Merge branch 'lv/add-doc-working-tree' into maint

* lv/add-doc-working-tree:
  git-add doc: do not say working directory when you mean working tree
diff --git a/.gitignore b/.gitignore
index a685ec1..1c2f832 100644
--- a/.gitignore
+++ b/.gitignore
@@ -155,6 +155,7 @@
 /git-status
 /git-stripspace
 /git-submodule
+/git-submodule--helper
 /git-svn
 /git-symbolic-ref
 /git-tag
@@ -205,6 +206,7 @@
 /test-sha1-array
 /test-sigchain
 /test-string-list
+/test-submodule-config
 /test-subprocess
 /test-svn-fe
 /test-urlmatch-normalization
diff --git a/.mailmap b/.mailmap
index ece2951..e5b4126 100644
--- a/.mailmap
+++ b/.mailmap
@@ -186,7 +186,7 @@
 Philipp A. Hartmann <pah@qo.cx> <ph@sorgh.de>
 Philippe Bruhat <book@cpan.org>
 Ralf Thielow <ralf.thielow@gmail.com> <ralf.thielow@googlemail.com>
-Ramsay Allan Jones <ramsay@ramsay1.demon.co.uk>
+Ramsay Jones <ramsay@ramsayjones.plus.com> <ramsay@ramsay1.demon.co.uk>
 René Scharfe <l.s.r@web.de> <rene.scharfe@lsrfire.ath.cx>
 Robert Fitzsimons <robfitz@273k.net>
 Robert Shearman <robertshearman@gmail.com> <rob@codeweavers.com>
diff --git a/.travis.yml b/.travis.yml
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..c3bf9c6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/.travis.yml
@@ -0,0 +1,91 @@
+language: c
+
+os:
+  - linux
+  - osx
+
+compiler:
+  - clang
+  - gcc
+
+addons:
+  apt:
+    packages:
+    - language-pack-is
+
+env:
+  global:
+    - P4_VERSION="15.2"
+    - GIT_LFS_VERSION="1.1.0"
+    - DEFAULT_TEST_TARGET=prove
+    - GIT_PROVE_OPTS="--timer --jobs 3"
+    - GIT_TEST_OPTS="--verbose --tee"
+    - CFLAGS="-g -O2 -Wall -Werror"
+    - GIT_TEST_CLONE_2GB=YesPlease
+    # t9810 occasionally fails on Travis CI OS X
+    # t9816 occasionally fails with "TAP out of sequence errors" on Travis CI OS X
+    - GIT_SKIP_TESTS="t9810 t9816"
+
+before_install:
+  - >
+    case "${TRAVIS_OS_NAME:-linux}" in
+    linux)
+      mkdir --parents custom/p4
+      pushd custom/p4
+        wget --quiet http://filehost.perforce.com/perforce/r$P4_VERSION/bin.linux26x86_64/p4d
+        wget --quiet http://filehost.perforce.com/perforce/r$P4_VERSION/bin.linux26x86_64/p4
+        chmod u+x p4d
+        chmod u+x p4
+        export PATH="$(pwd):$PATH"
+      popd
+      mkdir --parents custom/git-lfs
+      pushd custom/git-lfs
+        wget --quiet https://github.com/github/git-lfs/releases/download/v$GIT_LFS_VERSION/git-lfs-linux-amd64-$GIT_LFS_VERSION.tar.gz
+        tar --extract --gunzip --file "git-lfs-linux-amd64-$GIT_LFS_VERSION.tar.gz"
+        cp git-lfs-$GIT_LFS_VERSION/git-lfs .
+        export PATH="$(pwd):$PATH"
+      popd
+      ;;
+    osx)
+      brew_force_set_latest_binary_hash () {
+        FORMULA=$1
+        SHA=$(brew fetch --force $FORMULA 2>&1 | grep ^SHA256: | cut -d ' ' -f 2)
+        sed -E -i.bak "s/sha256 \"[0-9a-f]{64}\"/sha256 \"$SHA\"/g" \
+          /usr/local/Library/Taps/homebrew/homebrew-binary/$FORMULA.rb
+      }
+      brew update --quiet
+      brew tap homebrew/binary --quiet
+      brew_force_set_latest_binary_hash perforce
+      brew_force_set_latest_binary_hash perforce-server
+      brew install git-lfs perforce-server perforce gettext
+      brew link --force gettext
+      ;;
+    esac;
+    echo "$(tput setaf 6)Perforce Server Version$(tput sgr0)";
+    p4d -V | grep Rev.;
+    echo "$(tput setaf 6)Perforce Client Version$(tput sgr0)";
+    p4 -V | grep Rev.;
+    echo "$(tput setaf 6)Git-LFS Version$(tput sgr0)";
+    git-lfs version;
+
+before_script: make --jobs=2
+
+script: make --quiet test
+
+after_failure:
+  - >
+    : '<-- Click here to see detailed test output!                                                        ';
+    for TEST_EXIT in t/test-results/*.exit;
+    do
+      if [ "$(cat "$TEST_EXIT")" != "0" ];
+      then
+        TEST_OUT="${TEST_EXIT%exit}out";
+        echo "------------------------------------------------------------------------";
+        echo "$(tput setaf 1)${TEST_OUT}...$(tput sgr0)";
+        echo "------------------------------------------------------------------------";
+        cat "${TEST_OUT}";
+      fi;
+    done;
+
+notifications:
+  email: false
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.7.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.7.txt
index 7655ccc..6eff128 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.7.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.7.7.txt
@@ -84,7 +84,7 @@
    logic used by "git diff" to determine the hunk header.
 
  * Invoking the low-level "git http-fetch" without "-a" option (which
-   git itself never did---normal users should not have to worry about
+   git itself never did--normal users should not have to worry about
    this) is now deprecated.
 
  * The "--decorate" option to "git log" and its family learned to
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt
index fc3ea18..986637b 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.3.1.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 Git v1.8.3.1 Release Notes
-========================
+==========================
 
 Fixes since v1.8.3
 ------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt
index 3aa25a2..96090ef 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.1.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 Git v1.8.4.1 Release Notes
-========================
+==========================
 
 Fixes since v1.8.4
 ------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt
index 9adccb1..bf6fb1a 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.2.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 Git v1.8.4.2 Release Notes
-========================
+==========================
 
 Fixes since v1.8.4.1
 --------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt
index 03f3d17..267a1b3 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.3.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 Git v1.8.4.3 Release Notes
-========================
+==========================
 
 Fixes since v1.8.4.2
 --------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt
index 7bc4c5dc..a7c1ce1 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.8.4.4.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 Git v1.8.4.4 Release Notes
-========================
+==========================
 
