dirty working tree (default: \"-dirty\")",
+		 PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, NULL, (intptr_t) "-dirty"},
 		OPT_END(),
 	};
 
@@ -359,8 +377,16 @@
 		return cmd_name_rev(i + argc, args, prefix);
 	}
 
+	for_each_ref(get_name, NULL);
+	if (!found_names && !always)
+		die("No names found, cannot describe anything.");
+
 	if (argc == 0) {
+		if (dirty && !cmd_diff_index(ARRAY_SIZE(diff_index_args) - 1, diff_index_args, prefix))
+			dirty = NULL;
 		describe("HEAD", 1);
+	} else if (dirty) {
+		die("--dirty is incompatible with committishes");
 	} else {
 		while (argc-- > 0) {
 			describe(*argv++, argc == 0);
diff --git a/builtin-diff-tree.c b/builtin-diff-tree.c
index 79cedb7..2380c21 100644
--- a/builtin-diff-tree.c
+++ b/builtin-diff-tree.c
@@ -104,6 +104,7 @@
 	git_config(git_diff_basic_config, NULL); /* no "diff" UI options */
 	opt->abbrev = 0;
 	opt->diff = 1;
+	opt->disable_stdin = 1;
 	argc = setup_revisions(argc, argv, opt, NULL);
 
 	while (--argc > 0) {
diff --git a/builtin-fetch-pack.c b/builtin-fetch-pack.c
index 629735f..dbd8b7b 100644
--- a/builtin-fetch-pack.c
+++ b/builtin-fetch-pack.c
@@ -157,6 +157,66 @@
 	return commit->object.sha1;
 }
 
+enum ack_type {
+	NAK = 0,
+	ACK,
+	ACK_continue,
+	ACK_common,
+	ACK_ready
+};
+
+static void consume_shallow_list(int fd)
+{
+	if (args.stateless_rpc && args.depth > 0) {
+		/* If we sent a depth we will get back "duplicate"
+		 * shallow and unshallow commands every time there
+		 * is a block of have lines exchanged.
+		 */
+		char line[1000];
+		while (packet_read_line(fd, line, sizeof(line))) {
+			if (!prefixcmp(line, "shallow "))
+				continue;
+			if (!prefixcmp(line, "unshallow "))
+				continue;
+			die("git fetch-pack: expected shallow list");
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+static enum ack_type get_ack(int fd, unsigned char *result_sha1)
+{
+	static char line[1000];
+	int len = packet_read_line(fd, line, sizeof(line));
+
+	if (!len)
+		die("git fetch-pack: expected ACK/NAK, got EOF");
+	if (line[len-1] == '\n')
+		line[--len] = 0;
+	if (!strcmp(line, "NAK"))
+		return NAK;
+	if (!prefixcmp(line, "ACK ")) {
+		if (!get_sha1_hex(line+4, result_sha1)) {
+			if (strstr(line+45, "continue"))
+				return ACK_continue;
+			if (strstr(line+45, "common"))
+				return ACK_common;
+			if (strstr(line+45, "ready"))
+				return ACK_ready;
+			return ACK;
+		}
+	}
+	die("git fetch_pack: expected ACK/NAK, got '%s'", line);
+}
+
+static void send_request(int fd, struct strbuf *buf)
+{
+	if (args.stateless_rpc) {
+		send_sideband(fd, -1, buf->buf, buf->len, LARGE_PACKET_MAX);
+		packet_flush(fd);
+	} else
+		safe_write(fd, buf->buf, buf->len);
+}
+
 static int find_common(int fd[2], unsigned char *result_sha1,
 		       struct ref *refs)
 {
@@ -165,7 +225,11 @@
 	const unsigned char *sha1;
 	unsigned in_vain = 0;
 	int got_continue = 0;
+	struct strbuf req_buf = STRBUF_INIT;
+	size_t state_len = 0;
 
+	if (args.stateless_rpc && multi_ack == 1)
+		die("--stateless-rpc requires multi_ack_detailed");
 	if (marked)
 		for_each_ref(clear_marks, NULL);
 	marked = 1;
@@ -175,6 +239,7 @@
 	fetching = 0;
 	for ( ; refs ; refs = refs->next) {
 		unsigned char *remote = refs->old_sha1;
+		const char *remote_hex;
 		struct object *o;
 
 		/*
@@ -192,32 +257,42 @@
 			continue;
 		}
 
-		if (!fetching)
-			packet_write(fd[1], "want %s%s%s%s%s%s%s%s\n",
-				     sha1_to_hex(remote),
-				     (multi_ack ? " multi_ack" : ""),
-				     (use_sideband == 2 ? " side-band-64k" : ""),
-				     (use_sideband == 1 ? " side-band" : ""),
-				     (args.use_thin_pack ? " thin-pack" : ""),
-				     (args.no_progress ? " no-progress" : ""),
-				     (args.include_tag ? " include-tag" : ""),
-				     (prefer_ofs_delta ? " ofs-delta" : ""));
-		else
-			packet_write(fd[1], "want %s\n", sha1_to_hex(remote));
+		remote_hex = sha1_to_hex(remote);
+		if (!fetching) {
+			struct strbuf c = STRBUF_INIT;
+			if (multi_ack == 2)     strbuf_addstr(&c, " multi_ack_detailed");
+			if (multi_ack == 1)     strbuf_addstr(&c, " multi_ack");
+			if (use_sideband == 2)  strbuf_addstr(&c, " side-band-64k");
+			if (use_sideband == 1)  strbuf_addstr(&c, " side-band");
+			if (args.use_thin_pack) strbuf_addstr(&c, " thin-pack");
+			if (args.no_progress)   strbuf_addstr(&c, " no-progress");
+			if (args.include_tag)   strbuf_addstr(&c, " include-tag");
+			if (prefer_ofs_delta)   strbuf_addstr(&c, " ofs-delta");
+			packet_buf_write(&req_buf, "want %s%s\n", remote_hex, c.buf);
+			strbuf_release(&c);
+		} else
+			packet_buf_write(&req_buf, "want %s\n", remote_hex);
 		fetching++;
 	}
-	if (is_repository_shallow())
-		write_shallow_commits(fd[1], 1);
-	if (args.depth > 0)
-		packet_write(fd[1], "deepen %d", args.depth);
-	packet_flush(fd[1]);
-	if (!fetching)
+
+	if (!fetching) {
+		strbuf_release(&req_buf);
+		packet_flush(fd[1]);
 		return 1;
+	}
+
+	if (is_repository_shallow())
+		write_shallow_commits(&req_buf, 1);
+	if (args.depth > 0)
+		packet_buf_write(&req_buf, "deepen %d", args.depth);
+	packet_buf_flush(&req_buf);
+	state_len = req_buf.len;
 
 	if (args.depth > 0) {
 		char line[1024];
 		unsigned char sha1[20];
 
+		send_request(fd[1], &req_buf);
 		while (packet_read_line(fd[0], line, sizeof(line))) {
 			if (!prefixcmp(line, "shallow ")) {
 				if (get_sha1_hex(line + 8, sha1))
@@ -239,45 +314,73 @@
 			}
 			die("expected shallow/unshallow, got %s", line);
 		}
+	} else if (!args.stateless_rpc)
+		send_request(fd[1], &req_buf);
+
+	if (!args.stateless_rpc) {
+		/* If we aren't using the stateless-rpc interface
+		 * we don't need to retain the headers.
+		 */
+		strbuf_setlen(&req_buf, 0);
+		state_len = 0;
 	}
 
 	flushes = 0;
 	retval = -1;
 	while ((sha1 = get_rev())) {
-		packet_write(fd[1], "have %s\n", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+		packet_buf_write(&req_buf, "have %s\n", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 		if (args.verbose)
 			fprintf(stderr, "have %s\n", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 		in_vain++;
 		if (!(31 & ++count)) {
 			int ack;
 
-			packet_flush(fd[1]);
+			packet_buf_flush(&req_buf);
+			send_request(fd[1], &req_buf);
+			strbuf_setlen(&req_buf, state_len);
 			flushes++;
 
 			/*
 			 * We keep one window "ahead" of the other side, and
 			 * will wait for an ACK only on the next one
 			 */
-			if (count == 32)
+			if (!args.stateless_rpc && count == 32)
 				continue;
 
+			consume_shallow_list(fd[0]);
 			do {
 				ack = get_ack(fd[0], result_sha1);
 				if (args.verbose && ack)
 					fprintf(stderr, "got ack %d %s\n", ack,
 							sha1_to_hex(result_sha1));
-				if (ack == 1) {
+				switch (ack) {
+				case ACK:
 					flushes = 0;
 					multi_ack = 0;
 					retval = 0;
 					goto done;
-				} else if (ack == 2) {
+				case ACK_common:
+				case ACK_ready:
+				case ACK_continue: {
 					struct commit *commit =
 						lookup_commit(result_sha1);
+					if (args.stateless_rpc
+					 && ack == ACK_common
+					 && !(commit->object.flags & COMMON)) {
+						/* We need to replay the have for this object
+						 * on the next RPC request so the peer knows
+						 * it is in common with us.
+						 */
+						const char *hex = sha1_to_hex(result_sha1);
+						packet_buf_write(&req_buf, "have %s\n", hex);
+						state_len = req_buf.len;
+					}
 					mark_common(commit, 0, 1);
 					retval = 0;
 					in_vain = 0;
 					got_continue = 1;
+					break;
+					}
 				}
 			} while (ack);
 			flushes--;
@@ -289,20 +392,24 @@
 		}
 	}
 done:
-	packet_write(fd[1], "done\n");
+	packet_buf_write(&req_buf, "done\n");
+	send_request(fd[1], &req_buf);
 	if (args.verbose)
 		fprintf(stderr, "done\n");
 	if (retval != 0) {
 		multi_ack = 0;
 		flushes++;
 	}
+	strbuf_release(&req_buf);
+
+	consume_shallow_list(fd[0]);
 	while (flushes || multi_ack) {
 		int ack = get_ack(fd[0], result_sha1);
 		if (ack) {
 			if (args.verbose)
 				fprintf(stderr, "got ack (%d) %s\n", ack,
 					sha1_to_hex(result_sha1));
-			if (ack == 1)
+			if (ack == ACK)
 				return 0;
 			multi_ack = 1;
 			continue;
@@ -479,12 +586,12 @@
 	return retval;
 }
 
-static int sideband_demux(int fd, void *data)
+static int sideband_demux(int in, int out, void *data)
 {
 	int *xd = data;
 
-	int ret = recv_sideband("fetch-pack", xd[0], fd);
-	close(fd);
+	int ret = recv_sideband("fetch-pack", xd[0], out);
+	close(out);
 	return ret;
 }
 
@@ -506,6 +613,7 @@
 		 */
 		demux.proc = sideband_demux;
 		demux.data = xd;
+		demux.out = -1;
 		if (start_async(&demux))
 			die("fetch-pack: unable to fork off sideband"
 			    " demultiplexer");
@@ -584,7 +692,12 @@
 
 	if (is_repository_shallow() && !server_supports("shallow"))
 		die("Server does not support shallow clients");
-	if (server_supports("multi_ack")) {
+	if (server_supports("multi_ack_detailed")) {
+		if (args.verbose)
+			fprintf(stderr, "Server supports multi_ack_detailed\n");
+		multi_ack = 2;
+	}
+	else if (server_supports("multi_ack")) {
 		if (args.verbose)
 			fprintf(stderr, "Server supports multi_ack\n");
 		multi_ack = 1;
@@ -615,6 +728,8 @@
 			 */
 			warning("no common commits");
 
+	if (args.stateless_rpc)
+		packet_flush(fd[1]);
 	if (get_pack(fd, pack_lockfile))
 		die("git fetch-pack: fetch failed.");
 
@@ -685,6 +800,8 @@
 	struct ref *ref = NULL;
 	char *dest = NULL, **heads;
 	int fd[2];
+	char *pack_lockfile = NULL;
+	char **pack_lockfile_ptr = NULL;
 	struct child_process *conn;
 
 	nr_heads = 0;
@@ -734,6 +851,15 @@
 				args.no_progress = 1;
 				continue;
 			}
+			if (!strcmp("--stateless-rpc", arg)) {
+				args.stateless_rpc = 1;
+				continue;
+			}
+			if (!strcmp("--lock-pack", arg)) {
+				args.lock_pack = 1;
+				pack_lockfile_ptr = &pack_lockfile;
+				continue;
+			}
 			usage(fetch_pack_usage);
 		}
 		dest = (char *)arg;
@@ -744,19 +870,27 @@
 	if (!dest)
 		usage(fetch_pack_usage);
 
-	conn = git_connect(fd, (char *)dest, args.uploadpack,
-			   args.verbose ? CONNECT_VERBOSE : 0);
-	if (conn) {
-		get_remote_heads(fd[0], &ref, 0, NULL, 0, NULL);
-
-		ref = fetch_pack(&args, fd, conn, ref, dest, nr_heads, heads, NULL);
-		close(fd[0]);
-		close(fd[1]);
-		if (finish_connect(conn))
-			ref = NULL;
+	if (args.stateless_rpc) {
+		conn = NULL;
+		fd[0] = 0;
+		fd[1] = 1;
 	} else {
-		ref = NULL;
+		conn = git_connect(fd, (char *)dest, args.uploadpack,
+				   args.verbose ? CONNECT_VERBOSE : 0);
 	}
+
+	get_remote_heads(fd[0], &ref, 0, NULL, 0, NULL);
+
+	ref = fetch_pack(&args, fd, conn, ref, dest,
+		nr_heads, heads, pack_lockfile_ptr);
+	if (pack_lockfile) {
+		printf("lock %s\n", pack_lockfile);
+		fflush(stdout);
+	}
+	close(fd[0]);
+	close(fd[1]);
+	if (finish_connect(conn))
+		ref = NULL;
 	ret = !ref;
 
 	if (!ret && nr_heads) {
@@ -809,6 +943,7 @@
 
 	if (args.depth > 0) {
 		struct cache_time mtime;
+		struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
 		char *shallow = git_path("shallow");
 		int fd;
 
@@ -826,12 +961,14 @@
 
 		fd = hold_lock_file_for_update(&lock, shallow,
 					       LOCK_DIE_ON_ERROR);
-		if (!write_shallow_commits(fd, 0)) {
+		if (!write_shallow_commits(&sb, 0)
+		 || write_in_full(fd, sb.buf, sb.len) != sb.len) {
 			unlink_or_warn(shallow);
 			rollback_lock_file(&lock);
 		} else {
 			commit_lock_file(&lock);
 		}
+		strbuf_release(&sb);
 	}
 
 	reprepare_packed_git();
diff --git a/builtin-fetch.c b/builtin-fetch.c
index cb48c57..5b7db61 100644
--- a/builtin-fetch.c
+++ b/builtin-fetch.c
@@ -14,6 +14,9 @@
 
 static const char * const builtin_fetch_usage[] = {
 	"git fetch [options] [<repository> <refspec>...]",
+	"git fetch [options] <group>",
+	"git fetch --multiple [options] [<repository> | <group>]...",
+	"git fetch --all [options]",
 	NULL
 };
 
@@ -23,7 +26,7 @@
 	TAGS_SET = 2
 };
 
-static int append, force, keep, update_head_ok, verbosity;
+static int all, append, dry_run, force, keep, multiple, prune, update_head_ok, verbosity;
 static int tags = TAGS_DEFAULT;
 static const char *depth;
 static const char *upload_pack;
@@ -32,16 +35,24 @@
 
 static struct option builtin_fetch_options[] = {
 	OPT__VERBOSITY(&verbosity),
+	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "all", &all,
+		    "fetch from all remotes"),
 	OPT_BOOLEAN('a', "append", &append,
 		    "append to .git/FETCH_HEAD instead of overwriting"),
 	OPT_STRING(0, "upload-pack", &upload_pack, "PATH",
 		   "path to upload pack on remote end"),
 	OPT_BOOLEAN('f', "force", &force,
 		    "force overwrite of local branch"),
+	OPT_BOOLEAN('m', "multiple", &multiple,
+		    "fetch from multiple remotes"),
 	OPT_SET_INT('t', "tags", &tags,
 		    "fetch all tags and associated objects", TAGS_SET),
 	OPT_SET_INT('n', NULL, &tags,
 		    "do not fetch all tags (--no-tags)", TAGS_UNSET),
+	OPT_BOOLEAN('p', "prune", &prune,
+		    "prune tracking branches no longer on remote"),
+	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "dry-run", &dry_run,
+		    "dry run"),
 	OPT_BOOLEAN('k', "keep", &keep, "keep downloaded pack"),
 	OPT_BOOLEAN('u', "update-head-ok", &update_head_ok,
 		    "allow updating of HEAD ref"),
@@ -178,6 +189,8 @@
 	char *rla = getenv("GIT_REFLOG_ACTION");
 	static struct ref_lock *lock;
 
+	if (dry_run)
+		return 0;
 	if (!rla)
 		rla = default_rla.buf;
 	snprintf(msg, sizeof(msg), "%s: %s", rla, action);
@@ -269,7 +282,7 @@
 		strcpy(quickref, find_unique_abbrev(current->object.sha1, DEFAULT_ABBREV));
 		strcat(quickref, "..");
 		strcat(quickref, find_unique_abbrev(ref->new_sha1, DEFAULT_ABBREV));
-		r = s_update_ref("fast forward", ref, 1);
+		r = s_update_ref("fast-forward", ref, 1);
 		sprintf(display, "%c %-*s %-*s -> %s%s", r ? '!' : ' ',
 			SUMMARY_WIDTH, quickref, REFCOL_WIDTH, remote,
 			pretty_ref, r ? "  (unable to update local ref)" : "");
@@ -287,7 +300,7 @@
 			r ? "unable to update local ref" : "forced update");
 		return r;
 	} else {
-		sprintf(display, "! %-*s %-*s -> %s  (non fast forward)",
+		sprintf(display, "! %-*s %-*s -> %s  (non-fast-forward)",
 			SUMMARY_WIDTH, "[rejected]", REFCOL_WIDTH, remote,
 			pretty_ref);
 		return 1;
@@ -303,7 +316,7 @@
 	char note[1024];
 	const char *what, *kind;
 	struct ref *rm;
-	char *url, *filename = git_path("FETCH_HEAD");
+	char *url, *filename = dry_run ? "/dev/null" : git_path("FETCH_HEAD");
 
 	fp = fopen(filename, "a");
 	if (!fp)
@@ -485,11 +498,34 @@
 	return ret;
 }
 
+static int prune_refs(struct transport *transport, struct ref *ref_map)
+{
+	int result = 0;
+	struct ref *ref, *stale_refs = get_stale_heads(transport->remote, ref_map);
+	const char *dangling_msg = dry_run
+		? "   (%s will become dangling)\n"
+		: "   (%s has become dangling)\n";
+
+	for (ref = stale_refs; ref; ref = ref->next) {
+		if (!dry_run)
+			result |= delete_ref(ref->name, NULL, 0);
+		if (verbosity >= 0) {
+			fprintf(stderr, " x %-*s %-*s -> %s\n",
+				SUMMARY_WIDTH, "[deleted]",
+				REFCOL_WIDTH, "(none)", prettify_refname(ref->name));
+			warn_dangling_symref(stderr, dangling_msg, ref->name);
+		}
+	}
+	free_refs(stale_refs);
+	return result;
+}
+
 static int add_existing(const char *refname, const unsigned char *sha1,
 			int flag, void *cbdata)
 {
 	struct string_list *list = (struct string_list *)cbdata;
-	string_list_insert(refname, list);
+	struct string_list_item *item = string_list_insert(refname, list);
+	item->util = (void *)sha1;
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -504,57 +540,98 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+struct tag_data {
+	struct ref **head;
+	struct ref ***tail;
+};
+
+static int add_to_tail(struct string_list_item *item, void *cb_data)
+{
+	struct tag_data *data = (struct tag_data *)cb_data;
+	struct ref *rm = NULL;
+
+	/* We have already decided to ignore this item */
+	if (!item->util)
+		return 0;
+
+	rm = alloc_ref(item->string);
+	rm->peer_ref = alloc_ref(item->string);
+	hashcpy(rm->old_sha1, item->util);
+
+	**data->tail = rm;
+	*data->tail = &rm->next;
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
 static void find_non_local_tags(struct transport *transport,
 			struct ref **head,
 			struct ref ***tail)
 {
 	struct string_list existing_refs = { NULL, 0, 0, 0 };
-	struct string_list new_refs = { NULL, 0, 0, 1 };
-	char *ref_name;
-	int ref_name_len;
-	const unsigned char *ref_sha1;
-	const struct ref *tag_ref;
-	struct ref *rm = NULL;
+	struct string_list remote_refs = { NULL, 0, 0, 0 };
+	struct tag_data data = {head, tail};
 	const struct ref *ref;
+	struct string_list_item *item = NULL;
 
 	for_each_ref(add_existing, &existing_refs);
 	for (ref = transport_get_remote_refs(transport); ref; ref = ref->next) {
 		if (prefixcmp(ref->name, "refs/tags"))
 			continue;
 
-		ref_name = xstrdup(ref->name);
-		ref_name_len = strlen(ref_name);
-		ref_sha1 = ref->old_sha1;
-
-		if (!strcmp(ref_name + ref_name_len - 3, "^{}")) {
-			ref_name[ref_name_len - 3] = 0;
-			tag_ref = transport_get_remote_refs(transport);
-			while (tag_ref) {
-				if (!strcmp(tag_ref->name, ref_name)) {
-					ref_sha1 = tag_ref->old_sha1;
-					break;
-				}
-				tag_ref = tag_ref->next;
-			}
+		/*
+		 * The peeled ref always follows the matching base
+		 * ref, so if we see a peeled ref that we don't want
+		 * to fetch then we can mark the ref entry in the list
+		 * as one to ignore by setting util to NULL.
+		 */
+		if (!strcmp(ref->name + strlen(ref->name) - 3, "^{}")) {
+			if (item && !has_sha1_file(ref->old_sha1) &&
+			    !will_fetch(head, ref->old_sha1) &&
+			    !has_sha1_file(item->util) &&
+			    !will_fetch(head, item->util))
+				item->util = NULL;
+			item = NULL;
+			continue;
 		}
 
-		if (!string_list_has_string(&existing_refs, ref_name) &&
-		    !string_list_has_string(&new_refs, ref_name) &&
-		    (has_sha1_file(ref->old_sha1) ||
-		     will_fetch(head, ref->old_sha1))) {
-			string_list_insert(ref_name, &new_refs);
+		/*
+		 * If item is non-NULL here, then we previously saw a
+		 * ref not followed by a peeled reference, so we need
+		 * to check if it is a lightweight tag that we want to
+		 * fetch.
+		 */
+		if (item && !has_sha1_file(item->util) &&
+		    !will_fetch(head, item->util))
+			item->util = NULL;
 
-			rm = alloc_ref(ref_name);
-			rm->peer_ref = alloc_ref(ref_name);
-			hashcpy(rm->old_sha1, ref_sha1);
+		item = NULL;
 
-			**tail = rm;
-			*tail = &rm->next;
-		}
-		free(ref_name);
+		/* skip duplicates and refs that we already have */
+		if (string_list_has_string(&remote_refs, ref->name) ||
+		    string_list_has_string(&existing_refs, ref->name))
+			continue;
+
+		item = string_list_insert(ref->name, &remote_refs);
+		item->util = (void *)ref->old_sha1;
 	}
 	string_list_clear(&existing_refs, 0);
-	string_list_clear(&new_refs, 0);
+
+	/*
+	 * We may have a final lightweight tag that needs to be
+	 * checked to see if it needs fetching.
+	 */
+	if (item && !has_sha1_file(item->util) &&
+	    !will_fetch(head, item->util))
+		item->util = NULL;
+
+	/*
+	 * For all the tags in the remote_refs string list, call
+	 * add_to_tail to add them to the list of refs to be fetched
+	 */
+	for_each_string_list(add_to_tail, &remote_refs, &data);
+
+	string_list_clear(&remote_refs, 0);
 }
 
 static void check_not_current_branch(struct ref *ref_map)
@@ -574,9 +651,14 @@
 static int do_fetch(struct transport *transport,
 		    struct refspec *refs, int ref_count)
 {
+	struct string_list existing_refs = { NULL, 0, 0, 0 };
+	struct string_list_item *peer_item = NULL;
 	struct ref *ref_map;
 	struct ref *rm;
 	int autotags = (transport->remote->fetch_tags == 1);
+
+	for_each_ref(add_existing, &existing_refs);
+
 	if (transport->remote->fetch_tags == 2 && tags != TAGS_UNSET)
 		tags = TAGS_SET;
 	if (transport->remote->fetch_tags == -1)
@@ -586,7 +668,7 @@
 		die("Don't know how to fetch from %s", transport->url);
 
 	/* if not appending, truncate FETCH_HEAD */
-	if (!append) {
+	if (!append && !dry_run) {
 		char *filename = git_path("FETCH_HEAD");
 		FILE *fp = fopen(filename, "w");
 		if (!fp)
@@ -599,8 +681,13 @@
 		check_not_current_branch(ref_map);
 
 	for (rm = ref_map; rm; rm = rm->next) {
-		if (rm->peer_ref)
-			read_ref(rm->peer_ref->name, rm->peer_ref->old_sha1);
+		if (rm->peer_ref) {
+			peer_item = string_list_lookup(rm->peer_ref->name,
+						       &existing_refs);
+			if (peer_item)
+				hashcpy(rm->peer_ref->old_sha1,
+					peer_item->util);
+		}
 	}
 
 	if (tags == TAGS_DEFAULT && autotags)
@@ -609,6 +696,8 @@
 		free_refs(ref_map);
 		return 1;
 	}
+	if (prune)
+		prune_refs(transport, ref_map);
 	free_refs(ref_map);
 
 	/* if neither --no-tags nor --tags was specified, do automated tag
@@ -639,33 +728,100 @@
 			name, transport->url);
 }
 
-int cmd_fetch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+static int get_one_remote_for_fetch(struct remote *remote, void *priv)
 {
-	struct remote *remote;
+	struct string_list *list = priv;
+	if (!remote->skip_default_update)
+		string_list_append(remote->name, list);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+struct remote_group_data {
+	const char *name;
+	struct string_list *list;
+};
+
+static int get_remote_group(const char *key, const char *value, void *priv)
+{
+	struct remote_group_data *g = priv;
+
+	if (!prefixcmp(key, "remotes.") &&
+			!strcmp(key + 8, g->name)) {
+		/* split list by white space */
+		int space = strcspn(value, " \t\n");
+		while (*value) {
+			if (space > 1) {
+				string_list_append(xstrndup(value, space),
+						   g->list);
+			}
+			value += space + (value[space] != '\0');
+			space = strcspn(value, " \t\n");
+		}
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int add_remote_or_group(const char *name, struct string_list *list)
+{
+	int prev_nr = list->nr;
+	struct remote_group_data g = { name, list };
+
+	git_config(get_remote_group, &g);
+	if (list->nr == prev_nr) {
+		struct remote *remote;
+		if (!remote_is_configured(name))
+			return 0;
+		remote = remote_get(name);
+		string_list_append(remote->name, list);
+	}
+	return 1;
+}
+
+static int fetch_multiple(struct string_list *list)
+{
+	int i, result = 0;
+	const char *argv[] = { "fetch", NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL, NULL };
+	int argc = 1;
+
+	if (dry_run)
+		argv[argc++] = "--dry-run";
+	if (prune)
+		argv[argc++] = "--prune";
+	if (verbosity >= 2)
+		argv[argc++] = "-v";
+	if (verbosity >= 1)
+		argv[argc++] = "-v";
+	else if (verbosity < 0)
+		argv[argc++] = "-q";
+
+	for (i = 0; i < list->nr; i++) {
+		const char *name = list->items[i].string;
+		argv[argc] = name;
+		if (verbosity >= 0)
+			printf("Fetching %s\n", name);
+		if (run_command_v_opt(argv, RUN_GIT_CMD)) {
+			error("Could not fetch %s", name);
+			result = 1;
+		}
+	}
+
+	return result;
+}
+
+static int fetch_one(struct remote *remote, int argc, const char **argv)
+{
 	int i;
 	static const char **refs = NULL;
 	int ref_nr = 0;
 	int exit_code;
 
-	/* Record the command line for the reflog */
-	strbuf_addstr(&default_rla, "fetch");
-	for (i = 1; i < argc; i++)
-		strbuf_addf(&default_rla, " %s", argv[i]);
-
-	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix,
-			     builtin_fetch_options, builtin_fetch_usage, 0);
-
-	if (argc == 0)
-		remote = remote_get(NULL);
-	else
-		remote = remote_get(argv[0]);
-
 	if (!remote)
 		die("Where do you want to fetch from today?");
 
 	transport = transport_get(remote, remote->url[0]);
 	if (verbosity >= 2)
-		transport->verbose = 1;
+		transport->verbose = verbosity <= 3 ? verbosity : 3;
 	if (verbosity < 0)
 		transport->verbose = -1;
 	if (upload_pack)
@@ -675,10 +831,10 @@
 	if (depth)
 		set_option(TRANS_OPT_DEPTH, depth);
 
-	if (argc > 1) {
+	if (argc > 0) {
 		int j = 0;
 		refs = xcalloc(argc + 1, sizeof(const char *));
-		for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {
+		for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
 			if (!strcmp(argv[i], "tag")) {
 				char *ref;
 				i++;
@@ -705,3 +861,57 @@
 	transport = NULL;
 	return exit_code;
 }
+
+int cmd_fetch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+	int i;
+	struct string_list list = { NULL, 0, 0, 0 };
+	struct remote *remote;
+	int result = 0;
+
+	/* Record the command line for the reflog */
+	strbuf_addstr(&default_rla, "fetch");
+	for (i = 1; i < argc; i++)
+		strbuf_addf(&default_rla, " %s", argv[i]);
+
+	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix,
+			     builtin_fetch_options, builtin_fetch_usage, 0);
+
+	if (all) {
+		if (argc == 1)
+			die("fetch --all does not take a repository argument");
+		else if (argc > 1)
+			die("fetch --all does not make sense with refspecs");
+		(void) for_each_remote(get_one_remote_for_fetch, &list);
+		result = fetch_multiple(&list);
+	} else if (argc == 0) {
+		/* No arguments -- use default remote */
+		remote = remote_get(NULL);
+		result = fetch_one(remote, argc, argv);
+	} else if (multiple) {
+		/* All arguments are assumed to be remotes or groups */
+		for (i = 0; i < argc; i++)
+			if (!add_remote_or_group(argv[i], &list))
+				die("No such remote or remote group: %s", argv[i]);
+		result = fetch_multiple(&list);
+	} else {
+		/* Single remote or group */
+		(void) add_remote_or_group(argv[0], &list);
+		if (list.nr > 1) {
+			/* More than one remote */
+			if (argc > 1)
+				die("Fetching a group and specifying refspecs does not make sense");
+			result = fetch_multiple(&list);
+		} else {
+			/* Zero or one remotes */
+			remote = remote_get(argv[0]);
+			result = fetch_one(remote, argc-1, argv+1);
+		}
+	}
+
+	/* All names were strdup()ed or strndup()ed */
+	list.strdup_strings = 1;
+	string_list_clear(&list, 0);
+
+	return result;
+}
diff --git a/builtin-fsck.c b/builtin-fsck.c
index c58b0e3..0929c7f 100644
--- a/builtin-fsck.c
+++ b/builtin-fsck.c
@@ -19,7 +19,7 @@
 static int show_tags;
 static int show_unreachable;
 static int include_reflogs = 1;
-static int check_full;
+static int check_full = 1;
 static int check_strict;
 static int keep_cache_objects;
 static unsigned char head_sha1[20];
@@ -47,6 +47,7 @@
 	fputs("\n", stderr);
 }
 
+__attribute__((format (printf, 2, 3)))
 static int objerror(struct object *obj, const char *err, ...)
 {
 	va_list params;
@@ -57,6 +58,7 @@
 	return -1;
 }
 
+__attribute__((format (printf, 3, 4)))
 static int fsck_error_func(struct object *obj, int type, const char *err, ...)
 {
 	va_list params;
@@ -576,7 +578,7 @@
 	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "root", &show_root, "report root nodes"),
 	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "cache", &keep_cache_objects, "make index objects head nodes"),
 	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "reflogs", &include_reflogs, "make reflogs head nodes (default)"),
-	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "full", &check_full, "also consider alternate objects"),
+	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "full", &check_full, "also consider packs and alternate objects"),
 	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "strict", &check_strict, "enable more strict checking"),
 	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "lost-found", &write_lost_and_found,
 				"write dangling objects in .git/lost-found"),
diff --git a/builtin-grep.c b/builtin-grep.c
index 63dc31c..c7d74fb 100644
--- a/builtin-grep.c
+++ b/builtin-grep.c
@@ -191,8 +191,6 @@
 			error("'%s': %s", filename, strerror(errno));
 		return 0;
 	}
-	if (!st.st_size)
-		return 0; /* empty file -- no grep hit */
 	if (!S_ISREG(st.st_mode))
 		return 0;
 	sz = xsize_t(st.st_size);
@@ -434,7 +432,11 @@
 
 		if (opt->color_external && strlen(opt->color_external) > 0)
 			push_arg(opt->color_external);
+	} else {
+		unsetenv("GREP_COLOR");
+		unsetenv("GREP_COLORS");
 	}
+	unsetenv("GREP_OPTIONS");
 
 	hit = 0;
 	argc = nr;
@@ -789,6 +791,13 @@
 		OPT_END()
 	};
 
+	/*
+	 * 'git grep -h', unlike 'git grep -h <pattern>', is a request
+	 * to show usage information and exit.
+	 */
+	if (argc == 2 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-h"))
+		usage_with_options(grep_usage, options);
+
 	memset(&opt, 0, sizeof(opt));
 	opt.prefix = prefix;
 	opt.prefix_length = (prefix && *prefix) ? strlen(prefix) : 0;
diff --git a/builtin-log.c b/builtin-log.c
index 0cf978e..2cb292f 100644
--- a/builtin-log.c
+++ b/builtin-log.c
@@ -50,8 +50,17 @@
 	if (default_date_mode)
 		rev->date_mode = parse_date_format(default_date_mode);
 
