code / linux / torvalds / linux / 5649625344fe1f4695eace7c37d011e317bf66d5 / . / Documentation / networking / fib_trie.txt

LC-trie implementation notes. | |

Node types | |

---------- | |

leaf | |

An end node with data. This has a copy of the relevant key, along | |

with 'hlist' with routing table entries sorted by prefix length. | |

See struct leaf and struct leaf_info. | |

trie node or tnode | |

An internal node, holding an array of child (leaf or tnode) pointers, | |

indexed through a subset of the key. See Level Compression. | |

A few concepts explained | |

------------------------ | |

Bits (tnode) | |

The number of bits in the key segment used for indexing into the | |

child array - the "child index". See Level Compression. | |

Pos (tnode) | |

The position (in the key) of the key segment used for indexing into | |

the child array. See Path Compression. | |

Path Compression / skipped bits | |

Any given tnode is linked to from the child array of its parent, using | |

a segment of the key specified by the parent's "pos" and "bits" | |

In certain cases, this tnode's own "pos" will not be immediately | |

adjacent to the parent (pos+bits), but there will be some bits | |

in the key skipped over because they represent a single path with no | |

deviations. These "skipped bits" constitute Path Compression. | |

Note that the search algorithm will simply skip over these bits when | |

searching, making it necessary to save the keys in the leaves to | |

verify that they actually do match the key we are searching for. | |

Level Compression / child arrays | |

the trie is kept level balanced moving, under certain conditions, the | |

children of a full child (see "full_children") up one level, so that | |

instead of a pure binary tree, each internal node ("tnode") may | |

contain an arbitrarily large array of links to several children. | |

Conversely, a tnode with a mostly empty child array (see empty_children) | |

may be "halved", having some of its children moved downwards one level, | |

in order to avoid ever-increasing child arrays. | |

empty_children | |

the number of positions in the child array of a given tnode that are | |

NULL. | |

full_children | |

the number of children of a given tnode that aren't path compressed. | |

(in other words, they aren't NULL or leaves and their "pos" is equal | |

to this tnode's "pos"+"bits"). | |

(The word "full" here is used more in the sense of "complete" than | |

as the opposite of "empty", which might be a tad confusing.) | |

Comments | |

--------- | |

We have tried to keep the structure of the code as close to fib_hash as | |

possible to allow verification and help up reviewing. | |

fib_find_node() | |

A good start for understanding this code. This function implements a | |

straightforward trie lookup. | |

fib_insert_node() | |

Inserts a new leaf node in the trie. This is bit more complicated than | |

fib_find_node(). Inserting a new node means we might have to run the | |

level compression algorithm on part of the trie. | |

trie_leaf_remove() | |

Looks up a key, deletes it and runs the level compression algorithm. | |

trie_rebalance() | |

The key function for the dynamic trie after any change in the trie | |

it is run to optimize and reorganize. It will walk the trie upwards | |

towards the root from a given tnode, doing a resize() at each step | |

to implement level compression. | |

resize() | |

Analyzes a tnode and optimizes the child array size by either inflating | |

or shrinking it repeatedly until it fulfills the criteria for optimal | |

level compression. This part follows the original paper pretty closely | |

and there may be some room for experimentation here. | |

inflate() | |

Doubles the size of the child array within a tnode. Used by resize(). | |

halve() | |

Halves the size of the child array within a tnode - the inverse of | |

inflate(). Used by resize(); | |

fn_trie_insert(), fn_trie_delete(), fn_trie_select_default() | |

The route manipulation functions. Should conform pretty closely to the | |

corresponding functions in fib_hash. | |

fn_trie_flush() | |

This walks the full trie (using nextleaf()) and searches for empty | |

leaves which have to be removed. | |

fn_trie_dump() | |

Dumps the routing table ordered by prefix length. This is somewhat | |

slower than the corresponding fib_hash function, as we have to walk the | |

entire trie for each prefix length. In comparison, fib_hash is organized | |

as one "zone"/hash per prefix length. | |

Locking | |

------- | |

fib_lock is used for an RW-lock in the same way that this is done in fib_hash. | |

However, the functions are somewhat separated for other possible locking | |

scenarios. It might conceivably be possible to run trie_rebalance via RCU | |

to avoid read_lock in the fn_trie_lookup() function. | |

Main lookup mechanism | |

--------------------- | |

fn_trie_lookup() is the main lookup function. | |

The lookup is in its simplest form just like fib_find_node(). We descend the | |

trie, key segment by key segment, until we find a leaf. check_leaf() does | |

the fib_semantic_match in the leaf's sorted prefix hlist. | |

If we find a match, we are done. | |

If we don't find a match, we enter prefix matching mode. The prefix length, | |

starting out at the same as the key length, is reduced one step at a time, | |

and we backtrack upwards through the trie trying to find a longest matching | |

prefix. The goal is always to reach a leaf and get a positive result from the | |

fib_semantic_match mechanism. | |

Inside each tnode, the search for longest matching prefix consists of searching | |

through the child array, chopping off (zeroing) the least significant "1" of | |

the child index until we find a match or the child index consists of nothing but | |

zeros. | |

At this point we backtrack (t->stats.backtrack++) up the trie, continuing to | |

chop off part of the key in order to find the longest matching prefix. | |

At this point we will repeatedly descend subtries to look for a match, and there | |

are some optimizations available that can provide us with "shortcuts" to avoid | |

descending into dead ends. Look for "HL_OPTIMIZE" sections in the code. | |

To alleviate any doubts about the correctness of the route selection process, | |

a new netlink operation has been added. Look for NETLINK_FIB_LOOKUP, which | |

gives userland access to fib_lookup(). |