 Fixes since v1.8.4.3
 --------------------
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.0.txt
index 752d791..4e4b88a 100644
--- a/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.0.txt
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/1.9.0.txt
@@ -177,7 +177,7 @@
  * The naming convention of the packfiles has been updated; it used to
    be based on the enumeration of names of the objects that are
    contained in the pack, but now it also depends on how the packed
-   result is represented---packing the same set of objects using
+   result is represented--packing the same set of objects using
    different settings (or delta order) would produce a pack with
    different name.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..7288aaf
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,370 @@
+Git 2.6 Release Notes
+=====================
+
+Updates since v2.5
+------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * An asterisk as a substring (as opposed to the entirety) of a path
+   component for both side of a refspec, e.g.
+   "refs/heads/o*:refs/remotes/heads/i*", is now allowed.
+
+ * New userdiff pattern definition for fountain screenwriting markup
+   format has been added.
+
+ * "git log" and friends learned a new "--date=format:..." option to
+   format timestamps using system's strftime(3).
+
+ * "git fast-import" learned to respond to the get-mark command via
+   its cat-blob-fd interface.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" learned "drop commit-object-name subject" command
+   as another way to skip replaying of a commit.
+
+ * A new configuration variable can enable "--follow" automatically
+   when "git log" is run with one pathspec argument.
+
+ * "git status" learned to show a more detailed information regarding
+   the "rebase -i" session in progress.
+
+ * "git cat-file" learned "--batch-all-objects" option to enumerate all
+   available objects in the repository more quickly than "rev-list
+   --all --objects" (the output includes unreachable objects, though).
+
+ * "git fsck" learned to ignore errors on a set of known-to-be-bad
+   objects, and also allows the warning levels of various kinds of
+   non-critical breakages to be tweaked.
+
+ * "git rebase -i"'s list of todo is made configurable.
+
+ * "git send-email" now performs alias-expansion on names that are
+   given via --cccmd, etc.
+
+ * An environment variable GIT_REPLACE_REF_BASE tells Git to look into
+   refs hierarchy other than refs/replace/ for the object replacement
+   data.
+
+ * Allow untracked cache (experimental) to be used when sparse
+   checkout (experimental) is also in use.
+
+ * "git pull --rebase" has been taught to pay attention to
+   rebase.autostash configuration.
+
+ * The command-line completion script (in contrib/) has been updated.
+
+ * A negative !ref entry in multi-value transfer.hideRefs
+   configuration can be used to say "don't hide this one".
+
+ * After "git am" without "-3" stops, running "git am -3" pays attention
+   to "-3" only for the patch that caused the original invocation
+   to stop.
+
+ * When linked worktree is used, simultaneous "notes merge" instances
+   for the same ref in refs/notes/* are prevented from stomping on
+   each other.
+
+ * "git send-email" learned a new option --smtp-auth to limit the SMTP
+   AUTH mechanisms to be used to a subset of what the system library
+   supports.
+
+ * A new configuration variable http.sslVersion can be used to specify
+   what specific version of SSL/TLS to use to make a connection.
+
+ * "git notes merge" can be told with "--strategy=<how>" option how to
+   automatically handle conflicts; this can now be configured by
+   setting notes.mergeStrategy configuration variable.
+
+ * "git log --cc" did not show any patch, even though most of the time
+   the user meant "git log --cc -p -m" to see patch output for commits
+   with a single parent, and combined diff for merge commits.  The
+   command is taught to DWIM "--cc" (without "--raw" and other forms
+   of output specification) to "--cc -p -m".
+
+ * "git config --list" output was hard to parse when values consist of
+   multiple lines.  "--name-only" option is added to help this.
+
+ * A handful of usability & cosmetic fixes to gitk and l10n updates.
+
+ * A completely empty e-mail address <> is now allowed in the authors
+   file used by git-svn, to match the way it accepts the output from
+   authors-prog.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * In preparation for allowing different "backends" to store the refs
+   in a way different from the traditional "one ref per file in
+   $GIT_DIR or in a $GIT_DIR/packed-refs file" filesystem storage,
+   direct filesystem access to ref-like things like CHERRY_PICK_HEAD
+   from scripts and programs has been reduced.
+
+ * Computation of untracked status indicator by bash prompt
+   script (in contrib/) has been optimized.
+
+ * Memory use reduction when commit-slab facility is used to annotate
+   sparsely (which is not recommended in the first place).
+
+ * Clean up refs API and make "git clone" less intimate with the
+   implementation detail.
+
+ * "git pull" was reimplemented in C.
+
+ * The packet tracing machinery allows to capture an incoming pack
+   data to a file for debugging.
+
+ * Move machinery to parse human-readable scaled numbers like 1k, 4M,
+   and 2G as an option parameter's value from pack-objects to
+   parse-options API, to make it available to other codepaths.
+
+ * "git verify-tag" and "git verify-commit" have been taught to share
+   more code, and then learned to optionally show the verification
+   message from the underlying GPG implementation.
+
+ * Various enhancements around "git am" reading patches generated by
+   foreign SCM have been made.
+
+ * Ref listing by "git branch -l" and "git tag -l" commands has
+   started to be rebuilt, based on the for-each-ref machinery.
+
+ * The code to perform multi-tree merges has been taught to repopulate
+   the cache-tree upon a successful merge into the index, so that
+   subsequent "diff-index --cached" (hence "status") and "write-tree"
+   (hence "commit") will go faster.
+
+   The same logic in "git checkout" may now be removed, but that is a
+   separate issue.
+
+ * Tests that assume how reflogs are represented on the filesystem too
+   much have been corrected.
+
+ * "git am" has been rewritten in "C".
+
+ * git_path() and mkpath() are handy helper functions but it is easy
+   to misuse, as the callers need to be careful to keep the number of
+   active results below 4.  Their uses have been reduced.
+
+ * The "lockfile" API has been rebuilt on top of a new "tempfile" API.
+
+ * To prepare for allowing a different "ref" backend to be plugged in
+   to the system, update_ref()/delete_ref() have been taught about
+   ref-like things like MERGE_HEAD that are per-worktree (they will
+   always be written to the filesystem inside $GIT_DIR).
+
+ * The gitmodules API that is accessed from the C code learned to
+   cache stuff lazily.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.5
+----------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.5 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'
+notes for details).
+
+ * "git subtree" (in contrib/) depended on "git log" output to be
+   stable, which was a no-no.  Apply a workaround to force a
+   particular date format.
+   (merge e7aac44 da/subtree-date-confusion later to maint).
+
+ * An attempt to delete a ref by pushing into a repository whose HEAD
+   symbolic reference points at an unborn branch that cannot be
+   created due to ref D/F conflict (e.g. refs/heads/a/b exists, HEAD
+   points at refs/heads/a) failed.
+   (merge b112b14 jx/do-not-crash-receive-pack-wo-head later to maint).
+
+ * The low-level "git send-pack" did not honor 'user.signingkey'
+   configuration variable when sending a signed-push.
+   (merge d830d39 db/send-pack-user-signingkey later to maint).
+
+ * "sparse checkout" misbehaved for a path that is excluded from the
+   checkout when switching between branches that differ at the path.
+   (merge 7d78241 as/sparse-checkout-removal later to maint).
+
+ * An experimental "untracked cache" feature used uname(2) in a
+   slightly unportable way.
+   (merge 100e433 cb/uname-in-untracked later to maint).
+
+ * A "rebase" replays changes of the local branch on top of something
+   else, as such they are placed in stage #3 and referred to as
+   "theirs", while the changes in the new base, typically a foreign
+   work, are placed in stage #2 and referred to as "ours".  Clarify
+   the "checkout --ours/--theirs".
+   (merge f303016 se/doc-checkout-ours-theirs later to maint).
+
+ * The "rev-parse --parseopt" mode parsed the option specification
+   and the argument hint in a strange way to allow '=' and other
+   special characters in the option name while forbidding them from
+   the argument hint.  This made it impossible to define an option
+   like "--pair <key>=<value>" with "pair=key=value" specification,
+   which instead would have defined a "--pair=key <value>" option.
+   (merge 2d893df ib/scripted-parse-opt-better-hint-string later to maint).
+
+ * Often a fast-import stream builds a new commit on top of the
+   previous commit it built, and it often unconditionally emits a
+   "from" command to specify the first parent, which can be omitted in
+   such a case.  This caused fast-import to forget the tree of the
+   previous commit and then re-read it from scratch, which was
+   inefficient.  Optimize for this common case.
+   (merge 0df3245 mh/fast-import-optimize-current-from later to maint).
+
+ * Running an aliased command from a subdirectory when the .git thing
+   in the working tree is a gitfile pointing elsewhere did not work.
+   (merge d95138e nd/export-worktree later to maint).
+
+ * "Is this subdirectory a separate repository that should not be
+   touched?" check "git clean" was inefficient.  This was replaced
+   with a more optimized check.
+   (merge fbf2fec ee/clean-remove-dirs later to maint).
+
+ * The "new-worktree-mode" hack in "checkout" that was added in
+   nd/multiple-work-trees topic has been removed by updating the
+   implementation of new "worktree add".
+   (merge 65f9b75 es/worktree-add-cleanup later to maint).
+
+ * Remove remaining cruft from  "git checkout --to", which
+   transitioned to "git worktree add".
+   (merge 114ff88 es/worktree-add later to maint).
+
+ * An off-by-one error made "git remote" to mishandle a remote with a
+   single letter nickname.
+   (merge bc598c3 mh/get-remote-group-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git clone $URL", when cloning from a site whose sole purpose is to
+   host a single repository (hence, no path after <scheme>://<site>/),
+   tried to use the site name as the new repository name, but did not
+   remove username or password when <site> part was of the form
+   <user>@<pass>:<host>.  The code is taught to redact these.
+   (merge adef956 ps/guess-repo-name-at-root later to maint).
+
+ * Running tests with the "-x" option to make them verbose had some
+   unpleasant interactions with other features of the test suite.
+   (merge 9b5fe78 jk/test-with-x later to maint).
+
+ * t1509 test that requires a dedicated VM environment had some
+   bitrot, which has been corrected.
+   (merge faacc5a ps/t1509-chroot-test-fixup later to maint).
+
+ * "git pull" in recent releases of Git has a regression in the code
+   that allows custom path to the --upload-pack=<program>.  This has
+   been corrected.
+
+   Note that this is irrelevant for 'master' with "git pull" rewritten
+   in C.
+   (merge 13e0e28 mm/pull-upload-pack later to maint).
+
+ * When trying to see that an object does not exist, a state errno
+   leaked from our "first try to open a packfile with O_NOATIME and
+   then if it fails retry without it" logic on a system that refuses
+   O_NOATIME.  This confused us and caused us to die, saying that the
+   packfile is unreadable, when we should have just reported that the
+   object does not exist in that packfile to the caller.
+   (merge dff6f28 cb/open-noatime-clear-errno later to maint).
+
+ * The codepath to produce error messages had a hard-coded limit to
+   the size of the message, primarily to avoid memory allocation while
+   calling die().
+   (merge f4c3edc jk/long-error-messages later to maint).
+
+ * strbuf_read() used to have one extra iteration (and an unnecessary
+   strbuf_grow() of 8kB), which was eliminated.
+   (merge 3ebbd00 jh/strbuf-read-use-read-in-full later to maint).
+
+ * We rewrote one of the build scripts in Perl but this reimplements
+   in Bourne shell.
+   (merge 57cee8a sg/help-group later to maint).
+
+ * The experimental untracked-cache feature were buggy when paths with
+   a few levels of subdirectories are involved.
+   (merge 73f9145 dt/untracked-subdir later to maint).
+
+ * "interpret-trailers" helper mistook a single-liner log message that
+   has a colon as the end of existing trailer.
+
+ * The "interpret-trailers" helper mistook a multi-paragraph title of
+   a commit log message with a colon in it as the end of the trailer
+   block.
+   (merge 5c99995 cc/trailers-corner-case-fix later to maint).
+
+ * "git describe" without argument defaulted to describe the HEAD
+   commit, but "git describe --contains" didn't.  Arguably, in a
+   repository used for active development, such defaulting would not
+   be very useful as the tip of branch is typically not tagged, but it
+   is better to be consistent.
+   (merge 2bd0706 sg/describe-contains later to maint).
+
+ * The client side codepaths in "git push" have been cleaned up
+   and the user can request to perform an optional "signed push",
+   i.e. sign only when the other end accepts signed push.
+   (merge 68c757f db/push-sign-if-asked later to maint).
+
+ * Because the configuration system does not allow "alias.0foo" and
+   "pager.0foo" as the configuration key, the user cannot use '0foo'
+   as a custom command name anyway, but "git 0foo" tried to look these
+   keys up and emitted useless warnings before saying '0foo is not a
+   git command'.  These warning messages have been squelched.
+   (merge 9e9de18 jk/fix-alias-pager-config-key-warnings later to maint).
+
+ * "git rev-list" does not take "--notes" option, but did not complain
+   when one is given.
+   (merge 2aea7a5 jk/rev-list-has-no-notes later to maint).
+
+ * When re-priming the cache-tree opportunistically while committing
+   the in-core index as-is, we mistakenly invalidated the in-core
+   index too aggressively, causing the experimental split-index code
+   to unnecessarily rewrite the on-disk index file(s).
+   (merge 475a344 dt/commit-preserve-base-index-upon-opportunistic-cache-tree-update later to maint).
+
+ * "git archive" did not use zip64 extension when creating an archive
+   with more than 64k entries, which nobody should need, right ;-)?
+   (merge 88329ca rs/archive-zip-many later to maint).
+
+ * The code in "multiple-worktree" support that attempted to recover
+   from an inconsistent state updated an incorrect file.
+   (merge 82fde87 nd/fixup-linked-gitdir later to maint).
+
+ * On case insensitive systems, "git p4" did not work well with client
+   specs.
+
+ * "git init empty && git -C empty log" said "bad default revision 'HEAD'",
+   which was found to be a bit confusing to new users.
+   (merge ce11360 jk/log-missing-default-HEAD later to maint).
+
+ * Recent versions of scripted "git am" has a performance regression in
+   "git am --skip" codepath, which no longer exists in the built-in
+   version on the 'master' front.  Fix the regression in the last
+   scripted version that appear in 2.5.x maintenance track and older.
+   (merge b9d6689 js/maint-am-skip-performance-regression later to maint).
+
+ * The branch descriptions that are set with "git branch --edit-description"
+   option were used in many places but they weren't clearly documented.
+   (merge 561d2b7 po/doc-branch-desc later to maint).
+
+ * Code cleanups and documentation updates.
+   (merge 1c601af es/doc-clean-outdated-tools later to maint).
+   (merge 3581304 kn/tag-doc-fix later to maint).
+   (merge 3a59e59 kb/i18n-doc later to maint).
+   (merge 45abdee sb/remove-unused-var-from-builtin-add later to maint).
+   (merge 14691e3 sb/parse-options-codeformat later to maint).
+   (merge 4a6ada3 ad/bisect-cleanup later to maint).
+   (merge da4c5ad ta/docfix-index-format-tech later to maint).
+   (merge ae25fd3 sb/check-return-from-read-ref later to maint).
+   (merge b3325df nd/dwim-wildcards-as-pathspecs later to maint).
+   (merge 7aa9b9b sg/wt-status-header-inclusion later to maint).
+   (merge f04c690 as/docfix-reflog-expire-unreachable later to maint).
+   (merge 1269847 sg/t3020-typofix later to maint).
+   (merge 8b54c23 jc/calloc-pathspec later to maint).
+   (merge a6926b8 po/po-readme later to maint).
+   (merge 54d160e ss/fix-config-fd-leak later to maint).
+   (merge b80fa84 ah/submodule-typofix-in-error later to maint).
+   (merge 99885bc ah/reflog-typofix-in-error later to maint).
+   (merge 9476c2c ah/read-tree-usage-string later to maint).
+   (merge b8c1d27 ah/pack-objects-usage-strings later to maint).
+   (merge 486e1e1 br/svn-doc-include-paths-config later to maint).
+   (merge 1733ed3 ee/clean-test-fixes later to maint).
+   (merge 5fcadc3 gb/apply-comment-typofix later to maint).
+   (merge b894d3e mp/t7060-diff-index-test later to maint).
+   (merge d238710 as/config-doc-markup-fix later to maint).
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.1.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.1.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..1e51363
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.1.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,18 @@
+Git v2.6.1 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v2.6
+----------------
+
+ * xdiff code we use to generate diffs is not prepared to handle
+   extremely large files.  It uses "int" in many places, which can
+   overflow if we have a very large number of lines or even bytes in
+   our input files, for example.  Cap the input size to soemwhere
+   around 1GB for now.
+
+ * Some protocols (like git-remote-ext) can execute arbitrary code
+   found in the URL.  The URLs that submodules use may come from
+   arbitrary sources (e.g., .gitmodules files in a remote
+   repository), and can hurt those who blindly enable recursive
+   fetch.  Restrict the allowed protocols to well known and safe
+   ones.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.2.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.2.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..5b65e35
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.2.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,65 @@
+Git v2.6.2 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v2.6.1
+------------------
+
+ * There were some classes of errors that "git fsck" diagnosed to its
+   standard error that did not cause it to exit with non-zero status.
+
+ * A test script for the HTTP service had a timing dependent bug,
+   which was fixed.
+
+ * Performance-measurement tests did not work without an installed Git.
+
+ * On a case insensitive filesystems, setting GIT_WORK_TREE variable
+   using a random cases that does not agree with what the filesystem
+   thinks confused Git that it wasn't inside the working tree.
+
+ * When "git am" was rewritten as a built-in, it stopped paying
+   attention to user.signingkey, which was fixed.
+
+ * After "git checkout --detach", "git status" reported a fairly
+   useless "HEAD detached at HEAD", instead of saying at which exact
+   commit.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" had a minor regression recently, which stopped
+   considering a line that begins with an indented '#' in its insn
+   sheet not a comment, which is now fixed.
+
+ * Description of the "log.follow" configuration variable in "git log"
+   documentation is now also copied to "git config" documentation.
+
+ * Allocation related functions and stdio are unsafe things to call
+   inside a signal handler, and indeed killing the pager can cause
+   glibc to deadlock waiting on allocation mutex as our signal handler
+   tries to free() some data structures in wait_for_pager().  Reduce
+   these unsafe calls.
+
+ * The way how --ref/--notes to specify the notes tree reference are
+   DWIMmed was not clearly documented.
+
+ * Customization to change the behaviour with "make -w" and "make -s"
+   in our Makefile was broken when they were used together.
+
+ * The Makefile always runs the library archiver with hardcoded "crs"
+   options, which was inconvenient for exotic platforms on which
+   people want to use programs with totally different set of command
+   line options.
+
+ * The ssh transport, just like any other transport over the network,
+   did not clear GIT_* environment variables, but it is possible to
+   use SendEnv and AcceptEnv to leak them to the remote invocation of
+   Git, which is not a good idea at all.  Explicitly clear them just
+   like we do for the local transport.
+
+ * "git blame --first-parent v1.0..v2.0" was not rejected but did not
+   limit the blame to commits on the first parent chain.
+
+ * Very small number of options take a parameter that is optional
+   (which is not a great UI element as they can only appear at the end
+   of the command line).  Add notice to documentation of each and
+   every one of them.
+
+Also contains typofixes, documentation updates and trivial code
+clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.3.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.3.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..fc6fe17
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.3.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,111 @@
+Git v2.6.3 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v2.6.2
+------------------
+
+ * The error message from "git blame --contents --reverse" incorrectly
+   talked about "--contents --children".
+
+ * "git merge-file" tried to signal how many conflicts it found, which
+   obviously would not work well when there are too many of them.
+
+ * The name-hash subsystem that is used to cope with case insensitive
+   filesystems keeps track of directories and their on-filesystem
+   cases for all the paths in the index by holding a pointer to a
+   randomly chosen cache entry that is inside the directory (for its
+   ce->ce_name component).  This pointer was not updated even when the
+   cache entry was removed from the index, leading to use after free.
+   This was fixed by recording the path for each directory instead of
+   borrowing cache entries and restructuring the API somewhat.
+
+ * When the "git am" command was reimplemented in C, "git am -3" had a
+   small regression where it is aborted in its error handling codepath
+   when underlying merge-recursive failed in some ways.
+
+ * The synopsis text and the usage string of subcommands that read
+   list of things from the standard input are often shown as if they
+   only take input from a file on a filesystem, which was misleading.
+
+ * A couple of commands still showed "[options]" in their usage string
+   to note where options should come on their command line, but we
+   spell that "[<options>]" in most places these days.
+
+ * The submodule code has been taught to work better with separate
+   work trees created via "git worktree add".
+
+ * When "git gc --auto" is backgrounded, its diagnosis message is
+   lost.  It now is saved to a file in $GIT_DIR and is shown next time
+   the "gc --auto" is run.
+
+ * Work around "git p4" failing when the P4 depot records the contents
+   in UTF-16 without UTF-16 BOM.
+
+ * Recent update to "rebase -i" that tries to sanity check the edited
+   insn sheet before it uses it has become too picky on Windows where
+   CRLF left by the editor is turned into a trailing CR on the line
+   read via the "read" built-in command.
+
+ * "git clone --dissociate" runs a big "git repack" process at the
+   end, and it helps to close file descriptors that are open on the
+   packs and their idx files before doing so on filesystems that
+   cannot remove a file that is still open.
+
+ * Correct "git p4 --detect-labels" so that it does not fail to create
+   a tag that points at a commit that is also being imported.
+
+ * The internal stripspace() function has been moved to where it
+   logically belongs to, i.e. strbuf API, and the command line parser
+   of "git stripspace" has been updated to use the parse_options API.
+
+ * Prepare for Git on-disk repository representation to undergo
+   backward incompatible changes by introducing a new repository
+   format version "1", with an extension mechanism.
+
+ * "git gc" used to barf when a symbolic ref has gone dangling
+   (e.g. the branch that used to be your upstream's default when you
+   cloned from it is now gone, and you did "fetch --prune").
+
+ * The normalize_ceiling_entry() function does not muck with the end
+   of the path it accepts, and the real world callers do rely on that,
+   but a test insisted that the function drops a trailing slash.
+
+ * "git gc" is safe to run anytime only because it has the built-in
+   grace period to protect young objects.  In order to run with no
+   grace period, the user must make sure that the repository is
+   quiescent.
+
+ * A recent "filter-branch --msg-filter" broke skipping of the commit
+   object header, which is fixed.
+
+ * "git --literal-pathspecs add -u/-A" without any command line
+   argument misbehaved ever since Git 2.0.
+
+ * Merging a branch that removes a path and another that changes the
+   mode bits on the same path should have conflicted at the path, but
+   it didn't and silently favoured the removal.
+
+ * "git imap-send" did not compile well with older version of cURL library.
+
+ * The linkage order of libraries was wrong in places around libcurl.
+
+ * It was not possible to use a repository-lookalike created by "git
+   worktree add" as a local source of "git clone".
+
+ * When "git send-email" wanted to talk over Net::SMTP::SSL,
+   Net::Cmd::datasend() did not like to be fed too many bytes at the
+   same time and failed to send messages.  Send the payload one line
+   at a time to work around the problem.
+
+ * We peek objects from submodule's object store by linking it to the
+   list of alternate object databases, but the code to do so forgot to
+   correctly initialize the list.
+
+ * "git status --branch --short" accessed beyond the constant string
+   "HEAD", which has been corrected.
+
+ * "git daemon" uses "run_command()" without "finish_command()", so it
+   needs to release resources itself, which it forgot to do.
+
+Also contains typofixes, documentation updates and trivial code
+clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.4.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.4.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..b0256a2
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.4.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,63 @@
+Git v2.6.4 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v2.6.3
+------------------
+
+ * The "configure" script did not test for -lpthread correctly, which
+   upset some linkers.
+
+ * Add support for talking http/https over socks proxy.
+
+ * Portability fix for Windows, which may rewrite $SHELL variable using
+   non-POSIX paths.
+
+ * We now consistently allow all hooks to ignore their standard input,
+   rather than having git complain of SIGPIPE.
+
+ * Fix shell quoting in contrib script.
+
+ * Test portability fix for a topic in v2.6.1.
+
+ * Allow tilde-expansion in some http config variables.
+
+ * Give a useful special case "diff/show --word-diff-regex=." as an
+   example in the documentation.
+
+ * Fix for a corner case in filter-branch.
+
+ * Make git-p4 work on a detached head.
+
+ * Documentation clarification for "check-ignore" without "--verbose".
+
+ * Just like the working tree is cleaned up when the user cancelled
+   submission in P4Submit.applyCommit(), clean up the mess if "p4
+   submit" fails.
+
+ * Having a leftover .idx file without corresponding .pack file in
+   the repository hurts performance; "git gc" learned to prune them.
+
+ * The code to prepare the working tree side of temporary directory
+   for the "dir-diff" feature forgot that symbolic links need not be
+   copied (or symlinked) to the temporary area, as the code already
+   special cases and overwrites them.  Besides, it was wrong to try
+   computing the object name of the target of symbolic link, which may
+   not even exist or may be a directory.
+
+ * There was no way to defeat a configured rebase.autostash variable
+   from the command line, as "git rebase --no-autostash" was missing.
+
+ * Allow "git interpret-trailers" to run outside of a Git repository.
+
+ * Produce correct "dirty" marker for shell prompts, even when we
+   are on an orphan or an unborn branch.
+
+ * Some corner cases have been fixed in string-matching done in "git
+   status".
+
+ * Apple's common crypto implementation of SHA1_Update() does not take
+   more than 4GB at a time, and we now have a compile-time workaround
+   for it.
+
+Also contains typofixes, documentation updates and trivial code
+clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.5.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.5.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..f0924b6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.6.5.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,58 @@
+Git v2.6.5 Release Notes
+========================
+
+Fixes since v2.6.4
+------------------
+
+ * Because "test_when_finished" in our test framework queues the
+   clean-up tasks to be done in a shell variable, it should not be
+   used inside a subshell.  Add a mechanism to allow 'bash' to catch
+   such uses, and fix the ones that were found.
+
+ * Update "git subtree" (in contrib/) so that it can take whitespaces
+   in the pathnames, not only in the in-tree pathname but the name of
+   the directory that the repository is in.
+
+ * Cosmetic improvement to lock-file error messages.
+
+ * mark_tree_uninteresting() has code to handle the case where it gets
+   passed a NULL pointer in its 'tree' parameter, but the function had
+   'object = &tree->object' assignment before checking if tree is
+   NULL.  This gives a compiler an excuse to declare that tree will
+   never be NULL and apply a wrong optimization.  Avoid it.
+
+ * The helper used to iterate over loose object directories to prune
+   stale objects did not closedir() immediately when it is done with a
+   directory--a callback such as the one used for "git prune" may want
+   to do rmdir(), but it would fail on open directory on platforms
+   such as WinXP.
+
+ * "git p4" used to import Perforce CLs that touch only paths outside
+   the client spec as empty commits.  It has been corrected to ignore
+   them instead, with a new configuration git-p4.keepEmptyCommits as a
+   backward compatibility knob.
+
+ * The exit code of git-fsck did not reflect some types of errors
+   found in packed objects, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The completion script (in contrib/) used to list "git column"
+   (which is not an end-user facing command) as one of the choices
+
+ * Improve error reporting when SMTP TLS fails.
+
+ * When getpwuid() on the system returned NULL (e.g. the user is not
+   in the /etc/passwd file or other uid-to-name mappings), the
+   codepath to find who the user is to record it in the reflog barfed
+   and died.  Loosen the check in this codepath, which already accepts
+   questionable ident string (e.g. host part of the e-mail address is
+   obviously bogus), and in general when we operate fmt_ident() function
+   in non-strict mode.
+
+ * "git symbolic-ref" forgot to report a failure with its exit status.
+
+ * History traversal with "git log --source" that starts with an
+   annotated tag failed to report the tag as "source", due to an
+   old regression in the command line parser back in v2.2 days.
+
+Also contains typofixes, documentation updates and trivial code
+clean-ups.
diff --git a/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.0.txt b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.0.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..563dadc
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.0.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,414 @@
+Git 2.7 Release Notes
+=====================
+
+Updates since v2.6
+------------------
+
+UI, Workflows & Features
+
+ * The appearance of "gitk", particularly on high DPI monitors, have
+   been improved.  "gitk" also comes with an undated translation for
+   Swedish and Japanese.
+
+ * "git remote" learned "get-url" subcommand to show the URL for a
+   given remote name used for fetching and pushing.
+
+ * There was no way to defeat a configured rebase.autostash variable
+   from the command line, as "git rebase --no-autostash" was missing.
+
+ * "git log --date=local" used to only show the normal (default)
+   format in the local timezone.  The command learned to take 'local'
+   as an instruction to use the local timezone with other formats,
+
+ * The refs used during a "git bisect" session is now per-worktree so
+   that independent bisect sessions can be done in different worktrees
+   created with "git worktree add".
+
+ * Users who are too busy to type three extra keystrokes to ask for
+   "git stash show -p" can now set stash.showPatch configuration
+   variable to true to always see the actual patch, not just the list
+   of paths affected with feel for the extent of damage via diffstat.
+
+ * "quiltimport" allows to specify the series file by honoring the
+   $QUILT_SERIES environment and also --series command line option.
+
+ * The use of 'good/bad' in "git bisect" made it confusing to use when
+   hunting for a state change that is not a regression (e.g. bugfix).
+   The command learned 'old/new' and then allows the end user to
+   say e.g. "bisect start --term-old=fast --term-new=slow" to find a
+   performance regression.
+
+ * "git interpret-trailers" can now run outside of a Git repository.
+
+ * "git p4" learned to reencode the pathname it uses to communicate
+   with the p4 depot with a new option.
+
+ * Give progress meter to "git filter-branch".
+
+ * Allow a later "!/abc/def" to override an earlier "/abc" that
+   appears in the same .gitignore file to make it easier to express
+   "everything in /abc directory is ignored, except for ...".
+
+ * Teach "git p4" to send large blobs outside the repository by
+   talking to Git LFS.
+
+ * Prepare for Git on-disk repository representation to undergo
+   backward incompatible changes by introducing a new repository
+   format version "1", with an extension mechanism.
+
+ * "git worktree" learned a "list" subcommand.
+
+ * "git clone --dissociate" learned that it can be used even when
+   "--reference" was not used at the same time.
+
+ * "git blame" learnt to take "--first-parent" and "--reverse" at the
+   same time when it makes sense.
+
+ * "git checkout" did not follow the usual "--[no-]progress"
+   convention and implemented only "--quiet" that is essentially
+   a superset of "--no-progress".  Extend the command to support the
+   usual "--[no-]progress".
+
+ * The semantics of transfer.hideRefs configuration variable have been
+   extended to work better with the ref "namespace" feature that lets
+   you throw unrelated bunches of repositories in a single physical
+   repository and virtually serve them as separate ones.
+
+ * send-email config variables whose values are pathnames now go
+   through the ~username/ expansion.
+
+ * bash completion learnt to TAB-complete recipient addresses given
+   to send-email.
+
+ * The credential-cache daemon can be told to ignore SIGHUP to work
+   around issue when running Git from inside emacs.
+
+ * "git push" learned new configuration for doing "--recurse-submodules"
+   on each push.
+
+ * "format-patch" has learned a new option to zero-out the commit
+   object name on the mbox "From " line.
+
+
+Performance, Internal Implementation, Development Support etc.
+
+ * The infrastructure to rewrite "git submodule" in C is being built
+   incrementally.  Let's polish these early parts well enough and make
+   them graduate to 'next' and 'master', so that the more involved
+   follow-up can start cooking on a solid ground.
+
+ * Some features from "git tag -l" and "git branch -l" have been made
+   available to "git for-each-ref" so that eventually the unified
+   implementation can be shared across all three.  The version merged
+   to the 'master' branch earlier had a performance regression in "tag
+   --contains", which has since been corrected.
+
+ * Because "test_when_finished" in our test framework queues the
+   clean-up tasks to be done in a shell variable, it should not be
+   used inside a subshell.  Add a mechanism to allow 'bash' to catch
+   such uses, and fix the ones that were found.
+
+ * The debugging infrastructure for pkt-line based communication has
+   been improved to mark the side-band communication specifically.
+
+ * Update "git branch" that list existing branches, using the
+   ref-filter API that is shared with "git tag" and "git
+   for-each-ref".
+
+ * The test for various line-ending conversions has been enhanced.
+
+ * A few test scripts around "git p4" have been improved for
+   portability.
+
+ * Many allocations that is manually counted (correctly) that are
+   followed by strcpy/sprintf have been replaced with a less error
+   prone constructs such as xstrfmt.
+
+ * The internal stripspace() function has been moved to where it
+   logically belongs to, i.e. strbuf API, and the command line parser
+   of "git stripspace" has been updated to use the parse_options API.
+
+ * "git am" used to spawn "git mailinfo" via run_command() API once
+   per each patch, but learned to make a direct call to mailinfo()
+   instead.
+
+ * The implementation of "git mailinfo" was refactored so that a
+   mailinfo() function can be directly called from inside a process.
+
+ * With a "debug" helper, debugging of a single "git" invocation in
+   our test scripts has become a lot easier.
+
+ * The "configure" script did not test for -lpthread correctly, which
+   upset some linkers.
+
+ * Cross completed task off of subtree project's todo list.
+
+ * Test cleanups for the subtree project.
+
+ * Clean up style in an ancient test t9300.
+
+ * Work around some test flakiness with p4d.
+
+ * Fsck did not correctly detect a NUL-truncated header in a tag.
+
+ * Use a safer behavior when we hit errors verifying remote certificates.
+
+ * Speed up filter-branch for cases where we only care about rewriting
+   commits, not tree data.
+
+ * The parse-options API has been updated to make "-h" command line
+   option work more consistently in all commands.
+
+ * "git svn rebase/mkdirs" got optimized by keeping track of empty
+   directories better.
+
+ * Fix some racy client/server tests by treating SIGPIPE the same as a
+   normal non-zero exit.
+
+ * The necessary infrastructure to build topics using the free Travis
+   CI has been added. Developers forking from this topic (and enabling
+   Travis) can do their own builds, and we can turn on auto-builds for
+   git/git (including build-status for pull requests that people
+   open).
+
+ * The write(2) emulation for Windows learned to set errno to EPIPE
+   when necessary.
+
+
+Also contains various documentation updates and code clean-ups.
+
+
+Fixes since v2.6
+----------------
+
+Unless otherwise noted, all the fixes since v2.6 in the maintenance
+track are contained in this release (see the maintenance releases'
+notes for details).
+
+ * Very small number of options take a parameter that is optional
+   (which is not a great UI element as they can only appear at the end
+   of the command line).  Add notice to documentation of each and
+   every one of them.
+
+ * "git blame --first-parent v1.0..v2.0" was not rejected but did not
+   limit the blame to commits on the first parent chain.
+
+ * "git subtree" (in contrib/) now can take whitespaces in the
+   pathnames, not only in the in-tree pathname but the name of the
+   directory that the repository is in.
+
+ * The ssh transport, just like any other transport over the network,
+   did not clear GIT_* environment variables, but it is possible to
+   use SendEnv and AcceptEnv to leak them to the remote invocation of
+   Git, which is not a good idea at all.  Explicitly clear them just
+   like we do for the local transport.
+
+ * Correct "git p4 --detect-labels" so that it does not fail to create
+   a tag that points at a commit that is also being imported.
+
+ * The Makefile always runs the library archiver with hardcoded "crs"
+   options, which was inconvenient for exotic platforms on which
+   people want to use programs with totally different set of command
+   line options.
+
+ * Customization to change the behaviour with "make -w" and "make -s"
+   in our Makefile was broken when they were used together.
+
+ * Allocation related functions and stdio are unsafe things to call
+   inside a signal handler, and indeed killing the pager can cause
+   glibc to deadlock waiting on allocation mutex as our signal handler
+   tries to free() some data structures in wait_for_pager().  Reduce
+   these unsafe calls.
+
+ * The way how --ref/--notes to specify the notes tree reference are
+   DWIMmed was not clearly documented.
+
+ * "git gc" used to barf when a symbolic ref has gone dangling
+   (e.g. the branch that used to be your upstream's default when you
+   cloned from it is now gone, and you did "fetch --prune").
+
+ * "git clone --dissociate" runs a big "git repack" process at the
+   end, and it helps to close file descriptors that are open on the
+   packs and their idx files before doing so on filesystems that
+   cannot remove a file that is still open.
+
+ * Description of the "log.follow" configuration variable in "git log"
+   documentation is now also copied to "git config" documentation.
+
+ * "git rebase -i" had a minor regression recently, which stopped
+   considering a line that begins with an indented '#' in its insn
+   sheet not a comment. Further, the code was still too picky on
+   Windows where CRLF left by the editor is turned into a trailing CR
+   on the line read via the "read" built-in command of bash.  Both of
+   these issues are now fixed.
+
+ * After "git checkout --detach", "git status" reported a fairly
+   useless "HEAD detached at HEAD", instead of saying at which exact
+   commit.
+
+ * When "git send-email" wanted to talk over Net::SMTP::SSL,
+   Net::Cmd::datasend() did not like to be fed too many bytes at the
+   same time and failed to send messages.  Send the payload one line
+   at a time to work around the problem.
+
+ * When "git am" was rewritten as a built-in, it stopped paying
+   attention to user.signingkey, which was fixed.
+
+ * It was not possible to use a repository-lookalike created by "git
+   worktree add" as a local source of "git clone".
+
+ * On a case insensitive filesystems, setting GIT_WORK_TREE variable
+   using a random cases that does not agree with what the filesystem
+   thinks confused Git that it wasn't inside the working tree.
+
+ * Performance-measurement tests did not work without an installed Git.
+
+ * A test script for the HTTP service had a timing dependent bug,
+   which was fixed.
+
+ * There were some classes of errors that "git fsck" diagnosed to its
+   standard error that did not cause it to exit with non-zero status.
+
+ * Work around "git p4" failing when the P4 depot records the contents
+   in UTF-16 without UTF-16 BOM.
+
+ * When "git gc --auto" is backgrounded, its diagnosis message is
+   lost.  Save it to a file in $GIT_DIR and show it next time the "gc
+   --auto" is run.
+
+ * The submodule code has been taught to work better with separate
+   work trees created via "git worktree add".
+
+ * "git gc" is safe to run anytime only because it has the built-in
+   grace period to protect young objects.  In order to run with no
+   grace period, the user must make sure that the repository is
+   quiescent.
+
+ * A recent "filter-branch --msg-filter" broke skipping of the commit
+   object header, which is fixed.
+
+ * The normalize_ceiling_entry() function does not muck with the end
+   of the path it accepts, and the real world callers do rely on that,
+   but a test insisted that the function drops a trailing slash.
+
+ * A test for interaction between untracked cache and sparse checkout
+   added in Git 2.5 days were flaky.
+
+ * A couple of commands still showed "[options]" in their usage string
+   to note where options should come on their command line, but we
+   spell that "[<options>]" in most places these days.
+
+ * The synopsis text and the usage string of subcommands that read
+   list of things from the standard input are often shown as if they
+   only take input from a file on a filesystem, which was misleading.
+
+ * "git am -3" had a small regression where it is aborted in its error
+   handling codepath when underlying merge-recursive failed in certain
+   ways, as it assumed that the internal call to merge-recursive will
+   never die, which is not the case (yet).
+
+ * The linkage order of libraries was wrong in places around libcurl.
+
+ * The name-hash subsystem that is used to cope with case insensitive
+   filesystems keeps track of directories and their on-filesystem
+   cases for all the paths in the index by holding a pointer to a
+   randomly chosen cache entry that is inside the directory (for its
+   ce->ce_name component).  This pointer was not updated even when the
+   cache entry was removed from the index, leading to use after free.
+   This was fixed by recording the path for each directory instead of
+   borrowing cache entries and restructuring the API somewhat.
+
+ * "git merge-file" tried to signal how many conflicts it found, which
+   obviously would not work well when there are too many of them.
+
+ * The error message from "git blame --contents --reverse" incorrectly
+   talked about "--contents --children".
+
+ * "git imap-send" did not compile well with older version of cURL library.
+
+ * Merging a branch that removes a path and another that changes the
+   mode bits on the same path should have conflicted at the path, but
+   it didn't and silently favoured the removal.
+
+ * "git --literal-pathspecs add -u/-A" without any command line
+   argument misbehaved ever since Git 2.0.
+
+ * "git daemon" uses "run_command()" without "finish_command()", so it
+   needs to release resources itself, which it forgot to do.
+
+ * "git status --branch --short" accessed beyond the constant string
+   "HEAD", which has been corrected.
+
+ * We peek objects from submodule's object store by linking it to the
+   list of alternate object databases, but the code to do so forgot to
+   correctly initialize the list.
+
+ * The code to prepare the working tree side of temporary directory
+   for the "dir-diff" feature forgot that symbolic links need not be
+   copied (or symlinked) to the temporary area, as the code already
+   special cases and overwrites them.  Besides, it was wrong to try
+   computing the object name of the target of symbolic link, which may
+   not even exist or may be a directory.
+
+ * A Range: request can be responded with a full response and when
+   asked properly libcurl knows how to strip the result down to the
+   requested range.  However, we were hand-crafting a range request
+   and it did not kick in.
+
+ * Having a leftover .idx file without corresponding .pack file in
+   the repository hurts performance; "git gc" learned to prune them.
+
+ * Apple's common crypto implementation of SHA1_Update() does not take
+   more than 4GB at a time, and we now have a compile-time workaround
+   for it.
+
+ * Produce correct "dirty" marker for shell prompts, even when we
+   are on an orphan or an unborn branch.
+
+ * A build without NO_IPv6 used to use gethostbyname() when guessing
+   user's hostname, instead of getaddrinfo() that is used in other
+   codepaths in such a build.
+
+ * The exit code of git-fsck did not reflect some types of errors
+   found in packed objects, which has been corrected.
+
+ * The helper used to iterate over loose object directories to prune
+   stale objects did not closedir() immediately when it is done with a
+   directory--a callback such as the one used for "git prune" may want
+   to do rmdir(), but it would fail on open directory on platforms
+   such as WinXP.
+
+ * "git p4" used to import Perforce CLs that touch only paths outside
+   the client spec as empty commits.  It has been corrected to ignore
+   them instead, with a new configuration git-p4.keepEmptyCommits as a
+   backward compatibility knob.
+
+ * The completion script (in contrib/) used to list "git column"
+   (which is not an end-user facing command) as one of the choices
+   (merge 160fcdb sg/completion-no-column later to maint).
+
+ * The error reporting from "git send-email", when SMTP TLS fails, has
+   been improved.
+   (merge 9d60524 jk/send-email-ssl-errors later to maint).
+
+ * When getpwuid() on the system returned NULL (e.g. the user is not
+   in the /etc/passwd file or other uid-to-name mappings), the
+   codepath to find who the user is to record it in the reflog barfed
+   and died.  Loosen the check in this codepath, which already accepts
+   questionable ident string (e.g. host part of the e-mail address is
+   obviously bogus), and in general when we operate fmt_ident() function
+   in non-strict mode.
+   (merge 92bcbb9 jk/ident-loosen-getpwuid later to maint).
+
+ * "git symbolic-ref" forgot to report a failure with its exit status.
+   (merge f91b273 jk/symbolic-ref-maint later to maint).
+
+ * History traversal with "git log --source" that starts with an
+   annotated tag failed to report the tag as "source", due to an
+   old regression in the command line parser back in v2.2 days.
+   (merge 728350b jk/pending-keep-tag-name later to maint).
+
+ * "git p4" when interacting with multiple depots at the same time
+   used to incorrectly drop changes.
+
+ * Code clean-up, minor fixes etc.
diff --git a/Documentation/blame-options.txt b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
index a09969b..760eab7 100644
--- a/Documentation/blame-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/blame-options.txt
@@ -63,11 +63,10 @@
 	`-` to make the command read from the standard input).
 