+	/*
+	 * Check for -h before setup_revisions(), or "git log -h" will
+	 * fail when run without a git directory.
+	 */
+	if (argc == 2 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-h"))
+		usage(builtin_log_usage);
 	argc = setup_revisions(argc, argv, rev, "HEAD");
 
+	if (!rev->show_notes_given && !rev->pretty_given)
+		rev->show_notes = 1;
+
 	if (rev->diffopt.pickaxe || rev->diffopt.filter)
 		rev->always_show_header = 0;
 	if (DIFF_OPT_TST(&rev->diffopt, FOLLOW_RENAMES)) {
@@ -921,10 +930,11 @@
 			    PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_NONEG, keep_callback },
 		OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "no-binary", &no_binary_diff,
 			    "don't output binary diffs"),
-		OPT_BOOLEAN('p', NULL, &use_patch_format,
-			"show patch format instead of default (patch + stat)"),
 		OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "ignore-if-in-upstream", &ignore_if_in_upstream,
 			    "don't include a patch matching a commit upstream"),
+		{ OPTION_BOOLEAN, 'p', "no-stat", &use_patch_format, NULL,
+		  "show patch format instead of default (patch + stat)",
+		  PARSE_OPT_NONEG | PARSE_OPT_NOARG },
 		OPT_GROUP("Messaging"),
 		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "add-header", NULL, "header",
 			    "add email header", PARSE_OPT_NONEG,
@@ -1031,11 +1041,20 @@
 	if (argc > 1)
 		die ("unrecognized argument: %s", argv[1]);
 
-	if (use_patch_format)
-		rev.diffopt.output_format |= DIFF_FORMAT_PATCH;
-	else if (!rev.diffopt.output_format ||
-		  rev.diffopt.output_format == DIFF_FORMAT_PATCH)
-		rev.diffopt.output_format = DIFF_FORMAT_DIFFSTAT | DIFF_FORMAT_SUMMARY | DIFF_FORMAT_PATCH;
+	if (rev.diffopt.output_format & DIFF_FORMAT_NAME)
+		die("--name-only does not make sense");
+	if (rev.diffopt.output_format & DIFF_FORMAT_NAME_STATUS)
+		die("--name-status does not make sense");
+	if (rev.diffopt.output_format & DIFF_FORMAT_CHECKDIFF)
+		die("--check does not make sense");
+
+	if (!use_patch_format &&
+		(!rev.diffopt.output_format ||
+		 rev.diffopt.output_format == DIFF_FORMAT_PATCH))
+		rev.diffopt.output_format = DIFF_FORMAT_DIFFSTAT | DIFF_FORMAT_SUMMARY;
+
+	/* Always generate a patch */
+	rev.diffopt.output_format |= DIFF_FORMAT_PATCH;
 
 	if (!DIFF_OPT_TST(&rev.diffopt, TEXT) && !no_binary_diff)
 		DIFF_OPT_SET(&rev.diffopt, BINARY);
@@ -1243,6 +1262,9 @@
 		argv++;
 	}
 
+	if (argc > 1 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-h"))
+		usage(cherry_usage);
+
 	switch (argc) {
 	case 4:
 		limit = argv[3];
@@ -1310,8 +1332,9 @@
 
 		if (verbose) {
 			struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
+			struct pretty_print_context ctx = {0};
 			pretty_print_commit(CMIT_FMT_ONELINE, commit,
-			                    &buf, 0, NULL, NULL, 0, 0);
+					    &buf, &ctx);
 			printf("%c %s %s\n", sign,
 			       sha1_to_hex(commit->object.sha1), buf.buf);
 			strbuf_release(&buf);
diff --git a/builtin-ls-tree.c b/builtin-ls-tree.c
index 22008df..4484185 100644
--- a/builtin-ls-tree.c
+++ b/builtin-ls-tree.c
@@ -9,6 +9,7 @@
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "quote.h"
 #include "builtin.h"
+#include "parse-options.h"
 
 static int line_termination = '\n';
 #define LS_RECURSIVE 1
@@ -22,8 +23,10 @@
 static int chomp_prefix;
 static const char *ls_tree_prefix;
 
-static const char ls_tree_usage[] =
-	"git ls-tree [-d] [-r] [-t] [-l] [-z] [--name-only] [--name-status] [--full-name] [--full-tree] [--abbrev[=<n>]] <tree-ish> [path...]";
+static const  char * const ls_tree_usage[] = {
+	"git ls-tree [<options>] <tree-ish> [path...]",
+	NULL
+};
 
 static int show_recursive(const char *base, int baselen, const char *pathname)
 {
@@ -117,76 +120,53 @@
 {
 	unsigned char sha1[20];
 	struct tree *tree;
+	int full_tree = 0;
+	const struct option ls_tree_options[] = {
+		OPT_BIT('d', NULL, &ls_options, "only show trees",
+			LS_TREE_ONLY),
+		OPT_BIT('r', NULL, &ls_options, "recurse into subtrees",
+			LS_RECURSIVE),
+		OPT_BIT('t', NULL, &ls_options, "show trees when recursing",
+			LS_SHOW_TREES),
+		OPT_SET_INT('z', NULL, &line_termination,
+			    "terminate entries with NUL byte", 0),
+		OPT_BIT('l', "long", &ls_options, "include object size",
+			LS_SHOW_SIZE),
+		OPT_BIT(0, "name-only", &ls_options, "list only filenames",
+			LS_NAME_ONLY),
+		OPT_BIT(0, "name-status", &ls_options, "list only filenames",
+			LS_NAME_ONLY),
+		OPT_SET_INT(0, "full-name", &chomp_prefix,
+			    "use full path names", 0),
+		OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "full-tree", &full_tree,
+			    "list entire tree; not just current directory "
+			    "(implies --full-name)"),
+		OPT__ABBREV(&abbrev),
+		OPT_END()
+	};
 
 	git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
 	ls_tree_prefix = prefix;
 	if (prefix && *prefix)
 		chomp_prefix = strlen(prefix);
-	while (1 < argc && argv[1][0] == '-') {
-		switch (argv[1][1]) {
-		case 'z':
-			line_termination = 0;
-			break;
-		case 'r':
-			ls_options |= LS_RECURSIVE;
-			break;
-		case 'd':
-			ls_options |= LS_TREE_ONLY;
-			break;
-		case 't':
-			ls_options |= LS_SHOW_TREES;
-			break;
-		case 'l':
-			ls_options |= LS_SHOW_SIZE;
-			break;
-		case '-':
-			if (!strcmp(argv[1]+2, "name-only") ||
-			    !strcmp(argv[1]+2, "name-status")) {
-				ls_options |= LS_NAME_ONLY;
-				break;
-			}
-			if (!strcmp(argv[1]+2, "long")) {
-				ls_options |= LS_SHOW_SIZE;
-				break;
-			}
-			if (!strcmp(argv[1]+2, "full-name")) {
-				chomp_prefix = 0;
-				break;
-			}
-			if (!strcmp(argv[1]+2, "full-tree")) {
-				ls_tree_prefix = prefix = NULL;
-				chomp_prefix = 0;
-				break;
-			}
-			if (!prefixcmp(argv[1]+2, "abbrev=")) {
-				abbrev = strtoul(argv[1]+9, NULL, 10);
-				if (abbrev && abbrev < MINIMUM_ABBREV)
-					abbrev = MINIMUM_ABBREV;
-				else if (abbrev > 40)
-					abbrev = 40;
-				break;
-			}
-			if (!strcmp(argv[1]+2, "abbrev")) {
-				abbrev = DEFAULT_ABBREV;
-				break;
-			}
-			/* otherwise fallthru */
-		default:
-			usage(ls_tree_usage);
-		}
-		argc--; argv++;
+
+	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, ls_tree_options,
+			     ls_tree_usage, 0);
+	if (full_tree) {
+		ls_tree_prefix = prefix = NULL;
+		chomp_prefix = 0;
 	}
 	/* -d -r should imply -t, but -d by itself should not have to. */
 	if ( (LS_TREE_ONLY|LS_RECURSIVE) ==
 	    ((LS_TREE_ONLY|LS_RECURSIVE) & ls_options))
 		ls_options |= LS_SHOW_TREES;
 
-	if (argc < 2)
-		usage(ls_tree_usage);
-	if (get_sha1(argv[1], sha1))
-		die("Not a valid object name %s", argv[1]);
+	if (argc < 1)
+		usage_with_options(ls_tree_usage, ls_tree_options);
+	if (get_sha1(argv[0], sha1))
+		die("Not a valid object name %s", argv[0]);
 
-	pathspec = get_pathspec(prefix, argv + 2);
+	pathspec = get_pathspec(prefix, argv + 1);
 	tree = parse_tree_indirect(sha1);
 	if (!tree)
 		die("not a tree object");
diff --git a/builtin-mailinfo.c b/builtin-mailinfo.c
index 3c4f075..a50ac22 100644
--- a/builtin-mailinfo.c
+++ b/builtin-mailinfo.c
@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@
 static FILE *cmitmsg, *patchfile, *fin, *fout;
 
 static int keep_subject;
+static int keep_non_patch_brackets_in_subject;
 static const char *metainfo_charset;
 static struct strbuf line = STRBUF_INIT;
 static struct strbuf name = STRBUF_INIT;
@@ -221,35 +222,41 @@
 
 static void cleanup_subject(struct strbuf *subject)
 {
-	char *pos;
-	size_t remove;
-	while (subject->len) {
-		switch (*subject->buf) {
+	size_t at = 0;
+
+	while (at < subject->len) {
+		char *pos;
+		size_t remove;
+
+		switch (subject->buf[at]) {
 		case 'r': case 'R':
-			if (subject->len <= 3)
+			if (subject->len <= at + 3)
 				break;
-			if (!memcmp(subject->buf + 1, "e:", 2)) {
-				strbuf_remove(subject, 0, 3);
+			if (!memcmp(subject->buf + at + 1, "e:", 2)) {
+				strbuf_remove(subject, at, 3);
 				continue;
 			}
+			at++;
 			break;
 		case ' ': case '\t': case ':':
-			strbuf_remove(subject, 0, 1);
+			strbuf_remove(subject, at, 1);
 			continue;
 		case '[':
-			if ((pos = strchr(subject->buf, ']'))) {
-				remove = pos - subject->buf;
-				if (remove <= (subject->len - remove) * 2) {
-					strbuf_remove(subject, 0, remove + 1);
-					continue;
-				}
-			} else
-				strbuf_remove(subject, 0, 1);
-			break;
+			pos = strchr(subject->buf + at, ']');
+			if (!pos)
+				break;
+			remove = pos - subject->buf + at + 1;
+			if (!keep_non_patch_brackets_in_subject ||
+			    (7 <= remove &&
+			     memmem(subject->buf + at, remove, "PATCH", 5)))
+				strbuf_remove(subject, at, remove);
+			else
+				at += remove;
+			continue;
 		}
-		strbuf_trim(subject);
-		return;
+		break;
 	}
+	strbuf_trim(subject);
 }
 
 static void cleanup_space(struct strbuf *sb)
@@ -1014,7 +1021,7 @@
 }
 
 static const char mailinfo_usage[] =
-	"git mailinfo [-k] [-u | --encoding=<encoding> | -n] [--scissors | --no-scissors] msg patch < mail >info";
+	"git mailinfo [-k|-b] [-u | --encoding=<encoding> | -n] [--scissors | --no-scissors] msg patch < mail >info";
 
 int cmd_mailinfo(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
@@ -1031,6 +1038,8 @@
 	while (1 < argc && argv[1][0] == '-') {
 		if (!strcmp(argv[1], "-k"))
 			keep_subject = 1;
+		else if (!strcmp(argv[1], "-b"))
+			keep_non_patch_brackets_in_subject = 1;
 		else if (!strcmp(argv[1], "-u"))
 			metainfo_charset = def_charset;
 		else if (!strcmp(argv[1], "-n"))
diff --git a/builtin-mailsplit.c b/builtin-mailsplit.c
index dfe5b15..207e358 100644
--- a/builtin-mailsplit.c
+++ b/builtin-mailsplit.c
@@ -231,6 +231,8 @@
 			continue;
 		} else if ( arg[1] == 'f' ) {
 			nr = strtol(arg+2, NULL, 10);
+		} else if ( arg[1] == 'h' ) {
+			usage(git_mailsplit_usage);
 		} else if ( arg[1] == 'b' && !arg[2] ) {
 			allow_bare = 1;
 		} else if (!strcmp(arg, "--keep-cr")) {
diff --git a/builtin-merge-ours.c b/builtin-merge-ours.c
index 8f5bbaf..6844116 100644
--- a/builtin-merge-ours.c
+++ b/builtin-merge-ours.c
@@ -10,6 +10,9 @@
 #include "git-compat-util.h"
 #include "builtin.h"
 
+static const char builtin_merge_ours_usage[] =
+	"git merge-ours <base>... -- HEAD <remote>...";
+
 static const char *diff_index_args[] = {
 	"diff-index", "--quiet", "--cached", "HEAD", "--", NULL
 };
@@ -17,6 +20,9 @@
 
 int cmd_merge_ours(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
+	if (argc == 2 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-h"))
+		usage(builtin_merge_ours_usage);
+
 	/*
 	 * We need to exit with 2 if the index does not match our HEAD tree,
 	 * because the current index is what we will be committing as the
diff --git a/builtin-merge-recursive.c b/builtin-merge-recursive.c
index d26a96e..710674c 100644
--- a/builtin-merge-recursive.c
+++ b/builtin-merge-recursive.c
@@ -33,7 +33,7 @@
 	}
 
 	if (argc < 4)
-		die("Usage: %s <base>... -- <head> <remote> ...", argv[0]);
+		usagef("%s <base>... -- <head> <remote> ...", argv[0]);
 
 	for (i = 1; i < argc; ++i) {
 		if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--"))
diff --git a/builtin-merge.c b/builtin-merge.c
index 9214539..f1c84d7 100644
--- a/builtin-merge.c
+++ b/builtin-merge.c
@@ -43,6 +43,7 @@
 
 static int show_diffstat = 1, option_log, squash;
 static int option_commit = 1, allow_fast_forward = 1;
+static int fast_forward_only;
 static int allow_trivial = 1, have_message;
 static struct strbuf merge_msg;
 static struct commit_list *remoteheads;
@@ -166,7 +167,9 @@
 	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "commit", &option_commit,
 		"perform a commit if the merge succeeds (default)"),
 	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "ff", &allow_fast_forward,
-		"allow fast forward (default)"),
+		"allow fast-forward (default)"),
+	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "ff-only", &fast_forward_only,
+		"abort if fast-forward is not possible"),
 	OPT_CALLBACK('s', "strategy", &use_strategies, "strategy",
 		"merge strategy to use", option_parse_strategy),
 	OPT_CALLBACK('m', "message", &merge_msg, "message",
@@ -264,6 +267,7 @@
 	struct strbuf out = STRBUF_INIT;
 	struct commit_list *j;
 	int fd;
+	struct pretty_print_context ctx = {0};
 
 	printf("Squash commit -- not updating HEAD\n");
 	fd = open(git_path("SQUASH_MSG"), O_WRONLY | O_CREAT, 0666);
@@ -285,13 +289,15 @@
 	if (prepare_revision_walk(&rev))
 		die("revision walk setup failed");
 
+	ctx.abbrev = rev.abbrev;
+	ctx.date_mode = rev.date_mode;
+
 	strbuf_addstr(&out, "Squashed commit of the following:\n");
 	while ((commit = get_revision(&rev)) != NULL) {
 		strbuf_addch(&out, '\n');
 		strbuf_addf(&out, "commit %s\n",
 			sha1_to_hex(commit->object.sha1));
-		pretty_print_commit(rev.commit_format, commit, &out, rev.abbrev,
-			NULL, NULL, rev.date_mode, 0);
+		pretty_print_commit(rev.commit_format, commit, &out, &ctx);
 	}
 	if (write(fd, out.buf, out.len) < 0)
 		die_errno("Writing SQUASH_MSG");
@@ -874,6 +880,9 @@
 		option_commit = 0;
 	}
 
+	if (!allow_fast_forward && fast_forward_only)
+		die("You cannot combine --no-ff with --ff-only.");
+
 	if (!argc)
 		usage_with_options(builtin_merge_usage,
 			builtin_merge_options);
@@ -1015,7 +1024,7 @@
 				hex,
 				find_unique_abbrev(remoteheads->item->object.sha1,
 				DEFAULT_ABBREV));
-		strbuf_addstr(&msg, "Fast forward");
+		strbuf_addstr(&msg, "Fast-forward");
 		if (have_message)
 			strbuf_addstr(&msg,
 				" (no commit created; -m option ignored)");
@@ -1033,16 +1042,16 @@
 	} else if (!remoteheads->next && common->next)
 		;
 		/*
-		 * We are not doing octopus and not fast forward.  Need
+		 * We are not doing octopus and not fast-forward.  Need
 		 * a real merge.
 		 */
 	else if (!remoteheads->next && !common->next && option_commit) {
 		/*
-		 * We are not doing octopus, not fast forward, and have
+		 * We are not doing octopus, not fast-forward, and have
 		 * only one common.
 		 */
 		refresh_cache(REFRESH_QUIET);
-		if (allow_trivial) {
+		if (allow_trivial && !fast_forward_only) {
 			/* See if it is really trivial. */
 			git_committer_info(IDENT_ERROR_ON_NO_NAME);
 			printf("Trying really trivial in-index merge...\n");
@@ -1081,6 +1090,9 @@
 		}
 	}
 
+	if (fast_forward_only)
+		die("Not possible to fast-forward, aborting.");
+
 	/* We are going to make a new commit. */
 	git_committer_info(IDENT_ERROR_ON_NO_NAME);
 
diff --git a/builtin-mv.c b/builtin-mv.c
index 1b20028..f633d81 100644
--- a/builtin-mv.c
+++ b/builtin-mv.c
@@ -64,15 +64,15 @@
 
 	git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
 
-	newfd = hold_locked_index(&lock_file, 1);
-	if (read_cache() < 0)
-		die("index file corrupt");
-
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, builtin_mv_options,
 			     builtin_mv_usage, 0);
 	if (--argc < 1)
 		usage_with_options(builtin_mv_usage, builtin_mv_options);
 
+	newfd = hold_locked_index(&lock_file, 1);
+	if (read_cache() < 0)
+		die("index file corrupt");
+
 	source = copy_pathspec(prefix, argv, argc, 0);
 	modes = xcalloc(argc, sizeof(enum update_mode));
 	dest_path = copy_pathspec(prefix, argv + argc, 1, 0);
diff --git a/builtin-pack-objects.c b/builtin-pack-objects.c
index 7938202..4429d53 100644
--- a/builtin-pack-objects.c
+++ b/builtin-pack-objects.c
@@ -1630,6 +1630,8 @@
 	struct thread_params *p;
 	int i, ret, active_threads = 0;
 
+	if (!delta_search_threads)	/* --threads=0 means autodetect */
+		delta_search_threads = online_cpus();
 	if (delta_search_threads <= 1) {
 		find_deltas(list, &list_size, window, depth, processed);
 		return;
@@ -2330,11 +2332,6 @@
 	if (keep_unreachable && unpack_unreachable)
 		die("--keep-unreachable and --unpack-unreachable are incompatible.");
 
-#ifdef THREADED_DELTA_SEARCH
-	if (!delta_search_threads)	/* --threads=0 means autodetect */
-		delta_search_threads = online_cpus();
-#endif
-
 	if (progress && all_progress_implied)
 		progress = 2;
 
diff --git a/builtin-push.c b/builtin-push.c
index 752121f..356d7c1 100644
--- a/builtin-push.c
+++ b/builtin-push.c
@@ -158,7 +158,7 @@
 		error("failed to push some refs to '%s'", url[i]);
 		if (nonfastforward && advice_push_nonfastforward) {
 			printf("To prevent you from losing history, non-fast-forward updates were rejected\n"
-			       "Merge the remote changes before pushing again.  See the 'non-fast forward'\n"
+			       "Merge the remote changes before pushing again.  See the 'non-fast-forward'\n"
 			       "section of 'git push --help' for details.\n");
 		}
 		errs++;
diff --git a/builtin-read-tree.c b/builtin-read-tree.c
index 14c836b..2a3a32c 100644
--- a/builtin-read-tree.c
+++ b/builtin-read-tree.c
@@ -108,11 +108,11 @@
 
 	git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
 
-	newfd = hold_locked_index(&lock_file, 1);
-
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, unused_prefix, read_tree_options,
 			     read_tree_usage, 0);
 
+	newfd = hold_locked_index(&lock_file, 1);
+
 	prefix_set = opts.prefix ? 1 : 0;
 	if (1 < opts.merge + opts.reset + prefix_set)
 		die("Which one? -m, --reset, or --prefix?");
diff --git a/builtin-receive-pack.c b/builtin-receive-pack.c
index e8bde02..a5543f9 100644
--- a/builtin-receive-pack.c
+++ b/builtin-receive-pack.c
@@ -2,6 +2,7 @@
 #include "pack.h"
 #include "refs.h"
 #include "pkt-line.h"
+#include "sideband.h"
 #include "run-command.h"
 #include "exec_cmd.h"
 #include "commit.h"
@@ -27,11 +28,12 @@
 static int transfer_unpack_limit = -1;
 static int unpack_limit = 100;
 static int report_status;
+static int use_sideband;
 static int prefer_ofs_delta = 1;
 static int auto_update_server_info;
 static int auto_gc = 1;
 static const char *head_name;
-static char *capabilities_to_send;
+static int sent_capabilities;
 
 static enum deny_action parse_deny_action(const char *var, const char *value)
 {
@@ -105,19 +107,21 @@
 
 static int show_ref(const char *path, const unsigned char *sha1, int flag, void *cb_data)
 {
-	if (!capabilities_to_send)
+	if (sent_capabilities)
 		packet_write(1, "%s %s\n", sha1_to_hex(sha1), path);
 	else
-		packet_write(1, "%s %s%c%s\n",
-			     sha1_to_hex(sha1), path, 0, capabilities_to_send);
-	capabilities_to_send = NULL;
+		packet_write(1, "%s %s%c%s%s\n",
+			     sha1_to_hex(sha1), path, 0,
+			     " report-status delete-refs side-band-64k",
+			     prefer_ofs_delta ? " ofs-delta" : "");
+	sent_capabilities = 1;
 	return 0;
 }
 
 static void write_head_info(void)
 {
 	for_each_ref(show_ref, NULL);
-	if (capabilities_to_send)
+	if (!sent_capabilities)
 		show_ref("capabilities^{}", null_sha1, 0, NULL);
 
 }
@@ -135,11 +139,61 @@
 static const char pre_receive_hook[] = "hooks/pre-receive";
 static const char post_receive_hook[] = "hooks/post-receive";
 
+static void rp_error(const char *err, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
+static void rp_warning(const char *err, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
+
+static void report_message(const char *prefix, const char *err, va_list params)
+{
+	int sz = strlen(prefix);
+	char msg[4096];
+
+	strncpy(msg, prefix, sz);
+	sz += vsnprintf(msg + sz, sizeof(msg) - sz, err, params);
+	if (sz > (sizeof(msg) - 1))
+		sz = sizeof(msg) - 1;
+	msg[sz++] = '\n';
+
+	if (use_sideband)
+		send_sideband(1, 2, msg, sz, use_sideband);
+	else
+		xwrite(2, msg, sz);
+}
+
+static void rp_warning(const char *err, ...)
+{
+	va_list params;
+	va_start(params, err);
+	report_message("warning: ", err, params);
+	va_end(params);
+}
+
+static void rp_error(const char *err, ...)
+{
+	va_list params;
+	va_start(params, err);
+	report_message("error: ", err, params);
+	va_end(params);
+}
+
+static int copy_to_sideband(int in, int out, void *arg)
+{
+	char data[128];
+	while (1) {
+		ssize_t sz = xread(in, data, sizeof(data));
+		if (sz <= 0)
+			break;
+		send_sideband(1, 2, data, sz, use_sideband);
+	}
+	close(in);
+	return 0;
+}
+
 static int run_receive_hook(const char *hook_name)
 {
 	static char buf[sizeof(commands->old_sha1) * 2 + PATH_MAX + 4];
 	struct command *cmd;
 	struct child_process proc;
+	struct async muxer;
 	const char *argv[2];
 	int have_input = 0, code;
 
@@ -159,9 +213,23 @@
 	proc.in = -1;
 	proc.stdout_to_stderr = 1;
 
+	if (use_sideband) {
+		memset(&muxer, 0, sizeof(muxer));
+		muxer.proc = copy_to_sideband;
+		muxer.in = -1;
+		code = start_async(&muxer);
+		if (code)
+			return code;
+		proc.err = muxer.in;
+	}
+
 	code = start_command(&proc);
-	if (code)
+	if (code) {
+		if (use_sideband)
+			finish_async(&muxer);
 		return code;
+	}
+
 	for (cmd = commands; cmd; cmd = cmd->next) {
 		if (!cmd->error_string) {
 			size_t n = snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%s %s %s\n",
@@ -173,6 +241,8 @@
 		}
 	}
 	close(proc.in);
+	if (use_sideband)
+		finish_async(&muxer);
 	return finish_command(&proc);
 }
 
@@ -180,6 +250,8 @@
 {
 	static const char update_hook[] = "hooks/update";
 	const char *argv[5];
+	struct child_process proc;
+	int code;
 
 	if (access(update_hook, X_OK) < 0)
 		return 0;
@@ -190,8 +262,18 @@
 	argv[3] = sha1_to_hex(cmd->new_sha1);
 	argv[4] = NULL;
 
-	return run_command_v_opt(argv, RUN_COMMAND_NO_STDIN |
-					RUN_COMMAND_STDOUT_TO_STDERR);
+	memset(&proc, 0, sizeof(proc));
+	proc.no_stdin = 1;
+	proc.stdout_to_stderr = 1;
+	proc.err = use_sideband ? -1 : 0;
+	proc.argv = argv;
+
+	code = start_command(&proc);
+	if (code)
+		return code;
+	if (use_sideband)
+		copy_to_sideband(proc.err, -1, NULL);
+	return finish_command(&proc);
 }
 
 static int is_ref_checked_out(const char *ref)
@@ -230,7 +312,7 @@
 {
 	int i;
 	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(warn_unconfigured_deny_msg); i++)
-		warning("%s", warn_unconfigured_deny_msg[i]);
+		rp_warning("%s", warn_unconfigured_deny_msg[i]);
 }
 
 static char *warn_unconfigured_deny_delete_current_msg[] = {
@@ -256,7 +338,7 @@
 	for (i = 0;
 	     i < ARRAY_SIZE(warn_unconfigured_deny_delete_current_msg);
 	     i++)
-		warning("%s", warn_unconfigured_deny_delete_current_msg[i]);
+		rp_warning("%s", warn_unconfigured_deny_delete_current_msg[i]);
 }
 
 static const char *update(struct command *cmd)
@@ -268,7 +350,7 @@
 
 	/* only refs/... are allowed */
 	if (prefixcmp(name, "refs/") || check_ref_format(name + 5)) {
-		error("refusing to create funny ref '%s' remotely", name);
+		rp_error("refusing to create funny ref '%s' remotely", name);
 		return "funny refname";
 	}
 
@@ -278,12 +360,12 @@
 			break;
 		case DENY_UNCONFIGURED:
 		case DENY_WARN:
-			warning("updating the current branch");
+			rp_warning("updating the current branch");
 			if (deny_current_branch == DENY_UNCONFIGURED)
 				warn_unconfigured_deny();
 			break;
 		case DENY_REFUSE:
-			error("refusing to update checked out branch: %s", name);
+			rp_error("refusing to update checked out branch: %s", name);
 			return "branch is currently checked out";
 		}
 	}
@@ -296,7 +378,7 @@
 
 	if (!is_null_sha1(old_sha1) && is_null_sha1(new_sha1)) {
 		if (deny_deletes && !prefixcmp(name, "refs/heads/")) {
-			error("denying ref deletion for %s", name);
+			rp_error("denying ref deletion for %s", name);
 			return "deletion prohibited";
 		}
 
@@ -308,10 +390,10 @@
 			case DENY_UNCONFIGURED:
 				if (deny_delete_current == DENY_UNCONFIGURED)
 					warn_unconfigured_deny_delete_current();
-				warning("deleting the current branch");
+				rp_warning("deleting the current branch");
 				break;
 			case DENY_REFUSE:
-				error("refusing to delete the current branch: %s", name);
+				rp_error("refusing to delete the current branch: %s", name);
 				return "deletion of the current branch prohibited";
 			}
 		}
@@ -341,23 +423,23 @@
 				break;
 		free_commit_list(bases);
 		if (!ent) {
-			error("denying non-fast forward %s"
-			      " (you should pull first)", name);
-			return "non-fast forward";
+			rp_error("denying non-fast-forward %s"
+				 " (you should pull first)", name);
+			return "non-fast-forward";
 		}
 	}
 	if (run_update_hook(cmd)) {
-		error("hook declined to update %s", name);
+		rp_error("hook declined to update %s", name);
 		return "hook declined";
 	}
 
 	if (is_null_sha1(new_sha1)) {
 		if (!parse_object(old_sha1)) {
-			warning ("Allowing deletion of corrupt ref.");
+			rp_warning("Allowing deletion of corrupt ref.");
 			old_sha1 = NULL;
 		}
 		if (delete_ref(name, old_sha1, 0)) {
-			error("failed to delete %s", name);
+			rp_error("failed to delete %s", name);
 			return "failed to delete";
 		}
 		return NULL; /* good */
@@ -365,7 +447,7 @@
 	else {
 		lock = lock_any_ref_for_update(name, old_sha1, 0);
 		if (!lock) {
-			error("failed to lock %s", name);
+			rp_error("failed to lock %s", name);
 			return "failed to lock";
 		}
 		if (write_ref_sha1(lock, new_sha1, "push")) {
@@ -380,8 +462,9 @@
 static void run_update_post_hook(struct command *cmd)
 {
 	struct command *cmd_p;
-	int argc, status;
+	int argc;
 	const char **argv;
+	struct child_process proc;
 
 	for (argc = 0, cmd_p = cmd; cmd_p; cmd_p = cmd_p->next) {
 		if (cmd_p->error_string)
@@ -403,8 +486,18 @@
 		argc++;
 	}
 	argv[argc] = NULL;
-	status = run_command_v_opt(argv, RUN_COMMAND_NO_STDIN
-			| RUN_COMMAND_STDOUT_TO_STDERR);
+
+	memset(&proc, 0, sizeof(proc));
+	proc.no_stdin = 1;
+	proc.stdout_to_stderr = 1;
+	proc.err = use_sideband ? -1 : 0;
+	proc.argv = argv;
+
+	if (!start_command(&proc)) {
+		if (use_sideband)
+			copy_to_sideband(proc.err, -1, NULL);
+		finish_command(&proc);
+	}
 }
 
 static void execute_commands(const char *unpacker_error)
@@ -464,6 +557,8 @@
 		if (reflen + 82 < len) {
 			if (strstr(refname + reflen + 1, "report-status"))
 				report_status = 1;
+			if (strstr(refname + reflen + 1, "side-band-64k"))
+				use_sideband = LARGE_PACKET_MAX;
 		}
 		cmd = xmalloc(sizeof(struct command) + len - 80);
 		hashcpy(cmd->old_sha1, old_sha1);
@@ -563,17 +658,25 @@
 static void report(const char *unpack_status)
 {
 	struct command *cmd;
-	packet_write(1, "unpack %s\n",
-		     unpack_status ? unpack_status : "ok");
+	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	packet_buf_write(&buf, "unpack %s\n",
+			 unpack_status ? unpack_status : "ok");
 	for (cmd = commands; cmd; cmd = cmd->next) {
 		if (!cmd->error_string)
-			packet_write(1, "ok %s\n",
-				     cmd->ref_name);
+			packet_buf_write(&buf, "ok %s\n",
+					 cmd->ref_name);
 		else
-			packet_write(1, "ng %s %s\n",
-				     cmd->ref_name, cmd->error_string);
+			packet_buf_write(&buf, "ng %s %s\n",
+					 cmd->ref_name, cmd->error_string);
 	}
-	packet_flush(1);
+	packet_buf_flush(&buf);
+
+	if (use_sideband)
+		send_sideband(1, 1, buf.buf, buf.len, use_sideband);
+	else
+		safe_write(1, buf.buf, buf.len);
+	strbuf_release(&buf);
 }
 
 static int delete_only(struct command *cmd)
@@ -627,6 +730,8 @@
 
 int cmd_receive_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
+	int advertise_refs = 0;
+	int stateless_rpc = 0;
 	int i;
 	char *dir = NULL;
 
@@ -635,7 +740,15 @@
 		const char *arg = *argv++;
 
 		if (*arg == '-') {
-			/* Do flag handling here */
+			if (!strcmp(arg, "--advertise-refs")) {
+				advertise_refs = 1;
+				continue;
+			}
+			if (!strcmp(arg, "--stateless-rpc")) {
+				stateless_rpc = 1;
+				continue;
+			}
+
 			usage(receive_pack_usage);
 		}
 		if (dir)
@@ -660,16 +773,16 @@
 	else if (0 <= receive_unpack_limit)
 		unpack_limit = receive_unpack_limit;
 
-	capabilities_to_send = (prefer_ofs_delta) ?
-		" report-status delete-refs ofs-delta " :
-		" report-status delete-refs ";
+	if (advertise_refs || !stateless_rpc) {
+		add_alternate_refs();
+		write_head_info();
+		clear_extra_refs();
 