 --date <format>::
-	The value is one of the following alternatives:
-	{relative,local,default,iso,rfc,short}. If --date is not
+	Specifies the format used to output dates. If --date is not
 	provided, the value of the blame.date config variable is
 	used. If the blame.date config variable is also not set, the
-	iso format is used. For more information, See the discussion
+	iso format is used. For supported values, see the discussion
 	of the --date option at linkgit:git-log[1].
 
 -M|<num>|::
diff --git a/Documentation/config.txt b/Documentation/config.txt
index a65cdd4..f617886 100644
--- a/Documentation/config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/config.txt
@@ -769,6 +769,14 @@
 	by giving '--no-keep-cr' from the command line.
 	See linkgit:git-am[1], linkgit:git-mailsplit[1].
 
+am.threeWay::
+	By default, `git am` will fail if the patch does not apply cleanly. When
+	set to true, this setting tells `git am` to fall back on 3-way merge if
+	the patch records the identity of blobs it is supposed to apply to and
+	we have those blobs available locally (equivalent to giving the `--3way`
+	option from the command line). Defaults to `false`.
+	See linkgit:git-am[1].
+
 apply.ignoreWhitespace::
 	When set to 'change', tells 'git apply' to ignore changes in
 	whitespace, in the same way as the '--ignore-space-change'
@@ -858,9 +866,9 @@
 	"git pull" is run. See "pull.rebase" for doing this in a non
 	branch-specific manner.
 +
-	When preserve, also pass `--preserve-merges` along to 'git rebase'
-	so that locally committed merge commits will not be flattened
-	by running 'git pull'.
+When preserve, also pass `--preserve-merges` along to 'git rebase'
+so that locally committed merge commits will not be flattened
+by running 'git pull'.
 +
 *NOTE*: this is a possibly dangerous operation; do *not* use
 it unless you understand the implications (see linkgit:git-rebase[1]
@@ -1114,6 +1122,9 @@
 	example.com. See linkgit:gitcredentials[7] for details on how URLs are
 	matched.
 
+credentialCache.ignoreSIGHUP::
+	Tell git-credential-cache--daemon to ignore SIGHUP, instead of quitting.
+
 include::diff-config.txt[]
 
 difftool.<tool>.path::
@@ -1242,6 +1253,25 @@
 	object to a worktree file upon checkout.  See
 	linkgit:gitattributes[5] for details.
 
+fsck.<msg-id>::
+	Allows overriding the message type (error, warn or ignore) of a
+	specific message ID such as `missingEmail`.
++
+For convenience, fsck prefixes the error/warning with the message ID,
+e.g.  "missingEmail: invalid author/committer line - missing email" means
+that setting `fsck.missingEmail = ignore` will hide that issue.
++
+This feature is intended to support working with legacy repositories
+which cannot be repaired without disruptive changes.
+
+fsck.skipList::
+	The path to a sorted list of object names (i.e. one SHA-1 per
+	line) that are known to be broken in a non-fatal way and should
+	be ignored. This feature is useful when an established project
+	should be accepted despite early commits containing errors that
+	can be safely ignored such as invalid committer email addresses.
+	Note: corrupt objects cannot be skipped with this setting.
+
 gc.aggressiveDepth::
 	The depth parameter used in the delta compression
 	algorithm used by 'git gc --aggressive'.  This defaults
@@ -1280,20 +1310,24 @@
 gc.pruneExpire::
 	When 'git gc' is run, it will call 'prune --expire 2.weeks.ago'.
 	Override the grace period with this config variable.  The value
-	"now" may be used to disable this  grace period and always prune
-	unreachable objects immediately.
+	"now" may be used to disable this grace period and always prune
+	unreachable objects immediately, or "never" may be used to
+	suppress pruning.
 
-gc.pruneWorktreesExpire::
-	When 'git gc' is run, it will call
-	'prune --worktrees --expire 3.months.ago'.
-	Override the grace period with this config variable. The value
-	"now" may be used to disable the grace period and prune
-	$GIT_DIR/worktrees immediately.
+gc.worktreePruneExpire::
+	When 'git gc' is run, it calls
+	'git worktree prune --expire 3.months.ago'.
+	This config variable can be used to set a different grace
+	period. The value "now" may be used to disable the grace
+	period and prune $GIT_DIR/worktrees immediately, or "never"
+	may be used to suppress pruning.
 
 gc.reflogExpire::
 gc.<pattern>.reflogExpire::
 	'git reflog expire' removes reflog entries older than
-	this time; defaults to 90 days.  With "<pattern>" (e.g.
+	this time; defaults to 90 days. The value "now" expires all
+	entries immediately, and "never" suppresses expiration
+	altogether. With "<pattern>" (e.g.
 	"refs/stash") in the middle the setting applies only to
 	the refs that match the <pattern>.
 
@@ -1301,7 +1335,9 @@
 gc.<pattern>.reflogExpireUnreachable::
 	'git reflog expire' removes reflog entries older than
 	this time and are not reachable from the current tip;
-	defaults to 30 days.  With "<pattern>" (e.g. "refs/stash")
+	defaults to 30 days. The value "now" expires all entries
+	immediately, and "never" suppresses expiration altogether.
+	With "<pattern>" (e.g. "refs/stash")
 	in the middle, the setting applies only to the refs that
 	match the <pattern>.
 
@@ -1576,6 +1612,29 @@
 	If set, store cookies received during requests to the file specified by
 	http.cookieFile. Has no effect if http.cookieFile is unset.
 
+http.sslVersion::
+	The SSL version to use when negotiating an SSL connection, if you
+	want to force the default.  The available and default version
+	depend on whether libcurl was built against NSS or OpenSSL and the
+	particular configuration of the crypto library in use. Internally
+	this sets the 'CURLOPT_SSL_VERSION' option; see the libcurl
+	documentation for more details on the format of this option and
+	for the ssl version supported. Actually the possible values of
+	this option are:
+
+	- sslv2
+	- sslv3
+	- tlsv1
+	- tlsv1.0
+	- tlsv1.1
+	- tlsv1.2
+
++
+Can be overridden by the 'GIT_SSL_VERSION' environment variable.
+To force git to use libcurl's default ssl version and ignore any
+explicit http.sslversion option, set 'GIT_SSL_VERSION' to the
+empty string.
+
 http.sslCipherList::
   A list of SSL ciphers to use when negotiating an SSL connection.
   The available ciphers depend on whether libcurl was built against
@@ -1773,9 +1832,7 @@
 log.date::
 	Set the default date-time mode for the 'log' command.
 	Setting a value for log.date is similar to using 'git log''s
-	`--date` option.  Possible values are `relative`, `local`,
-	`default`, `iso`, `rfc`, and `short`; see linkgit:git-log[1]
-	for details.
+	`--date` option.  See linkgit:git-log[1] for details.
 
 log.decorate::
 	Print out the ref names of any commits that are shown by the log
@@ -1784,6 +1841,12 @@
 	specified, the full ref name (including prefix) will be printed.
 	This is the same as the log commands '--decorate' option.
 
+log.follow::
+	If `true`, `git log` will act as if the `--follow` option was used when
+	a single <path> is given.  This has the same limitations as `--follow`,
+	i.e. it cannot be used to follow multiple files and does not work well
+	on non-linear history.
+
 log.showRoot::
 	If true, the initial commit will be shown as a big creation event.
 	This is equivalent to a diff against an empty tree.
@@ -1886,6 +1949,18 @@
 mergetool.prompt::
 	Prompt before each invocation of the merge resolution program.
 
+notes.mergeStrategy::
+	Which merge strategy to choose by default when resolving notes
+	conflicts.  Must be one of `manual`, `ours`, `theirs`, `union`, or
+	`cat_sort_uniq`.  Defaults to `manual`.  See "NOTES MERGE STRATEGIES"
+	section of linkgit:git-notes[1] for more information on each strategy.
+
+notes.<name>.mergeStrategy::
+	Which merge strategy to choose when doing a notes merge into
+	refs/notes/<name>.  This overrides the more general
+	"notes.mergeStrategy".  See the "NOTES MERGE STRATEGIES" section in
+	linkgit:git-notes[1] for more information on the available strategies.
+
 notes.displayRef::
 	The (fully qualified) refname from which to show notes when
 	showing commit messages.  The value of this variable can be set
@@ -1914,8 +1989,8 @@
 	When copying notes during a rewrite (see the
 	"notes.rewrite.<command>" option), determines what to do if
 	the target commit already has a note.  Must be one of
-	`overwrite`, `concatenate`, or `ignore`.  Defaults to
-	`concatenate`.
+	`overwrite`, `concatenate`, `cat_sort_uniq`, or `ignore`.
+	Defaults to `concatenate`.
 +
 This setting can be overridden with the `GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_MODE`
 environment variable.
@@ -2070,9 +2145,9 @@
 	pull" is run. See "branch.<name>.rebase" for setting this on a
 	per-branch basis.
 +
-	When preserve, also pass `--preserve-merges` along to 'git rebase'
-	so that locally committed merge commits will not be flattened
-	by running 'git pull'.
+When preserve, also pass `--preserve-merges` along to 'git rebase'
+so that locally committed merge commits will not be flattened
+by running 'git pull'.
 +
 *NOTE*: this is a possibly dangerous operation; do *not* use
 it unless you understand the implications (see linkgit:git-rebase[1]
@@ -2145,6 +2220,28 @@
 	may override this configuration at time of push by specifying
 	'--no-follow-tags'.
 
+push.gpgSign::
+	May be set to a boolean value, or the string 'if-asked'. A true
+	value causes all pushes to be GPG signed, as if '--signed' is
+	passed to linkgit:git-push[1]. The string 'if-asked' causes
+	pushes to be signed if the server supports it, as if
+	'--signed=if-asked' is passed to 'git push'. A false value may
+	override a value from a lower-priority config file. An explicit
+	command-line flag always overrides this config option.
+
+push.recurseSubmodules::
+	Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be pushed
+	are available on a remote-tracking branch. If the value is 'check'
+	then Git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in the
+	revisions to be pushed are available on at least one remote of the
+	submodule. If any commits are missing, the push will be aborted and
+	exit with non-zero status. If the value is 'on-demand' then all
+	submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will be
+	pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary revisions
+	it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status. If the value
+	is 'no' then default behavior of ignoring submodules when pushing
+	is retained. You may override this configuration at time of push by
+	specifying '--recurse-submodules=check|on-demand|no'.
 
 rebase.stat::
 	Whether to show a diffstat of what changed upstream since the last
@@ -2161,6 +2258,22 @@
 	successful rebase might result in non-trivial conflicts.
 	Defaults to false.
 
+rebase.missingCommitsCheck::
+	If set to "warn", git rebase -i will print a warning if some
+	commits are removed (e.g. a line was deleted), however the
+	rebase will still proceed. If set to "error", it will print
+	the previous warning and stop the rebase, 'git rebase
+	--edit-todo' can then be used to correct the error. If set to
+	"ignore", no checking is done.
+	To drop a commit without warning or error, use the `drop`
+	command in the todo-list.
+	Defaults to "ignore".
+
+rebase.instructionFormat
+	A format string, as specified in linkgit:git-log[1], to be used for
+	the instruction list during an interactive rebase.  The format will automatically
+	have the long commit hash prepended to the format.
+
 receive.advertiseAtomic::
 	By default, git-receive-pack will advertise the atomic push
 	capability to its clients. If you don't want to this capability
@@ -2197,6 +2310,28 @@
 	Defaults to false. If not set, the value of `transfer.fsckObjects`
 	is used instead.
 
+receive.fsck.<msg-id>::
+	When `receive.fsckObjects` is set to true, errors can be switched
+	to warnings and vice versa by configuring the `receive.fsck.<msg-id>`
+	setting where the `<msg-id>` is the fsck message ID and the value
+	is one of `error`, `warn` or `ignore`. For convenience, fsck prefixes
+	the error/warning with the message ID, e.g. "missingEmail: invalid
+	author/committer line - missing email" means that setting
+	`receive.fsck.missingEmail = ignore` will hide that issue.
++
+This feature is intended to support working with legacy repositories
+which would not pass pushing when `receive.fsckObjects = true`, allowing
+the host to accept repositories with certain known issues but still catch
+other issues.
+
+receive.fsck.skipList::
+	The path to a sorted list of object names (i.e. one SHA-1 per
+	line) that are known to be broken in a non-fatal way and should
+	be ignored. This feature is useful when an established project
+	should be accepted despite early commits containing errors that
+	can be safely ignored such as invalid committer email addresses.
+	Note: corrupt objects cannot be skipped with this setting.
+
 receive.unpackLimit::
 	If the number of objects received in a push is below this
 	limit then the objects will be unpacked into loose object
@@ -2242,13 +2377,10 @@
 	set when initializing a shared repository.
 
 receive.hideRefs::
-	String(s) `receive-pack` uses to decide which refs to omit
-	from its initial advertisement.  Use more than one
-	definitions to specify multiple prefix strings. A ref that
-	are under the hierarchies listed on the value of this
-	variable is excluded, and is hidden when responding to `git
-	push`, and an attempt to update or delete a hidden ref by
-	`git push` is rejected.
+	This variable is the same as `transfer.hideRefs`, but applies
+	only to `receive-pack` (and so affects pushes, but not fetches).
+	An attempt to update or delete a hidden ref by `git push` is
+	rejected.
 
 receive.updateServerInfo::
 	If set to true, git-receive-pack will run git-update-server-info
@@ -2476,6 +2608,16 @@
 	submodule summary' command, which shows a similar output but does
 	not honor these settings.
 
+stash.showPatch::
+	If this is set to true, the `git stash show` command without an
+	option will show the stash in patch form.  Defaults to false.
+	See description of 'show' command in linkgit:git-stash[1].
+
+stash.showStat::
+	If this is set to true, the `git stash show` command without an
+	option will show diffstat of the stash.  Defaults to true.
+	See description of 'show' command in linkgit:git-stash[1].
+
 submodule.<name>.path::
 submodule.<name>.url::
 	The path within this project and URL for a submodule. These
@@ -2536,9 +2678,27 @@
 	Defaults to false.
 
 transfer.hideRefs::
-	This variable can be used to set both `receive.hideRefs`
-	and `uploadpack.hideRefs` at the same time to the same
-	values.  See entries for these other variables.
+	String(s) `receive-pack` and `upload-pack` use to decide which
+	refs to omit from their initial advertisements.  Use more than
+	one definition to specify multiple prefix strings. A ref that is
+	under the hierarchies listed in the value of this variable is
+	excluded, and is hidden when responding to `git push` or `git
+	fetch`.  See `receive.hideRefs` and `uploadpack.hideRefs` for
+	program-specific versions of this config.
++
+You may also include a `!` in front of the ref name to negate the entry,
+explicitly exposing it, even if an earlier entry marked it as hidden.
+If you have multiple hideRefs values, later entries override earlier ones
+(and entries in more-specific config files override less-specific ones).
++
+If a namespace is in use, the namespace prefix is stripped from each
+reference before it is matched against `transfer.hiderefs` patterns.
+For example, if `refs/heads/master` is specified in `transfer.hideRefs` and
+the current namespace is `foo`, then `refs/namespaces/foo/refs/heads/master`
+is omitted from the advertisements but `refs/heads/master` and
+`refs/namespaces/bar/refs/heads/master` are still advertised as so-called
+"have" lines. In order to match refs before stripping, add a `^` in front of
+the ref name. If you combine `!` and `^`, `!` must be specified first.
 
 transfer.unpackLimit::
 	When `fetch.unpackLimit` or `receive.unpackLimit` are
@@ -2553,13 +2713,10 @@
 	`false`.
 
 uploadpack.hideRefs::
-	String(s) `upload-pack` uses to decide which refs to omit
-	from its initial advertisement.  Use more than one
-	definitions to specify multiple prefix strings. A ref that
-	are under the hierarchies listed on the value of this
-	variable is excluded, and is hidden from `git ls-remote`,
-	`git fetch`, etc.  An attempt to fetch a hidden ref by `git
-	fetch` will fail.  See also `uploadpack.allowTipSHA1InWant`.
+	This variable is the same as `transfer.hideRefs`, but applies
+	only to `upload-pack` (and so affects only fetches, not pushes).
+	An attempt to fetch a hidden ref by `git fetch` will fail.  See
+	also `uploadpack.allowTipSHA1InWant`.
 
 uploadpack.allowTipSHA1InWant::
 	When `uploadpack.hideRefs` is in effect, allow `upload-pack`
diff --git a/Documentation/diff-options.txt b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
index d56ca90..306b7e3 100644
--- a/Documentation/diff-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/diff-options.txt
@@ -267,6 +267,9 @@
 A match that contains a newline is silently truncated(!) at the
 newline.
 +
+For example, `--word-diff-regex=.` will treat each character as a word
+and, correspondingly, show differences character by character.
++
 The regex can also be set via a diff driver or configuration option, see
 linkgit:gitattributes[1] or linkgit:git-config[1].  Giving it explicitly
 overrides any diff driver or configuration setting.  Diff drivers
diff --git a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
index 45583d8..78cd265 100644
--- a/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/fetch-options.txt
@@ -8,10 +8,11 @@
 	option old data in `.git/FETCH_HEAD` will be overwritten.
 
 --depth=<depth>::
-	Deepen or shorten the history of a 'shallow' repository created by
-	`git clone` with `--depth=<depth>` option (see linkgit:git-clone[1])
-	to the specified number of commits from the tip of each remote
-	branch history. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.
+	Limit fetching to the specified number of commits from the tip of
+	each remote branch history. If fetching to a 'shallow' repository
+	created by `git clone` with `--depth=<depth>` option (see
+	linkgit:git-clone[1]), deepen or shorten the history to the specified
+	number of commits. Tags for the deepened commits are not fetched.
 
 --unshallow::
 	If the source repository is complete, convert a shallow
diff --git a/Documentation/git-am.txt b/Documentation/git-am.txt
index 0d8ba48..13cdd7f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-am.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-am.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@
 --------
 [verse]
 'git am' [--signoff] [--keep] [--[no-]keep-cr] [--[no-]utf8]
-	 [--3way] [--interactive] [--committer-date-is-author-date]
+	 [--[no-]3way] [--interactive] [--committer-date-is-author-date]
 	 [--ignore-date] [--ignore-space-change | --ignore-whitespace]
 	 [--whitespace=<option>] [-C<n>] [-p<n>] [--directory=<dir>]
 	 [--exclude=<path>] [--include=<path>] [--reject] [-q | --quiet]
@@ -35,6 +35,7 @@
 --signoff::
 	Add a `Signed-off-by:` line to the commit message, using
 	the committer identity of yourself.
+	See the signoff option in linkgit:git-commit[1] for more information.
 
 -k::
 --keep::
@@ -90,10 +91,13 @@
 
 -3::
 --3way::
+--no-3way::
 	When the patch does not apply cleanly, fall back on
 	3-way merge if the patch records the identity of blobs
 	it is supposed to apply to and we have those blobs
-	available locally.
+	available locally. `--no-3way` can be used to override
+	am.threeWay configuration variable. For more information,
+	see am.threeWay in linkgit:git-config[1].
 
 --ignore-space-change::
 --ignore-whitespace::
@@ -138,7 +142,9 @@
 
 -S[<keyid>]::
 --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
-	GPG-sign commits.
+	GPG-sign commits. The `keyid` argument is optional and
+	defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be
+	stuck to the option without a space.
 
 --continue::
 -r::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
index 0f0c6ff..c06efbd 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect-lk2009.txt
@@ -1321,7 +1321,7 @@
 _____________
 
 Acknowledgments
-----------------
+---------------
 
 Many thanks to Junio Hamano for his help in reviewing this paper, for
 reviewing the patches I sent to the Git mailing list, for discussing
diff --git a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
index 4cb52a7..7e79aae 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-bisect.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@
 
 NAME
 ----
-git-bisect - Find by binary search the change that introduced a bug
+git-bisect - Use binary search to find the commit that introduced a bug
 
 
 SYNOPSIS
@@ -16,74 +16,89 @@
 The command takes various subcommands, and different options depending
 on the subcommand:
 
- git bisect help
- git bisect start [--no-checkout] [<bad> [<good>...]] [--] [<paths>...]
- git bisect bad [<rev>]
- git bisect good [<rev>...]
+ git bisect start [--term-{old,good}=<term> --term-{new,bad}=<term>]
+		  [--no-checkout] [<bad> [<good>...]] [--] [<paths>...]
+ git bisect (bad|new) [<rev>]
+ git bisect (good|old) [<rev>...]
+ git bisect terms [--term-good | --term-bad]
  git bisect skip [(<rev>|<range>)...]
  git bisect reset [<commit>]
  git bisect visualize
  git bisect replay <logfile>
  git bisect log
  git bisect run <cmd>...
+ git bisect help
 
-This command uses 'git rev-list --bisect' to help drive the
-binary search process to find which change introduced a bug, given an
-old "good" commit object name and a later "bad" commit object name.
+This command uses a binary search algorithm to find which commit in
+your project's history introduced a bug. You use it by first telling
+it a "bad" commit that is known to contain the bug, and a "good"
+commit that is known to be before the bug was introduced. Then `git
+bisect` picks a commit between those two endpoints and asks you
+whether the selected commit is "good" or "bad". It continues narrowing
+down the range until it finds the exact commit that introduced the
+change.
 
-Getting help
-~~~~~~~~~~~~
-
-Use "git bisect" to get a short usage description, and "git bisect
-help" or "git bisect -h" to get a long usage description.
+In fact, `git bisect` can be used to find the commit that changed
+*any* property of your project; e.g., the commit that fixed a bug, or
+the commit that caused a benchmark's performance to improve. To
+support this more general usage, the terms "old" and "new" can be used
+in place of "good" and "bad", or you can choose your own terms. See
+section "Alternate terms" below for more information.
 
 Basic bisect commands: start, bad, good
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-Using the Linux kernel tree as an example, basic use of the bisect
-command is as follows:
+As an example, suppose you are trying to find the commit that broke a
+feature that was known to work in version `v2.6.13-rc2` of your
+project. You start a bisect session as follows:
 
 ------------------------------------------------
 $ git bisect start
 $ git bisect bad                 # Current version is bad
-$ git bisect good v2.6.13-rc2    # v2.6.13-rc2 was the last version
-                                 # tested that was good
+$ git bisect good v2.6.13-rc2    # v2.6.13-rc2 is known to be good
 ------------------------------------------------
 
-When you have specified at least one bad and one good version, the
-command bisects the revision tree and outputs something similar to
-the following:
+Once you have specified at least one bad and one good commit, `git
+bisect` selects a commit in the middle of that range of history,
+checks it out, and outputs something similar to the following:
 
 ------------------------------------------------
-Bisecting: 675 revisions left to test after this
+Bisecting: 675 revisions left to test after this (roughly 10 steps)
 ------------------------------------------------
 
-The state in the middle of the set of revisions is then checked out.
-You would now compile that kernel and boot it. If the booted kernel
-works correctly, you would then issue the following command:
+You should now compile the checked-out version and test it. If that
+version works correctly, type
 
 ------------------------------------------------
-$ git bisect good			# this one is good
+$ git bisect good
 ------------------------------------------------
 
-The output of this command would be something similar to the following:
+If that version is broken, type
 
 ------------------------------------------------
-Bisecting: 337 revisions left to test after this
+$ git bisect bad
 ------------------------------------------------
 
-You keep repeating this process, compiling the tree, testing it, and
-depending on whether it is good or bad issuing the command "git bisect good"
-or "git bisect bad" to ask for the next bisection.
+Then `git bisect` will respond with something like
 
-Eventually there will be no more revisions left to bisect, and you
-will have been left with the first bad kernel revision in "refs/bisect/bad".
+------------------------------------------------
+Bisecting: 337 revisions left to test after this (roughly 9 steps)
+------------------------------------------------
+
+Keep repeating the process: compile the tree, test it, and depending
+on whether it is good or bad run `git bisect good` or `git bisect bad`
+to ask for the next commit that needs testing.
+
+Eventually there will be no more revisions left to inspect, and the
+command will print out a description of the first bad commit. The
+reference `refs/bisect/bad` will be left pointing at that commit.
+
 
 Bisect reset
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 After a bisect session, to clean up the bisection state and return to
-the original HEAD (i.e., to quit bisecting), issue the following command:
+the original HEAD, issue the following command:
 
 ------------------------------------------------
 $ git bisect reset
@@ -100,9 +115,83 @@
 $ git bisect reset <commit>
 ------------------------------------------------
 
-For example, `git bisect reset HEAD` will leave you on the current
-bisection commit and avoid switching commits at all, while `git bisect
-reset bisect/bad` will check out the first bad revision.
+For example, `git bisect reset bisect/bad` will check out the first
+bad revision, while `git bisect reset HEAD` will leave you on the
+current bisection commit and avoid switching commits at all.
+
+
+Alternate terms
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Sometimes you are not looking for the commit that introduced a
+breakage, but rather for a commit that caused a change between some
+other "old" state and "new" state. For example, you might be looking
+for the commit that introduced a particular fix. Or you might be
+looking for the first commit in which the source-code filenames were
+finally all converted to your company's naming standard. Or whatever.
+
+In such cases it can be very confusing to use the terms "good" and
+"bad" to refer to "the state before the change" and "the state after
+the change". So instead, you can use the terms "old" and "new",
+respectively, in place of "good" and "bad". (But note that you cannot
+mix "good" and "bad" with "old" and "new" in a single session.)
+
+In this more general usage, you provide `git bisect` with a "new"
+commit has some property and an "old" commit that doesn't have that
+property. Each time `git bisect` checks out a commit, you test if that
+commit has the property. If it does, mark the commit as "new";
+otherwise, mark it as "old". When the bisection is done, `git bisect`
+will report which commit introduced the property.
+
+To use "old" and "new" instead of "good" and bad, you must run `git
+bisect start` without commits as argument and then run the following
+commands to add the commits:
+
+------------------------------------------------
+git bisect old [<rev>]
+------------------------------------------------
+
+to indicate that a commit was before the sought change, or
+
+------------------------------------------------
+git bisect new [<rev>...]
+------------------------------------------------
+
+to indicate that it was after.
+
+To get a reminder of the currently used terms, use
+
+------------------------------------------------
+git bisect terms
+------------------------------------------------
+
+You can get just the old (respectively new) term with `git bisect term
+--term-old` or `git bisect term --term-good`.
+
+If you would like to use your own terms instead of "bad"/"good" or
+"new"/"old", you can choose any names you like (except existing bisect
+subcommands like `reset`, `start`, ...) by starting the
+bisection using
+
+------------------------------------------------
+git bisect start --term-old <term-old> --term-new <term-new>
+------------------------------------------------
+
+For example, if you are looking for a commit that introduced a
+performance regression, you might use
+
+------------------------------------------------
+git bisect start --term-old fast --term-new slow
+------------------------------------------------
+
+Or if you are looking for the commit that fixed a bug, you might use
+
+------------------------------------------------
+git bisect start --term-new fixed --term-old broken
+------------------------------------------------
+
+Then, use `git bisect <term-old>` and `git bisect <term-new>` instead
+of `git bisect good` and `git bisect bad` to mark commits.
 
 Bisect visualize
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
@@ -147,17 +236,17 @@
 Avoiding testing a commit
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-If, in the middle of a bisect session, you know that the next suggested
-revision is not a good one to test (e.g. the change the commit
-introduces is known not to work in your environment and you know it
-does not have anything to do with the bug you are chasing), you may
-want to find a nearby commit and try that instead.
+If, in the middle of a bisect session, you know that the suggested
+revision is not a good one to test (e.g. it fails to build and you
+know that the failure does not have anything to do with the bug you
+are chasing), you can manually select a nearby commit and test that
+one instead.
 
 For example:
 
 ------------
 $ git bisect good/bad			# previous round was good or bad.
-Bisecting: 337 revisions left to test after this
+Bisecting: 337 revisions left to test after this (roughly 9 steps)
 $ git bisect visualize			# oops, that is uninteresting.
 $ git reset --hard HEAD~3		# try 3 revisions before what
 					# was suggested
@@ -167,20 +256,21 @@
 the revision as good or bad in the usual manner.
 
 Bisect skip
-~~~~~~~~~~~~
+~~~~~~~~~~~
 
-Instead of choosing by yourself a nearby commit, you can ask Git
-to do it for you by issuing the command:
+Instead of choosing a nearby commit by yourself, you can ask Git to do
+it for you by issuing the command:
 
 ------------
 $ git bisect skip                 # Current version cannot be tested
 ------------
 
-But Git may eventually be unable to tell the first bad commit among
-a bad commit and one or more skipped commits.
+However, if you skip a commit adjacent to the one you are looking for,
+Git will be unable to tell exactly which of those commits was the
+first bad one.
 
-You can even skip a range of commits, instead of just one commit,
-using the "'<commit1>'..'<commit2>'" notation. For example:
+You can also skip a range of commits, instead of just one commit,
+using range notation. For example:
 
 ------------
 $ git bisect skip v2.5..v2.6
@@ -196,8 +286,8 @@
 $ git bisect skip v2.5 v2.5..v2.6
 ------------
 
-This tells the bisect process that the commits between `v2.5` included
-and `v2.6` included should be skipped.
+This tells the bisect process that the commits between `v2.5` and
+`v2.6` (inclusive) should be skipped.
 
 
 Cutting down bisection by giving more parameters to bisect start
@@ -231,23 +321,23 @@
 $ git bisect run my_script arguments
 ------------
 
-Note that the script (`my_script` in the above example) should
-exit with code 0 if the current source code is good, and exit with a
-code between 1 and 127 (inclusive), except 125, if the current
-source code is bad.
+Note that the script (`my_script` in the above example) should exit
+with code 0 if the current source code is good/old, and exit with a
+code between 1 and 127 (inclusive), except 125, if the current source
+code is bad/new.
 
 Any other exit code will abort the bisect process. It should be noted
-that a program that terminates via "exit(-1)" leaves $? = 255, (see the
-exit(3) manual page), as the value is chopped with "& 0377".
+that a program that terminates via `exit(-1)` leaves $? = 255, (see the
+exit(3) manual page), as the value is chopped with `& 0377`.
 
 The special exit code 125 should be used when the current source code
 cannot be tested. If the script exits with this code, the current
 revision will be skipped (see `git bisect skip` above). 125 was chosen
 as the highest sensible value to use for this purpose, because 126 and 127
 are used by POSIX shells to signal specific error status (127 is for
-command not found, 126 is for command found but not executable---these
+command not found, 126 is for command found but not executable--these
 details do not matter, as they are normal errors in the script, as far as
-"bisect run" is concerned).
+`bisect run` is concerned).
 
 You may often find that during a bisect session you want to have
 temporary modifications (e.g. s/#define DEBUG 0/#define DEBUG 1/ in a
@@ -260,7 +350,7 @@
 before compiling, run the real test, and afterwards decide if the
 revision (possibly with the needed patch) passed the test and then
 rewind the tree to the pristine state.  Finally the script should exit
-with the status of the real test to let the "git bisect run" command loop
+with the status of the real test to let the `git bisect run` command loop
 determine the eventual outcome of the bisect session.
 
 OPTIONS
@@ -307,12 +397,12 @@
 $ git bisect reset                   # quit the bisect session
 ------------
 +
-Here we use a "test.sh" custom script. In this script, if "make"
+Here we use a `test.sh` custom script. In this script, if `make`
 fails, we skip the current commit.
-"check_test_case.sh" should "exit 0" if the test case passes,
-and "exit 1" otherwise.
+`check_test_case.sh` should `exit 0` if the test case passes,
+and `exit 1` otherwise.
 +
-It is safer if both "test.sh" and "check_test_case.sh" are
+It is safer if both `test.sh` and `check_test_case.sh` are
 outside the repository to prevent interactions between the bisect,
 make and test processes and the scripts.
 
@@ -379,6 +469,26 @@
 has at least one parent whose reachable graph is fully traversable in the sense
 required by 'git pack objects'.
 
+* Look for a fix instead of a regression in the code
++
+------------
+$ git bisect start
+$ git bisect new HEAD    # current commit is marked as new
+$ git bisect old HEAD~10 # the tenth commit from now is marked as old
+------------
++
+or:
+------------
+$ git bisect start --term-old broken --term-new fixed
+$ git bisect fixed
+$ git bisect broken HEAD~10
+------------
+
+Getting help
+~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+Use `git bisect` to get a short usage description, and `git bisect
+help` or `git bisect -h` to get a long usage description.
 
 SEE ALSO
 --------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-branch.txt b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
index a67138a..4a7037f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-branch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-branch.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,8 @@
 'git branch' [--color[=<when>] | --no-color] [-r | -a]
 	[--list] [-v [--abbrev=<length> | --no-abbrev]]
 	[--column[=<options>] | --no-column]
-	[(--merged | --no-merged | --contains) [<commit>]] [<pattern>...]
+	[(--merged | --no-merged | --contains) [<commit>]] [--sort=<key>]
+	[--points-at <object>] [<pattern>...]
 'git branch' [--set-upstream | --track | --no-track] [-l] [-f] <branchname> [<start-point>]
 'git branch' (--set-upstream-to=<upstream> | -u <upstream>) [<branchname>]
 'git branch' --unset-upstream [<branchname>]
@@ -197,7 +198,9 @@
 
 --edit-description::
 	Open an editor and edit the text to explain what the branch is
-	for, to be used by various other commands (e.g. `request-pull`).
+	for, to be used by various other commands (e.g. `format-patch`,
+	`request-pull`, and `merge` (if enabled)). Multi-line explanations
+	may be used.
 
 --contains [<commit>]::
 	Only list branches which contain the specified commit (HEAD
@@ -229,6 +232,19 @@
 	The new name for an existing branch. The same restrictions as for
 	<branchname> apply.
 
+--sort=<key>::
+	Sort based on the key given. Prefix `-` to sort in descending
+	order of the value. You may use the --sort=<key> option
+	multiple times, in which case the last key becomes the primary
+	key. The keys supported are the same as those in `git
+	for-each-ref`. Sort order defaults to sorting based on the
+	full refname (including `refs/...` prefix). This lists
+	detached HEAD (if present) first, then local branches and
+	finally remote-tracking branches.
+
+
+--points-at <object>::
+	Only list branches of the given object.
 
 Examples
 --------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
index 319ab4c..eb3d694 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cat-file.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@
 --------
 [verse]
 'git cat-file' (-t [--allow-unknown-type]| -s [--allow-unknown-type]| -e | -p | <type> | --textconv ) <object>
-'git cat-file' (--batch | --batch-check) [--follow-symlinks] < <list-of-objects>
+'git cat-file' (--batch | --batch-check) [--follow-symlinks]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -69,6 +69,20 @@
 	not be combined with any other options or arguments.  See the
 	section `BATCH OUTPUT` below for details.
 
+--batch-all-objects::
+	Instead of reading a list of objects on stdin, perform the
+	requested batch operation on all objects in the repository and
+	any alternate object stores (not just reachable objects).
+	Requires `--batch` or `--batch-check` be specified. Note that
+	the objects are visited in order sorted by their hashes.
+
+--buffer::
+	Normally batch output is flushed after each object is output, so
+	that a process can interactively read and write from
+	`cat-file`. With this option, the output uses normal stdio
+	buffering; this is much more efficient when invoking
+	`--batch-check` on a large number of objects.
+
 --allow-unknown-type::
 	Allow -s or -t to query broken/corrupt objects of unknown type.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
index 00e2aa2..aa3b2bf 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-attr.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@
 --------
 [verse]
 'git check-attr' [-a | --all | attr...] [--] pathname...
-'git check-attr' --stdin [-z] [-a | --all | attr...] < <list-of-paths>
+'git check-attr' --stdin [-z] [-a | --all | attr...]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -28,7 +28,8 @@
 	Consider `.gitattributes` in the index only, ignoring the working tree.
 
 --stdin::
-	Read file names from stdin instead of from the command-line.
+	Read pathnames from the standard input, one per line,
+	instead of from the command-line.
 
 -z::
 	The output format is modified to be machine-parseable.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
index e35cd04..e94367a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ignore.txt
@@ -10,16 +10,15 @@
 --------
 [verse]
 'git check-ignore' [options] pathname...
-'git check-ignore' [options] --stdin < <list-of-paths>
+'git check-ignore' [options] --stdin
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
 
 For each pathname given via the command-line or from a file via
-`--stdin`, show the pattern from .gitignore (or other input files to
-the exclude mechanism) that decides if the pathname is excluded or
-included.  Later patterns within a file take precedence over earlier
-ones.
+`--stdin`, check whether the file is excluded by .gitignore (or other
+input files to the exclude mechanism) and output the path if it is
+excluded.
 
 By default, tracked files are not shown at all since they are not
 subject to exclude rules; but see `--no-index'.
@@ -32,10 +31,12 @@
 
 -v, --verbose::
 	Also output details about the matching pattern (if any)
-	for each given pathname.
+	for each given pathname. For precedence rules within and
+	between exclude sources, see linkgit:gitignore[5].
 
 --stdin::
-	Read file names from stdin instead of from the command-line.
+	Read pathnames from the standard input, one per line,
+	instead of from the command-line.
 
 -z::
 	The output format is modified to be machine-parseable (see
diff --git a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
index fc02959..91a3622 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-check-ref-format.txt
@@ -60,7 +60,7 @@
 
 These rules make it easy for shell script based tools to parse
 reference names, pathname expansion by the shell when a reference name is used
-unquoted (by mistake), and also avoids ambiguities in certain
+unquoted (by mistake), and also avoid ambiguities in certain
 reference name expressions (see linkgit:gitrevisions[7]):
 
 . A double-dot `..` is often used as in `ref1..ref2`, and in some
@@ -94,8 +94,8 @@
 	Interpret <refname> as a reference name pattern for a refspec
 	(as used with remote repositories).  If this option is
 	enabled, <refname> is allowed to contain a single `*`
-	in place of a one full pathname component (e.g.,
-	`foo/*/bar` but not `foo/bar*`).
+	in the refspec (e.g., `foo/bar*/baz` or `foo/bar*baz/`
+	but not `foo/bar*/baz*`).
 
 --normalize::
 	Normalize 'refname' by removing any leading slash (`/`)
diff --git a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
index e269fb1..5e5273e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-checkout.txt
@@ -107,6 +107,12 @@
 --quiet::
 	Quiet, suppress feedback messages.
 
+--[no-]progress::
+	Progress status is reported on the standard error stream
+	by default when it is attached to a terminal, unless `--quiet`
+	is specified. This flag enables progress reporting even if not
+	attached to a terminal, regardless of `--quiet`.
+
 -f::
 --force::
 	When switching branches, proceed even if the index or the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
index 1147c71..6154e57 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-cherry-pick.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
 --------
 [verse]
 'git cherry-pick' [--edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] [-x] [--ff]
-		  [-S[<key-id>]] <commit>...
+		  [-S[<keyid>]] <commit>...
 'git cherry-pick' --continue
 'git cherry-pick' --quit
 'git cherry-pick' --abort
@@ -100,10 +100,13 @@
 -s::
 --signoff::
 	Add Signed-off-by line at the end of the commit message.
+	See the signoff option in linkgit:git-commit[1] for more information.
 
--S[<key-id>]::
---gpg-sign[=<key-id>]::
-	GPG-sign commits.
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+	GPG-sign commits. The `keyid` argument is optional and
+	defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be
+	stuck to the option without a space.
 
 --ff::
 	If the current HEAD is the same as the parent of the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-clone.txt b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
index f1f2a3f..789b668 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-clone.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-clone.txt
@@ -104,8 +104,13 @@
 --dissociate::
 	Borrow the objects from reference repositories specified
 	with the `--reference` options only to reduce network
-	transfer and stop borrowing from them after a clone is made
-	by making necessary local copies of borrowed objects.
+	transfer, and stop borrowing from them after a clone is made
+	by making necessary local copies of borrowed objects.  This
+	option can also be used when cloning locally from a
+	repository that already borrows objects from another
+	repository--the new repository will borrow objects from the
+	same repository, and this option can be used to stop the
+	borrowing.
 
 --quiet::
 -q::
@@ -185,15 +190,14 @@
 
 --depth <depth>::
 	Create a 'shallow' clone with a history truncated to the
-	specified number of revisions.
+	specified number of commits. Implies `--single-branch` unless
+	`--no-single-branch` is given to fetch the histories near the
+	tips of all branches.
 
 --[no-]single-branch::
 	Clone only the history leading to the tip of a single branch,
 	either specified by the `--branch` option or the primary
-	branch remote's `HEAD` points at. When creating a shallow
-	clone with the `--depth` option, this is the default, unless
-	`--no-single-branch` is given to fetch the histories near the
-	tips of all branches.
+	branch remote's `HEAD` points at.
 	Further fetches into the resulting repository will only update the
 	remote-tracking branch for the branch this option was used for the
 	initial cloning.  If the HEAD at the remote did not point at any
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
index f5f2a8d..48c33d7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit-tree.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git commit-tree' <tree> [(-p <parent>)...] < changelog
+'git commit-tree' <tree> [(-p <parent>)...]
 'git commit-tree' [(-p <parent>)...] [-S[<keyid>]] [(-m <message>)...]
 		  [(-F <file>)...] <tree>
 
@@ -56,7 +56,9 @@
 
 -S[<keyid>]::
 --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
-	GPG-sign commit.
+	GPG-sign commits. The `keyid` argument is optional and
+	defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be
+	stuck to the option without a space.
 
 --no-gpg-sign::
 	Countermand `commit.gpgSign` configuration variable that is
diff --git a/Documentation/git-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
index 904dafa..9ec6b3c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-commit.txt
@@ -13,7 +13,7 @@
 	   [-F <file> | -m <msg>] [--reset-author] [--allow-empty]
 	   [--allow-empty-message] [--no-verify] [-e] [--author=<author>]
 	   [--date=<date>] [--cleanup=<mode>] [--[no-]status]
-	   [-i | -o] [-S[<key-id>]] [--] [<file>...]
+	   [-i | -o] [-S[<keyid>]] [--] [<file>...]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -154,7 +154,11 @@
 -s::
 --signoff::
 	Add Signed-off-by line by the committer at the end of the commit
-	log message.
+	log message.  The meaning of a signoff depends on the project,
+	but it typically certifies that committer has
+	the rights to submit this work under the same license and
+	agrees to a Developer Certificate of Origin
+	(see http://developercertificate.org/ for more information).
 
 -n::
 --no-verify::
@@ -314,7 +318,9 @@
 
 -S[<keyid>]::
 --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
-	GPG-sign commit.
+	GPG-sign commits. The `keyid` argument is optional and
+	defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be
+	stuck to the option without a space.
 
 --no-gpg-sign::
 	Countermand `commit.gpgSign` configuration variable that is
diff --git a/Documentation/git-config.txt b/Documentation/git-config.txt
index 02ec096..2608ca7 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-config.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-config.txt
@@ -14,13 +14,13 @@
 'git config' [<file-option>] [type] --replace-all name value [value_regex]
 'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] --get name [value_regex]
 'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] --get-all name [value_regex]
-'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] --get-regexp name_regex [value_regex]
+'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] [--name-only] --get-regexp name_regex [value_regex]
 'git config' [<file-option>] [type] [-z|--null] --get-urlmatch name URL
 'git config' [<file-option>] --unset name [value_regex]
 'git config' [<file-option>] --unset-all name [value_regex]
 'git config' [<file-option>] --rename-section old_name new_name
 'git config' [<file-option>] --remove-section name
-'git config' [<file-option>] [-z|--null] -l | --list
+'git config' [<file-option>] [-z|--null] [--name-only] -l | --list
 'git config' [<file-option>] --get-color name [default]
 'git config' [<file-option>] --get-colorbool name [stdout-is-tty]
 'git config' [<file-option>] -e | --edit
@@ -159,7 +159,7 @@
 
 -l::
 --list::
-	List all variables set in config file.
+	List all variables set in config file, along with their values.
 
 --bool::
 	'git config' will ensure that the output is "true" or "false"
@@ -190,6 +190,10 @@
 	output without getting confused e.g. by values that
 	contain line breaks.
 
+--name-only::
+	Output only the names of config variables for `--list` or
+	`--get-regexp`.
+
 --get-colorbool name [stdout-is-tty]::
 
 	Find the color setting for `name` (e.g. `color.diff`) and output
diff --git a/Documentation/git-describe.txt b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
index e045fc7..c8f28c8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-describe.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-describe.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git describe' [--all] [--tags] [--contains] [--abbrev=<n>] <commit-ish>...
+'git describe' [--all] [--tags] [--contains] [--abbrev=<n>] [<commit-ish>...]
 'git describe' [--all] [--tags] [--contains] [--abbrev=<n>] --dirty[=<mark>]
 
 DESCRIPTION
@@ -27,7 +27,7 @@
 OPTIONS
 -------
 <commit-ish>...::
-	Commit-ish object names to describe.
+	Commit-ish object names to describe.  Defaults to HEAD if omitted.
 
 --dirty[=<mark>]::
 	Describe the working tree.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
index fd32895..66910aa 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fast-import.txt
@@ -54,7 +54,7 @@
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 --cat-blob-fd=<fd>::
-	Write responses to `cat-blob` and `ls` queries to the
+	Write responses to `get-mark`, `cat-blob`, and `ls` queries to the
 	file descriptor <fd> instead of `stdout`.  Allows `progress`
 	output intended for the end-user to be separated from other
 	output.
@@ -350,6 +350,11 @@
 	unless the `done` feature was requested using the
 	`--done` command-line option or `feature done` command.
 
+`get-mark`::
+	Causes fast-import to print the SHA-1 corresponding to a mark
+	to the file descriptor set with `--cat-blob-fd`, or `stdout` if
+	unspecified.
+
 `cat-blob`::
 	Causes fast-import to print a blob in 'cat-file --batch'
 	format to the file descriptor set with `--cat-blob-fd` or
@@ -930,6 +935,25 @@
 inform the reader when the `checkpoint` has been completed and it
 can safely access the refs that fast-import updated.
 