-	add_alternate_refs();
-	write_head_info();
-	clear_extra_refs();
-
-	/* EOF */
-	packet_flush(1);
+		/* EOF */
+		packet_flush(1);
+	}
+	if (advertise_refs)
+		return 0;
 
 	read_head_info();
 	if (commands) {
@@ -693,5 +806,7 @@
 		if (auto_update_server_info)
 			update_server_info(0);
 	}
+	if (use_sideband)
+		packet_flush(1);
 	return 0;
 }
diff --git a/builtin-reflog.c b/builtin-reflog.c
index e23b5ef..7498210 100644
--- a/builtin-reflog.c
+++ b/builtin-reflog.c
@@ -698,6 +698,9 @@
 
 int cmd_reflog(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
+	if (argc > 1 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-h"))
+		usage(reflog_usage);
+
 	/* With no command, we default to showing it. */
 	if (argc < 2 || *argv[1] == '-')
 		return cmd_log_reflog(argc, argv, prefix);
diff --git a/builtin-remote.c b/builtin-remote.c
index 67761d5..c4945b8 100644
--- a/builtin-remote.c
+++ b/builtin-remote.c
@@ -261,32 +261,10 @@
 	int queried;
 };
 
-static int handle_one_branch(const char *refname,
-	const unsigned char *sha1, int flags, void *cb_data)
-{
-	struct ref_states *states = cb_data;
-	struct refspec refspec;
-
-	memset(&refspec, 0, sizeof(refspec));
-	refspec.dst = (char *)refname;
-	if (!remote_find_tracking(states->remote, &refspec)) {
-		struct string_list_item *item;
-		const char *name = abbrev_branch(refspec.src);
-		/* symbolic refs pointing nowhere were handled already */
-		if ((flags & REF_ISSYMREF) ||
-		    string_list_has_string(&states->tracked, name) ||
-		    string_list_has_string(&states->new, name))
-			return 0;
-		item = string_list_append(name, &states->stale);
-		item->util = xstrdup(refname);
-	}
-	return 0;
-}
-
 static int get_ref_states(const struct ref *remote_refs, struct ref_states *states)
 {
 	struct ref *fetch_map = NULL, **tail = &fetch_map;
-	struct ref *ref;
+	struct ref *ref, *stale_refs;
 	int i;
 
 	for (i = 0; i < states->remote->fetch_refspec_nr; i++)
@@ -294,7 +272,9 @@
 			die("Could not get fetch map for refspec %s",
 				states->remote->fetch_refspec[i]);
 
-	states->new.strdup_strings = states->tracked.strdup_strings = 1;
+	states->new.strdup_strings = 1;
+	states->tracked.strdup_strings = 1;
+	states->stale.strdup_strings = 1;
 	for (ref = fetch_map; ref; ref = ref->next) {
 		unsigned char sha1[20];
 		if (!ref->peer_ref || read_ref(ref->peer_ref->name, sha1))
@@ -302,11 +282,17 @@
 		else
 			string_list_append(abbrev_branch(ref->name), &states->tracked);
 	}
+	stale_refs = get_stale_heads(states->remote, fetch_map);
+	for (ref = stale_refs; ref; ref = ref->next) {
+		struct string_list_item *item =
+			string_list_append(abbrev_branch(ref->name), &states->stale);
+		item->util = xstrdup(ref->name);
+	}
+	free_refs(stale_refs);
 	free_refs(fetch_map);
 
 	sort_string_list(&states->new);
 	sort_string_list(&states->tracked);
-	for_each_ref(handle_one_branch, states);
 	sort_string_list(&states->stale);
 
 	return 0;
@@ -784,7 +770,7 @@
 static void free_remote_ref_states(struct ref_states *states)
 {
 	string_list_clear(&states->new, 0);
-	string_list_clear(&states->stale, 0);
+	string_list_clear(&states->stale, 1);
 	string_list_clear(&states->tracked, 0);
 	string_list_clear(&states->heads, 0);
 	string_list_clear_func(&states->push, clear_push_info);
@@ -987,7 +973,7 @@
 		status = "up to date";
 		break;
 	case PUSH_STATUS_FASTFORWARD:
-		status = "fast forwardable";
+		status = "fast-forwardable";
 		break;
 	case PUSH_STATUS_OUTOFDATE:
 		status = "local out of date";
@@ -1213,94 +1199,60 @@
 
 		printf(" * [%s] %s\n", dry_run ? "would prune" : "pruned",
 		       abbrev_ref(refname, "refs/remotes/"));
-		warn_dangling_symref(dangling_msg, refname);
+		warn_dangling_symref(stdout, dangling_msg, refname);
 	}
 
 	free_remote_ref_states(&states);
 	return result;
 }
 
-static int get_one_remote_for_update(struct remote *remote, void *priv)
+static int get_remote_default(const char *key, const char *value, void *priv)
 {
-	struct string_list *list = priv;
-	if (!remote->skip_default_update)
-		string_list_append(remote->name, list);
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static struct remote_group {
-	const char *name;
-	struct string_list *list;
-} remote_group;
-
-static int get_remote_group(const char *key, const char *value, void *num_hits)
-{
-	if (!prefixcmp(key, "remotes.") &&
-			!strcmp(key + 8, remote_group.name)) {
-		/* split list by white space */
-		int space = strcspn(value, " \t\n");
-		while (*value) {
-			if (space > 1) {
-				string_list_append(xstrndup(value, space),
-						remote_group.list);
-				++*((int *)num_hits);
-			}
-			value += space + (value[space] != '\0');
-			space = strcspn(value, " \t\n");
-		}
+	if (strcmp(key, "remotes.default") == 0) {
+		int *found = priv;
+		*found = 1;
 	}
-
 	return 0;
 }
 
 static int update(int argc, const char **argv)
 {
-	int i, result = 0, prune = 0;
-	struct string_list list = { NULL, 0, 0, 0 };
-	static const char *default_argv[] = { NULL, "default", NULL };
+	int i, prune = 0;
 	struct option options[] = {
 		OPT_BOOLEAN('p', "prune", &prune,
 			    "prune remotes after fetching"),
 		OPT_END()
 	};
+	const char **fetch_argv;
+	int fetch_argc = 0;
+	int default_defined = 0;
+
+	fetch_argv = xmalloc(sizeof(char *) * (argc+5));
 
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, NULL, options, builtin_remote_update_usage,
 			     PARSE_OPT_KEEP_ARGV0);
-	if (argc < 2) {
-		argc = 2;
-		argv = default_argv;
+
+	fetch_argv[fetch_argc++] = "fetch";
+
+	if (prune)
+		fetch_argv[fetch_argc++] = "--prune";
+	if (verbose)
+		fetch_argv[fetch_argc++] = "-v";
+	fetch_argv[fetch_argc++] = "--multiple";
+	if (argc < 2)
+		fetch_argv[fetch_argc++] = "default";
+	for (i = 1; i < argc; i++)
+		fetch_argv[fetch_argc++] = argv[i];
+
+	if (strcmp(fetch_argv[fetch_argc-1], "default") == 0) {
+		git_config(get_remote_default, &default_defined);
+		if (!default_defined)
+			fetch_argv[fetch_argc-1] = "--all";
 	}
 
-	remote_group.list = &list;
-	for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {
-		int groups_found = 0;
-		remote_group.name = argv[i];
-		result = git_config(get_remote_group, &groups_found);
-		if (!groups_found && (i != 1 || strcmp(argv[1], "default"))) {
-			struct remote *remote;
-			if (!remote_is_configured(argv[i]))
-				die("No such remote or remote group: %s",
-				    argv[i]);
-			remote = remote_get(argv[i]);
-			string_list_append(remote->name, remote_group.list);
-		}
-	}
+	fetch_argv[fetch_argc] = NULL;
 
-	if (!result && !list.nr  && argc == 2 && !strcmp(argv[1], "default"))
-		result = for_each_remote(get_one_remote_for_update, &list);
-
-	for (i = 0; i < list.nr; i++) {
-		int err = fetch_remote(list.items[i].string);
-		result |= err;
-		if (!err && prune)
-			result |= prune_remote(list.items[i].string, 0);
-	}
-
-	/* all names were strdup()ed or strndup()ed */
-	list.strdup_strings = 1;
-	string_list_clear(&list, 0);
-
-	return result;
+	return run_command_v_opt(fetch_argv, RUN_GIT_CMD);
 }
 
 static int get_one_entry(struct remote *remote, void *priv)
diff --git a/builtin-rerere.c b/builtin-rerere.c
index 31fda73..2be9ffb 100644
--- a/builtin-rerere.c
+++ b/builtin-rerere.c
@@ -108,6 +108,9 @@
 	if (argc < 2)
 		return rerere();
 
+	if (!strcmp(argv[1], "-h"))
+		usage(git_rerere_usage);
+
 	fd = setup_rerere(&merge_rr);
 	if (fd < 0)
 		return 0;
diff --git a/builtin-rev-list.c b/builtin-rev-list.c
index 4ba1c12..91b6042 100644
--- a/builtin-rev-list.c
+++ b/builtin-rev-list.c
@@ -96,9 +96,10 @@
 
 	if (revs->verbose_header && commit->buffer) {
 		struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
-		pretty_print_commit(revs->commit_format, commit,
-				    &buf, revs->abbrev, NULL, NULL,
-				    revs->date_mode, 0);
+		struct pretty_print_context ctx = {0};
+		ctx.abbrev = revs->abbrev;
+		ctx.date_mode = revs->date_mode;
+		pretty_print_commit(revs->commit_format, commit, &buf, &ctx);
 		if (revs->graph) {
 			if (buf.len) {
 				if (revs->commit_format != CMIT_FMT_ONELINE)
@@ -305,7 +306,6 @@
 	struct rev_info revs;
 	struct rev_list_info info;
 	int i;
-	int read_from_stdin = 0;
 	int bisect_list = 0;
 	int bisect_show_vars = 0;
 	int bisect_find_all = 0;
@@ -319,6 +319,8 @@
 
 	memset(&info, 0, sizeof(info));
 	info.revs = &revs;
+	if (revs.bisect)
+		bisect_list = 1;
 
 	quiet = DIFF_OPT_TST(&revs.diffopt, QUIET);
 	for (i = 1 ; i < argc; i++) {
@@ -348,12 +350,6 @@
 			bisect_show_vars = 1;
 			continue;
 		}
-		if (!strcmp(arg, "--stdin")) {
-			if (read_from_stdin++)
-				die("--stdin given twice?");
-			read_revisions_from_stdin(&revs);
-			continue;
-		}
 		usage(rev_list_usage);
 
 	}
diff --git a/builtin-rev-parse.c b/builtin-rev-parse.c
index b585312..ee00125 100644
--- a/builtin-rev-parse.c
+++ b/builtin-rev-parse.c
@@ -180,6 +180,12 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static int anti_reference(const char *refname, const unsigned char *sha1, int flag, void *cb_data)
+{
+	show_rev(REVERSED, sha1, refname);
+	return 0;
+}
+
 static void show_datestring(const char *flag, const char *datestr)
 {
 	static char buffer[100];
@@ -426,6 +432,13 @@
 		die("Needed a single revision");
 }
 
+static const char builtin_rev_parse_usage[] =
+"git rev-parse --parseopt [options] -- [<args>...]\n"
+"   or: git rev-parse --sq-quote [<arg>...]\n"
+"   or: git rev-parse [options] [<arg>...]\n"
+"\n"
+"Run \"git rev-parse --parseopt -h\" for more information on the first usage.";
+
 int cmd_rev_parse(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
 	int i, as_is = 0, verify = 0, quiet = 0, revs_count = 0, type = 0;
@@ -438,6 +451,9 @@
 	if (argc > 1 && !strcmp("--sq-quote", argv[1]))
 		return cmd_sq_quote(argc - 2, argv + 2);
 
+	if (argc > 1 && !strcmp("-h", argv[1]))
+		usage(builtin_rev_parse_usage);
+
 	prefix = setup_git_directory();
 	git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
 	for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {
@@ -548,6 +564,11 @@
 				for_each_ref(show_reference, NULL);
 				continue;
 			}
+			if (!strcmp(arg, "--bisect")) {
+				for_each_ref_in("refs/bisect/bad", show_reference, NULL);
+				for_each_ref_in("refs/bisect/good", anti_reference, NULL);
+				continue;
+			}
 			if (!strcmp(arg, "--branches")) {
 				for_each_branch_ref(show_reference, NULL);
 				continue;
diff --git a/builtin-send-pack.c b/builtin-send-pack.c
index 2c4eaae..2478e18 100644
--- a/builtin-send-pack.c
+++ b/builtin-send-pack.c
@@ -2,9 +2,11 @@
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "refs.h"
 #include "pkt-line.h"
+#include "sideband.h"
 #include "run-command.h"
 #include "remote.h"
 #include "send-pack.h"
+#include "quote.h"
 
 static const char send_pack_usage[] =
 "git send-pack [--all | --mirror] [--dry-run] [--force] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>] [--verbose] [--thin] [<host>:]<directory> [<ref>...]\n"
@@ -59,7 +61,7 @@
 	memset(&po, 0, sizeof(po));
 	po.argv = argv;
 	po.in = -1;
-	po.out = fd;
+	po.out = args->stateless_rpc ? -1 : fd;
 	po.git_cmd = 1;
 	if (start_command(&po))
 		die_errno("git pack-objects failed");
@@ -83,6 +85,20 @@
 	}
 
 	close(po.in);
+
+	if (args->stateless_rpc) {
+		char *buf = xmalloc(LARGE_PACKET_MAX);
+		while (1) {
+			ssize_t n = xread(po.out, buf, LARGE_PACKET_MAX);
+			if (n <= 0)
+				break;
+			send_sideband(fd, -1, buf, n, LARGE_PACKET_MAX);
+		}
+		free(buf);
+		close(po.out);
+		po.out = -1;
+	}
+
 	if (finish_command(&po))
 		return error("pack-objects died with strange error");
 	return 0;
@@ -246,7 +262,7 @@
 		break;
 	case REF_STATUS_REJECT_NONFASTFORWARD:
 		print_ref_status('!', "[rejected]", ref, ref->peer_ref,
-				"non-fast forward");
+				"non-fast-forward");
 		break;
 	case REF_STATUS_REMOTE_REJECT:
 		print_ref_status('!', "[remote rejected]", ref,
@@ -303,6 +319,67 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static void print_helper_status(struct ref *ref)
+{
+	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	for (; ref; ref = ref->next) {
+		const char *msg = NULL;
+		const char *res;
+
+		switch(ref->status) {
+		case REF_STATUS_NONE:
+			res = "error";
+			msg = "no match";
+			break;
+
+		case REF_STATUS_OK:
+			res = "ok";
+			break;
+
+		case REF_STATUS_UPTODATE:
+			res = "ok";
+			msg = "up to date";
+			break;
+
+		case REF_STATUS_REJECT_NONFASTFORWARD:
+			res = "error";
+			msg = "non-fast forward";
+			break;
+
+		case REF_STATUS_REJECT_NODELETE:
+		case REF_STATUS_REMOTE_REJECT:
+			res = "error";
+			break;
+
+		case REF_STATUS_EXPECTING_REPORT:
+		default:
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		strbuf_reset(&buf);
+		strbuf_addf(&buf, "%s %s", res, ref->name);
+		if (ref->remote_status)
+			msg = ref->remote_status;
+		if (msg) {
+			strbuf_addch(&buf, ' ');
+			quote_two_c_style(&buf, "", msg, 0);
+		}
+		strbuf_addch(&buf, '\n');
+
+		safe_write(1, buf.buf, buf.len);
+	}
+	strbuf_release(&buf);
+}
+
+static int sideband_demux(int in, int out, void *data)
+{
+	int *fd = data;
+	int ret = recv_sideband("send-pack", fd[0], out);
+	close(out);
+	return ret;
+}
+
 int send_pack(struct send_pack_args *args,
 	      int fd[], struct child_process *conn,
 	      struct ref *remote_refs,
@@ -310,20 +387,25 @@
 {
 	int in = fd[0];
 	int out = fd[1];
+	struct strbuf req_buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 	struct ref *ref;
 	int new_refs;
-	int ask_for_status_report = 0;
 	int allow_deleting_refs = 0;
-	int expect_status_report = 0;
+	int status_report = 0;
+	int use_sideband = 0;
+	unsigned cmds_sent = 0;
 	int ret;
+	struct async demux;
 
 	/* Does the other end support the reporting? */
 	if (server_supports("report-status"))
-		ask_for_status_report = 1;
+		status_report = 1;
 	if (server_supports("delete-refs"))
 		allow_deleting_refs = 1;
 	if (server_supports("ofs-delta"))
 		args->use_ofs_delta = 1;
+	if (server_supports("side-band-64k"))
+		use_sideband = 1;
 
 	if (!remote_refs) {
 		fprintf(stderr, "No refs in common and none specified; doing nothing.\n"
@@ -386,39 +468,75 @@
 		if (!ref->deletion)
 			new_refs++;
 
-		if (!args->dry_run) {
+		if (args->dry_run) {
+			ref->status = REF_STATUS_OK;
+		} else {
 			char *old_hex = sha1_to_hex(ref->old_sha1);
 			char *new_hex = sha1_to_hex(ref->new_sha1);
 
-			if (ask_for_status_report) {
-				packet_write(out, "%s %s %s%c%s",
+			if (!cmds_sent && (status_report || use_sideband)) {
+				packet_buf_write(&req_buf, "%s %s %s%c%s%s",
 					old_hex, new_hex, ref->name, 0,
-					"report-status");
-				ask_for_status_report = 0;
-				expect_status_report = 1;
+					status_report ? " report-status" : "",
+					use_sideband ? " side-band-64k" : "");
 			}
 			else
-				packet_write(out, "%s %s %s",
+				packet_buf_write(&req_buf, "%s %s %s",
 					old_hex, new_hex, ref->name);
+			ref->status = status_report ?
+				REF_STATUS_EXPECTING_REPORT :
+				REF_STATUS_OK;
+			cmds_sent++;
 		}
-		ref->status = expect_status_report ?
-			REF_STATUS_EXPECTING_REPORT :
-			REF_STATUS_OK;
 	}
 
-	packet_flush(out);
-	if (new_refs && !args->dry_run) {
+	if (args->stateless_rpc) {
+		if (!args->dry_run && cmds_sent) {
+			packet_buf_flush(&req_buf);
+			send_sideband(out, -1, req_buf.buf, req_buf.len, LARGE_PACKET_MAX);
+		}
+	} else {
+		safe_write(out, req_buf.buf, req_buf.len);
+		packet_flush(out);
+	}
+	strbuf_release(&req_buf);
+
+	if (use_sideband && cmds_sent) {
+		memset(&demux, 0, sizeof(demux));
+		demux.proc = sideband_demux;
+		demux.data = fd;
+		demux.out = -1;
+		if (start_async(&demux))
+			die("receive-pack: unable to fork off sideband demultiplexer");
+		in = demux.out;
+	}
+
+	if (new_refs && cmds_sent) {
 		if (pack_objects(out, remote_refs, extra_have, args) < 0) {
 			for (ref = remote_refs; ref; ref = ref->next)
 				ref->status = REF_STATUS_NONE;
+			if (use_sideband)
+				finish_async(&demux);
 			return -1;
 		}
 	}
+	if (args->stateless_rpc && cmds_sent)
+		packet_flush(out);
 
-	if (expect_status_report)
+	if (status_report && cmds_sent)
 		ret = receive_status(in, remote_refs);
 	else
 		ret = 0;
+	if (args->stateless_rpc)
+		packet_flush(out);
+
+	if (use_sideband && cmds_sent) {
+		if (finish_async(&demux)) {
+			error("error in sideband demultiplexer");
+			ret = -1;
+		}
+		close(demux.out);
+	}
 
 	if (ret < 0)
 		return ret;
@@ -478,6 +596,7 @@
 	struct extra_have_objects extra_have;
 	struct ref *remote_refs, *local_refs;
 	int ret;
+	int helper_status = 0;
 	int send_all = 0;
 	const char *receivepack = "git-receive-pack";
 	int flags;
@@ -523,6 +642,14 @@
 				args.use_thin_pack = 1;
 				continue;
 			}
+			if (!strcmp(arg, "--stateless-rpc")) {
+				args.stateless_rpc = 1;
+				continue;
+			}
+			if (!strcmp(arg, "--helper-status")) {
+				helper_status = 1;
+				continue;
+			}
 			usage(send_pack_usage);
 		}
 		if (!dest) {
@@ -551,7 +678,14 @@
 		}
 	}
 
-	conn = git_connect(fd, dest, receivepack, args.verbose ? CONNECT_VERBOSE : 0);
+	if (args.stateless_rpc) {
+		conn = NULL;
+		fd[0] = 0;
+		fd[1] = 1;
+	} else {
+		conn = git_connect(fd, dest, receivepack,
+			args.verbose ? CONNECT_VERBOSE : 0);
+	}
 
 	memset(&extra_have, 0, sizeof(extra_have));
 
@@ -575,12 +709,16 @@
 
 	ret = send_pack(&args, fd, conn, remote_refs, &extra_have);
 
+	if (helper_status)
+		print_helper_status(remote_refs);
+
 	close(fd[1]);
 	close(fd[0]);
 
 	ret |= finish_connect(conn);
 
-	print_push_status(dest, remote_refs);
+	if (!helper_status)
+		print_push_status(dest, remote_refs);
 
 	if (!args.dry_run && remote) {
 		struct ref *ref;
diff --git a/builtin-shortlog.c b/builtin-shortlog.c
index b98edc3..ecd2d45 100644
--- a/builtin-shortlog.c
+++ b/builtin-shortlog.c
@@ -141,9 +141,9 @@
 	const char *author = NULL, *buffer;
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 	struct strbuf ufbuf = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct pretty_print_context ctx = {0};
 
-	pretty_print_commit(CMIT_FMT_RAW, commit, &buf,
-			    0, NULL, NULL, DATE_NORMAL, 0);
+	pretty_print_commit(CMIT_FMT_RAW, commit, &buf, &ctx);
 	buffer = buf.buf;
 	while (*buffer && *buffer != '\n') {
 		const char *eol = strchr(buffer, '\n');
@@ -161,8 +161,12 @@
 		die("Missing author: %s",
 		    sha1_to_hex(commit->object.sha1));
 	if (log->user_format) {
-		pretty_print_commit(CMIT_FMT_USERFORMAT, commit, &ufbuf,
-			DEFAULT_ABBREV, "", "", DATE_NORMAL, 0);
+		struct pretty_print_context ctx = {0};
+		ctx.abbrev = DEFAULT_ABBREV;
+		ctx.subject = "";
+		ctx.after_subject = "";
+		ctx.date_mode = DATE_NORMAL;
+		pretty_print_commit(CMIT_FMT_USERFORMAT, commit, &ufbuf, &ctx);
 		buffer = ufbuf.buf;
 	} else if (*buffer) {
 		buffer++;
@@ -300,9 +304,19 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static void add_wrapped_shortlog_msg(struct strbuf *sb, const char *s,
+				     const struct shortlog *log)
+{
+	int col = strbuf_add_wrapped_text(sb, s, log->in1, log->in2, log->wrap);
+	if (col != log->wrap)
+		strbuf_addch(sb, '\n');
+}
+
 void shortlog_output(struct shortlog *log)
 {
 	int i, j;
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+
 	if (log->sort_by_number)
 		qsort(log->list.items, log->list.nr, sizeof(struct string_list_item),
 			compare_by_number);
@@ -317,9 +331,9 @@
 				const char *msg = onelines->items[j].string;
 
 				if (log->wrap_lines) {
-					int col = print_wrapped_text(msg, log->in1, log->in2, log->wrap);
-					if (col != log->wrap)
-						putchar('\n');
+					strbuf_reset(&sb);
+					add_wrapped_shortlog_msg(&sb, msg, log);
+					fwrite(sb.buf, sb.len, 1, stdout);
 				}
 				else
 					printf("      %s\n", msg);
@@ -333,6 +347,7 @@
 		log->list.items[i].util = NULL;
 	}
 
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
 	log->list.strdup_strings = 1;
 	string_list_clear(&log->list, 1);
 	clear_mailmap(&log->mailmap);
diff --git a/builtin-show-branch.c b/builtin-show-branch.c
index be95930..9f13caa 100644
--- a/builtin-show-branch.c
+++ b/builtin-show-branch.c
@@ -293,8 +293,8 @@
 	struct commit_name *name = commit->util;
 
 	if (commit->object.parsed) {
-		pretty_print_commit(CMIT_FMT_ONELINE, commit,
-				    &pretty, 0, NULL, NULL, 0, 0);
+		struct pretty_print_context ctx = {0};
+		pretty_print_commit(CMIT_FMT_ONELINE, commit, &pretty, &ctx);
 		pretty_str = pretty.buf;
 	}
 	if (!prefixcmp(pretty_str, "[PATCH] "))
diff --git a/builtin-show-ref.c b/builtin-show-ref.c
index c46550c..17ada88 100644
--- a/builtin-show-ref.c
+++ b/builtin-show-ref.c
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@
 #include "parse-options.h"
 
 static const char * const show_ref_usage[] = {
-	"git show-ref [-q|--quiet] [--verify] [-h|--head] [-d|--dereference] [-s|--hash[=<n>]] [--abbrev[=<n>]] [--tags] [--heads] [--] [pattern*] ",
+	"git show-ref [-q|--quiet] [--verify] [--head] [-d|--dereference] [-s|--hash[=<n>]] [--abbrev[=<n>]] [--tags] [--heads] [--] [pattern*] ",
 	"git show-ref --exclude-existing[=pattern] < ref-list",
 	NULL
 };
@@ -183,7 +183,10 @@
 	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "heads", &heads_only, "only show heads (can be combined with tags)"),
 	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "verify", &verify, "stricter reference checking, "
 		    "requires exact ref path"),
-	OPT_BOOLEAN('h', "head", &show_head, "show the HEAD reference"),
+	{ OPTION_BOOLEAN, 'h', NULL, &show_head, NULL,
+	  "show the HEAD reference",
+	  PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN },
+	OPT_BOOLEAN(0, "head", &show_head, "show the HEAD reference"),
 	OPT_BOOLEAN('d', "dereference", &deref_tags,
 		    "dereference tags into object IDs"),
 	{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 's', "hash", &abbrev, "n",
@@ -201,6 +204,9 @@
 
 int cmd_show_ref(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
+	if (argc == 2 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-h"))
+		usage_with_options(show_ref_usage, show_ref_options);
+
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, show_ref_options,
 			     show_ref_usage, PARSE_OPT_NO_INTERNAL_HELP);
 
diff --git a/builtin-stripspace.c b/builtin-stripspace.c
index 1fd2205..4d3b93f 100644
--- a/builtin-stripspace.c
+++ b/builtin-stripspace.c
@@ -73,9 +73,11 @@
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 	int strip_comments = 0;
 
-	if (argc > 1 && (!strcmp(argv[1], "-s") ||
+	if (argc == 2 && (!strcmp(argv[1], "-s") ||
 				!strcmp(argv[1], "--strip-comments")))
 		strip_comments = 1;
+	else if (argc > 1)
+		usage("git stripspace [-s | --strip-comments] < <stream>");
 
 	if (strbuf_read(&buf, 0, 1024) < 0)
 		die_errno("could not read the input");
diff --git a/builtin-tar-tree.c b/builtin-tar-tree.c
index 8b3a35e..3f1e701 100644
--- a/builtin-tar-tree.c
+++ b/builtin-tar-tree.c
@@ -11,6 +11,9 @@
 "git tar-tree [--remote=<repo>] <tree-ish> [basedir]\n"
 "*** Note that this command is now deprecated; use \"git archive\" instead.";
 
+static const char builtin_get_tar_commit_id_usage[] =
+"git get-tar-commit-id < <tarfile>";
+
 int cmd_tar_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
 	/*
@@ -81,6 +84,9 @@
 	char *content = buffer + RECORDSIZE;
 	ssize_t n;
 
+	if (argc != 1)
+		usage(builtin_get_tar_commit_id_usage);
+
 	n = read_in_full(0, buffer, HEADERSIZE);
 	if (n < HEADERSIZE)
 		die("git get-tar-commit-id: read error");
diff --git a/builtin-update-index.c b/builtin-update-index.c
index 92beaaf..a6b7f2d 100644
--- a/builtin-update-index.c
+++ b/builtin-update-index.c
@@ -27,6 +27,7 @@
 #define MARK_VALID 1
 #define UNMARK_VALID 2
 
+__attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)))
 static void report(const char *fmt, ...)
 {
 	va_list vp;
diff --git a/builtin-upload-archive.c b/builtin-upload-archive.c
index 29446e8..73f788e 100644
--- a/builtin-upload-archive.c
+++ b/builtin-upload-archive.c
@@ -67,6 +67,7 @@
 	return write_archive(sent_argc, sent_argv, prefix, 0);
 }
 
+__attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)))
 static void error_clnt(const char *fmt, ...)
 {
 	char buf[1024];
diff --git a/builtin.h b/builtin.h
index a2174dc..c3f83c0 100644
--- a/builtin.h
+++ b/builtin.h
@@ -48,7 +48,6 @@
 extern int cmd_fast_export(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_fetch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_fetch_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
-extern int cmd_fetch__tool(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_fmt_merge_msg(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_for_each_ref(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_format_patch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
diff --git a/bundle.c b/bundle.c
index 717a712..ff97adc 100644
--- a/bundle.c
+++ b/bundle.c
@@ -204,7 +204,6 @@
 	int i, ref_count = 0;
 	char buffer[1024];
 	struct rev_info revs;
-	int read_from_stdin = 0;
 	struct child_process rls;
 	FILE *rls_fout;
 
@@ -256,15 +255,8 @@
 	/* write references */
 	argc = setup_revisions(argc, argv, &revs, NULL);
 
-	for (i = 1; i < argc; i++) {
-		if (!strcmp(argv[i], "--stdin")) {
-			if (read_from_stdin++)
-				die("--stdin given twice?");
-			read_revisions_from_stdin(&revs);
-			continue;
-		}
-		return error("unrecognized argument: %s'", argv[i]);
-	}
+	if (argc > 1)
+		return error("unrecognized argument: %s'", argv[1]);
 
 	object_array_remove_duplicates(&revs.pending);
 
diff --git a/cache.h b/cache.h
index b90f671..04ae824 100644
--- a/cache.h
+++ b/cache.h
@@ -369,9 +369,12 @@
 #define CONFIG_ENVIRONMENT "GIT_CONFIG"
 #define EXEC_PATH_ENVIRONMENT "GIT_EXEC_PATH"
 #define CEILING_DIRECTORIES_ENVIRONMENT "GIT_CEILING_DIRECTORIES"
+#define NO_REPLACE_OBJECTS_ENVIRONMENT "GIT_NO_REPLACE_OBJECTS"
 #define GITATTRIBUTES_FILE ".gitattributes"
 #define INFOATTRIBUTES_FILE "info/attributes"
 #define ATTRIBUTE_MACRO_PREFIX "[attr]"
+#define GIT_NOTES_REF_ENVIRONMENT "GIT_NOTES_REF"
+#define GIT_NOTES_DEFAULT_REF "refs/notes/commits"
 
 extern int is_bare_repository_cfg;
 extern int is_bare_repository(void);
@@ -396,6 +399,7 @@
 extern const char *setup_git_directory(void);
 extern const char *prefix_path(const char *prefix, int len, const char *path);
 extern const char *prefix_filename(const char *prefix, int len, const char *path);
+extern int check_filename(const char *prefix, const char *name);
 extern void verify_filename(const char *prefix, const char *name);
 extern void verify_non_filename(const char *prefix, const char *name);
 
@@ -567,6 +571,8 @@
 
 extern enum object_creation_mode object_creation_mode;
 
+extern char *notes_ref_name;
+
 extern int grafts_replace_parents;
 
 #define GIT_REPO_VERSION 0
@@ -657,6 +663,7 @@
 int normalize_path_copy(char *dst, const char *src);
 int longest_ancestor_length(const char *path, const char *prefix_list);
 char *strip_path_suffix(const char *path, const char *suffix);
+int daemon_avoid_alias(const char *path);
 
 /* Read and unpack a sha1 file into memory, write memory to a sha1 file */
 extern int sha1_object_info(const unsigned char *, unsigned long *);
@@ -740,7 +747,8 @@
 			       size_t timebuf_size);
 int parse_date(const char *date, char *buf, int bufsize);
 void datestamp(char *buf, int bufsize);
-unsigned long approxidate(const char *);
+#define approxidate(s) approxidate_careful((s), NULL)
+unsigned long approxidate_careful(const char *, int *);
 unsigned long approxidate_relative(const char *date, const struct timeval *now);
 enum date_mode parse_date_format(const char *format);
 
@@ -751,6 +759,8 @@
 extern const char *git_committer_info(int);
 extern const char *fmt_ident(const char *name, const char *email, const char *date_str, int);
 extern const char *fmt_name(const char *name, const char *email);
+extern const char *git_editor(void);
+extern const char *git_pager(void);
 
 struct checkout {
 	const char *base_dir;
@@ -857,7 +867,6 @@
 extern struct child_process *git_connect(int fd[2], const char *url, const char *prog, int flags);
 extern int finish_connect(struct child_process *conn);
 extern int path_match(const char *path, int nr, char **match);
-extern int get_ack(int fd, unsigned char *result_sha1);
 struct extra_have_objects {
 	int nr, alloc;
 	unsigned char (*array)[20];
@@ -962,7 +971,9 @@
 extern void alloc_report(void);
 
 /* trace.c */
+__attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)))
 extern void trace_printf(const char *format, ...);
+__attribute__((format (printf, 2, 3)))
 extern void trace_argv_printf(const char **argv, const char *format, ...);
 
 /* convert.c */
diff --git a/color.h b/color.h
index 18abeb7..3cb4b7f 100644
--- a/color.h
+++ b/color.h
@@ -4,6 +4,11 @@
 /* "\033[1;38;5;2xx;48;5;2xxm\0" is 23 bytes */
 #define COLOR_MAXLEN 24
 