+`get-mark`
+~~~~~~~~~~
+Causes fast-import to print the SHA-1 corresponding to a mark to
+stdout or to the file descriptor previously arranged with the
+`--cat-blob-fd` argument. The command otherwise has no impact on the
+current import; its purpose is to retrieve SHA-1s that later commits
+might want to refer to in their commit messages.
+
+....
+	'get-mark' SP ':' <idnum> LF
+....
+
+This command can be used anywhere in the stream that comments are
+accepted.  In particular, the `get-mark` command can be used in the
+middle of a commit but not in the middle of a `data` command.
+
+See ``Responses To Commands'' below for details about how to read
+this output safely.
+
 `cat-blob`
 ~~~~~~~~~~
 Causes fast-import to print a blob to a file descriptor previously
@@ -1000,7 +1024,8 @@
 ====
 
 The <dataref> represents the blob, tree, or commit object at <path>
-and can be used in later 'cat-blob', 'filemodify', or 'ls' commands.
+and can be used in later 'get-mark', 'cat-blob', 'filemodify', or
+'ls' commands.
 
 If there is no file or subtree at that path, 'git fast-import' will
 instead report
@@ -1042,9 +1067,11 @@
 	"feature import-marks-if-exists" like a corresponding
 	command-line option silently skips a nonexistent file.
 
+get-mark::
 cat-blob::
 ls::
-	Require that the backend support the 'cat-blob' or 'ls' command.
+	Require that the backend support the 'get-mark', 'cat-blob',
+	or 'ls' command respectively.
 	Versions of fast-import not supporting the specified command
 	will exit with a message indicating so.
 	This lets the import error out early with a clear message,
@@ -1124,11 +1151,11 @@
 	git fast-import >fast-import-output
 ====
 
-A frontend set up this way can use `progress`, `ls`, and `cat-blob`
-commands to read information from the import in progress.
+A frontend set up this way can use `progress`, `get-mark`, `ls`, and
+`cat-blob` commands to read information from the import in progress.
 
 To avoid deadlock, such frontends must completely consume any
-pending output from `progress`, `ls`, and `cat-blob` before
+pending output from `progress`, `ls`, `get-mark`, and `cat-blob` before
 performing writes to fast-import that might block.
 
 Crash Reports
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
index e62d9a0..efe56e0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fetch.txt
@@ -71,7 +71,7 @@
 * When `git fetch` is run without specifying what branches
   and/or tags to fetch on the command line, e.g. `git fetch origin`
   or `git fetch`, `remote.<repository>.fetch` values are used as
-  the refspecs---they specify which refs to fetch and which local refs
+  the refspecs--they specify which refs to fetch and which local refs
   to update.  The example above will fetch
   all branches that exist in the `origin` (i.e. any ref that matches
   the left-hand side of the value, `refs/heads/*`) and update the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
index 55a9a4b..6526b17 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fmt-merge-msg.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git fmt-merge-msg' [-m <message>] [--log[=<n>] | --no-log] <$GIT_DIR/FETCH_HEAD
+'git fmt-merge-msg' [-m <message>] [--log[=<n>] | --no-log]
 'git fmt-merge-msg' [-m <message>] [--log[=<n>] | --no-log] -F <file>
 
 DESCRIPTION
@@ -57,6 +57,18 @@
 	Synonym to `merge.log`; this is deprecated and will be removed in
 	the future.
 
+EXAMPLE
+-------
+
+--
+$ git fetch origin master
+$ git fmt-merge-msg --log <$GIT_DIR/FETCH_HEAD
+--
+
+Print a log message describing a merge of the "master" branch from
+the "origin" remote.
+
+
 SEE ALSO
 --------
 linkgit:git-merge[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
index 7f8d9a5..2e3e96f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-for-each-ref.txt
@@ -10,6 +10,8 @@
 [verse]
 'git for-each-ref' [--count=<count>] [--shell|--perl|--python|--tcl]
 		   [(--sort=<key>)...] [--format=<format>] [<pattern>...]
+		   [--points-at <object>] [(--merged | --no-merged) [<object>]]
+		   [--contains [<object>]]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -62,6 +64,20 @@
 	the specified host language.  This is meant to produce
 	a scriptlet that can directly be `eval`ed.
 
+--points-at <object>::
+	Only list refs which points at the given object.
+
+--merged [<object>]::
+	Only list refs whose tips are reachable from the
+	specified commit (HEAD if not specified).
+
+--no-merged [<object>]::
+	Only list refs whose tips are not reachable from the
+	specified commit (HEAD if not specified).
+
+--contains [<object>]::
+	Only list tags which contain the specified commit (HEAD if not
+	specified).
 
 FIELD NAMES
 -----------
@@ -76,7 +92,11 @@
 	The name of the ref (the part after $GIT_DIR/).
 	For a non-ambiguous short name of the ref append `:short`.
 	The option core.warnAmbiguousRefs is used to select the strict
-	abbreviation mode.
+	abbreviation mode. If `strip=<N>` is appended, strips `<N>`
+	slash-separated path components from the front of the refname
+	(e.g., `%(refname:strip=2)` turns `refs/tags/foo` into `foo`.
+	`<N>` must be a positive integer.  If a displayed ref has fewer
+	components than `<N>`, the command aborts with an error.
 
 objecttype::
 	The type of the object (`blob`, `tree`, `commit`, `tag`).
@@ -111,10 +131,26 @@
 	Change output color.  Followed by `:<colorname>`, where names
 	are described in `color.branch.*`.
 
+align::
+	Left-, middle-, or right-align the content between
+	%(align:...) and %(end). The "align:" is followed by `<width>`
+	and `<position>` in any order separated by a comma, where the
+	`<position>` is either left, right or middle, default being
+	left and `<width>` is the total length of the content with
+	alignment. If the contents length is more than the width then
+	no alignment is performed. If used with '--quote' everything
+	in between %(align:...) and %(end) is quoted, but if nested
+	then only the topmost level performs quoting.
+
 In addition to the above, for commit and tag objects, the header
 field names (`tree`, `parent`, `object`, `type`, and `tag`) can
 be used to specify the value in the header field.
 
+For commit and tag objects, the special `creatordate` and `creator`
+fields will correspond to the appropriate date or name-email-date tuple
+from the `committer` or `tagger` fields depending on the object type.
+These are intended for working on a mix of annotated and lightweight tags.
+
 Fields that have name-email-date tuple as its value (`author`,
 `committer`, and `tagger`) can be suffixed with `name`, `email`,
 and `date` to extract the named component.
@@ -123,20 +159,23 @@
 Its first line is `contents:subject`, where subject is the concatenation
 of all lines of the commit message up to the first blank line.  The next
 line is 'contents:body', where body is all of the lines after the first
-blank line.  Finally, the optional GPG signature is `contents:signature`.
+blank line.  The optional GPG signature is `contents:signature`.  The
+first `N` lines of the message is obtained using `contents:lines=N`.
 
-For sorting purposes, fields with numeric values sort in numeric
-order (`objectsize`, `authordate`, `committerdate`, `taggerdate`).
+For sorting purposes, fields with numeric values sort in numeric order
+(`objectsize`, `authordate`, `committerdate`, `creatordate`, `taggerdate`).
 All other fields are used to sort in their byte-value order.
 
+There is also an option to sort by versions, this can be done by using
+the fieldname `version:refname` or its alias `v:refname`.
+
 In any case, a field name that refers to a field inapplicable to
 the object referred by the ref does not cause an error.  It
 returns an empty string instead.
 
 As a special case for the date-type fields, you may specify a format for
-the date by adding one of `:default`, `:relative`, `:short`, `:local`,
-`:iso8601`, `:rfc2822` or `:raw` to the end of the fieldname; e.g.
-`%(taggerdate:relative)`.
+the date by adding `:` followed by date format name (see the
+values the `--date` option to linkgit::git-rev-list[1] takes).
 
 
 EXAMPLES
diff --git a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
index 0dac4e9..b149e09 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-format-patch.txt
@@ -109,6 +109,7 @@
 --signoff::
 	Add `Signed-off-by:` line to the commit message, using
 	the committer identity of yourself.
+	See the signoff option in linkgit:git-commit[1] for more information.
 
 --stdout::
 	Print all commits to the standard output in mbox format,
@@ -213,7 +214,7 @@
 
 --[no-]cover-letter::
 	In addition to the patches, generate a cover letter file
-	containing the shortlog and the overall diffstat.  You can
+	containing the branch description, shortlog and the overall diffstat.  You can
 	fill in a description in the file before sending it out.
 
 --notes[=<ref>]::
@@ -256,6 +257,10 @@
 	using this option cannot be applied properly, but they are
 	still useful for code review.
 
+--zero-commit::
+  Output an all-zero hash in each patch's From header instead
+  of the hash of the commit.
+
 --root::
 	Treat the revision argument as a <revision range>, even if it
 	is just a single commit (that would normally be treated as a
diff --git a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
index 25c431d..84ee92e 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-fsck.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
 [verse]
 'git fsck' [--tags] [--root] [--unreachable] [--cache] [--no-reflogs]
 	 [--[no-]full] [--strict] [--verbose] [--lost-found]
-	 [--[no-]dangling] [--[no-]progress] [<object>*]
+	 [--[no-]dangling] [--[no-]progress] [--connectivity-only] [<object>*]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -60,6 +60,11 @@
 	object pools.  This is now default; you can turn it off
 	with --no-full.
 
+--connectivity-only::
+	Check only the connectivity of tags, commits and tree objects. By
+	avoiding to unpack blobs, this speeds up the operation, at the
+	expense of missing corrupt objects or other problematic issues.
+
 --strict::
 	Enable more strict checking, namely to catch a file mode
 	recorded with g+w bit set, which was created by older
diff --git a/Documentation/git-gc.txt b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
index 5223498..fa15104 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-gc.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-gc.txt
@@ -63,8 +63,11 @@
 --prune=<date>::
 	Prune loose objects older than date (default is 2 weeks ago,
 	overridable by the config variable `gc.pruneExpire`).
-	--prune=all prunes loose objects regardless of their age.
-	--prune is on by default.
+	--prune=all prunes loose objects regardless of their age (do
+	not use --prune=all unless you know exactly what you are doing.
+	Unless the repository is quiescent, you will lose newly created
+	objects that haven't been anchored with the refs and end up
+	corrupting your repository).  --prune is on by default.
 
 --no-prune::
 	Do not prune any loose objects.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-get-tar-commit-id.txt b/Documentation/git-get-tar-commit-id.txt
index 1e2a20d..ac44d85 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-get-tar-commit-id.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-get-tar-commit-id.txt
@@ -9,17 +9,19 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git get-tar-commit-id' < <tarfile>
+'git get-tar-commit-id'
 
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
-Acts as a filter, extracting the commit ID stored in archives created by
-'git archive'.  It reads only the first 1024 bytes of input, thus its
-runtime is not influenced by the size of <tarfile> very much.
+
+Read a tar archive created by 'git archive' from the standard input
+and extract the commit ID stored in it.  It reads only the first
+1024 bytes of input, thus its runtime is not influenced by the size
+of the tar archive very much.
 
 If no commit ID is found, 'git get-tar-commit-id' quietly exists with a
-return code of 1.  This can happen if <tarfile> had not been created
+return code of 1.  This can happen if the archive had not been created
 using 'git archive' or if the first parameter of 'git archive' had been
 a tree ID instead of a commit ID or tag.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-grep.txt b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
index 31811f1..4a44d6d 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-grep.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-grep.txt
@@ -160,12 +160,15 @@
 	For better compatibility with 'git diff', `--name-only` is a
 	synonym for `--files-with-matches`.
 
--O [<pager>]::
---open-files-in-pager [<pager>]::
+-O[<pager>]::
+--open-files-in-pager[=<pager>]::
 	Open the matching files in the pager (not the output of 'grep').
 	If the pager happens to be "less" or "vi", and the user
 	specified only one pattern, the first file is positioned at
-	the first match automatically.
+	the first match automatically. The `pager` argument is
+	optional; if specified, it must be stuck to the option
+	without a space. If `pager` is unspecified, the default pager
+	will be used (see `core.pager` in linkgit:git-config[1]).
 
 -z::
 --null::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
index 0c75f3b..814e744 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-hash-object.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@
 --------
 [verse]
 'git hash-object' [-t <type>] [-w] [--path=<file>|--no-filters] [--stdin [--literally]] [--] <file>...
-'git hash-object' [-t <type>] [-w] --stdin-paths [--no-filters] < <list-of-paths>
+'git hash-object' [-t <type>] [-w] --stdin-paths [--no-filters]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -35,7 +35,8 @@
 	Read the object from standard input instead of from a file.
 
 --stdin-paths::
-	Read file names from stdin instead of from the command-line.
+	Read file names from the standard input, one per line, instead
+	of from the command-line.
 
 --path::
 	Hash object as it were located at the given path. The location of
diff --git a/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
index d6d9231..0ecd497 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-interpret-trailers.txt
@@ -67,7 +67,7 @@
 --trim-empty::
 	If the <value> part of any trailer contains only whitespace,
 	the whole trailer will be removed from the resulting message.
-	This apply to existing trailers as well as new trailers.
+	This applies to existing trailers as well as new trailers.
 
 --trailer <token>[(=|:)<value>]::
 	Specify a (<token>, <value>) pair that should be applied as a
diff --git a/Documentation/git-log.txt b/Documentation/git-log.txt
index 5692945..03f9580 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-log.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-log.txt
@@ -184,6 +184,12 @@
 	`--date` option.)  Defaults to "default", which means to write
 	dates like `Sat May 8 19:35:34 2010 -0500`.
 
+log.follow::
+	If `true`, `git log` will act as if the `--follow` option was used when
+	a single <path> is given.  This has the same limitations as `--follow`,
+	i.e. it cannot be used to follow multiple files and does not work well
+	on non-linear history.
+
 log.showRoot::
 	If `false`, `git log` and related commands will not treat the
 	initial commit as a big creation event.  Any root commits in
diff --git a/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
index 2e22915..d510c05 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-ls-remote.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git ls-remote' [--heads] [--tags]  [-u <exec> | --upload-pack <exec>]
+'git ls-remote' [--heads] [--tags]  [--upload-pack=<exec>]
 	      [--exit-code] <repository> [<refs>...]
 
 DESCRIPTION
@@ -29,7 +29,6 @@
 	both, references stored in refs/heads and refs/tags are
 	displayed.
 
--u <exec>::
 --upload-pack=<exec>::
 	Specify the full path of 'git-upload-pack' on the remote
 	host. This allows listing references from repositories accessed via
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt b/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
index d2fc12e..f856032 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge-file.txt
@@ -41,7 +41,8 @@
 conflict markers can be given with the `--marker-size` option.
 
 The exit value of this program is negative on error, and the number of
-conflicts otherwise. If the merge was clean, the exit value is 0.
+conflicts otherwise (truncated to 127 if there are more than that many
+conflicts). If the merge was clean, the exit value is 0.
 
 'git merge-file' is designed to be a minimal clone of RCS 'merge'; that is, it
 implements all of RCS 'merge''s functionality which is needed by
diff --git a/Documentation/git-merge.txt b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
index 273a100..07f7295 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-merge.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-merge.txt
@@ -10,7 +10,7 @@
 --------
 [verse]
 'git merge' [-n] [--stat] [--no-commit] [--squash] [--[no-]edit]
-	[-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>] [-S[<key-id>]]
+	[-s <strategy>] [-X <strategy-option>] [-S[<keyid>]]
 	[--[no-]rerere-autoupdate] [-m <msg>] [<commit>...]
 'git merge' <msg> HEAD <commit>...
 'git merge' --abort
@@ -67,7 +67,9 @@
 
 -S[<keyid>]::
 --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
-	GPG-sign the resulting merge commit.
+	GPG-sign the resulting merge commit. The `keyid` argument is
+	optional and defaults to the committer identity; if specified,
+	it must be stuck to the option without a space.
 
 -m <msg>::
 	Set the commit message to be used for the merge commit (in
@@ -78,7 +80,7 @@
 +
 The 'git fmt-merge-msg' command can be
 used to give a good default for automated 'git merge'
-invocations.
+invocations. The automated message can include the branch description.
 
 --[no-]rerere-autoupdate::
 	Allow the rerere mechanism to update the index with the
diff --git a/Documentation/git-mktag.txt b/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
index 3ca158b..fa6a756 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-mktag.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git mktag' < signature_file
+'git mktag'
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -20,7 +20,8 @@
 
 Tag Format
 ----------
-A tag signature file has a very simple fixed format: four lines of
+A tag signature file, to be fed to this command's standard input,
+has a very simple fixed format: four lines of
 
   object <sha1>
   type <typename>
diff --git a/Documentation/git-notes.txt b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
index 851518d..8de3499 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-notes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-notes.txt
@@ -101,7 +101,7 @@
 	any) into the current notes ref (called "local").
 +
 If conflicts arise and a strategy for automatically resolving
-conflicting notes (see the -s/--strategy option) is not given,
+conflicting notes (see the "NOTES MERGE STRATEGIES" section) is not given,
 the "manual" resolver is used. This resolver checks out the
 conflicting notes in a special worktree (`.git/NOTES_MERGE_WORKTREE`),
 and instructs the user to manually resolve the conflicts there.
@@ -162,7 +162,9 @@
 --ref <ref>::
 	Manipulate the notes tree in <ref>.  This overrides
 	'GIT_NOTES_REF' and the "core.notesRef" configuration.  The ref
-	is taken to be in `refs/notes/` if it is not qualified.
+	specifies the full refname when it begins with `refs/notes/`; when it
+	begins with `notes/`, `refs/` and otherwise `refs/notes/` is prefixed
+	to form a full name of the ref.
 
 --ignore-missing::
 	Do not consider it an error to request removing notes from an
@@ -183,6 +185,7 @@
 	When merging notes, resolve notes conflicts using the given
 	strategy. The following strategies are recognized: "manual"
 	(default), "ours", "theirs", "union" and "cat_sort_uniq".
+	This option overrides the "notes.mergeStrategy" configuration setting.
 	See the "NOTES MERGE STRATEGIES" section below for more
 	information on each notes merge strategy.
 
@@ -247,6 +250,9 @@
 'git notes merge --commit', or abort the merge with
 'git notes merge --abort'.
 
+Users may select an automated merge strategy from among the following using
+either -s/--strategy option or configuring notes.mergeStrategy accordingly:
+
 "ours" automatically resolves conflicting notes in favor of the local
 version (i.e. the current notes ref).
 
@@ -310,6 +316,20 @@
 	This setting can be overridden through the environment and
 	command line.
 
+notes.mergeStrategy::
+	Which merge strategy to choose by default when resolving notes
+	conflicts.  Must be one of `manual`, `ours`, `theirs`, `union`, or
+	`cat_sort_uniq`.  Defaults to `manual`.  See "NOTES MERGE STRATEGIES"
+	section above for more information on each strategy.
++
+This setting can be overridden by passing the `--strategy` option.
+
+notes.<name>.mergeStrategy::
+	Which merge strategy to choose when doing a notes merge into
+	refs/notes/<name>.  This overrides the more general
+	"notes.mergeStrategy".  See the "NOTES MERGE STRATEGIES" section above
+	for more information on each available strategy.
+
 notes.displayRef::
 	Which ref (or refs, if a glob or specified more than once), in
 	addition to the default set by `core.notesRef` or
@@ -331,7 +351,8 @@
 notes.rewriteMode::
 	When copying notes during a rewrite, what to do if the target
 	commit already has a note.  Must be one of `overwrite`,
-	`concatenate`, and `ignore`.  Defaults to `concatenate`.
+	`concatenate`, `cat_sort_uniq`, or `ignore`.  Defaults to
+	`concatenate`.
 +
 This setting can be overridden with the `GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_MODE`
 environment variable.
@@ -368,7 +389,7 @@
 'GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_MODE'::
 	When copying notes during a rewrite, what to do if the target
 	commit already has a note.
-	Must be one of `overwrite`, `concatenate`, and `ignore`.
+	Must be one of `overwrite`, `concatenate`, `cat_sort_uniq`, or `ignore`.
 	This overrides the `core.rewriteMode` setting.
 
 'GIT_NOTES_REWRITE_REF'::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-p4.txt b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
index 82aa5d6..738cfde 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-p4.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-p4.txt
@@ -510,6 +510,49 @@
 	option '--use-client-spec'.  See the "CLIENT SPEC" section above.
 	This variable is a boolean, not the name of a p4 client.
 
+git-p4.pathEncoding::
+	Perforce keeps the encoding of a path as given by the originating OS.
+	Git expects paths encoded as UTF-8. Use this config to tell git-p4
+	what encoding Perforce had used for the paths. This encoding is used
+	to transcode the paths to UTF-8. As an example, Perforce on Windows
+	often uses “cp1252” to encode path names.
+
+git-p4.largeFileSystem::
+	Specify the system that is used for large (binary) files. Please note
+	that large file systems do not support the 'git p4 submit' command.
+	Only Git LFS [1] is implemented right now. Download
+	and install the Git LFS command line extension to use this option
+	and configure it like this:
++
+-------------
+git config       git-p4.largeFileSystem GitLFS
+-------------
++
+	[1] https://git-lfs.github.com/
+
+git-p4.largeFileExtensions::
+	All files matching a file extension in the list will be processed
+	by the large file system. Do not prefix the extensions with '.'.
+
+git-p4.largeFileThreshold::
+	All files with an uncompressed size exceeding the threshold will be
+	processed by the large file system. By default the threshold is
+	defined in bytes. Add the suffix k, m, or g to change the unit.
+
+git-p4.largeFileCompressedThreshold::
+	All files with a compressed size exceeding the threshold will be
+	processed by the large file system. This option might slow down
+	your clone/sync process. By default the threshold is defined in
+	bytes. Add the suffix k, m, or g to change the unit.
+
+git-p4.largeFilePush::
+	Boolean variable which defines if large files are automatically
+	pushed to a server.
+
+git-p4.keepEmptyCommits::
+	A changelist that contains only excluded files will be imported
+	as an empty commit if this boolean option is set to true.
+
 Submit variables
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 git-p4.detectRenames::
diff --git a/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
index 31efc58..cf71fba 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-patch-id.txt
@@ -8,10 +8,12 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git patch-id' [--stable | --unstable] < <patch>
+'git patch-id' [--stable | --unstable]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
+Read a patch from the standard input and compute the patch ID for it.
+
 A "patch ID" is nothing but a sum of SHA-1 of the file diffs associated with a
 patch, with whitespace and line numbers ignored.  As such, it's "reasonably
 stable", but at the same time also reasonably unique, i.e., two patches that
diff --git a/Documentation/git-push.txt b/Documentation/git-push.txt
index 135d810..4c775bc 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-push.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-push.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,8 @@
 [verse]
 'git push' [--all | --mirror | --tags] [--follow-tags] [--atomic] [-n | --dry-run] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
 	   [--repo=<repository>] [-f | --force] [--prune] [-v | --verbose]
-	   [-u | --set-upstream] [--signed]
+	   [-u | --set-upstream]
+	   [--[no-]signed|--sign=(true|false|if-asked)]
 	   [--force-with-lease[=<refname>[:<expect>]]]
 	   [--no-verify] [<repository> [<refspec>...]]
 
@@ -61,7 +62,7 @@
 If `git push [<repository>]` without any `<refspec>` argument is set to
 update some ref at the destination with `<src>` with
 `remote.<repository>.push` configuration variable, `:<dst>` part can
-be omitted---such a push will update a ref that `<src>` normally updates
+be omitted--such a push will update a ref that `<src>` normally updates
 without any `<refspec>` on the command line.  Otherwise, missing
 `:<dst>` means to update the same ref as the `<src>`.
 +
@@ -132,12 +133,16 @@
 	with configuration variable 'push.followTags'.  For more
 	information, see 'push.followTags' in linkgit:git-config[1].
 
-
---signed::
+--[no-]signed::
+--sign=(true|false|if-asked)::
 	GPG-sign the push request to update refs on the receiving
 	side, to allow it to be checked by the hooks and/or be
-	logged.  See linkgit:git-receive-pack[1] for the details
-	on the receiving end.
+	logged.  If `false` or `--no-signed`, no signing will be
+	attempted.  If `true` or `--signed`, the push will fail if the
+	server does not support signed pushes.  If set to `if-asked`,
+	sign if and only if the server supports signed pushes.  The push