+/*
+ * IMPORTANT: Due to the way these color codes are emulated on Windows,
+ * write them only using printf(), fprintf(), and fputs(). In particular,
+ * do not use puts() or write().
+ */
 #define GIT_COLOR_NORMAL	""
 #define GIT_COLOR_RESET		"\033[m"
 #define GIT_COLOR_BOLD		"\033[1m"
@@ -29,7 +34,9 @@
 int git_config_colorbool(const char *var, const char *value, int stdout_is_tty);
 void color_parse(const char *value, const char *var, char *dst);
 void color_parse_mem(const char *value, int len, const char *var, char *dst);
+__attribute__((format (printf, 3, 4)))
 int color_fprintf(FILE *fp, const char *color, const char *fmt, ...);
+__attribute__((format (printf, 3, 4)))
 int color_fprintf_ln(FILE *fp, const char *color, const char *fmt, ...);
 int color_fwrite_lines(FILE *fp, const char *color, size_t count, const char *buf);
 
diff --git a/combine-diff.c b/combine-diff.c
index 5b63af1..6162691 100644
--- a/combine-diff.c
+++ b/combine-diff.c
@@ -524,6 +524,7 @@
 	int i;
 	unsigned long lno = 0;
 	const char *c_frag = diff_get_color(use_color, DIFF_FRAGINFO);
+	const char *c_func = diff_get_color(use_color, DIFF_FUNCINFO);
 	const char *c_new = diff_get_color(use_color, DIFF_FILE_NEW);
 	const char *c_old = diff_get_color(use_color, DIFF_FILE_OLD);
 	const char *c_plain = diff_get_color(use_color, DIFF_PLAIN);
@@ -588,7 +589,9 @@
 				    comment_end = i;
 			}
 			if (comment_end)
-				putchar(' ');
+				printf("%s%s %s%s", c_reset,
+						    c_plain, c_reset,
+						    c_func);
 			for (i = 0; i < comment_end; i++)
 				putchar(hunk_comment[i]);
 		}
diff --git a/command-list.txt b/command-list.txt
index fb03a2e..95bf18c 100644
--- a/command-list.txt
+++ b/command-list.txt
@@ -49,6 +49,7 @@
 git-gui                                 mainporcelain
 git-hash-object                         plumbingmanipulators
 git-help				ancillaryinterrogators
+git-http-backend                        synchingrepositories
 git-http-fetch                          synchelpers
 git-http-push                           synchelpers
 git-imap-send                           foreignscminterface
@@ -74,6 +75,7 @@
 git-mktree                              plumbingmanipulators
 git-mv                                  mainporcelain common
 git-name-rev                            plumbinginterrogators
+git-notes                               mainporcelain
 git-pack-objects                        plumbingmanipulators
 git-pack-redundant                      plumbinginterrogators
 git-pack-refs                           ancillarymanipulators
@@ -92,6 +94,7 @@
 git-relink                              ancillarymanipulators
 git-remote                              ancillarymanipulators
 git-repack                              ancillarymanipulators
+git-replace                             ancillarymanipulators
 git-repo-config                         ancillarymanipulators	deprecated
 git-request-pull                        foreignscminterface
 git-rerere                              ancillaryinterrogators
diff --git a/commit.c b/commit.c
index a51d2cd..731191e 100644
--- a/commit.c
+++ b/commit.c
@@ -5,6 +5,7 @@
 #include "utf8.h"
 #include "diff.h"
 #include "revision.h"
+#include "notes.h"
 
 int save_commit_buffer = 1;
 
@@ -199,7 +200,7 @@
 	return commit_graft[pos];
 }
 
-int write_shallow_commits(int fd, int use_pack_protocol)
+int write_shallow_commits(struct strbuf *out, int use_pack_protocol)
 {
 	int i, count = 0;
 	for (i = 0; i < commit_graft_nr; i++)
@@ -208,12 +209,10 @@
 				sha1_to_hex(commit_graft[i]->sha1);
 			count++;
 			if (use_pack_protocol)
-				packet_write(fd, "shallow %s", hex);
+				packet_buf_write(out, "shallow %s", hex);
 			else {
-				if (write_in_full(fd, hex,  40) != 40)
-					break;
-				if (write_str_in_full(fd, "\n") != 1)
-					break;
+				strbuf_addstr(out, hex);
+				strbuf_addch(out, '\n');
 			}
 		}
 	return count;
diff --git a/commit.h b/commit.h
index f4fc5c5..2c0742b 100644
--- a/commit.h
+++ b/commit.h
@@ -63,6 +63,17 @@
 	CMIT_FMT_UNSPECIFIED,
 };
 
+struct pretty_print_context
+{
+	int abbrev;
+	const char *subject;
+	const char *after_subject;
+	enum date_mode date_mode;
+	int need_8bit_cte;
+	int show_notes;
+	struct reflog_walk_info *reflog_info;
+};
+
 extern int non_ascii(int);
 extern int has_non_ascii(const char *text);
 struct rev_info; /* in revision.h, it circularly uses enum cmit_fmt */
@@ -70,13 +81,11 @@
 				     const char **encoding_p);
 extern void get_commit_format(const char *arg, struct rev_info *);
 extern void format_commit_message(const struct commit *commit,
-				  const void *format, struct strbuf *sb,
-				  enum date_mode dmode);
-extern void pretty_print_commit(enum cmit_fmt fmt, const struct commit*,
-                                struct strbuf *,
-                                int abbrev, const char *subject,
-                                const char *after_subject, enum date_mode,
-				int need_8bit_cte);
+				  const char *format, struct strbuf *sb,
+				  const struct pretty_print_context *context);
+extern void pretty_print_commit(enum cmit_fmt fmt, const struct commit *commit,
+				struct strbuf *sb,
+				const struct pretty_print_context *context);
 void pp_user_info(const char *what, enum cmit_fmt fmt, struct strbuf *sb,
 		   const char *line, enum date_mode dmode,
 		   const char *encoding);
@@ -131,7 +140,7 @@
 
 extern int register_shallow(const unsigned char *sha1);
 extern int unregister_shallow(const unsigned char *sha1);
-extern int write_shallow_commits(int fd, int use_pack_protocol);
+extern int write_shallow_commits(struct strbuf *out, int use_pack_protocol);
 extern int is_repository_shallow(void);
 extern struct commit_list *get_shallow_commits(struct object_array *heads,
 		int depth, int shallow_flag, int not_shallow_flag);
diff --git a/compat/bswap.h b/compat/bswap.h
index 5cc4acb..f3b8c44 100644
--- a/compat/bswap.h
+++ b/compat/bswap.h
@@ -24,10 +24,20 @@
 	if (__builtin_constant_p(x)) { \
 		__res = default_swab32(x); \
 	} else { \
-		__asm__("bswap %0" : "=r" (__res) : "0" (x)); \
+		__asm__("bswap %0" : "=r" (__res) : "0" ((uint32_t)(x))); \
 	} \
 	__res; })
 
+#elif defined(_MSC_VER) && (defined(_M_IX86) || defined(_M_X64))
+
+#include <stdlib.h>
+
+#define bswap32(x) _byteswap_ulong(x)
+
+#endif
+
+#ifdef bswap32
+
 #undef ntohl
 #undef htonl
 #define ntohl(x) bswap32(x)
diff --git a/compat/mingw.c b/compat/mingw.c
index 6b5b5b2..0d73f15 100644
--- a/compat/mingw.c
+++ b/compat/mingw.c
@@ -903,19 +903,195 @@
 	return env;
 }
 
-/* this is the first function to call into WS_32; initialize it */
-#undef gethostbyname
-struct hostent *mingw_gethostbyname(const char *host)
+/*
+ * Note, this isn't a complete replacement for getaddrinfo. It assumes
+ * that service contains a numerical port, or that it it is null. It
+ * does a simple search using gethostbyname, and returns one IPv4 host
+ * if one was found.
+ */
+static int WSAAPI getaddrinfo_stub(const char *node, const char *service,
+				   const struct addrinfo *hints,
+				   struct addrinfo **res)
+{
+	struct hostent *h = gethostbyname(node);
+	struct addrinfo *ai;
+	struct sockaddr_in *sin;
+
+	if (!h)
+		return WSAGetLastError();
+
+	ai = xmalloc(sizeof(struct addrinfo));
+	*res = ai;
+	ai->ai_flags = 0;
+	ai->ai_family = AF_INET;
+	ai->ai_socktype = hints->ai_socktype;
+	switch (hints->ai_socktype) {
+	case SOCK_STREAM:
+		ai->ai_protocol = IPPROTO_TCP;
+		break;
+	case SOCK_DGRAM:
+		ai->ai_protocol = IPPROTO_UDP;
+		break;
+	default:
+		ai->ai_protocol = 0;
+		break;
+	}
+	ai->ai_addrlen = sizeof(struct sockaddr_in);
+	ai->ai_canonname = strdup(h->h_name);
+
+	sin = xmalloc(ai->ai_addrlen);
+	memset(sin, 0, ai->ai_addrlen);
+	sin->sin_family = AF_INET;
+	if (service)
+		sin->sin_port = htons(atoi(service));
+	sin->sin_addr = *(struct in_addr *)h->h_addr;
+	ai->ai_addr = (struct sockaddr *)sin;
+	ai->ai_next = 0;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static void WSAAPI freeaddrinfo_stub(struct addrinfo *res)
+{
+	free(res->ai_canonname);
+	free(res->ai_addr);
+	free(res);
+}
+
+static int WSAAPI getnameinfo_stub(const struct sockaddr *sa, socklen_t salen,
+				   char *host, DWORD hostlen,
+				   char *serv, DWORD servlen, int flags)
+{
+	const struct sockaddr_in *sin = (const struct sockaddr_in *)sa;
+	if (sa->sa_family != AF_INET)
+		return EAI_FAMILY;
+	if (!host && !serv)
+		return EAI_NONAME;
+
+	if (host && hostlen > 0) {
+		struct hostent *ent = NULL;
+		if (!(flags & NI_NUMERICHOST))
+			ent = gethostbyaddr((const char *)&sin->sin_addr,
+					    sizeof(sin->sin_addr), AF_INET);
+
+		if (ent)
+			snprintf(host, hostlen, "%s", ent->h_name);
+		else if (flags & NI_NAMEREQD)
+			return EAI_NONAME;
+		else
+			snprintf(host, hostlen, "%s", inet_ntoa(sin->sin_addr));
+	}
+
+	if (serv && servlen > 0) {
+		struct servent *ent = NULL;
+		if (!(flags & NI_NUMERICSERV))
+			ent = getservbyport(sin->sin_port,
+					    flags & NI_DGRAM ? "udp" : "tcp");
+
+		if (ent)
+			snprintf(serv, servlen, "%s", ent->s_name);
+		else
+			snprintf(serv, servlen, "%d", ntohs(sin->sin_port));
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static HMODULE ipv6_dll = NULL;
+static void (WSAAPI *ipv6_freeaddrinfo)(struct addrinfo *res);
+static int (WSAAPI *ipv6_getaddrinfo)(const char *node, const char *service,
+				      const struct addrinfo *hints,
+				      struct addrinfo **res);
+static int (WSAAPI *ipv6_getnameinfo)(const struct sockaddr *sa, socklen_t salen,
+				      char *host, DWORD hostlen,
+				      char *serv, DWORD servlen, int flags);
+/*
+ * gai_strerror is an inline function in the ws2tcpip.h header, so we
+ * don't need to try to load that one dynamically.
+ */
+
+static void socket_cleanup(void)
+{
+	WSACleanup();
+	if (ipv6_dll)
+		FreeLibrary(ipv6_dll);
+	ipv6_dll = NULL;
+	ipv6_freeaddrinfo = freeaddrinfo_stub;
+	ipv6_getaddrinfo = getaddrinfo_stub;
+	ipv6_getnameinfo = getnameinfo_stub;
+}
+
+static void ensure_socket_initialization(void)
 {
 	WSADATA wsa;
+	static int initialized = 0;
+	const char *libraries[] = { "ws2_32.dll", "wship6.dll", NULL };
+	const char **name;
+
+	if (initialized)
+		return;
 
 	if (WSAStartup(MAKEWORD(2,2), &wsa))
 		die("unable to initialize winsock subsystem, error %d",
 			WSAGetLastError());
-	atexit((void(*)(void)) WSACleanup);
+
+	for (name = libraries; *name; name++) {
+		ipv6_dll = LoadLibrary(*name);
+		if (!ipv6_dll)
+			continue;
+
+		ipv6_freeaddrinfo = (void (WSAAPI *)(struct addrinfo *))
+			GetProcAddress(ipv6_dll, "freeaddrinfo");
+		ipv6_getaddrinfo = (int (WSAAPI *)(const char *, const char *,
+						   const struct addrinfo *,
+						   struct addrinfo **))
+			GetProcAddress(ipv6_dll, "getaddrinfo");
+		ipv6_getnameinfo = (int (WSAAPI *)(const struct sockaddr *,
+						   socklen_t, char *, DWORD,
+						   char *, DWORD, int))
+			GetProcAddress(ipv6_dll, "getnameinfo");
+		if (!ipv6_freeaddrinfo || !ipv6_getaddrinfo || !ipv6_getnameinfo) {
+			FreeLibrary(ipv6_dll);
+			ipv6_dll = NULL;
+		} else
+			break;
+	}
+	if (!ipv6_freeaddrinfo || !ipv6_getaddrinfo || !ipv6_getnameinfo) {
+		ipv6_freeaddrinfo = freeaddrinfo_stub;
+		ipv6_getaddrinfo = getaddrinfo_stub;
+		ipv6_getnameinfo = getnameinfo_stub;
+	}
+
+	atexit(socket_cleanup);
+	initialized = 1;
+}
+
+#undef gethostbyname
+struct hostent *mingw_gethostbyname(const char *host)
+{
+	ensure_socket_initialization();
 	return gethostbyname(host);
 }
 
+void mingw_freeaddrinfo(struct addrinfo *res)
+{
+	ipv6_freeaddrinfo(res);
+}
+
+int mingw_getaddrinfo(const char *node, const char *service,
+		      const struct addrinfo *hints, struct addrinfo **res)
+{
+	ensure_socket_initialization();
+	return ipv6_getaddrinfo(node, service, hints, res);
+}
+
+int mingw_getnameinfo(const struct sockaddr *sa, socklen_t salen,
+		      char *host, DWORD hostlen, char *serv, DWORD servlen,
+		      int flags)
+{
+	ensure_socket_initialization();
+	return ipv6_getnameinfo(sa, salen, host, hostlen, serv, servlen, flags);
+}
+
 int mingw_socket(int domain, int type, int protocol)
 {
 	int sockfd;
@@ -1000,6 +1176,18 @@
 	return -1;
 }
 
+/*
+ * Note that this doesn't return the actual pagesize, but
+ * the allocation granularity. If future Windows specific git code
+ * needs the real getpagesize function, we need to find another solution.
+ */
+int mingw_getpagesize(void)
+{
+	SYSTEM_INFO si;
+	GetSystemInfo(&si);
+	return si.dwAllocationGranularity;
+}
+
 struct passwd *getpwuid(int uid)
 {
 	static char user_name[100];
diff --git a/compat/mingw.h b/compat/mingw.h
index 5b5258b..b3d299f 100644
--- a/compat/mingw.h
+++ b/compat/mingw.h
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
 #include <winsock2.h>
+#include <ws2tcpip.h>
 
 /*
  * things that are not available in header files
@@ -124,6 +125,27 @@
 	return -1;
 }
 
+#ifndef NO_OPENSSL
+#include <openssl/ssl.h>
+static inline int mingw_SSL_set_fd(SSL *ssl, int fd)
+{
+	return SSL_set_fd(ssl, _get_osfhandle(fd));
+}
+#define SSL_set_fd mingw_SSL_set_fd
+
+static inline int mingw_SSL_set_rfd(SSL *ssl, int fd)
+{
+	return SSL_set_rfd(ssl, _get_osfhandle(fd));
+}
+#define SSL_set_rfd mingw_SSL_set_rfd
+
+static inline int mingw_SSL_set_wfd(SSL *ssl, int fd)
+{
+	return SSL_set_wfd(ssl, _get_osfhandle(fd));
+}
+#define SSL_set_wfd mingw_SSL_set_wfd
+#endif
+
 /*
  * implementations of missing functions
  */
@@ -157,6 +179,18 @@
 struct hostent *mingw_gethostbyname(const char *host);
 #define gethostbyname mingw_gethostbyname
 
+void mingw_freeaddrinfo(struct addrinfo *res);
+#define freeaddrinfo mingw_freeaddrinfo
+
+int mingw_getaddrinfo(const char *node, const char *service,
+		      const struct addrinfo *hints, struct addrinfo **res);
+#define getaddrinfo mingw_getaddrinfo
+
+int mingw_getnameinfo(const struct sockaddr *sa, socklen_t salen,
+		      char *host, DWORD hostlen, char *serv, DWORD servlen,
+		      int flags);
+#define getnameinfo mingw_getnameinfo
+
 int mingw_socket(int domain, int type, int protocol);
 #define socket mingw_socket
 
@@ -166,7 +200,7 @@
 int mingw_rename(const char*, const char*);
 #define rename mingw_rename
 
-#ifdef USE_WIN32_MMAP
+#if defined(USE_WIN32_MMAP) || defined(_MSC_VER)
 int mingw_getpagesize(void);
 #define getpagesize mingw_getpagesize
 #endif
diff --git a/compat/vcbuild/include/termios.h b/compat/vcbuild/include/termios.h
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..0d8552a
--- /dev/null
+++ b/compat/vcbuild/include/termios.h
@@ -0,0 +1 @@
+/* Intentionally empty file to support building git with MSVC */
diff --git a/compat/vcbuild/scripts/clink.pl b/compat/vcbuild/scripts/clink.pl
index f9528c0..8a2112f 100644
--- a/compat/vcbuild/scripts/clink.pl
+++ b/compat/vcbuild/scripts/clink.pl
@@ -29,6 +29,9 @@
 		push(@args, "zlib.lib");
 	} elsif ("$arg" eq "-liconv") {
 		push(@args, "iconv.lib");
+	} elsif ("$arg" eq "-lcrypto") {
+		push(@args, "libeay32.lib");
+		push(@args, "ssleay32.lib");
 	} elsif ("$arg" =~ /^-L/ && "$arg" ne "-LTCG") {
 		$arg =~ s/^-L/-LIBPATH:/;
 		push(@args, $arg);
diff --git a/compat/win32mmap.c b/compat/win32mmap.c
index 779d796..1c5a149 100644
--- a/compat/win32mmap.c
+++ b/compat/win32mmap.c
@@ -1,17 +1,5 @@
 #include "../git-compat-util.h"
 
-/*
- * Note that this doesn't return the actual pagesize, but
- * the allocation granularity. If future Windows specific git code
- * needs the real getpagesize function, we need to find another solution.
- */
-int mingw_getpagesize(void)
-{
-	SYSTEM_INFO si;
-	GetSystemInfo(&si);
-	return si.dwAllocationGranularity;
-}
-
 void *git_mmap(void *start, size_t length, int prot, int flags, int fd, off_t offset)
 {
 	HANDLE hmap;
diff --git a/config.c b/config.c
index b3d1ff4..37385ce 100644
--- a/config.c
+++ b/config.c
@@ -477,6 +477,11 @@
 		return 0;
 	}
 
+	if (!strcmp(var, "core.notesref")) {
+		notes_ref_name = xstrdup(value);
+		return 0;
+	}
+
 	if (!strcmp(var, "core.pager"))
 		return git_config_string(&pager_program, var, value);
 
diff --git a/configure.ac b/configure.ac
index b09b8e4..4625b86 100644
--- a/configure.ac
+++ b/configure.ac
@@ -68,6 +68,26 @@
 	GIT_CONF_APPEND_LINE(${PACKAGE}DIR=$withval); \
 fi \
 ])# GIT_PARSE_WITH
+#
+# GIT_PARSE_WITH_SET_MAKE_VAR(WITHNAME, VAR, HELP_TEXT)
+# ---------------------
+# Set VAR to the value specied by --with-WITHNAME.
+# No verification of arguments is performed, but warnings are issued
+# if either 'yes' or 'no' is specified.
+# HELP_TEXT is presented when --help is called.
+# This is a direct way to allow setting variables in the Makefile.
+AC_DEFUN([GIT_PARSE_WITH_SET_MAKE_VAR],
+[AC_ARG_WITH([$1],
+ [AS_HELP_STRING([--with-$1=VALUE], $3)],
+ if test -n "$withval"; then \
+  if test "$withval" = "yes" -o "$withval" = "no"; then \
+    AC_MSG_WARN([You likely do not want either 'yes' or 'no' as]
+		     [a value for $1 ($2).  Maybe you do...?]); \
+  fi; \
+  \
+  AC_MSG_NOTICE([Setting $2 to $withval]); \
+  GIT_CONF_APPEND_LINE($2=$withval); \
+ fi)])# GIT_PARSE_WITH_SET_MAKE_VAR
 
 dnl
 dnl GIT_CHECK_FUNC(FUNCTION, IFTRUE, IFFALSE)
@@ -227,6 +247,29 @@
 # change being considered an inode change from the update-index perspective.
 
 #
+# Allow user to set ETC_GITCONFIG variable
+GIT_PARSE_WITH_SET_MAKE_VAR(gitconfig, ETC_GITCONFIG,
+			Use VALUE instead of /etc/gitconfig as the
+			global git configuration file.
+			If VALUE is not fully qualified it will be interpretted
+			as a path relative to the computed prefix at runtime.)
+
+#
+# Allow user to set the default pager
+GIT_PARSE_WITH_SET_MAKE_VAR(pager, DEFAULT_PAGER,
+			Use VALUE as the fall-back pager instead of 'less'.
+			This is used by things like 'git log' when the user
+			does not specify a pager to use through alternate
+			methods. eg: /usr/bin/pager)
+#
+# Allow user to set the default editor
+GIT_PARSE_WITH_SET_MAKE_VAR(editor, DEFAULT_EDITOR,
+			Use VALUE as the fall-back editor instead of 'vi'.
+			This is used by things like 'git commit' when the user
+			does not specify a preferred editor through other
+			methods. eg: /usr/bin/editor)
+
+#
 # Define SHELL_PATH to provide path to shell.
 GIT_ARG_SET_PATH(shell)
 #
diff --git a/connect.c b/connect.c
index 7945e38..db965c9 100644
--- a/connect.c
+++ b/connect.c
@@ -107,27 +107,6 @@
 		strstr(server_capabilities, feature) != NULL;
 }
 
-int get_ack(int fd, unsigned char *result_sha1)
-{
-	static char line[1000];
-	int len = packet_read_line(fd, line, sizeof(line));
-
-	if (!len)
-		die("git fetch-pack: expected ACK/NAK, got EOF");
-	if (line[len-1] == '\n')
-		line[--len] = 0;
-	if (!strcmp(line, "NAK"))
-		return 0;
-	if (!prefixcmp(line, "ACK ")) {
-		if (!get_sha1_hex(line+4, result_sha1)) {
-			if (strstr(line+45, "continue"))
-				return 2;
-			return 1;
-		}
-	}
-	die("git fetch_pack: expected ACK/NAK, got '%s'", line);
-}
-
 int path_match(const char *path, int nr, char **match)
 {
 	int i;
@@ -630,6 +609,7 @@
 			GIT_WORK_TREE_ENVIRONMENT,
 			GRAFT_ENVIRONMENT,
 			INDEX_ENVIRONMENT,
+			NO_REPLACE_OBJECTS_ENVIRONMENT,
 			NULL
 		};
 		conn->env = env;
diff --git a/contrib/buildsystems/Generators/Vcproj.pm b/contrib/buildsystems/Generators/Vcproj.pm
index be94ba1..cfa74ad 100644
--- a/contrib/buildsystems/Generators/Vcproj.pm
+++ b/contrib/buildsystems/Generators/Vcproj.pm
@@ -178,6 +178,7 @@
 				MinimalRebuild="true"
 				RuntimeLibrary="1"
 				UsePrecompiledHeader="0"
+				ProgramDataBaseFileName="\$(IntDir)\\\$(TargetName).pdb"
 				WarningLevel="3"
 				DebugInformationFormat="3"
 			/>
@@ -244,6 +245,7 @@
 				RuntimeLibrary="0"
 				EnableFunctionLevelLinking="true"
 				UsePrecompiledHeader="0"
+				ProgramDataBaseFileName="\$(IntDir)\\\$(TargetName).pdb"
 				WarningLevel="3"
 				DebugInformationFormat="3"
 			/>
@@ -401,6 +403,7 @@
 				MinimalRebuild="true"
 				RuntimeLibrary="1"
 				UsePrecompiledHeader="0"
+				ProgramDataBaseFileName="\$(IntDir)\\\$(TargetName).pdb"
 				WarningLevel="3"
 				DebugInformationFormat="3"
 			/>
@@ -472,6 +475,7 @@
 				RuntimeLibrary="0"
 				EnableFunctionLevelLinking="true"
 				UsePrecompiledHeader="0"
+				ProgramDataBaseFileName="\$(IntDir)\\\$(TargetName).pdb"
 				WarningLevel="3"
 				DebugInformationFormat="3"
 			/>
diff --git a/contrib/buildsystems/engine.pl b/contrib/buildsystems/engine.pl
index 20bd061..d506717 100644
--- a/contrib/buildsystems/engine.pl
+++ b/contrib/buildsystems/engine.pl
@@ -315,6 +315,9 @@
             $appout = shift @parts;
         } elsif ("$part" eq "-lz") {
             push(@libs, "zlib.lib");
+	} elsif ("$part" eq "-lcrypto") {
+            push(@libs, "libeay32.lib");
+            push(@libs, "ssleay32.lib");
         } elsif ($part =~ /^-/) {
             push(@lflags, $part);
         } elsif ($part =~ /\.(a|lib)$/) {
diff --git a/contrib/completion/git-completion.bash b/contrib/completion/git-completion.bash
index 4cb89a1..1a762e8 100755
--- a/contrib/completion/git-completion.bash
+++ b/contrib/completion/git-completion.bash
@@ -21,13 +21,7 @@
 #    2) Added the following line to your .bashrc:
 #        source ~/.git-completion.sh
 #
-#    3) You may want to make sure the git executable is available
-#       in your PATH before this script is sourced, as some caching
-#       is performed while the script loads.  If git isn't found
-#       at source time then all lookups will be done on demand,
-#       which may be slightly slower.
-#
-#    4) Consider changing your PS1 to also show the current branch:
+#    3) Consider changing your PS1 to also show the current branch:
 #        PS1='[\u@\h \W$(__git_ps1 " (%s)")]\$ '
 #
 #       The argument to __git_ps1 will be displayed only if you
@@ -322,12 +316,8 @@
 	done
 }
 
-__git_merge_strategies ()
+__git_list_merge_strategies ()
 {
-	if [ -n "${__git_merge_strategylist-}" ]; then
-		echo "$__git_merge_strategylist"
-		return
-	fi
 	git merge -s help 2>&1 |
 	sed -n -e '/[Aa]vailable strategies are: /,/^$/{
 		s/\.$//
@@ -337,8 +327,17 @@
 		p
 	}'
 }
-__git_merge_strategylist=
-__git_merge_strategylist=$(__git_merge_strategies 2>/dev/null)
+
+__git_merge_strategies=
+# 'git merge -s help' (and thus detection of the merge strategy
+# list) fails, unfortunately, if run outside of any git working
+# tree.  __git_merge_strategies is set to the empty string in
+# that case, and the detection will be repeated the next time it
+# is needed.
+__git_compute_merge_strategies ()
+{
+	: ${__git_merge_strategies:=$(__git_list_merge_strategies)}
+}
 
 __git_complete_file ()
 {
@@ -416,7 +415,17 @@
 	while [ $c -lt $COMP_CWORD ]; do
 		i="${COMP_WORDS[c]}"
 		case "$i" in
-		--all|--mirror) [ "$cmd" = "push" ] && no_complete_refspec=1 ;;
+		--mirror) [ "$cmd" = "push" ] && no_complete_refspec=1 ;;
+		--all)
+			case "$cmd" in
+			push) no_complete_refspec=1 ;;
+			fetch)
+				COMPREPLY=()
+				return
+				;;
+			*) ;;
+			esac
+			;;
 		-*) ;;
 		*) remote="$i"; break ;;
 		esac
@@ -472,27 +481,24 @@
 
 __git_complete_strategy ()
 {
+	__git_compute_merge_strategies
 	case "${COMP_WORDS[COMP_CWORD-1]}" in
 	-s|--strategy)
-		__gitcomp "$(__git_merge_strategies)"
+		__gitcomp "$__git_merge_strategies"
 		return 0
 	esac
 	local cur="${COMP_WORDS[COMP_CWORD]}"
 	case "$cur" in
 	--strategy=*)
-		__gitcomp "$(__git_merge_strategies)" "" "${cur##--strategy=}"
+		__gitcomp "$__git_merge_strategies" "" "${cur##--strategy=}"
 		return 0
 		;;
 	esac
 	return 1
 }
 
-__git_all_commands ()
+__git_list_all_commands ()
 {
-	if [ -n "${__git_all_commandlist-}" ]; then
-		echo "$__git_all_commandlist"
-		return
-	fi
 	local i IFS=" "$'\n'
 	for i in $(git help -a|egrep '^  [a-zA-Z0-9]')
 	do
@@ -502,17 +508,18 @@
 		esac
 	done
 }
-__git_all_commandlist=
-__git_all_commandlist="$(__git_all_commands 2>/dev/null)"
 
-__git_porcelain_commands ()
+__git_all_commands=
+__git_compute_all_commands ()
 {
-	if [ -n "${__git_porcelain_commandlist-}" ]; then
-		echo "$__git_porcelain_commandlist"
-		return
-	fi
+	: ${__git_all_commands:=$(__git_list_all_commands)}
+}
+
+__git_list_porcelain_commands ()
+{
 	local i IFS=" "$'\n'
-	for i in "help" $(__git_all_commands)
+	__git_compute_all_commands
+	for i in "help" $__git_all_commands
 	do
 		case $i in
 		*--*)             : helper pattern;;
@@ -564,6 +571,7 @@
 		read-tree)        : plumbing;;
 		receive-pack)     : plumbing;;
 		reflog)           : plumbing;;
+		remote-*)         : transport;;
 		repo-config)      : deprecated;;
 		rerere)           : plumbing;;
 		rev-list)         : plumbing;;
@@ -593,8 +601,13 @@
 		esac
 	done
 }
-__git_porcelain_commandlist=
-__git_porcelain_commandlist="$(__git_porcelain_commands 2>/dev/null)"
+
+__git_porcelain_commands=
+__git_compute_porcelain_commands ()
+{
+	__git_compute_all_commands
+	: ${__git_porcelain_commands:=$(__git_list_porcelain_commands)}
+}
 
 __git_aliases ()
 {
@@ -892,11 +905,31 @@
 
 	local cur="${COMP_WORDS[COMP_CWORD]}"
 	case "$cur" in
+	--cleanup=*)
+		__gitcomp "default strip verbatim whitespace
+			" "" "${cur##--cleanup=}"
+		return
+		;;
+	--reuse-message=*)
+		__gitcomp "$(__git_refs)" "" "${cur##--reuse-message=}"
+		return
+		;;
+	--reedit-message=*)
+		__gitcomp "$(__git_refs)" "" "${cur##--reedit-message=}"
+		return
+		;;
+	--untracked-files=*)
+		__gitcomp "all no normal" "" "${cur##--untracked-files=}"
+		return
+		;;
 	--*)
 		__gitcomp "
 			--all --author= --signoff --verify --no-verify
 			--edit --amend --include --only --interactive
-			--dry-run
+			--dry-run --reuse-message= --reedit-message=
+			--reset-author --file= --message= --template=
+			--cleanup= --untracked-files --untracked-files=
+			--verbose --quiet
 			"
 		return
 	esac
@@ -951,11 +984,13 @@
 }
 
 __git_mergetools_common="diffuse ecmerge emerge kdiff3 meld opendiff
-			tkdiff vimdiff gvimdiff xxdiff araxis
+			tkdiff vimdiff gvimdiff xxdiff araxis p4merge
 "
 
 _git_difftool ()
 {
+	__git_has_doubledash && return
+
 	local cur="${COMP_WORDS[COMP_CWORD]}"
 	case "$cur" in
 	--tool=*)
@@ -963,16 +998,20 @@
 		return
 		;;
 	--*)
-		__gitcomp "--tool="
+		__gitcomp "--cached --staged --pickaxe-all --pickaxe-regex
+			--base --ours --theirs
+			--no-renames --diff-filter= --find-copies-harder
+			--relative --ignore-submodules
+			--tool="
 		return
 		;;
 	esac
-	COMPREPLY=()
+	__git_complete_file
 }
 
 __git_fetch_options="
 	--quiet --verbose --append --upload-pack --force --keep --depth=
-	--tags --no-tags
+	--tags --no-tags --all --prune --dry-run
 "
 
 _git_fetch ()
@@ -1067,7 +1106,8 @@
 		return
 		;;
 	esac
-	COMPREPLY=()
+
+	__gitcomp "$(__git_refs)"
 }
 
 _git_help ()
@@ -1079,7 +1119,8 @@
 		return
 		;;
 	esac
-	__gitcomp "$(__git_all_commands)
+	__git_compute_all_commands
+	__gitcomp "$__git_all_commands
 		attributes cli core-tutorial cvs-migration
 		diffcore gitk glossary hooks ignore modules
 		repository-layout tutorial tutorial-2
@@ -1215,7 +1256,7 @@
 
 __git_merge_options="
 	--no-commit --no-stat --log --no-log --squash --strategy
-	--commit --stat --no-squash --ff --no-ff
+	--commit --stat --no-squash --ff --no-ff --ff-only
 "
 
 _git_merge ()
@@ -1320,8 +1361,18 @@
 	fi
 	__git_complete_strategy && return
 	case "$cur" in
+	--whitespace=*)
+		__gitcomp "$__git_whitespacelist" "" "${cur##--whitespace=}"
+		return
+		;;
 	--*)
-		__gitcomp "--onto --merge --strategy --interactive"
+		__gitcomp "
+			--onto --merge --strategy --interactive
+			--preserve-merges --stat --no-stat
+			--committer-date-is-author-date --ignore-date
+			--ignore-whitespace --whitespace=
+			"
+
 		return
 	esac
 	__gitcomp "$(__git_refs)"
@@ -1425,7 +1476,8 @@
 		return
 		;;
 	pull.twohead|pull.octopus)
-		__gitcomp "$(__git_merge_strategies)"
+		__git_compute_merge_strategies
+		__gitcomp "$__git_merge_strategies"
 		return
 		;;
 	color.branch|color.diff|color.interactive|\
@@ -1526,7 +1578,8 @@
 	pager.*)
 		local pfx="${cur%.*}."
 		cur="${cur#*.}"
-		__gitcomp "$(__git_all_commands)" "$pfx" "$cur"
+		__git_compute_all_commands
+		__gitcomp "$__git_all_commands" "$pfx" "$cur"
 		return
 		;;
 	remote.*.*)
@@ -2123,7 +2176,8 @@
 			--help
 			"
 			;;
-		*)     __gitcomp "$(__git_porcelain_commands) $(__git_aliases)" ;;
+		*)     __git_compute_porcelain_commands
+		       __gitcomp "$__git_porcelain_commands $(__git_aliases)" ;;
 		esac
 		return
 	fi
diff --git a/contrib/emacs/git-blame.el b/contrib/emacs/git-blame.el
index 4fa70c5..7f4c792 100644
--- a/contrib/emacs/git-blame.el
+++ b/contrib/emacs/git-blame.el
@@ -80,6 +80,57 @@
 
 (eval-when-compile (require 'cl))			      ; to use `push', `pop'
 
+(defface git-blame-prefix-face
+  '((((background dark)) (:foreground "gray"
+                          :background "black"))
+    (((background light)) (:foreground "gray"
+                           :background "white"))
+    (t (:weight bold)))
+  "The face used for the hash prefix."
+  :group 'git-blame)
+
+(defgroup git-blame nil
+  "A minor mode showing Git blame information."
+  :group 'git
+  :link '(function-link git-blame-mode))
+
+
+(defcustom git-blame-use-colors t
+  "Use colors to indicate commits in `git-blame-mode'."
+  :type 'boolean
+  :group 'git-blame)
+
+(defcustom git-blame-prefix-format
+  "%h %20A:"
+  "The format of the prefix added to each line in `git-blame'
+mode. The format is passed to `format-spec' with the following format keys:
+
+  %h - the abbreviated hash
+  %H - the full hash
+  %a - the author name
+  %A - the author email
+  %c - the committer name
+  %C - the committer email
+  %s - the commit summary
+"
+  :group 'git-blame)
+
+(defcustom git-blame-mouseover-format
+  "%h %a %A: %s"
+  "The format of the description shown when pointing at a line in
+`git-blame' mode. The format string is passed to `format-spec'
+with the following format keys:
+
+  %h - the abbreviated hash
+  %H - the full hash
+  %a - the author name
+  %A - the author email
+  %c - the committer name
+  %C - the committer email
+  %s - the commit summary
+"
+  :group 'git-blame)
+
 
 (defun git-blame-color-scale (&rest elements)
   "Given a list, returns a list of triples formed with each
@@ -302,72 +353,69 @@
                (src-line (string-to-number (match-string 2)))
                (res-line (string-to-number (match-string 3)))
                (num-lines (string-to-number (match-string 4))))
-           (setq git-blame-current
-                 (if (string= hash "0000000000000000000000000000000000000000")
-                     nil
-                   (git-blame-new-commit
-                    hash src-line res-line num-lines))))
-         (delete-region (point) (match-end 0))
-         t)
-        ((looking-at "filename \\(.+\\)\n")
-         (let ((filename (match-string 1)))
-           (git-blame-add-info "filename" filename))
-         (delete-region (point) (match-end 0))
+           (delete-region (point) (match-end 0))
+           (setq git-blame-current (list (git-blame-new-commit hash)
+                                         src-line res-line num-lines)))
          t)
         ((looking-at "\\([a-z-]+\\) \\(.+\\)\n")
          (let ((key (match-string 1))
                (value (match-string 2)))
-           (git-blame-add-info key value))
-         (delete-region (point) (match-end 0))
-         t)
-        ((looking-at "boundary\n")
-         (setq git-blame-current nil)
-         (delete-region (point) (match-end 0))
+           (delete-region (point) (match-end 0))
+           (git-blame-add-info (car git-blame-current) key value)
+           (when (string= key "filename")
+             (git-blame-create-overlay (car git-blame-current)
+                                       (caddr git-blame-current)
+                                       (cadddr git-blame-current))
+             (setq git-blame-current nil)))
          t)
         (t
          nil)))
 
-(defun git-blame-new-commit (hash src-line res-line num-lines)
+(defun git-blame-new-commit (hash)
+  (with-current-buffer git-blame-file
+    (or (gethash hash git-blame-cache)
+        ;; Assign a random color to each new commit info
+        ;; Take care not to select the same color multiple times
+        (let* ((color (if git-blame-colors
+                          (git-blame-random-pop git-blame-colors)
+                        git-blame-ancient-color))
+               (info `(,hash (color . ,color))))
+          (puthash hash info git-blame-cache)
+          info))))
+
+(defun git-blame-create-overlay (info start-line num-lines)
   (save-excursion
     (set-buffer git-blame-file)
-    (let ((info (gethash hash git-blame-cache))
-          (inhibit-point-motion-hooks t)
+    (let ((inhibit-point-motion-hooks t)
           (inhibit-modification-hooks t))
-      (when (not info)
-	;; Assign a random color to each new commit info
-	;; Take care not to select the same color multiple times
-	(let ((color (if git-blame-colors
-			 (git-blame-random-pop git-blame-colors)
-		       git-blame-ancient-color)))
-          (setq info (list hash src-line res-line num-lines
-                           (git-describe-commit hash)
-                           (cons 'color color))))
-        (puthash hash info git-blame-cache))
-      (goto-line res-line)
-      (while (> num-lines 0)
-        (if (get-text-property (point) 'git-blame)
-            (forward-line)
-          (let* ((start (point))
-                 (end (progn (forward-line 1) (point)))
-                 (ovl (make-overlay start end)))
-            (push ovl git-blame-overlays)
-            (overlay-put ovl 'git-blame info)
-            (overlay-put ovl 'help-echo hash)
+      (goto-line start-line)
+      (let* ((start (point))
+             (end (progn (forward-line num-lines) (point)))
+             (ovl (make-overlay start end))
+             (hash (car info))
+             (spec `((?h . ,(substring hash 0 6))
+                     (?H . ,hash)
+                     (?a . ,(git-blame-get-info info 'author))
+                     (?A . ,(git-blame-get-info info 'author-mail))
+                     (?c . ,(git-blame-get-info info 'committer))
+                     (?C . ,(git-blame-get-info info 'committer-mail))
+                     (?s . ,(git-blame-get-info info 'summary)))))
+        (push ovl git-blame-overlays)
+        (overlay-put ovl 'git-blame info)
+        (overlay-put ovl 'help-echo
+                     (format-spec git-blame-mouseover-format spec))
+        (if git-blame-use-colors
             (overlay-put ovl 'face (list :background
-                                         (cdr (assq 'color (nthcdr 5 info)))))
-            ;; the point-entered property doesn't seem to work in overlays
-            ;;(overlay-put ovl 'point-entered
-            ;;             `(lambda (x y) (git-blame-identify ,hash)))
-            (let ((modified (buffer-modified-p)))
-              (put-text-property (if (= start 1) start (1- start)) (1- end)
-                                 'point-entered
-                                 `(lambda (x y) (git-blame-identify ,hash)))
-              (set-buffer-modified-p modified))))
-        (setq num-lines (1- num-lines))))))
+                                         (cdr (assq 'color (cdr info))))))
+        (overlay-put ovl 'line-prefix
+                     (propertize (format-spec git-blame-prefix-format spec)
+                                 'face 'git-blame-prefix-face))))))
 
-(defun git-blame-add-info (key value)
-  (if git-blame-current
-      (nconc git-blame-current (list (cons (intern key) value)))))
+(defun git-blame-add-info (info key value)
+  (nconc info (list (cons (intern key) value))))
+
+(defun git-blame-get-info (info key)
+  (cdr (assq key (cdr info))))
 
 (defun git-blame-current-commit ()
   (let ((info (get-char-property (point) 'git-blame)))
diff --git a/builtin-fetch--tool.c b/contrib/examples/builtin-fetch--tool.c
similarity index 97%
rename from builtin-fetch--tool.c
rename to contrib/examples/builtin-fetch--tool.c
index 3dbdf7a..cd10dbc 100644
--- a/builtin-fetch--tool.c
+++ b/contrib/examples/builtin-fetch--tool.c
@@ -97,21 +97,21 @@
 	strcpy(newh, find_unique_abbrev(sha1_new, DEFAULT_ABBREV));
 
 	if (in_merge_bases(current, &updated, 1)) {
-		fprintf(stderr, "* %s: fast forward to %s\n",
+		fprintf(stderr, "* %s: fast-forward to %s\n",
 			name, note);
 		fprintf(stderr, "  old..new: %s..%s\n", oldh, newh);
-		return update_ref_env("fast forward", name, sha1_new, sha1_old);
+		return update_ref_env("fast-forward", name, sha1_new, sha1_old);
 	}
 	if (!force) {
 		fprintf(stderr,
-			"* %s: not updating to non-fast forward %s\n",
+			"* %s: not updating to non-fast-forward %s\n",
 			name, note);
 		fprintf(stderr,
 			"  old...new: %s...%s\n", oldh, newh);
 		return 1;
 	}
 	fprintf(stderr,
-		"* %s: forcing update to non-fast forward %s\n",
+		"* %s: forcing update to non-fast-forward %s\n",
 		name, note);
 	fprintf(stderr, "  old...new: %s...%s\n", oldh, newh);
 	return update_ref_env("forced-update", name, sha1_new, sha1_old);
diff --git a/contrib/examples/git-merge.sh b/contrib/examples/git-merge.sh
index e9588ee..500635f 100755
--- a/contrib/examples/git-merge.sh
+++ b/contrib/examples/git-merge.sh
@@ -14,7 +14,7 @@
 log                  add list of one-line log to merge commit message
 squash               create a single commit instead of doing a merge
 commit               perform a commit if the merge succeeds (default)
-ff                   allow fast forward (default)
+ff                   allow fast-forward (default)
 s,strategy=          merge strategy to use
 m,message=           message to be used for the merge commit (if any)
 "
@@ -353,7 +353,7 @@
 	# Again the most common case of merging one remote.
 	echo "Updating $(git rev-parse --short $head)..$(git rev-parse --short $1)"
 	git update-index --refresh 2>/dev/null
-	msg="Fast forward"
+	msg="Fast-forward"
 	if test -n "$have_message"
 	then
 		msg="$msg (no commit created; -m option ignored)"
@@ -365,11 +365,11 @@
 	exit 0
 	;;
 ?,1,?*"$LF"?*,*)
-	# We are not doing octopus and not fast forward.  Need a
+	# We are not doing octopus and not fast-forward.  Need a
 	# real merge.
 	;;
 ?,1,*,)
-	# We are not doing octopus, not fast forward, and have only
+	# We are not doing octopus, not fast-forward, and have only
 	# one common.
 	git update-index --refresh 2>/dev/null
 	case "$allow_trivial_merge" in
diff --git a/contrib/examples/git-resolve.sh b/contrib/examples/git-resolve.sh
index 0ee1bd8..8f98142 100755
--- a/contrib/examples/git-resolve.sh
+++ b/contrib/examples/git-resolve.sh
@@ -48,7 +48,7 @@
 "$head")
 	echo "Updating $(git rev-parse --short $head)..$(git rev-parse --short $merge)"
 	git read-tree -u -m $head $merge || exit 1
-	git update-ref -m "resolve $merge_name: Fast forward" \
+	git update-ref -m "resolve $merge_name: Fast-forward" \
 		HEAD "$merge" "$head"
 	git diff-tree -p $head $merge | git apply --stat
 	dropheads
diff --git a/contrib/fast-import/git-p4 b/contrib/fast-import/git-p4
index e710219..48059d0 100755
--- a/contrib/fast-import/git-p4
+++ b/contrib/fast-import/git-p4
@@ -729,13 +729,10 @@
             tmpFile.write(submitTemplate + separatorLine + diff + newdiff)
             tmpFile.close()
             mtime = os.stat(fileName).st_mtime
-            defaultEditor = "vi"
-            if platform.system() == "Windows":
-                defaultEditor = "notepad"
             if os.environ.has_key("P4EDITOR"):
                 editor = os.environ.get("P4EDITOR")
             else:
-                editor = os.environ.get("EDITOR", defaultEditor);
+                editor = read_pipe("git var GIT_EDITOR")
             system(editor + " " + fileName)
 
             response = "y"
diff --git a/contrib/fast-import/import-tars.perl b/contrib/fast-import/import-tars.perl
index 7001862..95438e1 100755
--- a/contrib/fast-import/import-tars.perl
+++ b/contrib/fast-import/import-tars.perl
@@ -20,7 +20,7 @@
 
 my $metaext = '';
 
-die "usage: import-tars [--metainfo=extension] *.tar.{gz,bz2,Z}\n"
+die "usage: import-tars [--metainfo=extension] *.tar.{gz,bz2,lzma,xz,Z}\n"
 	unless GetOptions('metainfo=s' => \$metaext) && @ARGV;
 
 my $branch_name = 'import-tars';
@@ -49,6 +49,9 @@
 	} elsif ($tar_name =~ s/\.tar\.Z$//) {
 		open(I, '-|', 'uncompress', '-c', $tar_file)
 			or die "Unable to uncompress -c $tar_file: $!\n";
+	} elsif ($tar_name =~ s/\.(tar\.(lzma|xz)|(tlz|txz))$//) {
+		open(I, '-|', 'xz', '-dc', $tar_file)
+			or die "Unable to xz -dc $tar_file: $!\n";
 	} elsif ($tar_name =~ s/\.tar$//) {
 		open(I, $tar_file) or die "Unable to open $tar_file: $!\n";
 	} else {
diff --git a/contrib/hooks/post-receive-email b/contrib/hooks/post-receive-email
index 2a66063..58a35c8 100755
--- a/contrib/hooks/post-receive-email
+++ b/contrib/hooks/post-receive-email
@@ -315,8 +315,8 @@
 	# "remotes/" will be ignored as well.
 
 	# List all of the revisions that were removed by this update, in a
-	# fast forward update, this list will be empty, because rev-list O
-	# ^N is empty.  For a non fast forward, O ^N is the list of removed
+	# fast-forward update, this list will be empty, because rev-list O
+	# ^N is empty.  For a non-fast-forward, O ^N is the list of removed
 	# revisions
 	fast_forward=""
 	rev=""
@@ -411,7 +411,7 @@
 	# revision because the base is effectively a random revision at this
 	# point - the user will be interested in what this revision changed
 	# - including the undoing of previous revisions in the case of
-	# non-fast forward updates.
+	# non-fast-forward updates.
 	echo ""
 	echo "Summary of changes:"
 	git diff-tree --stat --summary --find-copies-harder $oldrev..$newrev
diff --git a/convert.c b/convert.c
index 491e714..e70ee09 100644
--- a/convert.c
+++ b/convert.c
@@ -241,7 +241,7 @@
 	const char *cmd;
 };
 
-static int filter_buffer(int fd, void *data)
+static int filter_buffer(int in, int out, void *data)
 {
 	/*
 	 * Spawn cmd and feed the buffer contents through its stdin.
@@ -254,7 +254,7 @@
 	memset(&child_process, 0, sizeof(child_process));
 	child_process.argv = argv;
 	child_process.in = -1;
-	child_process.out = fd;
+	child_process.out = out;
 
 	if (start_command(&child_process))
 		return error("cannot fork to run external filter %s", params->cmd);
@@ -291,6 +291,7 @@
 	memset(&async, 0, sizeof(async));
 	async.proc = filter_buffer;
 	async.data = &params;
+	async.out = -1;
 	params.src = src;
 	params.size = len;
 	params.cmd = cmd;
diff --git a/daemon.c b/daemon.c
index 1b5ada6..5783e24 100644
--- a/daemon.c
+++ b/daemon.c
@@ -77,6 +77,7 @@
 	}
 }
 
+__attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)))
 static void logerror(const char *err, ...)
 {
 	va_list params;
@@ -85,6 +86,7 @@
 	va_end(params);
 }
 
+__attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)))
 static void loginfo(const char *err, ...)
 {
 	va_list params;
@@ -101,53 +103,6 @@
 	exit(1);
 }
 
-static int avoid_alias(char *p)
-{
-	int sl, ndot;
-
-	/*
-	 * This resurrects the belts and suspenders paranoia check by HPA
-	 * done in <435560F7.4080006@zytor.com> thread, now enter_repo()
-	 * does not do getcwd() based path canonicalizations.
-	 *
-	 * sl becomes true immediately after seeing '/' and continues to
-	 * be true as long as dots continue after that without intervening
-	 * non-dot character.
-	 */
-	if (!p || (*p != '/' && *p != '~'))
-		return -1;
-	sl = 1; ndot = 0;
-	p++;
-
-	while (1) {
-		char ch = *p++;
-		if (sl) {
-			if (ch == '.')
-				ndot++;
-			else if (ch == '/') {
-				if (ndot < 3)
-					/* reject //, /./ and /../ */
-					return -1;
-				ndot = 0;
-			}
-			else if (ch == 0) {
-				if (0 < ndot && ndot < 3)
-					/* reject /.$ and /..$ */
-					return -1;
-				return 0;
-			}
-			else
-				sl = ndot = 0;
-		}
-		else if (ch == 0)
-			return 0;
-		else if (ch == '/') {
-			sl = 1;
-			ndot = 0;
-		}
-	}
-}
-
 static char *path_ok(char *directory)
 {
 	static char rpath[PATH_MAX];
@@ -157,7 +112,7 @@
 
 	dir = directory;
 
-	if (avoid_alias(dir)) {
+	if (daemon_avoid_alias(dir)) {
 		logerror("'%s': aliased", dir);
 		return NULL;
 	}
diff --git a/date.c b/date.c
index 5d05ef6..17385a9 100644
--- a/date.c
+++ b/date.c
@@ -696,6 +696,11 @@
 	return n;
 }
 
+static void date_now(struct tm *tm, struct tm *now, int *num)
+{
+	update_tm(tm, now, 0);
+}
+
 static void date_yesterday(struct tm *tm, struct tm *now, int *num)
 {
 	update_tm(tm, now, 24*60*60);
@@ -770,6 +775,7 @@
 	{ "PM", date_pm },
 	{ "AM", date_am },
 	{ "never", date_never },
+	{ "now", date_now },
 	{ NULL }
 };
 
@@ -790,7 +796,7 @@
 	{ NULL }
 };
 
-static const char *approxidate_alpha(const char *date, struct tm *tm, struct tm *now, int *num)
+static const char *approxidate_alpha(const char *date, struct tm *tm, struct tm *now, int *num, int *touched)
 {
 	const struct typelen *tl;
 	const struct special *s;
@@ -804,6 +810,7 @@
 		int match = match_string(date, month_names[i]);
 		if (match >= 3) {
 			tm->tm_mon = i;
+			*touched = 1;
 			return end;
 		}
 	}
@@ -812,6 +819,7 @@
 		int len = strlen(s->name);
 		if (match_string(date, s->name) == len) {
 			s->fn(tm, now, num);
+			*touched = 1;
 			return end;
 		}
 	}
@@ -821,11 +829,14 @@
 			int len = strlen(number_name[i]);
 			if (match_string(date, number_name[i]) == len) {
 				*num = i;
+				*touched = 1;
 				return end;
 			}
 		}
-		if (match_string(date, "last") == 4)
+		if (match_string(date, "last") == 4) {
 			*num = 1;
+			*touched = 1;
+		}
 		return end;
 	}
 
@@ -835,6 +846,7 @@
 		if (match_string(date, tl->type) >= len-1) {
 			update_tm(tm, now, tl->length * *num);
 			*num = 0;
+			*touched = 1;
 			return end;
 		}
 		tl++;
@@ -852,6 +864,7 @@
 			diff += 7*n;
 
 			update_tm(tm, now, diff * 24 * 60 * 60);
+			*touched = 1;
 			return end;
 		}
 	}
@@ -866,6 +879,7 @@
 			tm->tm_year--;
 		}
 		tm->tm_mon = n;
+		*touched = 1;
 		return end;
 	}
 
@@ -873,6 +887,7 @@
 		update_tm(tm, now, 0); /* fill in date fields if needed */
 		tm->tm_year -= *num;
 		*num = 0;
+		*touched = 1;
 		return end;
 	}
 
@@ -929,9 +944,12 @@
 	}
 }
 
-static unsigned long approxidate_str(const char *date, const struct timeval *tv)
+static unsigned long approxidate_str(const char *date,
+				     const struct timeval *tv,
+				     int *error_ret)
 {
 	int number = 0;
+	int touched = 0;
 	struct tm tm, now;
 	time_t time_sec;
 
@@ -951,33 +969,42 @@
 		if (isdigit(c)) {
 			pending_number(&tm, &number);
 			date = approxidate_digit(date-1, &tm, &number);
+			touched = 1;
 			continue;
 		}
 		if (isalpha(c))
-			date = approxidate_alpha(date-1, &tm, &now, &number);
+			date = approxidate_alpha(date-1, &tm, &now, &number, &touched);
 	}
 	pending_number(&tm, &number);
+	if (!touched)
+		*error_ret = 1;
 	return update_tm(&tm, &now, 0);
 }
 
 unsigned long approxidate_relative(const char *date, const struct timeval *tv)
 {
 	char buffer[50];
+	int errors = 0;
 
 	if (parse_date(date, buffer, sizeof(buffer)) > 0)
 		return strtoul(buffer, NULL, 0);
 
-	return approxidate_str(date, tv);
+	return approxidate_str(date, tv, &errors);
 }
 
-unsigned long approxidate(const char *date)
+unsigned long approxidate_careful(const char *date, int *error_ret)
 {
 	struct timeval tv;
 	char buffer[50];
+	int dummy = 0;
+	if (!error_ret)
+		error_ret = &dummy;
 
-	if (parse_date(date, buffer, sizeof(buffer)) > 0)
+	if (parse_date(date, buffer, sizeof(buffer)) > 0) {
+		*error_ret = 0;
 		return strtoul(buffer, NULL, 0);
+	}
 
 	gettimeofday(&tv, NULL);
-	return approxidate_str(date, &tv);
+	return approxidate_str(date, &tv, error_ret);
 }
diff --git a/diff-lib.c b/diff-lib.c
index 0c74ef5..adf1c5f 100644
--- a/diff-lib.c
+++ b/diff-lib.c
@@ -383,7 +383,7 @@
  * For diffing, the index is more important, and we only have a
  * single tree.
  *
- * We're supposed to return how many index entries we want to skip.
+ * We're supposed to advance o->pos to skip what we have already processed.
  *
  * This wrapper makes it all more readable, and takes care of all
  * the fairly complex unpack_trees() semantic requirements, including
diff --git a/diff-no-index.c b/diff-no-index.c
index 4ebc1db..aae8e7a 100644
--- a/diff-no-index.c
+++ b/diff-no-index.c
@@ -201,8 +201,8 @@
 			return;
 	}
 	if (argc != i + 2)
-		die("git diff %s takes two paths",
-		    no_index ? "--no-index" : "[--no-index]");
+		usagef("git diff %s <path> <path>",
+		       no_index ? "--no-index" : "[--no-index]");
 
 	diff_setup(&revs->diffopt);
 	for (i = 1; i < argc - 2; ) {
diff --git a/diff.c b/diff.c
index 8d8405a..7a321f4 100644
--- a/diff.c
+++ b/diff.c
@@ -13,6 +13,7 @@
 #include "utf8.h"
 #include "userdiff.h"
 #include "sigchain.h"
+#include "submodule.h"
 
 #ifdef NO_FAST_WORKING_DIRECTORY
 #define FAST_WORKING_DIRECTORY 0
@@ -38,6 +39,7 @@
 	GIT_COLOR_GREEN,	/* NEW */
 	GIT_COLOR_YELLOW,	/* COMMIT */
 	GIT_COLOR_BG_RED,	/* WHITESPACE */
+	GIT_COLOR_NORMAL,	/* FUNCINFO */
 };
 
 static void diff_filespec_load_driver(struct diff_filespec *one);
@@ -59,6 +61,8 @@
 		return DIFF_COMMIT;
 	if (!strcasecmp(var+ofs, "whitespace"))
 		return DIFF_WHITESPACE;
+	if (!strcasecmp(var+ofs, "func"))
+		return DIFF_FUNCINFO;
 	return -1;
 }
 
@@ -296,12 +300,13 @@
 		nofirst = 0;
 	}
 
-	fputs(set, file);
-
-	if (!nofirst)
-		fputc(first, file);
-	fwrite(line, len, 1, file);
-	fputs(reset, file);
+	if (len || !nofirst) {
+		fputs(set, file);
+		if (!nofirst)
+			fputc(first, file);
+		fwrite(line, len, 1, file);
+		fputs(reset, file);
+	}
 	if (has_trailing_carriage_return)
 		fputc('\r', file);
 	if (has_trailing_newline)
@@ -345,6 +350,42 @@
 	}
 }
 
+static void emit_hunk_header(struct emit_callback *ecbdata,
+			     const char *line, int len)
+{
+	const char *plain = diff_get_color(ecbdata->color_diff, DIFF_PLAIN);
+	const char *frag = diff_get_color(ecbdata->color_diff, DIFF_FRAGINFO);
+	const char *func = diff_get_color(ecbdata->color_diff, DIFF_FUNCINFO);
+	const char *reset = diff_get_color(ecbdata->color_diff, DIFF_RESET);
+	static const char atat[2] = { '@', '@' };
+	const char *cp, *ep;
+
+	/*
+	 * As a hunk header must begin with "@@ -<old>, +<new> @@",
+	 * it always is at least 10 bytes long.
+	 */
+	if (len < 10 ||
+	    memcmp(line, atat, 2) ||
+	    !(ep = memmem(line + 2, len - 2, atat, 2))) {
+		emit_line(ecbdata->file, plain, reset, line, len);
+		return;
+	}
+	ep += 2; /* skip over @@ */
+
+	/* The hunk header in fraginfo color */
+	emit_line(ecbdata->file, frag, reset, line, ep - line);
+
+	/* blank before the func header */
+	for (cp = ep; ep - line < len; ep++)
+		if (*ep != ' ' && *ep != '\t')
+			break;
+	if (ep != cp)
+		emit_line(ecbdata->file, plain, reset, cp, ep - cp);
+
+	if (ep < line + len)
+		emit_line(ecbdata->file, func, reset, ep, line + len - ep);
+}
+
 static struct diff_tempfile *claim_diff_tempfile(void) {
 	int i;
 	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(diff_temp); i++)
@@ -782,9 +823,7 @@
 			diff_words_flush(ecbdata);
 		len = sane_truncate_line(ecbdata, line, len);
 		find_lno(line, ecbdata);
-		emit_line(ecbdata->file,
-			  diff_get_color(ecbdata->color_diff, DIFF_FRAGINFO),
-			  reset, line, len);
+		emit_hunk_header(ecbdata, line, len);
 		if (line[len-1] != '\n')
 			putc('\n', ecbdata->file);
 		return;
@@ -1116,7 +1155,7 @@
 	       total_files, adds, dels);
 }
 
-static void show_shortstats(struct diffstat_t* data, struct diff_options *options)
+static void show_shortstats(struct diffstat_t *data, struct diff_options *options)
 {
 	int i, adds = 0, dels = 0, total_files = data->nr;
 
@@ -1563,6 +1602,17 @@
 	const char *a_prefix, *b_prefix;
 	const char *textconv_one = NULL, *textconv_two = NULL;
 
+	if (DIFF_OPT_TST(o, SUBMODULE_LOG) &&
+			(!one->mode || S_ISGITLINK(one->mode)) &&
+			(!two->mode || S_ISGITLINK(two->mode))) {
+		const char *del = diff_get_color_opt(o, DIFF_FILE_OLD);
+		const char *add = diff_get_color_opt(o, DIFF_FILE_NEW);
+		show_submodule_summary(o->file, one ? one->path : two->path,
+				one->sha1, two->sha1,
+				del, add, reset);
+		return;
+	}
+
 	if (DIFF_OPT_TST(o, ALLOW_TEXTCONV)) {
 		textconv_one = get_textconv(one);
 		textconv_two = get_textconv(two);
@@ -2763,6 +2813,12 @@
 		DIFF_OPT_CLR(options, ALLOW_TEXTCONV);
 	else if (!strcmp(arg, "--ignore-submodules"))
 		DIFF_OPT_SET(options, IGNORE_SUBMODULES);
+	else if (!strcmp(arg, "--submodule"))
+		DIFF_OPT_SET(options, SUBMODULE_LOG);
+	else if (!prefixcmp(arg, "--submodule=")) {
+		if (!strcmp(arg + 12, "log"))
+			DIFF_OPT_SET(options, SUBMODULE_LOG);
+	}
 
 	/* misc options */
 	else if (!strcmp(arg, "-z"))
diff --git a/diff.h b/diff.h
index 6616877..15fcecd 100644
--- a/diff.h
+++ b/diff.h
@@ -66,6 +66,9 @@
 #define DIFF_OPT_DIRSTAT_CUMULATIVE  (1 << 19)
 #define DIFF_OPT_DIRSTAT_BY_FILE     (1 << 20)
 #define DIFF_OPT_ALLOW_TEXTCONV      (1 << 21)
+
+#define DIFF_OPT_SUBMODULE_LOG       (1 << 23)
+
 #define DIFF_OPT_TST(opts, flag)    ((opts)->flags & DIFF_OPT_##flag)
 #define DIFF_OPT_SET(opts, flag)    ((opts)->flags |= DIFF_OPT_##flag)
 #define DIFF_OPT_CLR(opts, flag)    ((opts)->flags &= ~DIFF_OPT_##flag)
@@ -127,6 +130,7 @@
 	DIFF_FILE_NEW = 5,
 	DIFF_COMMIT = 6,
 	DIFF_WHITESPACE = 7,
+	DIFF_FUNCINFO = 8,
 };
 const char *diff_get_color(int diff_use_color, enum color_diff ix);
 #define diff_get_color_opt(o, ix) \
diff --git a/dir.c b/dir.c
index d0999ba..5d0a308 100644
--- a/dir.c
+++ b/dir.c
@@ -933,7 +933,7 @@
 		slash = dirs + (slash - name);
 		do {
 			*slash = '\0';
-		} while (rmdir(dirs) && (slash = strrchr(dirs, '/')));
+		} while (rmdir(dirs) == 0 && (slash = strrchr(dirs, '/')));
 		free(dirs);
 	}
 	return 0;
diff --git a/editor.c b/editor.c
index 4d469d0..615f575 100644
--- a/editor.c
+++ b/editor.c
@@ -2,24 +2,38 @@
 #include "strbuf.h"
 #include "run-command.h"
 
-int launch_editor(const char *path, struct strbuf *buffer, const char *const *env)
-{
-	const char *editor, *terminal;
+#ifndef DEFAULT_EDITOR
+#define DEFAULT_EDITOR "vi"
+#endif
 
-	editor = getenv("GIT_EDITOR");
+const char *git_editor(void)
+{
+	const char *editor = getenv("GIT_EDITOR");
+	const char *terminal = getenv("TERM");
+	int terminal_is_dumb = !terminal || !strcmp(terminal, "dumb");
+
 	if (!editor && editor_program)
 		editor = editor_program;
-	if (!editor)
+	if (!editor && !terminal_is_dumb)
 		editor = getenv("VISUAL");
 	if (!editor)
 		editor = getenv("EDITOR");
 
-	terminal = getenv("TERM");
-	if (!editor && (!terminal || !strcmp(terminal, "dumb")))
-		return error("Terminal is dumb but no VISUAL nor EDITOR defined.");
+	if (!editor && terminal_is_dumb)
+		return NULL;
 
 	if (!editor)
-		editor = "vi";
+		editor = DEFAULT_EDITOR;
+
+	return editor;
+}
+
+int launch_editor(const char *path, struct strbuf *buffer, const char *const *env)
+{
+	const char *editor = git_editor();
+
+	if (!editor)
+		return error("Terminal is dumb, but EDITOR unset");
 
 	if (strcmp(editor, ":")) {
 		size_t len = strlen(editor);
@@ -28,7 +42,7 @@
 		const char *args[6];
 		struct strbuf arg0 = STRBUF_INIT;
 
-		if (strcspn(editor, "$ \t'") != len) {
+		if (strcspn(editor, "|&;<>()$`\\\"' \t\n*?[#~=%") != len) {
 			/* there are specials */
 			strbuf_addf(&arg0, "%s \"$@\"", editor);
 			args[i++] = "sh";
diff --git a/environment.c b/environment.c
index 5de6837..5171d9f 100644
--- a/environment.c
+++ b/environment.c
@@ -49,6 +49,7 @@
 #define OBJECT_CREATION_MODE OBJECT_CREATION_USES_HARDLINKS
 #endif
 enum object_creation_mode object_creation_mode = OBJECT_CREATION_MODE;
+char *notes_ref_name;
 int grafts_replace_parents = 1;
 