+	will also fail if the actual call to `gpg --sign` fails.  See
+	linkgit:git-receive-pack[1] for the details on the receiving end.
 
 --[no-]atomic::
 	Use an atomic transaction on the remote side if available.
@@ -252,16 +257,20 @@
 	is specified. This flag forces progress status even if the
 	standard error stream is not directed to a terminal.
 
---recurse-submodules=check|on-demand::
-	Make sure all submodule commits used by the revisions to be
-	pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch. If 'check' is
-	used Git will verify that all submodule commits that changed in
-	the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one remote
-	of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will be
-	aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'on-demand' is used
-	all submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will
-	be pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary
-	revisions it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status.
+--no-recurse-submodules::
+--recurse-submodules=check|on-demand|no::
+	May be used to make sure all submodule commits used by the
+	revisions to be pushed are available on a remote-tracking branch.
+	If 'check' is used Git will verify that all submodule commits that
+	changed in the revisions to be pushed are available on at least one
+	remote of the submodule. If any commits are missing the push will
+	be aborted and exit with non-zero status. If 'on-demand' is used
+	all submodules that changed in the revisions to be pushed will be
+	pushed. If on-demand was not able to push all necessary revisions
+	it will also be aborted and exit with non-zero status. A value of
+	'no' or using '--no-recurse-submodules' can be used to override the
+	push.recurseSubmodules configuration variable when no submodule
+	recursion is required.
 
 --[no-]verify::
 	Toggle the pre-push hook (see linkgit:githooks[5]).  The
diff --git a/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt b/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
index d64388c..ff633b0 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-quiltimport.txt
@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@
 --------
 [verse]
 'git quiltimport' [--dry-run | -n] [--author <author>] [--patches <dir>]
+		[--series <file>]
 
 
 DESCRIPTION
@@ -42,13 +43,19 @@
 	information can be found in the patch description.
 
 --patches <dir>::
-	The directory to find the quilt patches and the
-	quilt series file.
+	The directory to find the quilt patches.
 +
 The default for the patch directory is patches
 or the value of the $QUILT_PATCHES environment
 variable.
 
+--series <file>::
+	The quilt series file.
++
+The default for the series file is <patches>/series
+or the value of the $QUILT_SERIES environment
+variable.
+
 GIT
 ---
 Part of the linkgit:git[1] suite
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
index 1d01baa..6cca8bb 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rebase.txt
@@ -213,6 +213,15 @@
 rebase.autoStash::
 	If set to true enable '--autostash' option by default.
 
+rebase.missingCommitsCheck::
+	If set to "warn", print warnings about removed commits in
+	interactive mode. If set to "error", print the warnings and
+	stop the rebase. If set to "ignore", no checking is
+	done. "ignore" by default.
+
+rebase.instructionFormat::
+	Custom commit list format to use during an '--interactive' rebase.
+
 OPTIONS
 -------
 --onto <newbase>::
@@ -285,7 +294,9 @@
 
 -S[<keyid>]::
 --gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
-	GPG-sign commits.
+	GPG-sign commits. The `keyid` argument is optional and
+	defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be
+	stuck to the option without a space.
 
 -q::
 --quiet::
@@ -359,6 +370,10 @@
 	Make a list of the commits which are about to be rebased.  Let the
 	user edit that list before rebasing.  This mode can also be used to
 	split commits (see SPLITTING COMMITS below).
++
+The commit list format can be changed by setting the configuration option
+rebase.instructionFormat.  A customized instruction format will automatically
+have the long commit hash prepended to the format.
 
 -p::
 --preserve-merges::
@@ -419,7 +434,8 @@
 configuration variable `rebase.autoSquash`, this option can be
 used to override and disable this setting.
 
---[no-]autostash::
+--autostash::
+--no-autostash::
 	Automatically create a temporary stash before the operation
 	begins, and apply it after the operation ends.  This means
 	that you can run rebase on a dirty worktree.  However, use
@@ -514,6 +530,9 @@
 If you just want to edit the commit message for a commit, replace the
 command "pick" with the command "reword".
 
+To drop a commit, replace the command "pick" with "drop", or just
+delete the matching line.
+
 If you want to fold two or more commits into one, replace the command
 "pick" for the second and subsequent commits with "squash" or "fixup".
 If the commits had different authors, the folded commit will be
diff --git a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
index 5e7908e..44c736f 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-reflog.txt
@@ -23,6 +23,7 @@
 	[--dry-run] [--verbose] [--all | <refs>...]
 'git reflog delete' [--rewrite] [--updateref]
 	[--dry-run] [--verbose] ref@\{specifier\}...
+'git reflog exists' <ref>
 
 Reference logs, or "reflogs", record when the tips of branches and
 other references were updated in the local repository. Reflogs are
@@ -52,6 +53,9 @@
 master@{2}`"). This subcommand is also typically not used directly by
 end users.
 
+The "exists" subcommand checks whether a ref has a reflog.  It exits
+with zero status if the reflog exists, and non-zero status if it does
+not.
 
 OPTIONS
 -------
diff --git a/Documentation/git-remote.txt b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
index 4c6d6de..1d7ecea 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-remote.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-remote.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 git-remote(1)
-============
+=============
 
 NAME
 ----
@@ -15,6 +15,7 @@
 'git remote remove' <name>
 'git remote set-head' <name> (-a | --auto | -d | --delete | <branch>)
 'git remote set-branches' [--add] <name> <branch>...
+'git remote get-url' [--push] [--all] <name>
 'git remote set-url' [--push] <name> <newurl> [<oldurl>]
 'git remote set-url --add' [--push] <name> <newurl>
 'git remote set-url --delete' [--push] <name> <url>
@@ -131,6 +132,15 @@
 With `--add`, instead of replacing the list of currently tracked
 branches, adds to that list.
 
+'get-url'::
+
+Retrieves the URLs for a remote. Configurations for `insteadOf` and
+`pushInsteadOf` are expanded here. By default, only the first URL is listed.
++
+With '--push', push URLs are queried rather than fetch URLs.
++
+With '--all', all URLs for the remote will be listed.
+
 'set-url'::
 
 Changes URLs for the remote. Sets first URL for remote <name> that matches
diff --git a/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt b/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt
index 283577b..c32cb0b 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-request-pull.txt
@@ -14,7 +14,8 @@
 -----------
 
 Generate a request asking your upstream project to pull changes into
-their tree.  The request, printed to the standard output, summarizes
+their tree.  The request, printed to the standard output,
+begins with the branch description, summarizes
 the changes and indicates from where they can be pulled.
 
 The upstream project is expected to have the commit named by
diff --git a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
index 7b49c85..ef22f17 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-rev-list.txt
@@ -45,7 +45,7 @@
 	     [ --regexp-ignore-case | -i ]
 	     [ --extended-regexp | -E ]
 	     [ --fixed-strings | -F ]
-	     [ --date=(local|relative|default|iso|iso-strict|rfc|short) ]
+	     [ --date=<format>]
 	     [ [ --objects | --objects-edge | --objects-edge-aggressive ]
 	       [ --unpacked ] ]
 	     [ --pretty | --header ]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-revert.txt b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
index cceb5f2..573616a 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-revert.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-revert.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git revert' [--[no-]edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] [-S[<key-id>]] <commit>...
+'git revert' [--[no-]edit] [-n] [-m parent-number] [-s] [-S[<keyid>]] <commit>...
 'git revert' --continue
 'git revert' --quit
 'git revert' --abort
@@ -80,13 +80,16 @@
 This is useful when reverting more than one commits'
 effect to your index in a row.
 
--S[<key-id>]::
---gpg-sign[=<key-id>]::
-	GPG-sign commits.
+-S[<keyid>]::
+--gpg-sign[=<keyid>]::
+	GPG-sign commits. The `keyid` argument is optional and
+	defaults to the committer identity; if specified, it must be
+	stuck to the option without a space.
 
 -s::
 --signoff::
 	Add Signed-off-by line at the end of the commit message.
+	See the signoff option in linkgit:git-commit[1] for more information.
 
 --strategy=<strategy>::
 	Use the given merge strategy.  Should only be used once.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
index 7ae467b..771a7b5 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-email.txt
@@ -10,6 +10,7 @@
 --------
 [verse]
 'git send-email' [options] <file|directory|rev-list options>...
+'git send-email' --dump-aliases
 
 
 DESCRIPTION
@@ -49,17 +50,17 @@
 	of 'sendemail.annotate'. See the CONFIGURATION section for
 	'sendemail.multiEdit'.
 
---bcc=<address>::
+--bcc=<address>,...::
 	Specify a "Bcc:" value for each email. Default is the value of
 	'sendemail.bcc'.
 +
-The --bcc option must be repeated for each user you want on the bcc list.
+This option may be specified multiple times.
 
---cc=<address>::
+--cc=<address>,...::
 	Specify a starting "Cc:" value for each email.
 	Default is the value of 'sendemail.cc'.
 +
-The --cc option must be repeated for each user you want on the cc list.
+This option may be specified multiple times.
 
 --compose::
 	Invoke a text editor (see GIT_EDITOR in linkgit:git-var[1])
@@ -110,13 +111,13 @@
 	Only necessary if --compose is also set.  If --compose
 	is not set, this will be prompted for.
 
---to=<address>::
+--to=<address>,...::
 	Specify the primary recipient of the emails generated. Generally, this
 	will be the upstream maintainer of the project involved. Default is the
 	value of the 'sendemail.to' configuration value; if that is unspecified,
 	and --to-cmd is not specified, this will be prompted for.
 +
-The --to option must be repeated for each user you want on the to list.
+This option may be specified multiple times.
 
 --8bit-encoding=<encoding>::
 	When encountering a non-ASCII message or subject that does not
@@ -171,6 +172,19 @@
 	to determine your FQDN automatically.  Default is the value of
 	'sendemail.smtpDomain'.
 
+--smtp-auth=<mechanisms>::
+	Whitespace-separated list of allowed SMTP-AUTH mechanisms. This setting
+	forces using only the listed mechanisms. Example:
++
+------
+$ git send-email --smtp-auth="PLAIN LOGIN GSSAPI" ...
+------
++
+If at least one of the specified mechanisms matches the ones advertised by the
+SMTP server and if it is supported by the utilized SASL library, the mechanism
+is used for authentication. If neither 'sendemail.smtpAuth' nor '--smtp-auth'
+is specified, all mechanisms supported by the SASL library can be used.
+
 --smtp-pass[=<password>]::
 	Password for SMTP-AUTH. The argument is optional: If no
 	argument is specified, then the empty string is used as
@@ -374,6 +388,16 @@
 	Send emails even if safety checks would prevent it.
 
 
+Information
+~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+--dump-aliases::
+	Instead of the normal operation, dump the shorthand alias names from
+	the configured alias file(s), one per line in alphabetical order. Note,
+	this only includes the alias name and not its expanded email addresses.
+	See 'sendemail.aliasesfile' for more information about aliases.
+
+
 CONFIGURATION
 -------------
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
index b5d09f7..6aa91e8 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-send-pack.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,10 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git send-pack' [--all] [--dry-run] [--force] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>] [--verbose] [--thin] [--atomic] [<host>:]<directory> [<ref>...]
+'git send-pack' [--all] [--dry-run] [--force] [--receive-pack=<git-receive-pack>]
+		[--verbose] [--thin] [--atomic]
+		[--[no-]signed|--sign=(true|false|if-asked)]
+		[<host>:]<directory> [<ref>...]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -67,6 +70,17 @@
 	fails to update then the entire push will fail without changing any
 	refs.
 
+--[no-]signed::
+--sign=(true|false|if-asked)::
+	GPG-sign the push request to update refs on the receiving
+	side, to allow it to be checked by the hooks and/or be
+	logged.  If `false` or `--no-signed`, no signing will be
+	attempted.  If `true` or `--signed`, the push will fail if the
+	server does not support signed pushes.  If set to `if-asked`,
+	sign if and only if the server supports signed pushes.  The push
+	will also fail if the actual call to `gpg --sign` fails.  See
+	linkgit:git-receive-pack[1] for the details on the receiving end.
+
 <host>::
 	A remote host to house the repository.  When this
 	part is specified, 'git-receive-pack' is invoked via
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-index.txt b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
index fbdc8ad..a8a9509 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-index.txt
@@ -9,13 +9,14 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git show-index' < idx-file
+'git show-index'
 
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
-Reads given idx file for packed Git archive created with
-'git pack-objects' command, and dumps its contents.
+Read the idx file for a Git packfile created with
+'git pack-objects' command from the standard input, and
+dump its contents.
 
 The information it outputs is subset of what you can get from
 'git verify-pack -v'; this command only shows the packfile
diff --git a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
index 2a6f89b..3a32451 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-show-ref.txt
@@ -11,7 +11,7 @@
 'git show-ref' [-q|--quiet] [--verify] [--head] [-d|--dereference]
 	     [-s|--hash[=<n>]] [--abbrev[=<n>]] [--tags]
 	     [--heads] [--] [<pattern>...]
-'git show-ref' --exclude-existing[=<pattern>] < ref-list
+'git show-ref' --exclude-existing[=<pattern>]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -23,8 +23,9 @@
 
 By default, shows the tags, heads, and remote refs.
 
-The --exclude-existing form is a filter that does the inverse, it shows the
-refs from stdin that don't exist in the local repository.
+The --exclude-existing form is a filter that does the inverse. It reads
+refs from stdin, one ref per line, and shows those that don't exist in
+the local repository.
 
 Use of this utility is encouraged in favor of directly accessing files under
 the `.git` directory.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stash.txt b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
index 375213f..92df596 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stash.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stash.txt
@@ -95,6 +95,8 @@
 	shows the latest one. By default, the command shows the diffstat, but
 	it will accept any format known to 'git diff' (e.g., `git stash show
 	-p stash@{1}` to view the second most recent stash in patch form).
+	You can use stash.showStat and/or stash.showPatch config variables
+	to change the default behavior.
 
 pop [--index] [-q|--quiet] [<stash>]::
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-status.txt b/Documentation/git-status.txt
index 335f312..e1e8f57 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-status.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-status.txt
@@ -53,8 +53,9 @@
 --untracked-files[=<mode>]::
 	Show untracked files.
 +
-The mode parameter is optional (defaults to 'all'), and is used to
-specify the handling of untracked files.
+The mode parameter is used to specify the handling of untracked files.
+It is optional: it defaults to 'all', and if specified, it must be
+stuck to the option (e.g. `-uno`, but not `-u no`).
 +
 The possible options are:
 +
diff --git a/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt b/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt
index 60328d5..2438f76 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-stripspace.txt
@@ -9,14 +9,15 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git stripspace' [-s | --strip-comments] < input
-'git stripspace' [-c | --comment-lines] < input
+'git stripspace' [-s | --strip-comments]
+'git stripspace' [-c | --comment-lines]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
 
-Clean the input in the manner used by Git for text such as commit
-messages, notes, tags and branch descriptions.
+Read text, such as commit messages, notes, tags and branch
+descriptions, from the standard input and clean it in the manner
+used by Git.
 
 With no arguments, this will:
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
index f17687e..1572f05 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-submodule.txt
@@ -237,6 +237,9 @@
 +
 "git submodule sync" synchronizes all submodules while
 "git submodule sync \-- A" synchronizes submodule "A" only.
++
+If `--recursive` is specified, this command will recurse into the
+registered submodules, and sync any nested submodules within.
 
 OPTIONS
 -------
@@ -364,7 +367,7 @@
 for linkgit:git-clone[1]'s `--reference` and `--shared` options carefully.
 
 --recursive::
-	This option is only valid for foreach, update and status commands.
+	This option is only valid for foreach, update, status and sync commands.
 	Traverse submodules recursively. The operation is performed not
 	only in the submodules of the current repo, but also
 	in any nested submodules inside those submodules (and so on).
diff --git a/Documentation/git-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
index 4b04c2b..abab481 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-tag.txt
@@ -9,11 +9,12 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git tag' [-a | -s | -u <key-id>] [-f] [-m <msg> | -F <file>]
+'git tag' [-a | -s | -u <keyid>] [-f] [-m <msg> | -F <file>]
 	<tagname> [<commit> | <object>]
 'git tag' -d <tagname>...
 'git tag' [-n[<num>]] -l [--contains <commit>] [--points-at <object>]
-	[--column[=<options>] | --no-column] [<pattern>...]
+	[--column[=<options>] | --no-column] [--create-reflog] [--sort=<key>]
+	[--format=<format>] [--[no-]merged [<commit>]] [<pattern>...]
 'git tag' -v <tagname>...
 
 DESCRIPTION
@@ -24,19 +25,19 @@
 
 Unless `-f` is given, the named tag must not yet exist.
 
-If one of `-a`, `-s`, or `-u <key-id>` is passed, the command
+If one of `-a`, `-s`, or `-u <keyid>` is passed, the command
 creates a 'tag' object, and requires a tag message.  Unless
 `-m <msg>` or `-F <file>` is given, an editor is started for the user to type
 in the tag message.
 
-If `-m <msg>` or `-F <file>` is given and `-a`, `-s`, and `-u <key-id>`
+If `-m <msg>` or `-F <file>` is given and `-a`, `-s`, and `-u <keyid>`
 are absent, `-a` is implied.
 
 Otherwise just a tag reference for the SHA-1 object name of the commit object is
 created (i.e. a lightweight tag).
 
 A GnuPG signed tag object will be created when `-s` or `-u
-<key-id>` is used.  When `-u <key-id>` is not used, the
+<keyid>` is used.  When `-u <keyid>` is not used, the
 committer identity for the current user is used to find the
 GnuPG key for signing. 	The configuration variable `gpg.program`
 is used to specify custom GnuPG binary.
@@ -63,8 +64,8 @@
 --sign::
 	Make a GPG-signed tag, using the default e-mail address's key.
 
--u <key-id>::
---local-user=<key-id>::
+-u <keyid>::
+--local-user=<keyid>::
 	Make a GPG-signed tag, using the given key.
 
 -f::
@@ -94,14 +95,16 @@
 	using fnmatch(3)).  Multiple patterns may be given; if any of
 	them matches, the tag is shown.
 
---sort=<type>::
-	Sort in a specific order. Supported type is "refname"
-	(lexicographic order), "version:refname" or "v:refname" (tag
+--sort=<key>::
+	Sort based on the key given.  Prefix `-` to sort in
+	descending order of the value. You may use the --sort=<key> option
+	multiple times, in which case the last key becomes the primary
+	key. Also supports "version:refname" or "v:refname" (tag
 	names are treated as versions). The "version:refname" sort
 	order can also be affected by the
-	"versionsort.prereleaseSuffix" configuration variable. Prepend
-	"-" to reverse sort order. When this option is not given, the
-	sort order defaults to the value configured for the 'tag.sort'
+	"versionsort.prereleaseSuffix" configuration variable.
+	The keys supported are the same as those in `git for-each-ref`.
+	Sort order defaults to the value configured for the 'tag.sort'
 	variable if it exists, or lexicographic order otherwise. See
 	linkgit:git-config[1].
 
@@ -125,14 +128,14 @@
 	Use the given tag message (instead of prompting).
 	If multiple `-m` options are given, their values are
 	concatenated as separate paragraphs.
-	Implies `-a` if none of `-a`, `-s`, or `-u <key-id>`
+	Implies `-a` if none of `-a`, `-s`, or `-u <keyid>`
 	is given.
 
 -F <file>::
 --file=<file>::
 	Take the tag message from the given file.  Use '-' to
 	read the message from the standard input.
-	Implies `-a` if none of `-a`, `-s`, or `-u <key-id>`
+	Implies `-a` if none of `-a`, `-s`, or `-u <keyid>`
 	is given.
 
 --cleanup=<mode>::
@@ -142,6 +145,9 @@
 	all, 'whitespace' removes just leading/trailing whitespace lines and
 	'strip' removes both whitespace and commentary.
 
+--create-reflog::
+	Create a reflog for the tag.
+
 <tagname>::
 	The name of the tag to create, delete, or describe.
 	The new tag name must pass all checks defined by
@@ -153,6 +159,16 @@
 	The object that the new tag will refer to, usually a commit.
 	Defaults to HEAD.
 
+<format>::
+	A string that interpolates `%(fieldname)` from the object
+	pointed at by a ref being shown.  The format is the same as
+	that of linkgit:git-for-each-ref[1].  When unspecified,
+	defaults to `%(refname:strip=2)`.
+
+--[no-]merged [<commit>]::
+	Only list tags whose tips are reachable, or not reachable
+	if '--no-merged' is used, from the specified commit ('HEAD'
+	if not specified).
 
 CONFIGURATION
 -------------
@@ -163,7 +179,7 @@
 
 -------------------------------------
 [user]
-    signingKey = <gpg-key-id>
+    signingKey = <gpg-keyid>
 -------------------------------------
 
 
diff --git a/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt b/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt
index 07d4329..3e887d1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-unpack-objects.txt
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git unpack-objects' [-n] [-q] [-r] [--strict] < <packfile>
+'git unpack-objects' [-n] [-q] [-r] [--strict]
 
 
 DESCRIPTION
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
index 1a296bc..f4e5a85 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-index.txt
@@ -17,6 +17,8 @@
 	     [--[no-]assume-unchanged]
 	     [--[no-]skip-worktree]
 	     [--ignore-submodules]
+	     [--[no-]split-index]
+	     [--[no-|force-]untracked-cache]
 	     [--really-refresh] [--unresolve] [--again | -g]
 	     [--info-only] [--index-info]
 	     [-z] [--stdin] [--index-version <n>]
diff --git a/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
index c8f5ae5..969bfab 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-update-ref.txt
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@
 SYNOPSIS
 --------
 [verse]
-'git update-ref' [-m <reason>] (-d <ref> [<oldvalue>] | [--no-deref] <ref> <newvalue> [<oldvalue>] | --stdin [-z])
+'git update-ref' [-m <reason>] (-d <ref> [<oldvalue>] | [--no-deref] [--create-reflog] <ref> <newvalue> [<oldvalue>] | --stdin [-z])
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
@@ -67,6 +67,9 @@
 	verify SP <ref> [SP <oldvalue>] LF
 	option SP <opt> LF
 
+With `--create-reflog`, update-ref will create a reflog for each ref
+even if one would not ordinarily be created.
+
 Quote fields containing whitespace as if they were strings in C source
 code; i.e., surrounded by double-quotes and with backslash escapes.
 Use 40 "0" characters or the empty string to specify a zero value.  To
diff --git a/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt b/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
index cbef61b..fba0f1c 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-upload-archive.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 git-upload-archive(1)
-====================
+=====================
 
 NAME
 ----
diff --git a/Documentation/git-verify-commit.txt b/Documentation/git-verify-commit.txt
index 9413e28..ecf4da1 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-verify-commit.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-verify-commit.txt
@@ -16,6 +16,10 @@
 
 OPTIONS
 -------
+--raw::
+	Print the raw gpg status output to standard error instead of the normal
+	human-readable output.
+
 -v::
 --verbose::
 	Print the contents of the commit object before validating it.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt b/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt
index f88ba96..d590edc 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-verify-tag.txt
@@ -16,6 +16,10 @@
 
 OPTIONS
 -------
+--raw::
+	Print the raw gpg status output to standard error instead of the normal
+	human-readable output.
+
 -v::
 --verbose::
 	Print the contents of the tag object before validating it.
diff --git a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
index 3387e2f..5b9ad04 100644
--- a/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git-worktree.txt
@@ -3,7 +3,7 @@
 
 NAME
 ----
-git-worktree - Manage multiple worktrees
+git-worktree - Manage multiple working trees
 
 
 SYNOPSIS
@@ -11,11 +11,12 @@
 [verse]
 'git worktree add' [-f] [--detach] [-b <new-branch>] <path> [<branch>]
 'git worktree prune' [-n] [-v] [--expire <expire>]
+'git worktree list' [--porcelain]
 
 DESCRIPTION
 -----------
 
-Manage multiple worktrees attached to the same repository.
+Manage multiple working trees attached to the same repository.
 
 A git repository can support multiple working trees, allowing you to check
 out more than one branch at a time.  With `git worktree add` a new working
@@ -27,19 +28,19 @@
 When you are done with a linked working tree you can simply delete it.
 The working tree's administrative files in the repository (see