 /* Parallel index stat data preload? */
@@ -83,6 +84,8 @@
 	git_graft_file = getenv(GRAFT_ENVIRONMENT);
 	if (!git_graft_file)
 		git_graft_file = git_pathdup("info/grafts");
+	if (getenv(NO_REPLACE_OBJECTS_ENVIRONMENT))
+		read_replace_refs = 0;
 }
 
 int is_bare_repository(void)
diff --git a/fast-import.c b/fast-import.c
index 36c5a8e..2105310 100644
--- a/fast-import.c
+++ b/fast-import.c
@@ -19,11 +19,11 @@
 
   new_commit ::= 'commit' sp ref_str lf
     mark?
-    ('author' sp name sp '<' email '>' sp when lf)?
-    'committer' sp name sp '<' email '>' sp when lf
+    ('author' (sp name)? sp '<' email '>' sp when lf)?
+    'committer' (sp name)? sp '<' email '>' sp when lf
     commit_msg
-    ('from' sp (ref_str | hexsha1 | sha1exp_str | idnum) lf)?
-    ('merge' sp (ref_str | hexsha1 | sha1exp_str | idnum) lf)*
+    ('from' sp committish lf)?
+    ('merge' sp committish lf)*
     file_change*
     lf?;
   commit_msg ::= data;
@@ -41,15 +41,18 @@
   file_obm ::= 'M' sp mode sp (hexsha1 | idnum) sp path_str lf;
   file_inm ::= 'M' sp mode sp 'inline' sp path_str lf
     data;
+  note_obm ::= 'N' sp (hexsha1 | idnum) sp committish lf;
+  note_inm ::= 'N' sp 'inline' sp committish lf
+    data;
 
   new_tag ::= 'tag' sp tag_str lf
-    'from' sp (ref_str | hexsha1 | sha1exp_str | idnum) lf
-    ('tagger' sp name sp '<' email '>' sp when lf)?
+    'from' sp committish lf
+    ('tagger' (sp name)? sp '<' email '>' sp when lf)?
     tag_msg;
   tag_msg ::= data;
 
   reset_branch ::= 'reset' sp ref_str lf
-    ('from' sp (ref_str | hexsha1 | sha1exp_str | idnum) lf)?
+    ('from' sp committish lf)?
     lf?;
 
   checkpoint ::= 'checkpoint' lf
@@ -88,6 +91,7 @@
      # stream formatting is: \, " and LF.  Otherwise these values
      # are UTF8.
      #
+  committish  ::= (ref_str | hexsha1 | sha1exp_str | idnum);
   ref_str     ::= ref;
   sha1exp_str ::= sha1exp;
   tag_str     ::= tag;
@@ -276,6 +280,7 @@
 /* Configured limits on output */
 static unsigned long max_depth = 10;
 static off_t max_packsize = (1LL << 32) - 1;
+static uintmax_t big_file_threshold = 512 * 1024 * 1024;
 static int force_update;
 static int pack_compression_level = Z_DEFAULT_COMPRESSION;
 static int pack_compression_seen;
@@ -999,7 +1004,7 @@
 
 static size_t encode_header(
 	enum object_type type,
-	size_t size,
+	uintmax_t size,
 	unsigned char *hdr)
 {
 	int n = 1;
@@ -1155,6 +1160,118 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
+static void truncate_pack(off_t to)
+{
+	if (ftruncate(pack_data->pack_fd, to)
+	 || lseek(pack_data->pack_fd, to, SEEK_SET) != to)
+		die_errno("cannot truncate pack to skip duplicate");
+	pack_size = to;
+}
+
+static void stream_blob(uintmax_t len, unsigned char *sha1out, uintmax_t mark)
+{
+	size_t in_sz = 64 * 1024, out_sz = 64 * 1024;
+	unsigned char *in_buf = xmalloc(in_sz);
+	unsigned char *out_buf = xmalloc(out_sz);
+	struct object_entry *e;
+	unsigned char sha1[20];
+	unsigned long hdrlen;
+	off_t offset;
+	git_SHA_CTX c;
+	z_stream s;
+	int status = Z_OK;
+
+	/* Determine if we should auto-checkpoint. */
+	if ((pack_size + 60 + len) > max_packsize
+		|| (pack_size + 60 + len) < pack_size)
+		cycle_packfile();
+
+	offset = pack_size;
+
+	hdrlen = snprintf((char *)out_buf, out_sz, "blob %" PRIuMAX, len) + 1;
+	if (out_sz <= hdrlen)
+		die("impossibly large object header");
+
+	git_SHA1_Init(&c);
+	git_SHA1_Update(&c, out_buf, hdrlen);
+
+	memset(&s, 0, sizeof(s));
+	deflateInit(&s, pack_compression_level);
+
+	hdrlen = encode_header(OBJ_BLOB, len, out_buf);
+	if (out_sz <= hdrlen)
+		die("impossibly large object header");
+
+	s.next_out = out_buf + hdrlen;
+	s.avail_out = out_sz - hdrlen;
+
+	while (status != Z_STREAM_END) {
+		if (0 < len && !s.avail_in) {
+			size_t cnt = in_sz < len ? in_sz : (size_t)len;
+			size_t n = fread(in_buf, 1, cnt, stdin);
+			if (!n && feof(stdin))
+				die("EOF in data (%" PRIuMAX " bytes remaining)", len);
+
+			git_SHA1_Update(&c, in_buf, n);
+			s.next_in = in_buf;
+			s.avail_in = n;
+			len -= n;
+		}
+
+		status = deflate(&s, len ? 0 : Z_FINISH);
+
+		if (!s.avail_out || status == Z_STREAM_END) {
+			size_t n = s.next_out - out_buf;
+			write_or_die(pack_data->pack_fd, out_buf, n);
+			pack_size += n;
+			s.next_out = out_buf;
+			s.avail_out = out_sz;
+		}
+
+		switch (status) {
+		case Z_OK:
+		case Z_BUF_ERROR:
+		case Z_STREAM_END:
+			continue;
+		default:
+			die("unexpected deflate failure: %d", status);
+		}
+	}
+	deflateEnd(&s);
+	git_SHA1_Final(sha1, &c);
+
+	if (sha1out)
+		hashcpy(sha1out, sha1);
+
+	e = insert_object(sha1);
+
+	if (mark)
+		insert_mark(mark, e);
+
+	if (e->offset) {
+		duplicate_count_by_type[OBJ_BLOB]++;
+		truncate_pack(offset);
+
+	} else if (find_sha1_pack(sha1, packed_git)) {
+		e->type = OBJ_BLOB;
+		e->pack_id = MAX_PACK_ID;
+		e->offset = 1; /* just not zero! */
+		duplicate_count_by_type[OBJ_BLOB]++;
+		truncate_pack(offset);
+
+	} else {
+		e->depth = 0;
+		e->type = OBJ_BLOB;
+		e->pack_id = pack_id;
+		e->offset = offset;
+		object_count++;
+		object_count_by_type[OBJ_BLOB]++;
+	}
+
+	free(in_buf);
+	free(out_buf);
+}
+
 /* All calls must be guarded by find_object() or find_mark() to
  * ensure the 'struct object_entry' passed was written by this
  * process instance.  We unpack the entry by the offset, avoiding
@@ -1700,7 +1817,7 @@
 		next_mark = 0;
 }
 
-static void parse_data(struct strbuf *sb)
+static int parse_data(struct strbuf *sb, uintmax_t limit, uintmax_t *len_res)
 {
 	strbuf_reset(sb);
 
@@ -1724,9 +1841,15 @@
 		free(term);
 	}
 	else {
-		size_t n = 0, length;
+		uintmax_t len = strtoumax(command_buf.buf + 5, NULL, 10);
+		size_t n = 0, length = (size_t)len;
 
-		length = strtoul(command_buf.buf + 5, NULL, 10);
+		if (limit && limit < len) {
+			*len_res = len;
+			return 0;
+		}
+		if (length < len)
+			die("data is too large to use in this context");
 
 		while (n < length) {
 			size_t s = strbuf_fread(sb, length - n, stdin);
@@ -1738,6 +1861,7 @@
 	}
 
 	skip_optional_lf();
+	return 1;
 }
 
 static int validate_raw_date(const char *src, char *result, int maxlen)
@@ -1802,14 +1926,32 @@
 	return ident;
 }
 
-static void parse_new_blob(void)
+static void parse_and_store_blob(
+	struct last_object *last,
+	unsigned char *sha1out,
+	uintmax_t mark)
 {
 	static struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
+	uintmax_t len;
 
+	if (parse_data(&buf, big_file_threshold, &len))
+		store_object(OBJ_BLOB, &buf, last, sha1out, mark);
+	else {
+		if (last) {
+			strbuf_release(&last->data);
+			last->offset = 0;
+			last->depth = 0;
+		}
+		stream_blob(len, sha1out, mark);
+		skip_optional_lf();
+	}
+}
+
+static void parse_new_blob(void)
+{
 	read_next_command();
 	parse_mark();
-	parse_data(&buf);
-	store_object(OBJ_BLOB, &buf, &last_blob, NULL, next_mark);
+	parse_and_store_blob(&last_blob, NULL, next_mark);
 }
 
 static void unload_one_branch(void)
@@ -1920,15 +2062,12 @@
 		 * another repository.
 		 */
 	} else if (inline_data) {
-		static struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
-
 		if (p != uq.buf) {
 			strbuf_addstr(&uq, p);
 			p = uq.buf;
 		}
 		read_next_command();
-		parse_data(&buf);
-		store_object(OBJ_BLOB, &buf, &last_blob, sha1, 0);
+		parse_and_store_blob(&last_blob, sha1, 0);
 	} else if (oe) {
 		if (oe->type != OBJ_BLOB)
 			die("Not a blob (actually a %s): %s",
@@ -2006,6 +2145,77 @@
 		leaf.tree);
 }
 
+static void note_change_n(struct branch *b)
+{
+	const char *p = command_buf.buf + 2;
+	static struct strbuf uq = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct object_entry *oe = oe;
+	struct branch *s;
+	unsigned char sha1[20], commit_sha1[20];
+	uint16_t inline_data = 0;
+
+	/* <dataref> or 'inline' */
+	if (*p == ':') {
+		char *x;
+		oe = find_mark(strtoumax(p + 1, &x, 10));
+		hashcpy(sha1, oe->sha1);
+		p = x;
+	} else if (!prefixcmp(p, "inline")) {
+		inline_data = 1;
+		p += 6;
+	} else {
+		if (get_sha1_hex(p, sha1))
+			die("Invalid SHA1: %s", command_buf.buf);
+		oe = find_object(sha1);
+		p += 40;
+	}
+	if (*p++ != ' ')
+		die("Missing space after SHA1: %s", command_buf.buf);
+
+	/* <committish> */
+	s = lookup_branch(p);
+	if (s) {
+		hashcpy(commit_sha1, s->sha1);
+	} else if (*p == ':') {
+		uintmax_t commit_mark = strtoumax(p + 1, NULL, 10);
+		struct object_entry *commit_oe = find_mark(commit_mark);
+		if (commit_oe->type != OBJ_COMMIT)
+			die("Mark :%" PRIuMAX " not a commit", commit_mark);
+		hashcpy(commit_sha1, commit_oe->sha1);
+	} else if (!get_sha1(p, commit_sha1)) {
+		unsigned long size;
+		char *buf = read_object_with_reference(commit_sha1,
+			commit_type, &size, commit_sha1);
+		if (!buf || size < 46)
+			die("Not a valid commit: %s", p);
+		free(buf);
+	} else
+		die("Invalid ref name or SHA1 expression: %s", p);
+
+	if (inline_data) {
+		if (p != uq.buf) {
+			strbuf_addstr(&uq, p);
+			p = uq.buf;
+		}
+		read_next_command();
+		parse_and_store_blob(&last_blob, sha1, 0);
+	} else if (oe) {
+		if (oe->type != OBJ_BLOB)
+			die("Not a blob (actually a %s): %s",
+				typename(oe->type), command_buf.buf);
+	} else {
+		enum object_type type = sha1_object_info(sha1, NULL);
+		if (type < 0)
+			die("Blob not found: %s", command_buf.buf);
+		if (type != OBJ_BLOB)
+			die("Not a blob (actually a %s): %s",
+			    typename(type), command_buf.buf);
+	}
+
+	tree_content_set(&b->branch_tree, sha1_to_hex(commit_sha1), sha1,
+		S_IFREG | 0644, NULL);
+}
+
 static void file_change_deleteall(struct branch *b)
 {
 	release_tree_content_recursive(b->branch_tree.tree);
@@ -2154,7 +2364,7 @@
 	}
 	if (!committer)
 		die("Expected committer but didn't get one");
-	parse_data(&msg);
+	parse_data(&msg, 0, NULL);
 	read_next_command();
 	parse_from(b);
 	merge_list = parse_merge(&merge_count);
@@ -2175,6 +2385,8 @@
 			file_change_cr(b, 1);
 		else if (!prefixcmp(command_buf.buf, "C "))
 			file_change_cr(b, 0);
+		else if (!prefixcmp(command_buf.buf, "N "))
+			note_change_n(b);
 		else if (!strcmp("deleteall", command_buf.buf))
 			file_change_deleteall(b);
 		else {
@@ -2273,7 +2485,7 @@
 		tagger = NULL;
 
 	/* tag payload/message */
-	parse_data(&msg);
+	parse_data(&msg, 0, NULL);
 
 	/* build the tag object */
 	strbuf_reset(&new_data);
@@ -2393,11 +2605,15 @@
 		pack_compression_seen = 1;
 		return 0;
 	}
+	if (!strcmp(k, "core.bigfilethreshold")) {
+		long n = git_config_int(k, v);
+		big_file_threshold = 0 < n ? n : 0;
+	}
 	return git_default_config(k, v, cb);
 }
 
 static const char fast_import_usage[] =
-"git fast-import [--date-format=f] [--max-pack-size=n] [--depth=n] [--active-branches=n] [--export-marks=marks.file]";
+"git fast-import [--date-format=f] [--max-pack-size=n] [--big-file-threshold=n] [--depth=n] [--active-branches=n] [--export-marks=marks.file]";
 
 int main(int argc, const char **argv)
 {
@@ -2405,6 +2621,9 @@
 
 	git_extract_argv0_path(argv[0]);
 
+	if (argc == 2 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-h"))
+		usage(fast_import_usage);
+
 	setup_git_directory();
 	git_config(git_pack_config, NULL);
 	if (!pack_compression_seen && core_compression_seen)
@@ -2435,7 +2654,12 @@
 		}
 		else if (!prefixcmp(a, "--max-pack-size="))
 			max_packsize = strtoumax(a + 16, NULL, 0) * 1024 * 1024;
-		else if (!prefixcmp(a, "--depth=")) {
+		else if (!prefixcmp(a, "--big-file-threshold=")) {
+			unsigned long v;
+			if (!git_parse_ulong(a + 21, &v))
+				usage(fast_import_usage);
+			big_file_threshold = v;
+		} else if (!prefixcmp(a, "--depth=")) {
 			max_depth = strtoul(a + 8, NULL, 0);
 			if (max_depth > MAX_DEPTH)
 				die("--depth cannot exceed %u", MAX_DEPTH);
diff --git a/fetch-pack.h b/fetch-pack.h
index 8bd9c32..fbe85ac 100644
--- a/fetch-pack.h
+++ b/fetch-pack.h
@@ -13,7 +13,8 @@
 		fetch_all:1,
 		verbose:1,
 		no_progress:1,
-		include_tag:1;
+		include_tag:1,
+		stateless_rpc:1;
 };
 
 struct ref *fetch_pack(struct fetch_pack_args *args,
diff --git a/fsck.h b/fsck.h
index 008456b..1e4f527 100644
--- a/fsck.h
+++ b/fsck.h
@@ -17,6 +17,7 @@
 /* callback for fsck_object, type is FSCK_ERROR or FSCK_WARN */
 typedef int (*fsck_error)(struct object *obj, int type, const char *err, ...);
 
+__attribute__((format (printf, 3, 4)))
 int fsck_error_function(struct object *obj, int type, const char *fmt, ...);
 
 /* descend in all linked child objects
diff --git a/git-add--interactive.perl b/git-add--interactive.perl
index 75b7196..cd43c34 100755
--- a/git-add--interactive.perl
+++ b/git-add--interactive.perl
@@ -990,8 +990,7 @@
 EOF
 	close $fh;
 
-	my $editor = $ENV{GIT_EDITOR} || $repo->config("core.editor")
-		|| $ENV{VISUAL} || $ENV{EDITOR} || "vi";
+	chomp(my $editor = run_cmd_pipe(qw(git var GIT_EDITOR)));
 	system('sh', '-c', $editor.' "$@"', $editor, $hunkfile);
 
 	if ($? != 0) {
diff --git a/git-am.sh b/git-am.sh
index f48620d..4838cdb 100755
--- a/git-am.sh
+++ b/git-am.sh
@@ -657,7 +657,10 @@
 		[eE]*) git_editor "$dotest/final-commit"
 		       action=again ;;
 		[vV]*) action=again
-		       LESS=-S ${PAGER:-less} "$dotest/patch" ;;
+		       : ${GIT_PAGER=$(git var GIT_PAGER)}
+		       : ${LESS=-FRSX}
+		       export LESS
+		       $GIT_PAGER "$dotest/patch" ;;
 		*)     action=again ;;
 		esac
 	    done
diff --git a/git-bisect.sh b/git-bisect.sh
index 0c422d5..6e2acb8 100755
--- a/git-bisect.sh
+++ b/git-bisect.sh
@@ -13,8 +13,8 @@
         mark <rev>... untestable revisions.
 git bisect next
         find next bisection to test and check it out.
-git bisect reset [<branch>]
-        finish bisection search and go back to branch.
+git bisect reset [<commit>]
+        finish bisection search and go back to commit.
 git bisect visualize
         show bisect status in gitk.
 git bisect replay <logfile>
@@ -300,8 +300,7 @@
 		esac
 	fi
 
-	not=$(git for-each-ref --format='%(refname)' "refs/bisect/good-*")
-	eval '"$@"' refs/bisect/bad --not $not -- $(cat "$GIT_DIR/BISECT_NAMES")
+	eval '"$@"' --bisect -- $(cat "$GIT_DIR/BISECT_NAMES")
 }
 
 bisect_reset() {
@@ -311,8 +310,8 @@
 	}
 	case "$#" in
 	0) branch=$(cat "$GIT_DIR/BISECT_START") ;;
-	1) git show-ref --verify --quiet -- "refs/heads/$1" ||
-	       die "$1 does not seem to be a valid branch"
+	1) git rev-parse --quiet --verify "$1^{commit}" > /dev/null ||
+	       die "'$1' is not a valid commit"
 	   branch="$1" ;;
 	*)
 	    usage ;;
diff --git a/git-compat-util.h b/git-compat-util.h
index ef60803..812f55a 100644
--- a/git-compat-util.h
+++ b/git-compat-util.h
@@ -96,6 +96,7 @@
 #include <sys/poll.h>
 #include <sys/socket.h>
 #include <sys/ioctl.h>
+#include <termios.h>
 #ifndef NO_SYS_SELECT_H
 #include <sys/select.h>
 #endif
@@ -189,6 +190,7 @@
 
 /* General helper functions */
 extern NORETURN void usage(const char *err);
+extern NORETURN void usagef(const char *err, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
 extern NORETURN void die(const char *err, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
 extern NORETURN void die_errno(const char *err, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
 extern int error(const char *err, ...) __attribute__((format (printf, 1, 2)));
@@ -343,6 +345,7 @@
 
 extern char *xstrdup(const char *str);
 extern void *xmalloc(size_t size);
+extern void *xmallocz(size_t size);
 extern void *xmemdupz(const void *data, size_t len);
 extern char *xstrndup(const char *str, size_t len);
 extern void *xrealloc(void *ptr, size_t size);
diff --git a/git-cvsserver.perl b/git-cvsserver.perl
index 6dc45f5..046f557 100755
--- a/git-cvsserver.perl
+++ b/git-cvsserver.perl
@@ -388,7 +388,7 @@
     $state->{localdir} = $data;
     $state->{repository} = $repository;
     $state->{path} = $repository;
-    $state->{path} =~ s/^$state->{CVSROOT}\///;
+    $state->{path} =~ s/^\Q$state->{CVSROOT}\E\///;
     $state->{module} = $1 if ($state->{path} =~ s/^(.*?)(\/|$)//);
     $state->{path} .= "/" if ( $state->{path} =~ /\S/ );
 
diff --git a/git-filter-branch.sh b/git-filter-branch.sh
index 8ef1bde..3dfb2c3 100755
--- a/git-filter-branch.sh
+++ b/git-filter-branch.sh
@@ -125,6 +125,7 @@
 orig_namespace=refs/original/
 force=
 prune_empty=
+remap_to_ancestor=
 while :
 do
 	case "$1" in
@@ -137,6 +138,11 @@
 		force=t
 		continue
 		;;
+	--remap-to-ancestor)
+		shift
+		remap_to_ancestor=t
+		continue
+		;;
 	--prune-empty)
 		shift
 		prune_empty=t
@@ -182,6 +188,7 @@
 		;;
 	--subdirectory-filter)
 		filter_subdir="$OPTARG"
+		remap_to_ancestor=t
 		;;
 	--original)
 		orig_namespace=$(expr "$OPTARG/" : '\(.*[^/]\)/*$')/
@@ -200,7 +207,7 @@
 ,*)
 	;;
 *)
-	die "Cannot set --prune-empty and --filter-commit at the same time"
+	die "Cannot set --prune-empty and --commit-filter at the same time"
 esac
 
 case "$force" in
@@ -257,15 +264,24 @@
 # map old->new commit ids for rewriting parents
 mkdir ../map || die "Could not create map/ directory"
 
+# we need "--" only if there are no path arguments in $@
+nonrevs=$(git rev-parse --no-revs "$@") || exit
+test -z "$nonrevs" && dashdash=-- || dashdash=
+rev_args=$(git rev-parse --revs-only "$@")
+
 case "$filter_subdir" in
 "")
-	git rev-list --reverse --topo-order --default HEAD \
-		--parents --simplify-merges "$@"
+	eval set -- "$(git rev-parse --sq --no-revs "$@")"
 	;;
 *)
-	git rev-list --reverse --topo-order --default HEAD \
-		--parents --simplify-merges "$@" -- "$filter_subdir"
-esac > ../revs || die "Could not get the commits"
+	eval set -- "$(git rev-parse --sq --no-revs "$@" $dashdash \
+		"$filter_subdir")"
+	;;
+esac
+
+git rev-list --reverse --topo-order --default HEAD \
+	--parents --simplify-merges $rev_args "$@" > ../revs ||
+	die "Could not get the commits"
 commits=$(wc -l <../revs | tr -d " ")
 
 test $commits -eq 0 && die "Found nothing to rewrite"
@@ -345,19 +361,19 @@
 			die "could not write rewritten commit"
 done <../revs
 
-# In case of a subdirectory filter, it is possible that a specified head
-# is not in the set of rewritten commits, because it was pruned by the
-# revision walker.  Fix it by mapping these heads to the unique nearest
-# ancestor that survived the pruning.
+# If we are filtering for paths, as in the case of a subdirectory
+# filter, it is possible that a specified head is not in the set of
+# rewritten commits, because it was pruned by the revision walker.
+# Ancestor remapping fixes this by mapping these heads to the unique
+# nearest ancestor that survived the pruning.
 
-if test "$filter_subdir"
+if test "$remap_to_ancestor" = t
 then
 	while read ref
 	do
 		sha1=$(git rev-parse "$ref"^0)
 		test -f "$workdir"/../map/$sha1 && continue
-		ancestor=$(git rev-list --simplify-merges -1 \
-				$ref -- "$filter_subdir")
+		ancestor=$(git rev-list --simplify-merges -1 "$ref" "$@")
 		test "$ancestor" && echo $(map $ancestor) >> "$workdir"/../map/$sha1
 	done < "$tempdir"/heads
 fi
diff --git a/git-gui/Makefile b/git-gui/Makefile
index b3580e9..197b55e 100644
--- a/git-gui/Makefile
+++ b/git-gui/Makefile
@@ -7,7 +7,7 @@
 # TCL_PATH must be vaild for this to work.
 #
 
-GIT-VERSION-FILE: .FORCE-GIT-VERSION-FILE
+GIT-VERSION-FILE: FORCE
 	@$(SHELL_PATH) ./GIT-VERSION-GEN
 -include GIT-VERSION-FILE
 
@@ -270,7 +270,7 @@
 	GITGUI_MACOSXAPP=$(GITGUI_MACOSXAPP) \
 #end TRACK_VARS
 
-GIT-GUI-VARS: .FORCE-GIT-GUI-VARS
+GIT-GUI-VARS: FORCE
 	@VARS='$(TRACK_VARS)'; \
 	if test x"$$VARS" != x"`cat $@ 2>/dev/null`" ; then \
 		echo 1>&2 "    * new locations or Tcl/Tk interpreter"; \
@@ -340,5 +340,4 @@
 endif
 
 .PHONY: all install uninstall dist-version clean
-.PHONY: .FORCE-GIT-VERSION-FILE
-.PHONY: .FORCE-GIT-GUI-VARS
+.PHONY: FORCE
diff --git a/git-gui/git-gui.sh b/git-gui/git-gui.sh
index 14b92ba..1fb3cbf 100755
--- a/git-gui/git-gui.sh
+++ b/git-gui/git-gui.sh
@@ -745,6 +745,8 @@
 set default_config(gui.spellingdictionary) {}
 set default_config(gui.fontui) [font configure font_ui]
 set default_config(gui.fontdiff) [font configure font_diff]
+# TODO: this option should be added to the git-config documentation
+set default_config(gui.maxfilesdisplayed) 5000
 set font_descs {
 	{fontui   font_ui   {mc "Main Font"}}
 	{fontdiff font_diff {mc "Diff/Console Font"}}
@@ -1072,6 +1074,8 @@
 		set _prefix {}
 		}]
 	&& [catch {
+		# beware that from the .git dir this sets _gitdir to .
+		# and _prefix to the empty string
 		set _gitdir [git rev-parse --git-dir]
 		set _prefix [git rev-parse --show-prefix]
 	} err]} {
@@ -1080,6 +1084,14 @@
 	choose_repository::pick
 	set picked 1
 }
+
+# we expand the _gitdir when it's just a single dot (i.e. when we're being
+# run from the .git dir itself) lest the routines to find the worktree
+# get confused
+if {$_gitdir eq "."} {
+	set _gitdir [pwd]
+}
+
 if {![file isdirectory $_gitdir] && [is_Cygwin]} {
 	catch {set _gitdir [exec cygpath --windows $_gitdir]}
 }
@@ -1132,6 +1144,7 @@
 set is_detached 0
 set current_diff_path {}
 set is_3way_diff 0
+set is_submodule_diff 0
 set is_conflict_diff 0
 set selected_commit_type new
 set diff_empty_count 0
@@ -1610,6 +1623,9 @@
 	} elseif {$s0 ne {_} && [string index $state 0] eq {_}
 		&& $head_info eq {}} {
 		set head_info $index_info
+	} elseif {$s0 eq {_} && [string index $state 0] ne {_}} {
+		set index_info $head_info
+		set head_info {}
 	}
 
 	set file_states($path) [list $s0$s1 $icon \
@@ -1698,10 +1714,12 @@
 	$w insert end "[escape_path $path]\n"
 }
 
+set files_warning 0
 proc display_all_files {} {
 	global ui_index ui_workdir
 	global file_states file_lists
 	global last_clicked
+	global files_warning
 
 	$ui_index conf -state normal
 	$ui_workdir conf -state normal
@@ -1713,7 +1731,18 @@
 	set file_lists($ui_index) [list]
 	set file_lists($ui_workdir) [list]
 
-	foreach path [lsort [array names file_states]] {
+	set to_display [lsort [array names file_states]]
+	set display_limit [get_config gui.maxfilesdisplayed]
+	if {[llength $to_display] > $display_limit} {
+		if {!$files_warning} {
+			# do not repeatedly warn:
+			set files_warning 1
+			info_popup [mc "Displaying only %s of %s files." \
+				$display_limit [llength $to_display]]
+		}
+		set to_display [lrange $to_display 0 [expr {$display_limit-1}]]
+	}
+	foreach path $to_display {
 		set s $file_states($path)
 		set m [lindex $s 0]
 		set icon_name [lindex $s 1]
@@ -1925,7 +1954,7 @@
 		cd [file dirname [gitdir]]
 		set env(GIT_DIR) [file tail [gitdir]]
 
-		eval exec $cmd $revs &
+		eval exec $cmd $revs "--" "--" &
 
 		if {$old_GIT_DIR eq {}} {
 			unset env(GIT_DIR)
@@ -2010,6 +2039,19 @@
 
 		# -- Stash our current window geometry into this repository.
 		#
+		set cfg_wmstate [wm state .]
+		if {[catch {set rc_wmstate $repo_config(gui.wmstate)}]} {
+			set rc_wmstate {}
+		}
+		if {$cfg_wmstate ne $rc_wmstate} {
+			catch {git config gui.wmstate $cfg_wmstate}
+		}
+		if {$cfg_wmstate eq {zoomed}} {
+			# on Windows wm geometry will lie about window
+			# position (but not size) when window is zoomed
+			# restore the window before querying wm geometry
+			wm state . normal
+		}
 		set cfg_geometry [list]
 		lappend cfg_geometry [wm geometry .]
 		lappend cfg_geometry [lindex [.vpane sash coord 0] 0]
@@ -2023,6 +2065,11 @@
 	}
 
 	set ret_code $rc
+
+	# Briefly enable send again, working around Tk bug
+	# http://sourceforge.net/tracker/?func=detail&atid=112997&aid=1821174&group_id=12997
+	tk appname [appname]
+
 	destroy .
 }
 
@@ -2509,12 +2556,14 @@
 		[list .mbar.commit entryconf [.mbar.commit index last] -state]
 
 	.mbar.commit add command -label [mc "Unstage From Commit"] \
-		-command do_unstage_selection
+		-command do_unstage_selection \
+		-accelerator $M1T-U
 	lappend disable_on_lock \
 		[list .mbar.commit entryconf [.mbar.commit index last] -state]
 
 	.mbar.commit add command -label [mc "Revert Changes"] \
-		-command do_revert_selection
+		-command do_revert_selection \
+		-accelerator $M1T-J
 	lappend disable_on_lock \
 		[list .mbar.commit entryconf [.mbar.commit index last] -state]
 
@@ -3054,7 +3103,7 @@
 set ui_diff .vpane.lower.diff.body.t
 text $ui_diff -background white -foreground black \
 	-borderwidth 0 \
-	-width 80 -height 15 -wrap none \
+	-width 80 -height 5 -wrap none \
 	-font font_diff \
 	-xscrollcommand {.vpane.lower.diff.body.sbx set} \
 	-yscrollcommand {.vpane.lower.diff.body.sby set} \
@@ -3212,7 +3261,7 @@
 			set l [mc "Stage Hunk For Commit"]
 			set t [mc "Stage Line For Commit"]
 		}
-		if {$::is_3way_diff
+		if {$::is_3way_diff || $::is_submodule_diff
 			|| $current_diff_path eq {}
 			|| {__} eq $state
 			|| {_O} eq $state
@@ -3249,11 +3298,23 @@
 unset gm
 }
 
+# -- Load window state
+#
+catch {
+set gws $repo_config(gui.wmstate)
+wm state . $gws
+unset gws
+}
+
 # -- Key Bindings
 #
 bind $ui_comm <$M1B-Key-Return> {do_commit;break}
 bind $ui_comm <$M1B-Key-t> {do_add_selection;break}
 bind $ui_comm <$M1B-Key-T> {do_add_selection;break}
+bind $ui_comm <$M1B-Key-u> {do_unstage_selection;break}
+bind $ui_comm <$M1B-Key-U> {do_unstage_selection;break}
+bind $ui_comm <$M1B-Key-j> {do_revert_selection;break}
+bind $ui_comm <$M1B-Key-J> {do_revert_selection;break}
 bind $ui_comm <$M1B-Key-i> {do_add_all;break}
 bind $ui_comm <$M1B-Key-I> {do_add_all;break}
 bind $ui_comm <$M1B-Key-x> {tk_textCut %W;break}
diff --git a/git-gui/lib/blame.tcl b/git-gui/lib/blame.tcl
index 1f3b08f..8525b79 100644
--- a/git-gui/lib/blame.tcl
+++ b/git-gui/lib/blame.tcl
@@ -1245,6 +1245,18 @@
 
 	$tooltip_t conf -state disabled
 	_position_tooltip $this
+
+	# On MacOS raising a window causes it to acquire focus.
+	# Tk 8.5 on MacOS seems to properly support wm transient,
+	# so we can safely counter the effect there.
+	if {$::have_tk85 && [is_MacOSX]} {
+		update
+		if {$w eq {}} {
+			raise .
+		} else {
+			raise $w
+		}
+	}
 }
 
 method _position_tooltip {} {
@@ -1268,7 +1280,9 @@
 	append g $pos_y
 
 	wm geometry $tooltip_wm $g
-	raise $tooltip_wm
+	if {![is_MacOSX]} {
+		raise $tooltip_wm
+	}
 }
 
 method _hide_tooltip {} {
diff --git a/git-gui/lib/choose_repository.tcl b/git-gui/lib/choose_repository.tcl
index 633cc57..3f8f303 100644
--- a/git-gui/lib/choose_repository.tcl
+++ b/git-gui/lib/choose_repository.tcl
@@ -235,6 +235,8 @@
 	foreach p [get_config gui.recentrepo] {
 		if {[_is_git [file join $p .git]]} {
 			lappend recent $p
+		} else {
+			_unset_recentrepo $p
 		}
 	}
 	return [lsort $recent]
@@ -243,6 +245,7 @@
 proc _unset_recentrepo {p} {
 	regsub -all -- {([()\[\]{}\.^$+*?\\])} $p {\\\1} p
 	git config --global --unset gui.recentrepo "^$p\$"
+	load_config 1
 }
 
 proc _append_recentrepos {path} {
@@ -261,6 +264,7 @@
 
 	lappend recent $path
 	git config --global --add gui.recentrepo $path
+	load_config 1
 
 	while {[llength $recent] > 10} {
 		_unset_recentrepo [lindex $recent 0]
diff --git a/git-gui/lib/database.tcl b/git-gui/lib/database.tcl
index a18ac8b..d4e0bed 100644
--- a/git-gui/lib/database.tcl
+++ b/git-gui/lib/database.tcl
@@ -89,27 +89,26 @@
 }
 
 proc hint_gc {} {
-	set object_limit 8
+	set ndirs 1
+	set limit 8
 	if {[is_Windows]} {
-		set object_limit 1
+		set ndirs 4
+		set limit 1
 	}
 
-	set objects_current [llength [glob \
-		-directory [gitdir objects 42] \
+	set count [llength [glob \
 		-nocomplain \
-		-tails \
 		-- \
-		*]]
+		[gitdir objects 4\[0-[expr {$ndirs-1}]\]/*]]]
 
-	if {$objects_current >= $object_limit} {
-		set objects_current [expr {$objects_current * 250}]
-		set object_limit    [expr {$object_limit    * 250}]
+	if {$count >= $limit * $ndirs} {
+		set objects_current [expr {$count * 256/$ndirs}]
 		if {[ask_popup \
 			[mc "This repository currently has approximately %i loose objects.
 