 "DETAILS" below) will eventually be removed automatically (see
-`gc.pruneworktreesexpire` in linkgit::git-config[1]), or you can run
+`gc.worktreePruneExpire` in linkgit:git-config[1]), or you can run
 `git worktree prune` in the main or any linked working tree to
 clean up any stale administrative files.
 
-If you move a linked working directory to another file system, or
+If you move a linked working tree to another file system, or
 within a file system that does not support hard links, you need to run
-at least one git command inside the linked working directory
+at least one git command inside the linked working tree
 (e.g. `git status`) in order to update its administrative files in the
 repository so that they do not get automatically pruned.
 
 If a linked working tree is stored on a portable device or network share
 which is not always mounted, you can prevent its administrative files from
-being pruned by creating a file named 'lock' alongside the other
+being pruned by creating a file named 'locked' alongside the other
 administrative files, optionally containing a plain text reason that
 pruning should be suppressed. See section "DETAILS" for more information.
 
@@ -51,47 +52,59 @@
 is linked to the current repository, sharing everything except working
 directory specific files such as HEAD, index, etc.
 +
-If `<branch>` is omitted and neither `-b` nor `-B` is used, then, as a
-convenience, a new branch based at HEAD is created automatically, as if
-`-b $(basename <path>)` was specified.
+If `<branch>` is omitted and neither `-b` nor `-B` nor `--detached` used,
+then, as a convenience, a new branch based at HEAD is created automatically,
+as if `-b $(basename <path>)` was specified.
 
 prune::
 
 Prune working tree information in $GIT_DIR/worktrees.
 
+list::
+
+List details of each worktree.  The main worktree is listed first, followed by
+each of the linked worktrees.  The output details include if the worktree is
+bare, the revision currently checked out, and the branch currently checked out
+(or 'detached HEAD' if none).
+
 OPTIONS
 -------
 
 -f::
 --force::
-	By default, `add` refuses to create a new worktree when	`<branch>`
-	is already checked out by another worktree. This option overrides
+	By default, `add` refuses to create a new working tree when `<branch>`
+	is already checked out by another working tree. This option overrides
 	that safeguard.
 
 -b <new-branch>::
 -B <new-branch>::
 	With `add`, create a new branch named `<new-branch>` starting at
-	`<branch>`, and check out `<new-branch>` into the new worktree.
+	`<branch>`, and check out `<new-branch>` into the new working tree.
 	If `<branch>` is omitted, it defaults to HEAD.
 	By default, `-b` refuses to create a new branch if it already
 	exists. `-B` overrides this safeguard, resetting `<new-branch>` to
 	`<branch>`.
 
 --detach::
-	With `add`, detach HEAD in the new worktree. See "DETACHED HEAD" in
-	linkgit:git-checkout[1].
+	With `add`, detach HEAD in the new working tree. See "DETACHED HEAD"
+	in linkgit:git-checkout[1].
 
 -n::
 --dry-run::
 	With `prune`, do not remove anything; just report what it would
 	remove.
 
+--porcelain::
+	With `list`, output in an easy-to-parse format for scripts.
+	This format will remain stable across Git versions and regardless of user
+	configuration.  See below for details.
+
 -v::
 --verbose::
 	With `prune`, report all removals.
 
 --expire <time>::
-	With `prune`, only expire unused worktrees older than <time>.
+	With `prune`, only expire unused working trees older than <time>.
 
 DETAILS
 -------
@@ -124,7 +137,7 @@
 $GIT_DIR or $GIT_COMMON_DIR when you need to directly access something
 inside $GIT_DIR. Use `git rev-parse --git-path` to get the final path.
 
-To prevent a $GIT_DIR/worktrees entry from from being pruned (which
+To prevent a $GIT_DIR/worktrees entry from being pruned (which
 can be useful in some situations, such as when the
 entry's working tree is stored on a portable device), add a file named
 'locked' to the entry's directory. The file contains the reason in
@@ -134,14 +147,49 @@
 `test-next` entry from being pruned.  See
 linkgit:gitrepository-layout[5] for details.
 
+LIST OUTPUT FORMAT
+------------------
+The worktree list command has two output formats.  The default format shows the
+details on a single line with columns.  For example:
+
+------------
+S git worktree list
+/path/to/bare-source            (bare)
+/path/to/linked-worktree        abcd1234 [master]
+/path/to/other-linked-worktree  1234abc  (detached HEAD)
+------------
+
+Porcelain Format
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+The porcelain format has a line per attribute.  Attributes are listed with a
+label and value separated by a single space.  Boolean attributes (like 'bare'
+and 'detached') are listed as a label only, and are only present if and only
+if the value is true.  An empty line indicates the end of a worktree.  For
+example:
+
+------------
+S git worktree list --porcelain
+worktree /path/to/bare-source
+bare
+
+worktree /path/to/linked-worktree
+HEAD abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234abcd1234
+branch refs/heads/master
+
+worktree /path/to/other-linked-worktree
+HEAD 1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234abc1234a
+detached
+
+------------
+
 EXAMPLES
 --------
 You are in the middle of a refactoring session and your boss comes in and
 demands that you fix something immediately. You might typically use
 linkgit:git-stash[1] to store your changes away temporarily, however, your
-worktree is in such a state of disarray (with new, moved, and removed files,
-and other bits and pieces strewn around) that you don't want to risk
-disturbing any of it. Instead, you create a temporary linked worktree to
+working tree is in such a state of disarray (with new, moved, and removed
+files, and other bits and pieces strewn around) that you don't want to risk
+disturbing any of it. Instead, you create a temporary linked working tree to
 make the emergency fix, remove it when done, and then resume your earlier
 refactoring session.
 
@@ -164,12 +212,11 @@
 git-worktree could provide more automation for tasks currently
 performed manually, such as:
 
-- `remove` to remove a linked worktree and its administrative files (and
-  warn if the worktree is dirty)
-- `mv` to move or rename a worktree and update its administrative files
-- `list` to list linked worktrees
+- `remove` to remove a linked working tree and its administrative files (and
+  warn if the working tree is dirty)
+- `mv` to move or rename a working tree and update its administrative files
 - `lock` to prevent automatic pruning of administrative files (for instance,
-  for a worktree on a portable device)
+  for a working tree on a portable device)
 
 GIT
 ---
diff --git a/Documentation/git.txt b/Documentation/git.txt
index 1a26275..bff6302 100644
--- a/Documentation/git.txt
+++ b/Documentation/git.txt
@@ -43,6 +43,21 @@
 branch of the `git.git` repository.
 Documentation for older releases are available here:
 
+* link:v2.7.0/git.html[documentation for release 2.7]
+
+* release notes for
+  link:RelNotes/2.7.0.txt[2.7].
+
+* link:v2.6.5/git.html[documentation for release 2.6.5]
+
+* release notes for
+  link:RelNotes/2.6.5.txt[2.6.5],
+  link:RelNotes/2.6.4.txt[2.6.4],
+  link:RelNotes/2.6.3.txt[2.6.3],
+  link:RelNotes/2.6.2.txt[2.6.2],
+  link:RelNotes/2.6.1.txt[2.6.1],
+  link:RelNotes/2.6.0.txt[2.6].
+
 * link:v2.5.4/git.html[documentation for release 2.5.4]
 
 * release notes for
@@ -1019,9 +1034,20 @@
 	Enables trace messages for all packets coming in or out of a
 	given program. This can help with debugging object negotiation
 	or other protocol issues. Tracing is turned off at a packet
-	starting with "PACK".
+	starting with "PACK" (but see 'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE' below).
 	See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
 
+'GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE'::
+	Enables tracing of packfiles sent or received by a
+	given program. Unlike other trace output, this trace is
+	verbatim: no headers, and no quoting of binary data. You almost
+	certainly want to direct into a file (e.g.,
+	`GIT_TRACE_PACKFILE=/tmp/my.pack`) rather than displaying it on
+	the terminal or mixing it with other trace output.
++
+Note that this is currently only implemented for the client side
+of clones and fetches.
+
 'GIT_TRACE_PERFORMANCE'::
 	Enables performance related trace messages, e.g. total execution
 	time of each Git command.
@@ -1037,7 +1063,7 @@
 	cloning of shallow repositories.
 	See 'GIT_TRACE' for available trace output options.
 
-GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS::
+'GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS'::
 	Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
 	pathspecs literally, rather than as glob patterns. For example,
 	running `GIT_LITERAL_PATHSPECS=1 git log -- '*.c'` will search
@@ -1046,15 +1072,15 @@
 	literal paths to Git (e.g., paths previously given to you by
 	`git ls-tree`, `--raw` diff output, etc).
 
-GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS::
+'GIT_GLOB_PATHSPECS'::
 	Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
 	pathspecs as glob patterns (aka "glob" magic).
 
-GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS::
+'GIT_NOGLOB_PATHSPECS'::
 	Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
 	pathspecs as literal (aka "literal" magic).
 
-GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS::
+'GIT_ICASE_PATHSPECS'::
 	Setting this variable to `1` will cause Git to treat all
 	pathspecs as case-insensitive.
 
@@ -1068,7 +1094,7 @@
 	variable when it is invoked as the top level command by the
 	end user, to be recorded in the body of the reflog.
 
-`GIT_REF_PARANOIA`::
+'GIT_REF_PARANOIA'::
 	If set to `1`, include broken or badly named refs when iterating
 	over lists of refs. In a normal, non-corrupted repository, this
 	does nothing. However, enabling it may help git to detect and
@@ -1079,7 +1105,7 @@
 	an operation has touched every ref (e.g., because you are
 	cloning a repository to make a backup).
 
-`GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL`::
+'GIT_ALLOW_PROTOCOL'::
 	If set, provide a colon-separated list of protocols which are
 	allowed to be used with fetch/push/clone. This is useful to
 	restrict recursive submodule initialization from an untrusted
diff --git a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
index 81fe586..e3b1de8 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitattributes.txt
@@ -527,6 +527,8 @@
 
 - `fortran` suitable for source code in the Fortran language.
 
+- `fountain` suitable for Fountain documents.
+
 - `html` suitable for HTML/XHTML documents.
 
 - `java` suitable for source code in the Java language.
diff --git a/Documentation/giteveryday.txt b/Documentation/giteveryday.txt
index 7be6e64..35473ad 100644
--- a/Documentation/giteveryday.txt
+++ b/Documentation/giteveryday.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 giteveryday(7)
-===============
+==============
 
 NAME
 ----
diff --git a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
index 82e2d15..78e0b27 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitremote-helpers.txt
@@ -448,6 +448,9 @@
 'option update-shallow {'true'|'false'}::
 	Allow to extend .git/shallow if the new refs require it.
 
+'option pushcert {'true'|'false'}::
+	GPG sign pushes.
+
 SEE ALSO
 --------
 linkgit:git-remote[1]
diff --git a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
index 7173b38..577ee84 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitrepository-layout.txt
@@ -251,25 +251,25 @@
 	Contains the git-repositories of the submodules.
 
 worktrees::
-	Contains worktree specific information of linked
-	checkouts. Each subdirectory contains the worktree-related
-	part of a linked checkout. This directory is ignored if
-	$GIT_COMMON_DIR is set and "$GIT_COMMON_DIR/worktrees" will be
-	used instead.
+	Contains administrative data for linked
+	working trees. Each subdirectory contains the working tree-related
+	part of a linked working tree. This directory is ignored if
+	$GIT_COMMON_DIR is set, in which case
+	"$GIT_COMMON_DIR/worktrees" will be used instead.
 
 worktrees/<id>/gitdir::
 	A text file containing the absolute path back to the .git file
 	that points to here. This is used to check if the linked
 	repository has been manually removed and there is no need to
-	keep this directory any more. mtime of this file should be
+	keep this directory any more. The mtime of this file should be
 	updated every time the linked repository is accessed.
 
 worktrees/<id>/locked::
-	If this file exists, the linked repository may be on a
-	portable device and not available. It does not mean that the
-	linked repository is gone and `worktrees/<id>` could be
-	removed. The file's content contains a reason string on why
-	the repository is locked.
+	If this file exists, the linked working tree may be on a
+	portable device and not available. The presence of this file
+	prevents `worktrees/<id>` from being pruned either automatically
+	or manually by `git worktree prune`. The file may contain a string
+	explaining why the repository is locked.
 
 worktrees/<id>/link::
 	If this file exists, it is a hard link to the linked .git
diff --git a/Documentation/gitrevisions.txt b/Documentation/gitrevisions.txt
index c0ed6d1..e903eb7 100644
--- a/Documentation/gitrevisions.txt
+++ b/Documentation/gitrevisions.txt
@@ -1,5 +1,5 @@
 gitrevisions(7)
-================
+===============
 
 NAME
 ----
diff --git a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
index ab18f4b..cafc284 100644
--- a/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
+++ b/Documentation/glossary-content.txt
@@ -411,6 +411,28 @@
 	core Git. Porcelains expose more of a <<def_SCM,SCM>>
 	interface than the <<def_plumbing,plumbing>>.
 
+[[def_per_worktree_ref]]per-worktree ref::
+	Refs that are per-<<def_working_tree,worktree>>, rather than
+	global.  This is presently only <<def_HEAD,HEAD>> and any refs
+	that start with `refs/bisect/`, but might later include other
+	unusual refs.
+
+[[def_pseudoref]]pseudoref::
+	Pseudorefs are a class of files under `$GIT_DIR` which behave
+	like refs for the purposes of rev-parse, but which are treated
+	specially by git.  Pseudorefs both have names that are all-caps,
+	and always start with a line consisting of a
+	<<def_SHA1,SHA-1>> followed by whitespace.  So, HEAD is not a
+	pseudoref, because it is sometimes a symbolic ref.  They might
+	optionally contain some additional data.  `MERGE_HEAD` and
+	`CHERRY_PICK_HEAD` are examples.  Unlike
+	<<def_per_worktree_ref,per-worktree refs>>, these files cannot
+	be symbolic refs, and never have reflogs.  They also cannot be
+	updated through the normal ref update machinery.  Instead,
+	they are updated by directly writing to the files.  However,
+	they can be read as if they were refs, so `git rev-parse
+	MERGE_HEAD` will work.
+
 [[def_pull]]pull::
 	Pulling a <<def_branch,branch>> means to <<def_fetch,fetch>> it and
 	<<def_merge,merge>> it.  See also linkgit:git-pull[1].
@@ -509,6 +531,11 @@
 	"Secure Hash Algorithm 1"; a cryptographic hash function.
 	In the context of Git used as a synonym for <<def_object_name,object name>>.
 
+[[def_shallow_clone]]shallow clone::
+	Mostly a synonym to <<def_shallow_repository,shallow repository>>
+	but the phrase makes it more explicit that it was created by
+	running `git clone --depth=...` command.
+
 [[def_shallow_repository]]shallow repository::
 	A shallow <<def_repository,repository>> has an incomplete
 	history some of whose <<def_commit,commits>> have <<def_parent,parents>> cauterized away (in other
diff --git a/Documentation/i18n.txt b/Documentation/i18n.txt
index e9a1d5d..2dd79db 100644
--- a/Documentation/i18n.txt
+++ b/Documentation/i18n.txt
@@ -1,18 +1,31 @@
-At the core level, Git is character encoding agnostic.
-
- - The pathnames recorded in the index and in the tree objects
-   are treated as uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL bytes.
-   What readdir(2) returns are what are recorded and compared
-   with the data Git keeps track of, which in turn are expected
-   to be what lstat(2) and creat(2) accepts.  There is no such
-   thing as pathname encoding translation.
+Git is to some extent character encoding agnostic.
 
  - The contents of the blob objects are uninterpreted sequences
    of bytes.  There is no encoding translation at the core
    level.
 
- - The commit log messages are uninterpreted sequences of non-NUL
-   bytes.
+ - Path names are encoded in UTF-8 normalization form C. This
+   applies to tree objects, the index file, ref names, as well as
+   path names in command line arguments, environment variables
+   and config files (`.git/config` (see linkgit:git-config[1]),
+   linkgit:gitignore[5], linkgit:gitattributes[5] and
+   linkgit:gitmodules[5]).
++
+Note that Git at the core level treats path names simply as
+sequences of non-NUL bytes, there are no path name encoding
+conversions (except on Mac and Windows). Therefore, using
+non-ASCII path names will mostly work even on platforms and file
+systems that use legacy extended ASCII encodings. However,
+repositories created on such systems will not work properly on
+UTF-8-based systems (e.g. Linux, Mac, Windows) and vice versa.
+Additionally, many Git-based tools simply assume path names to
+be UTF-8 and will fail to display other encodings correctly.
+
+ - Commit log messages are typically encoded in UTF-8, but other
+   extended ASCII encodings are also supported. This includes
+   ISO-8859-x, CP125x and many others, but _not_ UTF-16/32,
+   EBCDIC and CJK multi-byte encodings (GBK, Shift-JIS, Big5,
+   EUC-x, CP9xx etc.).
 
 Although we encourage that the commit log messages are encoded
 in UTF-8, both the core and Git Porcelain are designed not to
diff --git a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
index 8d6c5ce..4b659ac 100644
--- a/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/pretty-options.txt
@@ -55,8 +55,9 @@
 environment overrides). See linkgit:git-config[1] for more details.
 +
 With an optional '<ref>' argument, show this notes ref instead of the
-default notes ref(s). The ref is taken to be in `refs/notes/` if it
-is not qualified.
+default notes ref(s). The ref specifies the full refname when it begins
+with `refs/notes/`; when it begins with `notes/`, `refs/` and otherwise
+`refs/notes/` is prefixed to form a full name of the ref.
 +
 Multiple --notes options can be combined to control which notes are
 being displayed. Examples: "--notes=foo" will show only notes from
diff --git a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
index 31bee06..4f009d4 100644
--- a/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/rev-list-options.txt
@@ -701,15 +701,19 @@
 --relative-date::
 	Synonym for `--date=relative`.
 
---date=(relative|local|default|iso|iso-strict|rfc|short|raw)::
+--date=<format>::
 	Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such
 	as when using `--pretty`. `log.date` config variable sets a default
-	value for the log command's `--date` option.
+	value for the log command's `--date` option. By default, dates
+	are shown in the original time zone (either committer's or
+	author's). If `-local` is appended to the format (e.g.,
+	`iso-local`), the user's local time zone is used instead.
 +
 `--date=relative` shows dates relative to the current time,
-e.g. ``2 hours ago''.
+e.g. ``2 hours ago''. The `-local` option cannot be used with
+`--raw` or `--relative`.
 +
-`--date=local` shows timestamps in user's local time zone.
+`--date=local` is an alias for `--date=default-local`.
 +
 `--date=iso` (or `--date=iso8601`) shows timestamps in a ISO 8601-like format.
 The differences to the strict ISO 8601 format are:
@@ -729,8 +733,18 @@
 +
 `--date=raw` shows the date in the internal raw Git format `%s %z` format.
 +
-`--date=default` shows timestamps in the original time zone
-(either committer's or author's).
+`--date=format:...` feeds the format `...` to your system `strftime`.
+Use `--date=format:%c` to show the date in your system locale's
+preferred format.  See the `strftime` manual for a complete list of
+format placeholders. When using `-local`, the correct syntax is
+`--date=format-local:...`.
++
+`--date=default` is the default format, and is similar to
+`--date=rfc2822`, with a few exceptions:
+
+	- there is no comma after the day-of-week
+
+	- the time zone is omitted when the local time zone is used
 
 ifdef::git-rev-list[]
 --header::
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
index 1a79781..8076172 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-argv-array.txt
@@ -46,6 +46,9 @@
 	Format a string and push it onto the end of the array. This is a
 	convenience wrapper combining `strbuf_addf` and `argv_array_push`.
 
+`argv_array_pushv`::
+	Push a null-terminated array of strings onto the end of the array.
+
 `argv_array_pop`::
 	Remove the final element from the array. If there are no
 	elements in the array, do nothing.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-lockfile.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-lockfile.txt
deleted file mode 100644
index 93b5f23..0000000
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-lockfile.txt
+++ /dev/null
@@ -1,220 +0,0 @@
-lockfile API
-============
-
-The lockfile API serves two purposes:
-
-* Mutual exclusion and atomic file updates. When we want to change a
-  file, we create a lockfile `<filename>.lock`, write the new file
-  contents into it, and then rename the lockfile to its final
-  destination `<filename>`. We create the `<filename>.lock` file with
-  `O_CREAT|O_EXCL` so that we can notice and fail if somebody else has
-  already locked the file, then atomically rename the lockfile to its
-  final destination to commit the changes and unlock the file.
-
-* Automatic cruft removal. If the program exits after we lock a file
-  but before the changes have been committed, we want to make sure
-  that we remove the lockfile. This is done by remembering the
-  lockfiles we have created in a linked list and setting up an
-  `atexit(3)` handler and a signal handler that clean up the
-  lockfiles. This mechanism ensures that outstanding lockfiles are
-  cleaned up if the program exits (including when `die()` is called)
-  or if the program dies on a signal.
-
-Please note that lockfiles only block other writers. Readers do not
-block, but they are guaranteed to see either the old contents of the
-file or the new contents of the file (assuming that the filesystem
-implements `rename(2)` atomically).
-
-
-Calling sequence
-----------------
-
-The caller:
-
-* Allocates a `struct lock_file` either as a static variable or on the
-  heap, initialized to zeros. Once you use the structure to call the
-  `hold_lock_file_*` family of functions, it belongs to the lockfile
-  subsystem and its storage must remain valid throughout the life of
-  the program (i.e. you cannot use an on-stack variable to hold this
-  structure).
-
-* Attempts to create a lockfile by passing that variable and the path
-  of the final destination (e.g. `$GIT_DIR/index`) to
-  `hold_lock_file_for_update` or `hold_lock_file_for_append`.
-
-* Writes new content for the destination file by either:
-
-  * writing to the file descriptor returned by the `hold_lock_file_*`
-    functions (also available via `lock->fd`).
-
-  * calling `fdopen_lock_file` to get a `FILE` pointer for the open
-    file and writing to the file using stdio.
-
-When finished writing, the caller can:
-
-* Close the file descriptor and rename the lockfile to its final
-  destination by calling `commit_lock_file` or `commit_lock_file_to`.
-
-* Close the file descriptor and remove the lockfile by calling
-  `rollback_lock_file`.
-
-* Close the file descriptor without removing or renaming the lockfile
-  by calling `close_lock_file`, and later call `commit_lock_file`,
-  `commit_lock_file_to`, `rollback_lock_file`, or `reopen_lock_file`.
-
-Even after the lockfile is committed or rolled back, the `lock_file`
-object must not be freed or altered by the caller. However, it may be
-reused; just pass it to another call of `hold_lock_file_for_update` or
-`hold_lock_file_for_append`.
-
-If the program exits before you have called one of `commit_lock_file`,
-`commit_lock_file_to`, `rollback_lock_file`, or `close_lock_file`, an
-`atexit(3)` handler will close and remove the lockfile, rolling back
-any uncommitted changes.
-
-If you need to close the file descriptor you obtained from a
-`hold_lock_file_*` function yourself, do so by calling
-`close_lock_file`. You should never call `close(2)` or `fclose(3)`
-yourself! Otherwise the `struct lock_file` structure would still think
-that the file descriptor needs to be closed, and a commit or rollback
-would result in duplicate calls to `close(2)`. Worse yet, if you close
-and then later open another file descriptor for a completely different
-purpose, then a commit or rollback might close that unrelated file
-descriptor.
-
-
-Error handling
---------------
-
-The `hold_lock_file_*` functions return a file descriptor on success
-or -1 on failure (unless `LOCK_DIE_ON_ERROR` is used; see below). On
-errors, `errno` describes the reason for failure. Errors can be
-reported by passing `errno` to one of the following helper functions:
-
-unable_to_lock_message::
-
-	Append an appropriate error message to a `strbuf`.
-
-unable_to_lock_error::
-
-	Emit an appropriate error message using `error()`.
-
-unable_to_lock_die::
-
-	Emit an appropriate error message and `die()`.
-
-Similarly, `commit_lock_file`, `commit_lock_file_to`, and
-`close_lock_file` return 0 on success. On failure they set `errno`
-appropriately, do their best to roll back the lockfile, and return -1.
-
-
-Flags
------
-
-The following flags can be passed to `hold_lock_file_for_update` or
-`hold_lock_file_for_append`:
-
-LOCK_NO_DEREF::
-
-	Usually symbolic links in the destination path are resolved
-	and the lockfile is created by adding ".lock" to the resolved
-	path. If `LOCK_NO_DEREF` is set, then the lockfile is created
-	by adding ".lock" to the path argument itself. This option is
-	used, for example, when locking a symbolic reference, which
-	for backwards-compatibility reasons can be a symbolic link
-	containing the name of the referred-to-reference.
-
-LOCK_DIE_ON_ERROR::
-
-	If a lock is already taken for the file, `die()` with an error
-	message. If this option is not specified, trying to lock a
-	file that is already locked returns -1 to the caller.
-
-
-The functions
--------------
-
-hold_lock_file_for_update::
-
-	Take a pointer to `struct lock_file`, the path of the file to
-	be locked (e.g. `$GIT_DIR/index`) and a flags argument (see
-	above). Attempt to create a lockfile for the destination and