-To maintain optimal performance it is strongly recommended that you compress the database when more than %i loose objects exist.
+To maintain optimal performance it is strongly recommended that you compress the database.
 
-Compress the database now?" $objects_current $object_limit]] eq yes} {
+Compress the database now?" $objects_current]] eq yes} {
 			do_gc
 		}
 	}
diff --git a/git-gui/lib/diff.tcl b/git-gui/lib/diff.tcl
index 925b3f5..066755b 100644
--- a/git-gui/lib/diff.tcl
+++ b/git-gui/lib/diff.tcl
@@ -255,7 +255,7 @@
 
 proc start_show_diff {cont_info {add_opts {}}} {
 	global file_states file_lists
-	global is_3way_diff diff_active repo_config
+	global is_3way_diff is_submodule_diff diff_active repo_config
 	global ui_diff ui_index ui_workdir
 	global current_diff_path current_diff_side current_diff_header
 
@@ -265,6 +265,7 @@
 	set s $file_states($path)
 	set m [lindex $s 0]
 	set is_3way_diff 0
+	set is_submodule_diff 0
 	set diff_active 1
 	set current_diff_header {}
 
@@ -295,6 +296,16 @@
 		lappend cmd $path
 	}
 
+	if {[string match {160000 *} [lindex $s 2]]
+        || [string match {160000 *} [lindex $s 3]]} {
+		set is_submodule_diff 1
+		if {$w eq $ui_index} {
+			set cmd [list submodule summary --cached -- $path]
+		} else {
+			set cmd [list submodule summary --files -- $path]
+		}
+	}
+
 	if {[catch {set fd [eval git_read --nice $cmd]} err]} {
 		set diff_active 0
 		unlock_index
@@ -312,7 +323,7 @@
 }
 
 proc read_diff {fd cont_info} {
-	global ui_diff diff_active
+	global ui_diff diff_active is_submodule_diff
 	global is_3way_diff is_conflict_diff current_diff_header
 	global current_diff_queue
 	global diff_empty_count
@@ -374,6 +385,23 @@
 				set tags {}
 			}
 			}
+		} elseif {$is_submodule_diff} {
+			if {$line == ""} continue
+			if {[regexp {^\* } $line]} {
+				set line [string replace $line 0 1 {Submodule }]
+				set tags d_@
+			} else {
+				set op [string range $line 0 2]
+				switch -- $op {
+				{  <} {set tags d_-}
+				{  >} {set tags d_+}
+				{  W} {set tags {}}
+				default {
+					puts "error: Unhandled submodule diff marker: {$op}"
+					set tags {}
+				}
+				}
+			}
 		} else {
 			set op [string index $line 0]
 			switch -- $op {
@@ -636,6 +664,7 @@
 		}
 		set i_l $next_l
 	}
+	set patch "$patch$pre_context"
 	set patch "@@ -$hln,$n +$hln,[eval expr $n $sign 1] @@\n$patch"
 
 	if {[catch {
diff --git a/git-gui/lib/index.tcl b/git-gui/lib/index.tcl
index d33896a..0b58bd8 100644
--- a/git-gui/lib/index.tcl
+++ b/git-gui/lib/index.tcl
@@ -14,29 +14,31 @@
 		toplevel $w
 		wm title $w [strcat "[appname] ([reponame]): " [mc "Index Error"]]
 		wm geometry $w "+[winfo rootx .]+[winfo rooty .]"
-		pack [label $w.msg \
-			-justify left \
-			-anchor w \
-			-text [strcat \
-				[mc "Updating the Git index failed.  A rescan will be automatically started to resynchronize git-gui."] \
-				"\n\n$err"] \
-			] -anchor w
+		set s [mc "Updating the Git index failed.  A rescan will be automatically started to resynchronize git-gui."]
+		text $w.msg -yscrollcommand [list $w.vs set] \
+			-width [string length $s] -relief flat \
+			-borderwidth 0 -highlightthickness 0 \
+			-background [$w cget -background]
+		$w.msg tag configure bold -font font_uibold -justify center
+		scrollbar $w.vs -command [list $w.msg yview]
+		$w.msg insert end $s bold \n\n$err {}
+		$w.msg configure -state disabled
 
-		frame $w.buttons
-		button $w.buttons.continue \
+		button $w.continue \
 			-text [mc "Continue"] \
 			-command [list destroy $w]
-		pack $w.buttons.continue -side right -padx 5
-		button $w.buttons.unlock \
+		button $w.unlock \
 			-text [mc "Unlock Index"] \
 			-command "destroy $w; _delete_indexlock"
-		pack $w.buttons.unlock -side right
-		pack $w.buttons -side bottom -fill x -pady 10 -padx 10
+		grid $w.msg - $w.vs -sticky news
+		grid $w.unlock $w.continue - -sticky se -padx 2 -pady 2
+		grid columnconfigure $w 0 -weight 1
+		grid rowconfigure $w 0 -weight 1
 
 		wm protocol $w WM_DELETE_WINDOW update
-		bind $w.buttons.continue <Visibility> "
+		bind $w.continue <Visibility> "
 			grab $w
-			focus $w.buttons.continue
+			focus %W
 		"
 		tkwait window $w
 
diff --git a/git-gui/lib/remote_branch_delete.tcl b/git-gui/lib/remote_branch_delete.tcl
index 4e02fc0..2416420 100644
--- a/git-gui/lib/remote_branch_delete.tcl
+++ b/git-gui/lib/remote_branch_delete.tcl
@@ -208,13 +208,15 @@
 		return
 	}
 
-	if {[tk_messageBox \
-		-icon warning \
-		-type yesno \
-		-title [wm title $w] \
-		-parent $w \
-		-message [mc "Recovering deleted branches is difficult.\n\nDelete the selected branches?"]] ne yes} {
-		return
+	if {$checktype ne {head}} {
+		if {[tk_messageBox \
+			-icon warning \
+			-type yesno \
+			-title [wm title $w] \
+			-parent $w \
+			-message [mc "Recovering deleted branches is difficult.\n\nDelete the selected branches?"]] ne yes} {
+			return
+		}
 	}
 
 	destroy $w
@@ -248,6 +250,8 @@
 method _write_check_head {args} { set checktype head }
 
 method _write_head_list {args} {
+	global current_branch
+
 	$head_m delete 0 end
 	foreach abr $head_list {
 		$head_m insert end radiobutton \
@@ -256,7 +260,11 @@
 			-variable @check_head
 	}
 	if {[lsearch -exact -sorted $head_list $check_head] < 0} {
-		set check_head {}
+		if {[lsearch -exact -sorted $head_list $current_branch] < 0} {
+			set check_head {}
+		} else {
+			set check_head $current_branch
+		}
 	}
 }
 
diff --git a/git-gui/po/el.po b/git-gui/po/el.po
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..3634ba4
--- /dev/null
+++ b/git-gui/po/el.po
@@ -0,0 +1,2005 @@
+# Translation of git-gui to Greek
+# Copyright (C) 2009 Jimmy Angelakos
+# This file is distributed under the same license as the git-gui package.
+# Jimmy Angelakos <vyruss@hellug.gr>, 2009.
+msgid ""
+msgstr ""
+"Project-Id-Version: el\n"
+"Report-Msgid-Bugs-To: \n"
+"POT-Creation-Date: 2008-03-14 07:18+0100\n"
+"PO-Revision-Date: 2009-06-23 21:33+0300\n"
+"Last-Translator: Jimmy Angelakos <vyruss@hellug.gr>\n"
+"Language-Team: Greek <i18n@lists.hellug.gr>\n"
+"MIME-Version: 1.0\n"
+"Content-Type: text/plain; charset=UTF-8\n"
+"Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n"
+"X-Generator: Lokalize 0.3\n"
+"Plural-Forms: nplurals=2; plural=(n != 1);\n"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:41 git-gui.sh:634 git-gui.sh:648 git-gui.sh:661 git-gui.sh:744
+#: git-gui.sh:763
+msgid "git-gui: fatal error"
+msgstr "git-gui: κρίσιμο σφάλμα"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:593
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Invalid font specified in %s:"
+msgstr "Μη έγκυρη γραμματοσειρά στο %s:"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:620
+msgid "Main Font"
+msgstr "Κύρια Γραμματοσειρά"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:621
+msgid "Diff/Console Font"
+msgstr "Γραμματοσειρά Διαφοράς/Κονσόλας"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:635
+msgid "Cannot find git in PATH."
+msgstr "Δε βρέθηκε το git στο PATH."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:662
+msgid "Cannot parse Git version string:"
+msgstr "Αδύνατη η ανάγνωση στοιχειοσειράς έκδοσης Git:"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:680
+#, tcl-format
+msgid ""
+"Git version cannot be determined.\n"
+"\n"
+"%s claims it is version '%s'.\n"
+"\n"
+"%s requires at least Git 1.5.0 or later.\n"
+"\n"
+"Assume '%s' is version 1.5.0?\n"
+msgstr ""
+"Δε μπορεί να ανιχνευτεί η έκδοση του Git. \n"
+"\n"
+"Το %s υποστηρίζει πως είναι η έκδοση '%s'.\n"
+"\n"
+"Το %s  απαιτεί τουλάχιστον Git 1.5.0 ή πιό πρόσφατη.\n"
+"\n"
+"Να υποτεθεί πως το '%s' είναι η έκδοση 1.5.0;\n"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:918
+msgid "Git directory not found:"
+msgstr "Δε βρέθηκε φάκελος Git:"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:925
+msgid "Cannot move to top of working directory:"
+msgstr "Δεν είναι δυνατή η μετακίνηση στην κορυφή του φακέλου εργασίας:"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:932
+msgid "Cannot use funny .git directory:"
+msgstr "Δεν είναι δυνατή η χρήση περίεργου φακέλου .git:"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:937
+msgid "No working directory"
+msgstr "Δεν υπάρχει φάκελος εργασίας"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1084 lib/checkout_op.tcl:283
+msgid "Refreshing file status..."
+msgstr "Ανανέωση κατάστασης αρχείου..."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1149
+msgid "Scanning for modified files ..."
+msgstr "Ανίχνευση για τροποποιημένα αρχεία..."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1324 lib/browser.tcl:246
+msgid "Ready."
+msgstr "Έτοιμο."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1590
+msgid "Unmodified"
+msgstr "Μη τροποποιημένο"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1592
+msgid "Modified, not staged"
+msgstr "Τροποποιημένο, μη σταδιοποιημένο"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1593 git-gui.sh:1598
+msgid "Staged for commit"
+msgstr "Σταδιοποιημένο προς υποβολή"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1594 git-gui.sh:1599
+msgid "Portions staged for commit"
+msgstr "Μέρη σταδιοποιημένα προς υποβολή"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1595 git-gui.sh:1600
+msgid "Staged for commit, missing"
+msgstr "Σταδιοποιημένο προς υποβολή, λείπει"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1597
+msgid "Untracked, not staged"
+msgstr "Μη παρακολουθούμενο, μη σταδιοποιημένο"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1602
+msgid "Missing"
+msgstr "Λείπει"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1603
+msgid "Staged for removal"
+msgstr "Σταδιοποιημένο προς αφαίρεση"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1604
+msgid "Staged for removal, still present"
+msgstr "Σταδιοποιημένο προς αφαίρεση, ακόμα παρόν"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1606 git-gui.sh:1607 git-gui.sh:1608 git-gui.sh:1609
+msgid "Requires merge resolution"
+msgstr "Απαιτεί επίλυση συγχώνευσης"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1644
+msgid "Starting gitk... please wait..."
+msgstr "Γίνεται εκκίνηση του gitk... παρακαλώ περιμένετε..."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1653
+#, tcl-format
+msgid ""
+"Unable to start gitk:\n"
+"\n"
+"%s does not exist"
+msgstr ""
+"Αδυναμία εκκίνησης του gitk:\n"
+"\n"
+"Το %s δεν υπάρχει"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1860 lib/choose_repository.tcl:36
+msgid "Repository"
+msgstr "Αποθετήριο"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1861
+msgid "Edit"
+msgstr "Επεξεργασία"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1863 lib/choose_rev.tcl:561
+msgid "Branch"
+msgstr "Κλάδος"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1866 lib/choose_rev.tcl:548
+msgid "Commit@@noun"
+msgstr "Υποβολή@@noun"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1869 lib/merge.tcl:120 lib/merge.tcl:149 lib/merge.tcl:167
+msgid "Merge"
+msgstr "Συγχώνευση"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1870 lib/choose_rev.tcl:557
+msgid "Remote"
+msgstr "Απομακρυσμένο"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1879
+msgid "Browse Current Branch's Files"
+msgstr "Περιήγηση Αρχείων Τρέχοντα Κλάδου"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1883
+msgid "Browse Branch Files..."
+msgstr "Περιήγηση Αρχείων Κλάδου..."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1888
+msgid "Visualize Current Branch's History"
+msgstr "Απεικόνιση Ιστορικού Τρέχοντα Κλάδου"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1892
+msgid "Visualize All Branch History"
+msgstr "Απεικόνιση Ιστορικού Όλων των Κλάδων"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1899
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Browse %s's Files"
+msgstr "Περιήγηση Αρχείων του %s"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1901
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Visualize %s's History"
+msgstr "Απεικόνιση Ιστορικού του %s"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1906 lib/database.tcl:27 lib/database.tcl:67
+msgid "Database Statistics"
+msgstr "Στατιστικά Βάσης Δεδομένων"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1909 lib/database.tcl:34
+msgid "Compress Database"
+msgstr "Συμπίεση Βάσης Δεδομένων"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1912
+msgid "Verify Database"
+msgstr "Επαλήθευση Βάσης Δεδομένων"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1919 git-gui.sh:1923 git-gui.sh:1927 lib/shortcut.tcl:7
+#: lib/shortcut.tcl:39 lib/shortcut.tcl:71
+msgid "Create Desktop Icon"
+msgstr "Δημιουργία Εικονιδίου Επιφάνειας Εργασίας"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1932 lib/choose_repository.tcl:177 lib/choose_repository.tcl:185
+msgid "Quit"
+msgstr "Έξοδος"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1939
+msgid "Undo"
+msgstr "Αναίρεση"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1942
+msgid "Redo"
+msgstr "Ξανά"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1946 git-gui.sh:2443
+msgid "Cut"
+msgstr "Αποκοπή"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1949 git-gui.sh:2446 git-gui.sh:2520 git-gui.sh:2614
+#: lib/console.tcl:69
+msgid "Copy"
+msgstr "Αντιγραφή"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1952 git-gui.sh:2449
+msgid "Paste"
+msgstr "Επικόλληση"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1955 git-gui.sh:2452 lib/branch_delete.tcl:26
+#: lib/remote_branch_delete.tcl:38
+msgid "Delete"
+msgstr "Διαγραφή"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1959 git-gui.sh:2456 git-gui.sh:2618 lib/console.tcl:71
+msgid "Select All"
+msgstr "Επιλογή Όλων"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1968
+msgid "Create..."
+msgstr "Δημιουργία..."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1974
+msgid "Checkout..."
+msgstr "Εξαγωγή..."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1980
+msgid "Rename..."
+msgstr "Μετονομασία..."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1985 git-gui.sh:2085
+msgid "Delete..."
+msgstr "Διαγραφή..."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:1990
+msgid "Reset..."
+msgstr "Επαναφορά..."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2002 git-gui.sh:2389
+msgid "New Commit"
+msgstr "Νέα Υποβολή"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2010 git-gui.sh:2396
+msgid "Amend Last Commit"
+msgstr "Διόρθωση Τελευταίας Υποβολής"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2019 git-gui.sh:2356 lib/remote_branch_delete.tcl:99
+msgid "Rescan"
+msgstr "Επανανίχνευση"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2025
+msgid "Stage To Commit"
+msgstr "Σταδιοποίηση Προς Υποβολή"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2031
+msgid "Stage Changed Files To Commit"
+msgstr "Σταδιοποίηση Αλλαγμένων Αρχείων Προς Υποβολή"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2037
+msgid "Unstage From Commit"
+msgstr "Αποσταδιοποίηση Από Υποβολή"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2042 lib/index.tcl:395
+msgid "Revert Changes"
+msgstr "Αναίρεση Αλλαγών"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2049 git-gui.sh:2368 git-gui.sh:2467
+msgid "Sign Off"
+msgstr "Αποσύνδεση"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2053 git-gui.sh:2372
+msgid "Commit@@verb"
+msgstr "Υποβολή@@verb"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2064
+msgid "Local Merge..."
+msgstr "Τοπική Συγχώνευση..."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2069
+msgid "Abort Merge..."
+msgstr "Ακύρωση Συγχώνευσης..."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2081
+msgid "Push..."
+msgstr "Ώθηση..."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2092 lib/choose_repository.tcl:41
+#, fuzzy
+msgid "Apple"
+msgstr ""
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2095 git-gui.sh:2117 lib/about.tcl:14
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:44 lib/choose_repository.tcl:50
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "About %s"
+msgstr "Περί %s"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2099
+msgid "Preferences..."
+msgstr "Προτιμήσεις..."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2107 git-gui.sh:2639
+msgid "Options..."
+msgstr "Επιλογές..."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2113 lib/choose_repository.tcl:47
+msgid "Help"
+msgstr "Βοήθεια"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2154
+msgid "Online Documentation"
+msgstr "Διαδικτυακή Τεκμηρίωση"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2238
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "fatal: cannot stat path %s: No such file or directory"
+msgstr "κρίσιμο: δε βρέθηκε η διαδρομή: %s: Δεν υπάρχει το αρχείο ή ο φάκελος"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2271
+msgid "Current Branch:"
+msgstr "Τρέχων Κλάδος:"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2292
+msgid "Staged Changes (Will Commit)"
+msgstr "Σταδιοποιημένες Αλλαγές (Θα Υποβληθούν)"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2312
+msgid "Unstaged Changes"
+msgstr "Μη Σταδιοποιημένες Αλλαγές"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2362
+msgid "Stage Changed"
+msgstr "Σταδιοποίηση Αλλαγών"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2378 lib/transport.tcl:93 lib/transport.tcl:182
+msgid "Push"
+msgstr "Ώθηση"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2408
+msgid "Initial Commit Message:"
+msgstr "Αρχικό Μήνυμα Υποβολής:"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2409
+msgid "Amended Commit Message:"
+msgstr "Διορθωμένο Μήνυμα Υποβολής:"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2410
+msgid "Amended Initial Commit Message:"
+msgstr "Διορθωμένο Αρχικό Μήνυμα Υποβολής:"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2411
+msgid "Amended Merge Commit Message:"
+msgstr "Διορθωμένο Μήνυμα Υποβολής Συγχώνευσης:"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2412
+msgid "Merge Commit Message:"
+msgstr "Μήνυμα Υποβολής Συγχώνευσης:"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2413
+msgid "Commit Message:"
+msgstr "Μήνυμα Υποβολής:"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2459 git-gui.sh:2622 lib/console.tcl:73
+msgid "Copy All"
+msgstr "Αντιγραφή Όλων"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2483 lib/blame.tcl:107
+msgid "File:"
+msgstr "Αρχείο:"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2589
+msgid "Apply/Reverse Hunk"
+msgstr "Εφαρμογή/Αντιστροφή Κομματιού"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2595
+msgid "Show Less Context"
+msgstr "Προβολή Στενότερου Πλαισίου"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2602
+msgid "Show More Context"
+msgstr "Προβολή Ευρύτερου Πλαισίου"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2610
+msgid "Refresh"
+msgstr "Ανανέωση"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2631
+msgid "Decrease Font Size"
+msgstr "Μείωση Μεγέθους Γραμματοσειράς"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2635
+msgid "Increase Font Size"
+msgstr "Αύξηση Μεγέθους Γραμματοσειράς"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2646
+msgid "Unstage Hunk From Commit"
+msgstr "Αποσταδιοποίηση Κομματιού Από Υποβολή"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2648
+msgid "Stage Hunk For Commit"
+msgstr "Σταδιοποίηση Κομματιού Προς Υποβολή"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2667
+msgid "Initializing..."
+msgstr "Γίνεται αρχικοποίηση..."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2762
+#, tcl-format
+msgid ""
+"Possible environment issues exist.\n"
+"\n"
+"The following environment variables are probably\n"
+"going to be ignored by any Git subprocess run\n"
+"by %s:\n"
+"\n"
+msgstr ""
+"Υπάρχουν πιθανά θέματα με το περιβάλλον.\n"
+"\n"
+"Οι εξής μεταβλητές περιβάλλοντος μάλλον θα\n"
+"αγνοηθούν από πιθανή εκτέλεση υποδιεργασίας Git\n"
+"από το %s:\n"
+"\n"
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2792
+msgid ""
+"\n"
+"This is due to a known issue with the\n"
+"Tcl binary distributed by Cygwin."
+msgstr ""
+"\n"
+"Αυτό οφείλεται σε ένα γνωστό θέμα με το\n"
+"εκτελέσιμο Tcl που διανέμεται με το Cygwin."
+
+#: git-gui.sh:2797
+#, tcl-format
+msgid ""
+"\n"
+"\n"
+"A good replacement for %s\n"
+"is placing values for the user.name and\n"
+"user.email settings into your personal\n"
+"~/.gitconfig file.\n"
+msgstr ""
+"\n"
+"\n"
+"Ένα καλό υποκατάστατο για το %s\n"
+"είναι η τοποθέτηση τιμών για τις ρυθμίσεις\n"
+"user.name και user.email στο προσωπικό σας\n"
+"αρχείο ~/.gitconfig .\n"
+
+#: lib/about.tcl:26
+msgid "git-gui - a graphical user interface for Git."
+msgstr "git-gui - ένα γραφικό περιβάλλον για το Git."
+
+#: lib/blame.tcl:77
+msgid "File Viewer"
+msgstr "Εφαρμογή Προβολής Αρχείου"
+
+#: lib/blame.tcl:81
+msgid "Commit:"
+msgstr "Υποβολή:"
+
+#: lib/blame.tcl:264
+msgid "Copy Commit"
+msgstr "Αντιγραφή Υποβολής"
+
+#: lib/blame.tcl:384
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Reading %s..."
+msgstr "Ανάγνωση %s..."
+
+#: lib/blame.tcl:488
+msgid "Loading copy/move tracking annotations..."
+msgstr "Γίνεται φόρτωση σχολίων παρακολούθησης αντιγραφής/μετακίνησης..."
+
+#: lib/blame.tcl:508
+msgid "lines annotated"
+msgstr "γραμμές σχολιασμένες"
+
+#: lib/blame.tcl:689
+msgid "Loading original location annotations..."
+msgstr "Γίνεται φόρτωση σχολίων αρχικής τοποθεσίας..."
+
+#: lib/blame.tcl:692
+msgid "Annotation complete."
+msgstr "Έγινε ολοκλήρωση του σχολιασμού."
+
+#: lib/blame.tcl:746
+msgid "Loading annotation..."
+msgstr "Φόρτωση σχολίου..."
+
+#: lib/blame.tcl:802
+msgid "Author:"
+msgstr "Δημιουργός:"
+
+#: lib/blame.tcl:806
+msgid "Committer:"
+msgstr "Υποβολέας:"
+
+#: lib/blame.tcl:811
+msgid "Original File:"
+msgstr "Αρχικό Αρχείο:"
+
+#: lib/blame.tcl:925
+msgid "Originally By:"
+msgstr "Αρχικά Από:"
+
+#: lib/blame.tcl:931
+msgid "In File:"
+msgstr "Στο Αρχείο:"
+
+#: lib/blame.tcl:936
+msgid "Copied Or Moved Here By:"
+msgstr "Αντιγράφηκε ή Μετακινήθηκε Εδώ Από:"
+
+#: lib/branch_checkout.tcl:14 lib/branch_checkout.tcl:19
+msgid "Checkout Branch"
+msgstr "Εξαγωγή Κλάδου"
+
+#: lib/branch_checkout.tcl:23
+msgid "Checkout"
+msgstr "Εξαγωγή"
+
+#: lib/branch_checkout.tcl:27 lib/branch_create.tcl:35
+#: lib/branch_delete.tcl:32 lib/branch_rename.tcl:30 lib/browser.tcl:282
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:522 lib/choose_font.tcl:43 lib/merge.tcl:171
+#: lib/option.tcl:103 lib/remote_branch_delete.tcl:42 lib/transport.tcl:97
+msgid "Cancel"
+msgstr "Ακύρωση"
+
+#: lib/branch_checkout.tcl:32 lib/browser.tcl:287
+msgid "Revision"
+msgstr "Αναθεώρηση"
+
+#: lib/branch_checkout.tcl:36 lib/branch_create.tcl:69 lib/option.tcl:242
+msgid "Options"
+msgstr "Επιλογές"
+
+#: lib/branch_checkout.tcl:39 lib/branch_create.tcl:92
+msgid "Fetch Tracking Branch"
+msgstr "Ανάκτηση Κλάδου Παρακολούθησης"
+
+#: lib/branch_checkout.tcl:44
+msgid "Detach From Local Branch"
+msgstr "Αποκόλληση Από Τοπικό Κλάδο"
+
+#: lib/branch_create.tcl:22
+msgid "Create Branch"
+msgstr "Δημιουργία Κλάδου"
+
+#: lib/branch_create.tcl:27
+msgid "Create New Branch"
+msgstr "Δημιουργία Νέου Κλάδου"
+
+#: lib/branch_create.tcl:31 lib/choose_repository.tcl:371
+msgid "Create"
+msgstr "Δημιουργία"
+
+#: lib/branch_create.tcl:40
+msgid "Branch Name"
+msgstr "Όνομα Κλάδου"
+
+#: lib/branch_create.tcl:43
+msgid "Name:"
+msgstr "Όνομα:"
+
+#: lib/branch_create.tcl:58
+msgid "Match Tracking Branch Name"
+msgstr "Συμφωνία Ονόματος Κλάδου Παρακολούθησης"
+
+#: lib/branch_create.tcl:66
+msgid "Starting Revision"
+msgstr "Αρχική Αναθεώρηση"
+
+#: lib/branch_create.tcl:72
+msgid "Update Existing Branch:"
+msgstr "Ενημέρωση Υπάρχοντα Κλάδου:"
+
+#: lib/branch_create.tcl:75
+#, fuzzy
+msgid "No"
+msgstr "Όχι"
+
+#: lib/branch_create.tcl:80
+msgid "Fast Forward Only"
+msgstr "Συγχώνευση Επιτάχυνσης Μόνο"
+
+#: lib/branch_create.tcl:85 lib/checkout_op.tcl:514
+msgid "Reset"
+msgstr "Επαναφορά"
+
+#: lib/branch_create.tcl:97
+msgid "Checkout After Creation"
+msgstr "Εξαγωγή Μετά τη Δημιουργία"
+
+#: lib/branch_create.tcl:131
+msgid "Please select a tracking branch."
+msgstr "Παρακαλώ επιλέξτε έναν κλάδο παρακολούθησης."
+
+#: lib/branch_create.tcl:140
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Tracking branch %s is not a branch in the remote repository."
+msgstr ""
+"Ο κλάδος παρακολούθησης %s δεν είναι κλάδος που βρίσκεται στο απομακρυσμένο "
+"αποθετήριο."
+
+#: lib/branch_create.tcl:153 lib/branch_rename.tcl:86
+msgid "Please supply a branch name."
+msgstr "Παρακαλώ δώστε ένα όνομα κλάδου."
+
+#: lib/branch_create.tcl:164 lib/branch_rename.tcl:106
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "'%s' is not an acceptable branch name."
+msgstr "'%s' δεν είναι αποδεκτό όνομα κλάδου."
+
+#: lib/branch_delete.tcl:15
+msgid "Delete Branch"
+msgstr "Διαγραφή Κλάδου"
+
+#: lib/branch_delete.tcl:20
+msgid "Delete Local Branch"
+msgstr "Διαγραφή Τοπικού Κλάδου"
+
+#: lib/branch_delete.tcl:37
+msgid "Local Branches"
+msgstr "Τοπικοί Κλάδοι"
+
+#: lib/branch_delete.tcl:52
+msgid "Delete Only If Merged Into"
+msgstr "Διαγραφή Μόνο Εάν Είναι Συγχωνευμένο Με"
+
+#: lib/branch_delete.tcl:54
+msgid "Always (Do not perform merge test.)"
+msgstr "Πάντα (Μη διενεργηθεί δοκιμή συγχώνευσης.)"
+
+#: lib/branch_delete.tcl:103
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "The following branches are not completely merged into %s:"
+msgstr "Οι εξής κλάδοι δεν είναι πλήρως συγχωνευμένοι με το %s:"
+
+#: lib/branch_delete.tcl:115
+msgid ""
+"Recovering deleted branches is difficult. \n"
+"\n"
+" Delete the selected branches?"
+msgstr ""
+"Η ανάκτηση διεγραμμένων κλάδων είναι δύσκολη.\n"
+"\n"
+"Διαγραφή των επιλεγμένων κλάδων;"
+
+#: lib/branch_delete.tcl:141
+#, tcl-format
+msgid ""
+"Failed to delete branches:\n"
+"%s"
+msgstr ""
+"Αποτυχία διαγραφής κλάδων:\n"
+"%s"
+
+#: lib/branch_rename.tcl:14 lib/branch_rename.tcl:22
+msgid "Rename Branch"
+msgstr "Μετονομασία Κλάδου"
+
+#: lib/branch_rename.tcl:26
+msgid "Rename"
+msgstr "Μετονομασία"
+
+#: lib/branch_rename.tcl:36
+msgid "Branch:"
+msgstr "Κλάδος:"
+
+#: lib/branch_rename.tcl:39
+msgid "New Name:"
+msgstr "Νέο Όνομα:"
+
+#: lib/branch_rename.tcl:75
+msgid "Please select a branch to rename."
+msgstr "Παρακαλώ επιλέξτε κλάδο προς μετονομασία:"
+
+#: lib/branch_rename.tcl:96 lib/checkout_op.tcl:179
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Branch '%s' already exists."
+msgstr "Ο Κλάδος '%s' υπάρχει ήδη."
+
+#: lib/branch_rename.tcl:117
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Failed to rename '%s'."
+msgstr "Αποτυχία μετονομασίας '%s'."
+
+#: lib/browser.tcl:17
+msgid "Starting..."
+msgstr "Γίνεται Εκκίνηση..."
+
+#: lib/browser.tcl:26
+msgid "File Browser"
+msgstr "Περιηγητής Αρχείων"
+
+#: lib/browser.tcl:126 lib/browser.tcl:143
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Loading %s..."
+msgstr "Γίνεται φόρτωση %s..."
+
+#: lib/browser.tcl:187
+#, fuzzy
+msgid "[Up To Parent]"
+msgstr "[Πάνω Προς Γονέα]"
+
+#: lib/browser.tcl:267 lib/browser.tcl:273
+msgid "Browse Branch Files"
+msgstr "Περιήγηση Αρχείων Κλάδου"
+
+#: lib/browser.tcl:278 lib/choose_repository.tcl:387
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:474 lib/choose_repository.tcl:484
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:987
+msgid "Browse"
+msgstr "Περιήγηση"
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:79
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Fetching %s from %s"
+msgstr "Ανάκτηση %s από το %s"
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:127
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "fatal: Cannot resolve %s"
+msgstr "κρίσιμο: Δε μπόρεσε να επιλυθεί το %s"
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:140 lib/console.tcl:81 lib/database.tcl:31
+msgid "Close"
+msgstr "Κλείσιμο"
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:169
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Branch '%s' does not exist."
+msgstr "Ο Κλάδος '%s' δεν υπάρχει."
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:206
+#, tcl-format
+msgid ""
+"Branch '%s' already exists.\n"
+"\n"
+"It cannot fast-forward to %s.\n"
+"A merge is required."
+msgstr ""
+"Ο Κλάδος '%s' υπάρχει ήδη.\n"
+"\n"
+"Δε γίνεται συγχώνευση επιτάχυνσής του στο %s.\n"
+"Απαιτείται συγχώνευση."
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:220
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Merge strategy '%s' not supported."
+msgstr "Η στρατηγική Συγχώνευσης %s δεν υποστηρίζεται."
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:239
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Failed to update '%s'."
+msgstr "Αποτυχία ενημέρωσης '%s'."
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:251
+msgid "Staging area (index) is already locked."
+msgstr "Η περιοχή σταδιοποίησης (το ευρετήριο) είναι ήδη κλειδωμένη."
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:266
+msgid ""
+"Last scanned state does not match repository state.\n"
+"\n"
+"Another Git program has modified this repository since the last scan.  A "
+"rescan must be performed before the current branch can be changed.\n"
+"\n"
+"The rescan will be automatically started now.\n"
+msgstr ""
+"Η τελευταία κατάσταση που ανιχνεύθηκε δε συμφωνεί με την κατάσταση του "
+"αποθετηρίου.\n"
+"\n"
+"Κάποιο άλλο πρόγραμμα Git τροποποίησε το αποθετήριο από την τελευταία "
+"ανίχνευση. Πρέπει να γίνει επανανίχνευση πριν να αλλαχθεί ο τρέχων κλάδος.\n"
+"\n"
+"Η επανανίχνευση θα ξεκινήσει αυτόματα τώρα.\n"
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:322
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Updating working directory to '%s'..."
+msgstr "Ενημέρωση φακέλου εργασίας σε '%s'..."
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:323
+msgid "files checked out"
+msgstr "αρχεία έχουν εξαχθεί"
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:353
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Aborted checkout of '%s' (file level merging is required)."
+msgstr ""
+"Έγινε ακύρωση εξαγωγής του '%s' (απαιτείται συγχώνευση επιπέδου αρχείου)."
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:354
+msgid "File level merge required."
+msgstr "Απαιτείται συγχώνευση επιπέδου αρχείου."
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:358
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Staying on branch '%s'."
+msgstr "Παραμονή στον κλάδο '%s'."
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:429
+msgid ""
+"You are no longer on a local branch.\n"
+"\n"
+"If you wanted to be on a branch, create one now starting from 'This Detached "
+"Checkout'."
+msgstr ""
+"Δε βρίσκεστε πια σε τοπικό κλάδο.\n"
+"\n"
+"Αν θέλατε να βρίσκεστε σε κλάδο, δημιουργήστε έναν τώρα αρχίζοντας από 'This "
+"Detached Checkout'."
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:446 lib/checkout_op.tcl:450
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Checked out '%s'."
+msgstr "Έγινε εξαγωγή του '%s'."
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:478
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Resetting '%s' to '%s' will lose the following commits:"
+msgstr "Η επαναφορά '%s' στο '%s' θα χάσει τις εξής υποβολές:"
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:500
+msgid "Recovering lost commits may not be easy."
+msgstr "Η ανάκτηση χαμένων υποβολών μπορεί να είναι δύσκολη."
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:505
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Reset '%s'?"
+msgstr "Επαναφορά '%s';"
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:510 lib/merge.tcl:163
+msgid "Visualize"
+msgstr "Απεικόνιση"
+
+#: lib/checkout_op.tcl:578
+#, tcl-format
+msgid ""
+"Failed to set current branch.\n"
+"\n"
+"This working directory is only partially switched.  We successfully updated "
+"your files, but failed to update an internal Git file.\n"
+"\n"
+"This should not have occurred.  %s will now close and give up."
+msgstr ""
+"Αποτυχία ορισμού τρέχοντος κλάδου.\n"
+"\n"
+"Αυτός ο φάκελος εργασίας είναι μόνο εν μέρει επιλεγμένος. 'Εγινε επιτυχής "
+"ενημέρωση των αρχείων σας, αλλά απέτυχε η ενημέρωση ενός εσωτερικού αρχείου "
+"του Git.\n"
+"\n"
+"Αυτό δε θα έπρεπε να συμβεί. Το %s θα κλείσει και θα εγκαταλείψει τώρα."
+
+#: lib/choose_font.tcl:39
+msgid "Select"
+msgstr "Επιλογή"
+
+#: lib/choose_font.tcl:53
+msgid "Font Family"
+msgstr "Οικογένεια Γραμματοσειράς"
+
+#: lib/choose_font.tcl:74
+msgid "Font Size"
+msgstr "Μέγεθος Γραμματοσειράς"
+
+#: lib/choose_font.tcl:91
+msgid "Font Example"
+msgstr "Παράδειγμα Γραμματοσειράς"
+
+#: lib/choose_font.tcl:103
+msgid ""
+"This is example text.\n"
+"If you like this text, it can be your font."
+msgstr ""
+"Αυτό είναι ένα παράδειγμα κειμένου.\n"
+"Αν σας αρέσει αυτό το κείμενο, μπορεί να γίνει δικό σας."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:28
+msgid "Git Gui"
+msgstr "Γραφικό Περιβάλλον Git"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:81 lib/choose_repository.tcl:376
+msgid "Create New Repository"
+msgstr "Δημιουργία Νέου Αποθετηρίου"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:87
+msgid "New..."
+msgstr "Νέο..."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:94 lib/choose_repository.tcl:460
+msgid "Clone Existing Repository"
+msgstr "Κλωνοποίηση Υπάρχοντος Αποθετηρίου"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:100
+msgid "Clone..."
+msgstr "Κλωνοποίηση..."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:107 lib/choose_repository.tcl:976
+msgid "Open Existing Repository"
+msgstr "Άνοιγμα Υπάρχοντος Αποθετηρίου"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:113
+msgid "Open..."
+msgstr "Άνοιγμα..."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:126
+msgid "Recent Repositories"
+msgstr "Πρόσφατα Αποθετήρια"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:132
+msgid "Open Recent Repository:"
+msgstr "Άνοιγμα Πρόσφατου Αποθετηρίου:"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:296 lib/choose_repository.tcl:303
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:310
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Failed to create repository %s:"
+msgstr "Αποτυχία δημιουργίας αποθετηρίου %s:"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:381 lib/choose_repository.tcl:478
+msgid "Directory:"
+msgstr "Φάκελος:"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:412 lib/choose_repository.tcl:537
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:1011
+msgid "Git Repository"
+msgstr "Αποθετήριο Git"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:437
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Directory %s already exists."
+msgstr "Ο Φάκελος '%s' υπάρχει ήδη."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:441
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "File %s already exists."
+msgstr "Το αρχείο %s υπάρχει ήδη."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:455
+msgid "Clone"
+msgstr "Κλώνος"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:468
+#, fuzzy
+msgid "URL:"
+msgstr ""
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:489
+msgid "Clone Type:"
+msgstr "Τύπος Κλώνου:"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:495
+msgid "Standard (Fast, Semi-Redundant, Hardlinks)"
+msgstr "Τυπικό (Ταχύ, Ημι-Πλεονάζον, Hardlinks)"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:501
+msgid "Full Copy (Slower, Redundant Backup)"
+msgstr "Πλήρες Αντίγραφο (Πιο αργό, Πλεονάζον Αντίγραφο Ασφαλείας)"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:507
+msgid "Shared (Fastest, Not Recommended, No Backup)"
+msgstr "Κοινή Χρήση (Ταχύτατο, Δε Συνιστάται, Κανένα Αντίγραφο Ασφαλείας)"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:543 lib/choose_repository.tcl:590
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:736 lib/choose_repository.tcl:806
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:1017 lib/choose_repository.tcl:1025
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Not a Git repository: %s"
+msgstr "Δεν είναι αποθετήριο Git: %s"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:579
+msgid "Standard only available for local repository."
+msgstr "\"Τυπικό\" διαθέσιμο μόνο για τοπικό αποθετήριο."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:583
+msgid "Shared only available for local repository."
+msgstr "\"Κοινή Χρήση\" διαθέσιμη μόνο για τοπικό αποθετήριο."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:604
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Location %s already exists."
+msgstr "Η Τοποθεσία %s υπάρχει ήδη."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:615
+msgid "Failed to configure origin"
+msgstr "Αποτυχία ρύθμισης πηγής"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:627
+msgid "Counting objects"
+msgstr "Γίνεται καταμέτρηση αντικειμένων"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:628
+#, fuzzy
+msgid "buckets"
+msgstr ""
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:652
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Unable to copy objects/info/alternates: %s"
+msgstr "Αδυναμία αντιγραφής αντικειμένων/πληροφοριών/ενναλακτικών: %s"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:688
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Nothing to clone from %s."
+msgstr "Τίποτα προς κλωνοποίηση από το %s."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:690 lib/choose_repository.tcl:904
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:916
+msgid "The 'master' branch has not been initialized."
+msgstr "Ο κλάδος 'master' δεν έχει αρχικοποιηθεί."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:703
+msgid "Hardlinks are unavailable.  Falling back to copying."
+msgstr "Hardlinks μη διαθέσιμα. Μετάπτωση σε αντιγραφή."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:715
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Cloning from %s"
+msgstr "Γίνεται κλωνοποίηση από το %s"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:746
+msgid "Copying objects"
+msgstr "Γίνεται αντιγραφή αντικειμένων"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:747
+#, fuzzy
+msgid "KiB"
+msgstr ""
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:771
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Unable to copy object: %s"
+msgstr "Αδυναμία αντιγραφής αντικειμένου: %s"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:781
+msgid "Linking objects"
+msgstr "Γίνεται σύνδεση αντικειμένων"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:782
+msgid "objects"
+msgstr "αντικείμενα"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:790
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Unable to hardlink object: %s"
+msgstr "Αδυναμία hardlink αντικειμένου: %s"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:845
+msgid "Cannot fetch branches and objects.  See console output for details."
+msgstr ""
+"Δε μπόρεσε να γίνει ανάκτηση κλάδων και αντικειμένων. Δείτε την έξοδο "
+"κονσόλας για λεπτομέρειες."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:856
+msgid "Cannot fetch tags.  See console output for details."
+msgstr ""
+"Δε μπόρεσε να γίνει ανάκτηση ετικετών. Δείτε την έξοδο κονσόλας για "
+"λεπτομέρειες."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:880
+msgid "Cannot determine HEAD.  See console output for details."
+msgstr ""
+"Δε μπόρεσε να γίνει καθορισμός του HEAD (παρακλαδιού). Δείτε την έξοδο "
+"κονσόλας για "
+"λεπτομέρειες."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:889
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Unable to cleanup %s"
+msgstr "Αδυναμία εκκαθάρισης %s"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:895
+msgid "Clone failed."
+msgstr "Αποτυχία κλωνοποίησης."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:902
+msgid "No default branch obtained."
+msgstr "Δεν έγινε ανάκτηση προεπιλεγμένου κλάδου."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:913
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Cannot resolve %s as a commit."
+msgstr "Δε μπόρεσε να επιλυθεί το %s ως υποβολή."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:925
+msgid "Creating working directory"
+msgstr "Δημιουργία φακέλου εργασίας"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:926 lib/index.tcl:65 lib/index.tcl:127
+#: lib/index.tcl:193
+msgid "files"
+msgstr "αρχεία"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:955
+msgid "Initial file checkout failed."
+msgstr "Η αρχική εξαγωγή αρχείου απέτυχε."
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:971
+msgid "Open"
+msgstr "Άνοιγμα"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:981
+msgid "Repository:"
+msgstr "Αποθετήριο:"
+
+#: lib/choose_repository.tcl:1031
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Failed to open repository %s:"
+msgstr "Αποτυχία ανοίγματος αποθετηρίου %s:"
+
+#: lib/choose_rev.tcl:53
+#, fuzzy
+msgid "This Detached Checkout"
+msgstr "Αποσυνδεδεμένη Εξαγωγή"
+
+#: lib/choose_rev.tcl:60
+msgid "Revision Expression:"
+msgstr "Έκφραση Αναθεώρησης:"
+
+#: lib/choose_rev.tcl:74
+msgid "Local Branch"
+msgstr "Τοπικός Κλάδος"
+
+#: lib/choose_rev.tcl:79
+msgid "Tracking Branch"
+msgstr "Κλάδος Παρακολούθησης"
+
+#: lib/choose_rev.tcl:84 lib/choose_rev.tcl:538
+msgid "Tag"
+msgstr "Ετικέτα"
+
+#: lib/choose_rev.tcl:317
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Invalid revision: %s"
+msgstr "Μη έγκυρη αναθεώρηση: %s"
+
+#: lib/choose_rev.tcl:338
+msgid "No revision selected."
+msgstr "Δεν έχει επιλεγεί αναθεώρηση."
+
+#: lib/choose_rev.tcl:346
+msgid "Revision expression is empty."
+msgstr "Η έκφραση αναθεώρησης είναι κενή."
+
+#: lib/choose_rev.tcl:531
+msgid "Updated"
+msgstr "Ενημερωμένο"
+
+#: lib/choose_rev.tcl:559
+#, fuzzy
+msgid "URL"
+msgstr ""
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:9
+msgid ""
+"There is nothing to amend.\n"
+"\n"
+"You are about to create the initial commit.  There is no commit before this "
+"to amend.\n"
+msgstr ""
+"Δεν υπάρχει κάτι προς διόρθωση.\n"
+"\n"
+"Πρόκειται να δημιουργήσετε την αρχική υποβολή. Δεν υπάρχει υποβολή πριν από "
+"αυτή για να διορθώσετε.\n"
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:18
+msgid ""
+"Cannot amend while merging.\n"
+"\n"
+"You are currently in the middle of a merge that has not been fully "
+"completed.  You cannot amend the prior commit unless you first abort the "
+"current merge activity.\n"
+msgstr ""
+"Δε γίνεται διόρθωση καθώς συγχωνεύετε.\n"
+"\n"
+"Βρίσκεστε στο μέσο μιας συγχώνευσης που δεν έχει ολοκληρωθεί. Δε μπορείτε να "
+"διορθώσετε την προηγούμενη υποβολή εκτός εάν ακυρώσετε την τρέχουσα ενέργεια "
+"συγχώνευσης.\n"
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:49
+msgid "Error loading commit data for amend:"
+msgstr "Σφάλμα φόρτωσης δεδομένων υποβολής προς διόρθωση:"
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:76
+msgid "Unable to obtain your identity:"
+msgstr "Αδυναμία ανάκτησης της ταυτότητάς σας:"
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:81
+msgid "Invalid GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT:"
+msgstr "Μη έγκυρο GIT_COMMITTER_IDENT:"
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:133
+msgid ""
+"Last scanned state does not match repository state.\n"
+"\n"
+"Another Git program has modified this repository since the last scan.  A "
+"rescan must be performed before another commit can be created.\n"
+"\n"
+"The rescan will be automatically started now.\n"
+msgstr ""
+"Η τελευταία κατάσταση που ανιχνεύθηκε δε συμφωνεί με την κατάσταση του "
+"αποθετηρίου.\n"
+"\n"
+"Κάποιο άλλο πρόγραμμα Git τροποποίησε το αποθετήριο από την τελευταία "
+"ανίχνευση. Πρέπει να γίνει επανανίχνευση πριν τη δημιουργία νέας υποβολής.\n"
+"\n"
+"Η επανανίχνευση θα ξεκινήσει αυτόματα τώρα.\n"
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:154
+#, tcl-format
+msgid ""
+"Unmerged files cannot be committed.\n"
+"\n"
+"File %s has merge conflicts.  You must resolve them and stage the file "
+"before committing.\n"
+msgstr ""
+"Τα μη συγχωνευμένα αρχεία δε μπορούν να υποβληθούν.\n"
+"\n"
+"Το αρχείο %s έχει συγκρούσεις συγχώνευσης. Πρέπει να τις επιλύσετε και να "
+"σταδιοποιήσετε το αρχείο πριν την υποβολή.\n"
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:162
+#, tcl-format
+msgid ""
+"Unknown file state %s detected.\n"
+"\n"
+"File %s cannot be committed by this program.\n"
+msgstr ""
+"Άγνωστη κατάσταση αρχείου %s ανιχνεύθηκε.\n"
+"\n"
+"Το αρχείο %s δε μπορεί να υποβληθεί από αυτό το πρόγραμμα.\n"
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:170
+msgid ""
+"No changes to commit.\n"
+"\n"
+"You must stage at least 1 file before you can commit.\n"
+msgstr ""
+"Δεν υπάρχουν αλλαγές προς υποβολή.\n"
+"\n "
+"Πρέπει να σταδιοποιήσετε τουλάχιστον 1 αρχείο πριν να κάνετε υποβολή.\n"
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:183
+msgid ""
+"Please supply a commit message.\n"
+"\n"
+"A good commit message has the following format:\n"
+"\n"
+"- First line: Describe in one sentence what you did.\n"
+"- Second line: Blank\n"
+"- Remaining lines: Describe why this change is good.\n"
+msgstr ""
+"Παρακαλώ δώστε ένα μήνυμα υποβολής.\n"
+"\n"
+"Ένα σωστό μήνυμα υποβολής έχει την εξής μορφή:\n"
+"\n"
+"- Πρώτη γραμμή: Περιγραφή σε μία πρόταση του τι κάνατε.\n"
+"- Δεύτερη γραμμή: Κενή\n"
+"- Υπόλοιπες γραμμές: Περιγραφή του γιατί αυτή η αλλαγή είναι σωστή.\n"
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:207
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "warning: Tcl does not support encoding '%s'."
+msgstr "προειδοποίηση: H Tcl δεν υποστηρίζει την κωδικοποίηση '%s'."
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:221
+msgid "Calling pre-commit hook..."
+msgstr "Γίνεται κλήση του pre-commit hook..."
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:236
+msgid "Commit declined by pre-commit hook."
+msgstr "Η υποβολή απορρίφθηκε από το pre-commit hook."
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:259
+msgid "Calling commit-msg hook..."
+msgstr "Γίνεται κλήση του commit-msg hook..."
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:274
+msgid "Commit declined by commit-msg hook."
+msgstr "Η υποβολή απορρίφθηκε από το commit-msg hook."
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:287
+msgid "Committing changes..."
+msgstr "Γίνεται υποβολή των αλλαγών..."
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:303
+msgid "write-tree failed:"
+msgstr "το write-tree απέτυχε:"
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:304 lib/commit.tcl:348 lib/commit.tcl:368
+msgid "Commit failed."
+msgstr "Η υποβολή απέτυχε."
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:321
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Commit %s appears to be corrupt"
+msgstr "Η υποβολή %s δείχνει κατεστραμμένη"
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:326
+msgid ""
+"No changes to commit.\n"
+"\n"
+"No files were modified by this commit and it was not a merge commit.\n"
+"\n"
+"A rescan will be automatically started now.\n"
+msgstr ""
+"Δεν υπάρχουν αλλαγές προς υποβολή.\n"
+"\n"
+"Δεν τροποποιήθηκαν αρχεία από αυτή την υποβολή και δεν ήταν υποβολή "
+"συγχώνευσης.\n"
+"\n"
+"Θα ξεκινήσει αυτόματα επανανίχνευση τώρα.\n"
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:333
+msgid "No changes to commit."
+msgstr "Δεν υπάρχουν αλλαγές προς υποβολή."
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:347
+msgid "commit-tree failed:"
+msgstr "το commit-tree απέτυχε:"
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:367
+msgid "update-ref failed:"
+msgstr "το update-ref απέτυχε:"
+
+#: lib/commit.tcl:454
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Created commit %s: %s"
+msgstr "Δημιουργήθηκε υποβολή %s: %s"
+
+#: lib/console.tcl:59
+msgid "Working... please wait..."
+msgstr "Γίνεται εργασία... Παρακαλώ περιμένετε..."
+
+#: lib/console.tcl:186
+msgid "Success"
+msgstr "Επιτυχία"
+
+#: lib/console.tcl:200
+msgid "Error: Command Failed"
+msgstr "Σφάλμα: Η Εντολή Απέτυχε"
+
+#: lib/database.tcl:43
+msgid "Number of loose objects"
+msgstr "Αριθμός ελεύθερων αντικειμένων"
+
+#: lib/database.tcl:44
+msgid "Disk space used by loose objects"
+msgstr "Χώρος κατειλλημένος από ελεύθερα αντικείμενα"
+
+#: lib/database.tcl:45
+msgid "Number of packed objects"
+msgstr "Αριθμός πακεταρισμένων αντικειμένων"
+
+#: lib/database.tcl:46
+msgid "Number of packs"
+msgstr "Αριθμός πακέτων"
+
+#: lib/database.tcl:47
+msgid "Disk space used by packed objects"
+msgstr "Χώρος κατειλλημένος από πακεταρισμένα αντικείμενα"
+
+#: lib/database.tcl:48
+msgid "Packed objects waiting for pruning"
+msgstr "Πακεταρισμένα αντικείμενα έτοιμα για κλάδεμα"
+
+#: lib/database.tcl:49
+msgid "Garbage files"
+msgstr "Άχρηστα αρχεία"
+
+#: lib/database.tcl:72
+msgid "Compressing the object database"
+msgstr "Γίνεται συμπίεση της βάσης δεδομένων αντικειμένων"
+
+#: lib/database.tcl:83
+msgid "Verifying the object database with fsck-objects"
+msgstr ""
+"Γίνεται επαλήθευση της βάσης δεδομένων αντικειμένων με αντικείμενα fsck"
+
+#: lib/database.tcl:108
+#, tcl-format
+msgid ""
+"This repository currently has approximately %i loose objects.\n"
+"\n"
+"To maintain optimal performance it is strongly recommended that you compress "
+"the database when more than %i loose objects exist.\n"
+"\n"
+"Compress the database now?"
+msgstr ""
+"Αυτό το αποθετήριο έχει αυτή τη στιγμή περίπου %i ελεύθερα αντικείμενα.\n"
+"\n"
+"Για τη διατήρηση βέλτιστων επιδόσεων συνιστάται να συμπιέσετε τη βάση "
+"δεδομένων όταν υπάρχουν περισσότερα από %i ελεύθερα αντικείμενα.\n"
+"\n"
+"Συμπίεση της βάσης δεδομένων τώρα;"
+
+#: lib/date.tcl:25
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Invalid date from Git: %s"
+msgstr "Μη έγκυρη ημερομηνία από το Git: %s"
+
+#: lib/diff.tcl:42
+#, tcl-format
+msgid ""
+"No differences detected.\n"
+"\n"
+"%s has no changes.\n"
+"\n"
+"The modification date of this file was updated by another application, but "
+"the content within the file was not changed.\n"
+"\n"
+"A rescan will be automatically started to find other files which may have "
+"the same state."
+msgstr ""
+"Δεν ανιχνεύθηκαν διαφορές.\n"
+"\n"
+"Το %s δεν έχει αλλαγές."
+"\n"
+"Η ημερομηνία τροποποίησης αυτού του αρχείου ενημερώθηκε από άλλη εφαρμογή, "
+"αλλά το περιεχόμενο του αρχείου δεν άλλαξε.\n"
+"\n"
+"Θα ξεκινήσει αυτόματα επανανίχνευση για να βρεθούν άλλα αρχεία που μπορεί να "
+"βρίσκονται σε ίδια κατάσταση."
+
+#: lib/diff.tcl:81
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Loading diff of %s..."
+msgstr "Γίνεται φόρτωση διαφοράς του %s..."
+
+#: lib/diff.tcl:114 lib/diff.tcl:184
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Unable to display %s"
+msgstr "Δεν είναι δυνατή η προβολή του %s"
+
+#: lib/diff.tcl:115
+msgid "Error loading file:"
+msgstr "Σφάλμα φόρτωσης αρχείου:"
+
+#: lib/diff.tcl:122
+msgid "Git Repository (subproject)"
+msgstr "Αποθετήριο Git (θυγατρικό έργο)"
+
+#: lib/diff.tcl:134
+msgid "* Binary file (not showing content)."
+msgstr "* Δυαδικό αρχείο (μη εμφάνιση περιεχομένου)."
+
+#: lib/diff.tcl:185
+msgid "Error loading diff:"
+msgstr "Σφάλμα φόρτωσης διαφοράς:"
+
+#: lib/diff.tcl:303
+msgid "Failed to unstage selected hunk."
+msgstr "Αποτυχία αποσταδιοποίησης επιλεγμένου κομματιού."
+
+#: lib/diff.tcl:310
+msgid "Failed to stage selected hunk."
+msgstr "Αποτυχία σταδιοποίησης επιλεγμένου κομματιού."
+
+#: lib/error.tcl:20 lib/error.tcl:114
+msgid "error"
+msgstr "σφάλμα"
+
+#: lib/error.tcl:36
+msgid "warning"
+msgstr "προειδοποίηση"
+
+#: lib/error.tcl:94
+msgid "You must correct the above errors before committing."
+msgstr "Πρέπει να διορθώσετε τα παραπάνω λάθη πριν την υποβολή."
+
+#: lib/index.tcl:6
+msgid "Unable to unlock the index."
+msgstr "Αδυναμία ξεκλειδώματος του ευρετηρίου."
+
+#: lib/index.tcl:15
+msgid "Index Error"
+msgstr "Σφάλμα Ευρετηρίου"
+
+#: lib/index.tcl:21
+msgid ""
+"Updating the Git index failed.  A rescan will be automatically started to "
+"resynchronize git-gui."
+msgstr ""
+"Η ενημέρωση του ευρετηρίου Git απέτυχε. Θα ξεκινήσει αυτόματα επανανίχνευση "
+"για επανασυγχρονισμό του git-gui."
+
+#: lib/index.tcl:27
+msgid "Continue"
+msgstr "Συνέχεια"
+
+#: lib/index.tcl:31
+msgid "Unlock Index"
+msgstr "Ξεκλείδωμα Ευρετηρίου"
+
+#: lib/index.tcl:282
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Unstaging %s from commit"
+msgstr "Αποσταδιοποίηση %s από υποβολή"
+
+#: lib/index.tcl:313
+msgid "Ready to commit."
+msgstr "Έτοιμο προς υποβολή."
+
+#: lib/index.tcl:326
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Adding %s"
+msgstr "Προσθήκη %s"
+
+#: lib/index.tcl:381
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Revert changes in file %s?"
+msgstr "Αναίρεση αλλαγών στο αρχείο %s;"
+
+#: lib/index.tcl:383
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Revert changes in these %i files?"
+msgstr "Αναίρεση αλλαγών σε αυτά τα %i αρχεία;"
+
+#: lib/index.tcl:391
+msgid "Any unstaged changes will be permanently lost by the revert."
+msgstr ""
+"Όλες οι μη σταδιοποιημένες αλλαγές θα χαθούν οριστικά από την αναίρεση."
+
+#: lib/index.tcl:394
+msgid "Do Nothing"
+msgstr "Καμία Ενέργεια"
+
+#: lib/merge.tcl:13
+msgid ""
+"Cannot merge while amending.\n"
+"\n"
+"You must finish amending this commit before starting any type of merge.\n"
+msgstr ""
+"Δε γίνεται συγχώνευση καθώς διορθώνετε.\n"
+"\n"
+"Πρέπει να τελειώσετε τη διόρθωση αυτής της υποβολής πριν να ξεκινήσετε "
+"οποιασδήποτε μορφής συγχώνευση.\n"
+
+#: lib/merge.tcl:27
+msgid ""
+"Last scanned state does not match repository state.\n"
+"\n"
+"Another Git program has modified this repository since the last scan.  A "
+"rescan must be performed before a merge can be performed.\n"
+"\n"
+"The rescan will be automatically started now.\n"
+msgstr ""
+"Η τελευταία κατάσταση που ανιχνεύθηκε δε συμφωνεί με την κατάσταση του "
+"αποθετηρίου.\n"
+"\n"
+"Κάποιο άλλο πρόγραμμα Git τροποποίησε το αποθετήριο από την τελευταία "
+"ανίχνευση. Πρέπει να γίνει επανανίχνευση πριν τη διενέργεια συγχώνευσης.\n"
+"\n"
+"Η επανανίχνευση θα ξεκινήσει αυτόματα τώρα.\n"
+
+#: lib/merge.tcl:44
+#, tcl-format
+msgid ""
+"You are in the middle of a conflicted merge.\n"
+"\n"
+"File %s has merge conflicts.\n"
+"\n"
+"You must resolve them, stage the file, and commit to complete the current "
+"merge.  Only then can you begin another merge.\n"
+msgstr ""
+"Βρίσκεστε στο μέσο μιας συγκρουόμενης συγχώνευσης.\n"
+"\n"
+"Το αρχείο %s έχει συγκρούσεις συγχώνευσης.\n"
+"\n"
+"Πρέπει να τις επιλύσετε, να σταδιοποιήσετε το αρχείο, και να κάνετε υποβολή "
+"για να ολοκληρώσετε την τρέχουσα συγχώνευση. Μόνο τότε μπορείτε να "
+"ξεκινήσετε άλλη συγχώνευση.\n"
+
+#: lib/merge.tcl:54
+#, tcl-format
+msgid ""
+"You are in the middle of a change.\n"
+"\n"
+"File %s is modified.\n"
+"\n"
+"You should complete the current commit before starting a merge.  Doing so "
+"will help you abort a failed merge, should the need arise.\n"
+msgstr ""
+"Βρίσκεστε στο μέσο μιας αλλαγής.\n"
+"\n"
+"Το αρχείο %s έχει τροποποιηθεί.\n"
+"\n"
+"Πρέπει να ολοκληρώσετε την τρέχουσα συγχώνευση πριν να ξεκινήσετε συγχώνευση."
+" Αυτό βοηθά στην ακύρωση αποτυχημένης συγχώνευσης, εάν χρειαστεί.\n"
+
+#: lib/merge.tcl:106
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "%s of %s"
+msgstr "%s από %s"
+
+#: lib/merge.tcl:119
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Merging %s and %s..."
+msgstr "Γίνεται συγχώνευση του %s με το %s..."
+
+#: lib/merge.tcl:130
+msgid "Merge completed successfully."
+msgstr "Η συγχώνευση ολοκληρώθηκε επιτυχώς."
+
+#: lib/merge.tcl:132
+msgid "Merge failed.  Conflict resolution is required."
+msgstr "Η συγχώνευση απέτυχε. Απαιτείται επίλυση συγκρούσεων."
+
+#: lib/merge.tcl:157
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "Merge Into %s"
+msgstr "Συγχώνευση με %s"
+
+#: lib/merge.tcl:176
+msgid "Revision To Merge"
+msgstr "Αναθεώρηση Προς Συγχώνευση"
+
+#: lib/merge.tcl:211
+msgid ""
+"Cannot abort while amending.\n"
+"\n"
+"You must finish amending this commit.\n"
+msgstr ""
+"Δε γίνεται ακύρωση καθώς διορθώνετε.\n"
+"\n"
+"Πρέπει να τελειώσετε τη διόρθωση αυτής της υποβολής.\n"
+
+#: lib/merge.tcl:221
+msgid ""
+"Abort merge?\n"
+"\n"
+"Aborting the current merge will cause *ALL* uncommitted changes to be lost.\n"
+"\n"
+"Continue with aborting the current merge?"
+msgstr ""
+"Ακύρωση συγχώνευσης;\n"
+"\n"
+"Η ακύρωση της τρέχουσας συγχώνευσης θα προκαλέσει απώλεια *ΟΛΩΝ* των μη "
+"υποβεβλημένων αλλαγών.\n"
+"\n"
+"Να προχωρήσει η ακύρωση της τρέχουσας συγχώνευσης;"
+
+#: lib/merge.tcl:227
+msgid ""
+"Reset changes?\n"
+"\n"
+"Resetting the changes will cause *ALL* uncommitted changes to be lost.\n"
+"\n"
+"Continue with resetting the current changes?"
+msgstr ""
+"Επαναφορά αλλαγών;\n"
+"\n"
+"Η επαναφορά των αλλαγών θα προκαλέσει απώλεια *ΟΛΩΝ* των μη υποβεβλημένων "
+"αλλαγών.\n"
+"\n"
+"Να συνεχίσει η επαναφορά των τρέχουσων αλλαγών;"
+
+#: lib/merge.tcl:238
+msgid "Aborting"
+msgstr "Γίνεται ακύρωση"
+
+#: lib/merge.tcl:238
+msgid "files reset"
+msgstr "αρχεία που επαναφέρθηκαν"
+
+#: lib/merge.tcl:265
+msgid "Abort failed."
+msgstr "Η ακύρωση απέτυχε."
+
+#: lib/merge.tcl:267
+msgid "Abort completed.  Ready."
+msgstr "Η ακύρωση απέτυχε. Έτοιμο."
+
+#: lib/option.tcl:95
+msgid "Restore Defaults"
+msgstr "Επαναφορά Προεπιλογών"
+
+#: lib/option.tcl:99
+msgid "Save"
+msgstr "Αποθήκευση"
+
+#: lib/option.tcl:109
+#, tcl-format
+msgid "%s Repository"
+msgstr "%s Αποθετήριο"
+
+#: lib/option.tcl:110
+msgid "Global (All Repositories)"
+msgstr "Ολικό (Όλα τα Αποθετήρια)"
+
+#: lib/option.tcl:116
+msgid "User Name"
+msgstr "Όνομα Χρήστη"
+
+#: lib/option.tcl:117
+msgid "Email Address"
+msgstr "Διεύθυνση Email"
+
+#: lib/option.tcl:119
+msgid "Summarize Merge Commits"
+msgstr "Περίληψη Υποβολών Συγχώνευσης"
+
+#: lib/option.tcl:120
+msgid "Merge Verbosity"
+msgstr "Λεπτομέρεια Συγχώνευσης"
+
+#: lib/option.tcl:121
+msgid "Show Diffstat After Merge"
+msgstr "Προβολή Στατιστικών Διαφοράς Μετά από Συγχώνευση"
+
+#: lib/option.tcl:123
+msgid "Trust File Modification Timestamps"
+msgstr "Εμπιστοσύνη Ημερομηνιών Μετατροπής Αρχείων"
+
+#: lib/option.tcl:124
+msgid "Prune Tracking Branches During Fetch"
+msgstr "Κλάδεμα Κλάδων Παρακολούθησης Κατά Την Ανάκτηση"
+
+#: lib/option.tcl:125
+msgid "Match Tracking Branches"
+msgstr "Συμφωνία Κλάδων Παρακολούθησης"
+
+#: lib/option.tcl:126
+msgid "Number of Diff Context Lines"
+msgstr "Αριθμός Γραμμών Εννοιολογικού Πλαισίου Διαφοράς"
+
+#: lib/option.tcl:127
+msgid "Commit Message Text Width"
+msgstr "Πλάτος Κειμένου Μηνύματος Υποβολής"
+
+#: lib/option.tcl:128
+ms