-	return the file descriptor for writing to the file.
-
-hold_lock_file_for_append::
-
-	Like `hold_lock_file_for_update`, but before returning copy
-	the existing contents of the file (if any) to the lockfile and
-	position its write pointer at the end of the file.
-
-fdopen_lock_file::
-
-	Associate a stdio stream with the lockfile. Return NULL
-	(*without* rolling back the lockfile) on error. The stream is
-	closed automatically when `close_lock_file` is called or when
-	the file is committed or rolled back.
-
-get_locked_file_path::
-
-	Return the path of the file that is locked by the specified
-	lock_file object. The caller must free the memory.
-
-commit_lock_file::
-
-	Take a pointer to the `struct lock_file` initialized with an
-	earlier call to `hold_lock_file_for_update` or
-	`hold_lock_file_for_append`, close the file descriptor, and
-	rename the lockfile to its final destination. Return 0 upon
-	success. On failure, roll back the lock file and return -1,
-	with `errno` set to the value from the failing call to
-	`close(2)` or `rename(2)`. It is a bug to call
-	`commit_lock_file` for a `lock_file` object that is not
-	currently locked.
-
-commit_lock_file_to::
-
-	Like `commit_lock_file()`, except that it takes an explicit
-	`path` argument to which the lockfile should be renamed. The
-	`path` must be on the same filesystem as the lock file.
-
-rollback_lock_file::
-
-	Take a pointer to the `struct lock_file` initialized with an
-	earlier call to `hold_lock_file_for_update` or
-	`hold_lock_file_for_append`, close the file descriptor and
-	remove the lockfile. It is a NOOP to call
-	`rollback_lock_file()` for a `lock_file` object that has
-	already been committed or rolled back.
-
-close_lock_file::
-
-	Take a pointer to the `struct lock_file` initialized with an
-	earlier call to `hold_lock_file_for_update` or
-	`hold_lock_file_for_append`. Close the file descriptor (and
-	the file pointer if it has been opened using
-	`fdopen_lock_file`). Return 0 upon success. On failure to
-	`close(2)`, return a negative value and roll back the lock
-	file. Usually `commit_lock_file`, `commit_lock_file_to`, or
-	`rollback_lock_file` should eventually be called if
-	`close_lock_file` succeeds.
-
-reopen_lock_file::
-
-	Re-open a lockfile that has been closed (using
-	`close_lock_file`) but not yet committed or rolled back. This
-	can be used to implement a sequence of operations like the
-	following:
-
-	* Lock file.
-
-	* Write new contents to lockfile, then `close_lock_file` to
-	  cause the contents to be written to disk.
-
-	* Pass the name of the lockfile to another program to allow it
-	  (and nobody else) to inspect the contents you wrote, while
-	  still holding the lock yourself.
-
-	* `reopen_lock_file` to reopen the lockfile. Make further
-	  updates to the contents.
-
-	* `commit_lock_file` to make the final version permanent.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
index 1f2db31..5f0757d 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-parse-options.txt
@@ -168,6 +168,12 @@
 	Introduce an option with integer argument.
 	The integer is put into `int_var`.
 
+`OPT_MAGNITUDE(short, long, &unsigned_long_var, description)`::
+	Introduce an option with a size argument. The argument must be a
+	non-negative integer and may include a suffix of 'k', 'm' or 'g' to
+	scale the provided value by 1024, 1024^2 or 1024^3 respectively.
+	The scaled value is put into `unsigned_long_var`.
+
 `OPT_DATE(short, long, &int_var, description)`::
 	Introduce an option with date argument, see `approxidate()`.
 	The timestamp is put into `int_var`.
@@ -212,6 +218,19 @@
 	Use it to hide deprecated options that are still to be recognized
 	and ignored silently.
 
+`OPT_PASSTHRU(short, long, &char_var, arg_str, description, flags)`::
+	Introduce an option that will be reconstructed into a char* string,
+	which must be initialized to NULL. This is useful when you need to
+	pass the command-line option to another command. Any previous value
+	will be overwritten, so this should only be used for options where
+	the last one specified on the command line wins.
+
+`OPT_PASSTHRU_ARGV(short, long, &argv_array_var, arg_str, description, flags)`::
+	Introduce an option where all instances of it on the command-line will
+	be reconstructed into an argv_array. This is useful when you need to
+	pass the command-line option, which can be specified multiple times,
+	to another command.
+
 
 The last element of the array must be `OPT_END()`.
 
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt
index a9fdb45..8bf3e37 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-run-command.txt
@@ -46,6 +46,13 @@
 	The argument dir corresponds the member .dir. The argument env
 	corresponds to the member .env.
 
+`child_process_clear`::
+
+	Release the memory associated with the struct child_process.
+	Most users of the run-command API don't need to call this
+	function explicitly because `start_command` invokes it on
+	failure and `finish_command` calls it automatically already.
+
 The functions above do the following:
 
 . If a system call failed, errno is set and -1 is returned. A diagnostic
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/api-submodule-config.txt b/Documentation/technical/api-submodule-config.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..941fa17
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/api-submodule-config.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,62 @@
+submodule config cache API
+==========================
+
+The submodule config cache API allows to read submodule
+configurations/information from specified revisions. Internally
+information is lazily read into a cache that is used to avoid
+unnecessary parsing of the same .gitmodule files. Lookups can be done by
+submodule path or name.
+
+Usage
+-----
+
+To initialize the cache with configurations from the worktree the caller
+typically first calls `gitmodules_config()` to read values from the
+worktree .gitmodules and then to overlay the local git config values
+`parse_submodule_config_option()` from the config parsing
+infrastructure.
+
+The caller can look up information about submodules by using the
+`submodule_from_path()` or `submodule_from_name()` functions. They return
+a `struct submodule` which contains the values. The API automatically
+initializes and allocates the needed infrastructure on-demand. If the
+caller does only want to lookup values from revisions the initialization
+can be skipped.
+
+If the internal cache might grow too big or when the caller is done with
+the API, all internally cached values can be freed with submodule_free().
+
+Data Structures
+---------------
+
+`struct submodule`::
+
+	This structure is used to return the information about one
+	submodule for a certain revision. It is returned by the lookup
+	functions.
+
+Functions
+---------
+
+`void submodule_free()`::
+
+	Use these to free the internally cached values.
+
+`int parse_submodule_config_option(const char *var, const char *value)`::
+
+	Can be passed to the config parsing infrastructure to parse
+	local (worktree) submodule configurations.
+
+`const struct submodule *submodule_from_path(const unsigned char *commit_sha1, const char *path)`::
+
+	Lookup values for one submodule by its commit_sha1 and path.
+
+`const struct submodule *submodule_from_name(const unsigned char *commit_sha1, const char *name)`::
+
+	The same as above but lookup by name.
+
+If given the null_sha1 as commit_sha1 the local configuration of a
+submodule will be returned (e.g. consolidated values from local git
+configuration and the .gitmodules file in the worktree).
+
+For an example usage see test-submodule-config.c.
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt b/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
index 7392ff6..ade0b0c 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/index-format.txt
@@ -170,7 +170,7 @@
 
   The entries are written out in the top-down, depth-first order.  The
   first entry represents the root level of the repository, followed by the
-  first subtree---let's call this A---of the root level (with its name
+  first subtree--let's call this A--of the root level (with its name
   relative to the root level), followed by the first subtree of A (with
   its name relative to A), ...
 
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
index 4064fc7..c6977bb 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/pack-protocol.txt
@@ -14,6 +14,14 @@
 currently on the server, then for the two to negotiate the smallest amount
 of data to send in order to fully update one or the other.
 
+pkt-line Format
+---------------
+
+The descriptions below build on the pkt-line format described in
+protocol-common.txt. When the grammar indicate `PKT-LINE(...)`, unless
+otherwise noted the usual pkt-line LF rules apply: the sender SHOULD
+include a LF, but the receiver MUST NOT complain if it is not present.
+
 Transports
 ----------
 There are three transports over which the packfile protocol is
@@ -143,9 +151,6 @@
    003fe92df48743b7bc7d26bcaabfddde0a1e20cae47c refs/tags/v1.0^{}
    0000
 
-Server SHOULD terminate each non-flush line using LF ("\n") terminator;
-client MUST NOT complain if there is no terminator.
-
 The returned response is a pkt-line stream describing each ref and
 its current value.  The stream MUST be sorted by name according to
 the C locale ordering.
@@ -165,15 +170,15 @@
 		      flush-pkt
 
   no-refs          =  PKT-LINE(zero-id SP "capabilities^{}"
-		      NUL capability-list LF)
+		      NUL capability-list)
 
   list-of-refs     =  first-ref *other-ref
   first-ref        =  PKT-LINE(obj-id SP refname
-		      NUL capability-list LF)
+		      NUL capability-list)
 
   other-ref        =  PKT-LINE(other-tip / other-peeled)
-  other-tip        =  obj-id SP refname LF
-  other-peeled     =  obj-id SP refname "^{}" LF
+  other-tip        =  obj-id SP refname
+  other-peeled     =  obj-id SP refname "^{}"
 
   shallow          =  PKT-LINE("shallow" SP obj-id)
 
@@ -216,8 +221,8 @@
 
   depth-request     =  PKT-LINE("deepen" SP depth)
 
-  first-want        =  PKT-LINE("want" SP obj-id SP capability-list LF)
-  additional-want   =  PKT-LINE("want" SP obj-id LF)
+  first-want        =  PKT-LINE("want" SP obj-id SP capability-list)
+  additional-want   =  PKT-LINE("want" SP obj-id)
 
   depth             =  1*DIGIT
 ----
@@ -284,7 +289,7 @@
 		       compute-end
 
   have-list         =  *have-line
-  have-line         =  PKT-LINE("have" SP obj-id LF)
+  have-line         =  PKT-LINE("have" SP obj-id)
   compute-end       =  flush-pkt / PKT-LINE("done")
 ----
 
@@ -348,10 +353,10 @@
 
 ----
   server-response = *ack_multi ack / nak
-  ack_multi       = PKT-LINE("ACK" SP obj-id ack_status LF)
+  ack_multi       = PKT-LINE("ACK" SP obj-id ack_status)
   ack_status      = "continue" / "common" / "ready"
-  ack             = PKT-LINE("ACK SP obj-id LF)
-  nak             = PKT-LINE("NAK" LF)
+  ack             = PKT-LINE("ACK" SP obj-id)
+  nak             = PKT-LINE("NAK")
 ----
 
 A simple clone may look like this (with no 'have' lines):
@@ -467,10 +472,10 @@
 ----
   update-request    =  *shallow ( command-list | push-cert ) [packfile]
 
-  shallow           =  PKT-LINE("shallow" SP obj-id LF)
+  shallow           =  PKT-LINE("shallow" SP obj-id)
 
-  command-list      =  PKT-LINE(command NUL capability-list LF)
-		       *PKT-LINE(command LF)
+  command-list      =  PKT-LINE(command NUL capability-list)
+		       *PKT-LINE(command)
 		       flush-pkt
 
   command           =  create / delete / update
@@ -521,7 +526,8 @@
 
 A push certificate begins with a set of header lines.  After the
 header and an empty line, the protocol commands follow, one per
-line.
+line. Note that the the trailing LF in push-cert PKT-LINEs is _not_
+optional; it must be present.
 
 Currently, the following header fields are defined:
 
@@ -560,12 +566,12 @@
 		      1*(command-status)
 		      flush-pkt
 
-  unpack-status     = PKT-LINE("unpack" SP unpack-result LF)
+  unpack-status     = PKT-LINE("unpack" SP unpack-result)
   unpack-result     = "ok" / error-msg
 
   command-status    = command-ok / command-fail
-  command-ok        = PKT-LINE("ok" SP refname LF)
-  command-fail      = PKT-LINE("ng" SP refname SP error-msg LF)
+  command-ok        = PKT-LINE("ok" SP refname)
+  command-fail      = PKT-LINE("ng" SP refname SP error-msg)
 
   error-msg         = 1*(OCTECT) ; where not "ok"
 ----
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/protocol-common.txt b/Documentation/technical/protocol-common.txt
index 889985f..bf30167 100644
--- a/Documentation/technical/protocol-common.txt
+++ b/Documentation/technical/protocol-common.txt
@@ -62,7 +62,10 @@
 pkt-line parsing/formatting routines are 8-bit clean.
 
 A non-binary line SHOULD BE terminated by an LF, which if present
-MUST be included in the total length.
+MUST be included in the total length. Receivers MUST treat pkt-lines
+with non-binary data the same whether or not they contain the trailing
+LF (stripping the LF if present, and not complaining when it is
+missing).
 
 The maximum length of a pkt-line's data component is 65520 bytes.
 Implementations MUST NOT send pkt-line whose length exceeds 65524
diff --git a/Documentation/technical/repository-version.txt b/Documentation/technical/repository-version.txt
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..00ad379
--- /dev/null
+++ b/Documentation/technical/repository-version.txt
@@ -0,0 +1,88 @@
+Git Repository Format Versions
+==============================
+
+Every git repository is marked with a numeric version in the
+`core.repositoryformatversion` key of its `config` file. This version
+specifies the rules for operating on the on-disk repository data. An
+implementation of git which does not understand a particular version
+advertised by an on-disk repository MUST NOT operate on that repository;
+doing so risks not only producing wrong results, but actually losing
+data.
+
+Because of this rule, version bumps should be kept to an absolute
+minimum. Instead, we generally prefer these strategies:
+
+  - bumping format version numbers of individual data files (e.g.,
+    index, packfiles, etc). This restricts the incompatibilities only to
+    those files.
+
+  - introducing new data that gracefully degrades when used by older
+    clients (e.g., pack bitmap files are ignored by older clients, which
+    simply do not take advantage of the optimization they provide).
+
+A whole-repository format version bump should only be part of a change
+that cannot be independently versioned. For instance, if one were to
+change the reachability rules for objects, or the rules for locking
+refs, that would require a bump of the repository format version.
+
+Note that this applies only to accessing the repository's disk contents
+directly. An older client which understands only format `0` may still
+connect via `git://` to a repository using format `1`, as long as the
+server process understands format `1`.
+
+The preferred strategy for rolling out a version bump (whether whole
+repository or for a single file) is to teach git to read the new format,
+and allow writing the new format with a config switch or command line
+option (for experimentation or for those who do not care about backwards
+compatibility with older gits). Then after a long period to allow the
+reading capability to become common, we may switch to writing the new
+format by default.
+
+The currently defined format versions are:
+
+Version `0`
+-----------
+
+This is the format defined by the initial version of git, including but
+not limited to the format of the repository directory, the repository
+configuration file, and the object and ref storage. Specifying the
+complete behavior of git is beyond the scope of this document.
+
+Version `1`
+-----------
+
+This format is identical to version `0`, with the following exceptions:
+
+  1. When reading the `core.repositoryformatversion` variable, a git
+     implementation which supports version 1 MUST also read any
+     configuration keys found in the `extensions` section of the
+     configuration file.
+
+  2. If a version-1 repository specifies any `extensions.*` keys that
+     the running git has not implemented, the operation MUST NOT
+     proceed. Similarly, if the value of any known key is not understood
+     by the implementation, the operation MUST NOT proceed.
+
+Note that if no extensions are specified in the config file, then
+`core.repositoryformatversion` SHOULD be set to `0` (setting it to `1`
+provides no benefit, and makes the repository incompatible with older
+implementations of git).
+
+This document will serve as the master list for extensions. Any
+implementation wishing to define a new extension should make a note of
+it here, in order to claim the name.
+
+The defined extensions are:
+
+`noop`
+~~~~~~
+
+This extension does not change git's behavior at all. It is useful only
+for testing format-1 compatibility.
+
+`preciousObjects`
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+
+When the config key `extensions.preciousObjects` is set to `true`,
+objects in the repository MUST NOT be deleted (e.g., by `git-prune` or
+`git repack -d`).
diff --git a/Documentation/urls-remotes.txt b/Documentation/urls-remotes.txt
index 282758e..bd184cd 100644
--- a/Documentation/urls-remotes.txt
+++ b/Documentation/urls-remotes.txt
@@ -36,7 +36,7 @@
 to `<url>`.
 
 Named file in `$GIT_DIR/remotes`
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 You can choose to provide the name of a
 file in `$GIT_DIR/remotes`.  The URL
diff --git a/Documentation/user-manual.txt b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
index 68978f5..ec6bacf 100644
--- a/Documentation/user-manual.txt
+++ b/Documentation/user-manual.txt
@@ -1431,11 +1431,11 @@
 parents, one pointing at each of the two lines of development that
 were merged.
 
-However, if the current branch is a descendant of the other--so every
-commit present in the one is already contained in the other--then Git
-just performs a "fast-forward"; the head of the current branch is moved
-forward to point at the head of the merged-in branch, without any new
-commits being created.
+However, if the current branch is an ancestor of the other--so every commit
+present in the current branch is already contained in the other branch--then Git
+just performs a "fast-forward"; the head of the current branch is moved forward
+to point at the head of the merged-in branch, without any new commits being
+created.
 
 [[fixing-mistakes]]
 Fixing mistakes
@@ -1491,7 +1491,7 @@
 
 [[fixing-a-mistake-by-rewriting-history]]
 Fixing a mistake by rewriting history
-~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
+~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 If the problematic commit is the most recent commit, and you have not
 yet made that commit public, then you may just
@@ -2125,8 +2125,37 @@
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 
 The gitweb cgi script provides users an easy way to browse your
-project's files and history without having to install Git; see the file
-gitweb/INSTALL in the Git source tree for instructions on setting it up.
+project's revisions, file contents and logs without having to install
+Git. Features like RSS/Atom feeds and blame/annotation details may
+optionally be enabled.
+
+The linkgit:git-instaweb[1] command provides a simple way to start
+browsing the repository using gitweb. The default server when using
+instaweb is lighttpd.
+
+See the file gitweb/INSTALL in the Git source tree and
+linkgit:gitweb[1] for instructions on details setting up a permament
+installation with a CGI or Perl capable server.
+
+[[how-to-get-a-git-repository-with-minimal-history]]
+How to get a Git repository with minimal history
+------------------------------------------------
+
+A <<def_shallow_clone,shallow clone>>, with its truncated
+history, is useful when one is interested only in recent history
+of a project and getting full history from the upstream is
+expensive.
+
+A <<def_shallow_clone,shallow clone>> is created by specifying
+the linkgit:git-clone[1] `--depth` switch. The depth can later be
+changed with the linkgit:git-fetch[1] `--depth` switch, or full
+history restored with `--unshallow`.
+
+Merging inside a <<def_shallow_clone,shallow clone>> will work as long
+as a merge base is in the recent history.
+Otherwise, it will be like merging unrelated histories and may
+have to result in huge conflicts.  This limitation may make such
+a repository unsuitable to be used in merge based workflows.
 
 [[sharing-development-examples]]
 Examples
@@ -3424,7 +3453,7 @@
 
 [[the-index]]
 The index
------------
+---------
 
 The index is a binary file (generally kept in `.git/index`) containing a
 sorted list of path names, each with permissions and the SHA-1 of a blob
@@ -4636,23 +4665,15 @@
 Scan man pages to see if any assume more background than this manual
 provides.
 
-Simplify beginning by suggesting disconnected head instead of
-temporary branch creation?
-
 Add more good examples.  Entire sections of just cookbook examples
 might be a good idea; maybe make an "advanced examples" section a
 standard end-of-chapter section?
 
 Include cross-references to the glossary, where appropriate.
 
-Document shallow clones?  See draft 1.5.0 release notes for some
-documentation.
-
 Add a section on working with other version control systems, including
 CVS, Subversion, and just imports of series of release tarballs.
 
-More details on gitweb?
-
 Write a chapter on using plumbing and writing scripts.
 
 Alternates, clone -reference, etc.
diff --git a/GIT-VERSION-GEN b/GIT-VERSION-GEN
index 9987869..51aa9e6 100755
--- a/GIT-VERSION-GEN
+++ b/GIT-VERSION-GEN
@@ -1,7 +1,7 @@
 #!/bin/sh
 
 GVF=GIT-VERSION-FILE
-DEF_VER=v2.5.4
+DEF_VER=v2.7.0
 
 LF='
 '
diff --git a/Makefile b/Makefile
index ce0cfe2..fd19b54 100644
--- a/Makefile
+++ b/Makefile
@@ -39,6 +39,9 @@
 # Define CURLDIR=/foo/bar if your curl header and library files are in
 # /foo/bar/include and /foo/bar/lib directories.
 #
+# Define CURL_CONFIG to curl's configuration program that prints information
+# about the library (e.g., its version number).  The default is 'curl-config'.
+#
 # Define NO_EXPAT if you do not have expat installed.  git-http-push is
 # not built, and you cannot push using http:// and https:// transports (dumb).
 #
@@ -74,8 +77,6 @@
 # Define HAVE_PATHS_H if you have paths.h and want to use the default PATH
 # it specifies.
 #
-# Define NO_D_INO_IN_DIRENT if you don't have d_ino in your struct dirent.
-#
 # Define NO_D_TYPE_IN_DIRENT if your platform defines DT_UNKNOWN but lacks
 # d_type in struct dirent (Cygwin 1.5, fixed in Cygwin 1.7).
 #
@@ -141,6 +142,10 @@
 # Define PPC_SHA1 environment variable when running make to make use of
 # a bundled SHA1 routine optimized for PowerPC.
 #
+# Define SHA1_MAX_BLOCK_SIZE to limit the amount of data that will be hashed
+# in one call to the platform's SHA1_Update(). e.g. APPLE_COMMON_CRYPTO
+# wants 'SHA1_MAX_BLOCK_SIZE=1024L*1024L*1024L' defined.
+#
 # Define NEEDS_CRYPTO_WITH_SSL if you need -lcrypto when using -lssl (Darwin).
 #
 # Define NEEDS_SSL_WITH_CRYPTO if you need -lssl when using -lcrypto (Darwin).
@@ -375,6 +380,9 @@
 ALL_LDFLAGS = $(LDFLAGS)
 STRIP ?= strip
 
+# Create as necessary, replace existing, make ranlib unneeded.
+ARFLAGS = rcs
+
 # Among the variables below, these:
 #   gitexecdir
 #   template_dir
@@ -425,6 +433,7 @@
 TCLTK_PATH = wish
 XGETTEXT = xgettext
 MSGFMT = msgfmt
+CURL_CONFIG = curl-config
 PTHREAD_LIBS = -lpthread
 PTHREAD_CFLAGS =
 GCOV = gcov
@@ -467,7 +476,6 @@
 # interactive shell sessions without exporting it.
 unexport CDPATH
 
-SCRIPT_SH += git-am.sh
 SCRIPT_SH += git-bisect.sh
 SCRIPT_SH += git-difftool--helper.sh
 SCRIPT_SH += git-filter-branch.sh
@@ -475,7 +483,6 @@
 SCRIPT_SH += git-merge-one-file.sh
 SCRIPT_SH += git-merge-resolve.sh
 SCRIPT_SH += git-mergetool.sh
-SCRIPT_SH += git-pull.sh
 SCRIPT_SH += git-quiltimport.sh
 SCRIPT_SH += git-rebase.sh
 SCRIPT_SH += git-remote-testgit.sh
@@ -595,6 +602,7 @@
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-sha1-array
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-sigchain
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-string-list
+TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-submodule-config
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-subprocess
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-svn-fe
 TEST_PROGRAMS_NEED_X += test-urlmatch-normalization
@@ -727,6 +735,7 @@
 LIB_OBJS += ll-merge.o
 LIB_OBJS += lockfile.o
 LIB_OBJS += log-tree.o
+LIB_OBJS += mailinfo.o
 LIB_OBJS += mailmap.o
 LIB_OBJS += match-trees.o
 LIB_OBJS += merge.o
@@ -763,6 +772,8 @@
 LIB_OBJS += read-cache.o
 LIB_OBJS += reflog-walk.o
 LIB_OBJS += refs.o
+LIB_OBJS += refs/files-backend.o
+LIB_OBJS += ref-filter.o
 LIB_OBJS += remote.o
 LIB_OBJS += replace_object.o
 LIB_OBJS += rerere.o
@@ -785,8 +796,10 @@
 LIB_OBJS += streaming.o
 LIB_OBJS += string-list.o
 LIB_OBJS += submodule.o
+LIB_OBJS += submodule-config.o
 LIB_OBJS += symlinks.o
 LIB_OBJS += tag.o
+LIB_OBJS += tempfile.o
 LIB_OBJS += trace.o
 LIB_OBJS += trailer.o
 LIB_OBJS += transport.o
@@ -805,6 +818,7 @@
 LIB_OBJS += versioncmp.o
 LIB_OBJS += walker.o
 LIB_OBJS += wildmatch.o
+LIB_OBJS += worktree.o
 LIB_OBJS += wrapper.o
 LIB_OBJS += write_or_die.o
 LIB_OBJS += ws.o
@@ -813,6 +827,7 @@
 LIB_OBJS += zlib.o
 
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/add.o
+BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/am.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/annotate.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/apply.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/archive.o
@@ -878,6 +893,7 @@
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/patch-id.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/prune-packed.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/prune.o
+BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/pull.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/push.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/read-tree.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/receive-pack.o
@@ -898,6 +914,7 @@
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/show-branch.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/show-ref.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/stripspace.o
+BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/submodule--helper.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/symbolic-ref.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/tag.o
 BUILTIN_OBJS += builtin/unpack-file.o
@@ -1029,7 +1046,7 @@
 endif
 
 IMAP_SEND_BUILDDEPS =
-IMAP_SEND_LDFLAGS = $(OPENSSL_LINK) $(OPENSSL_LIBSSL) $(LIB_4_CRYPTO)
+IMAP_SEND_LDFLAGS =
 
 ifdef NO_CURL
 	BASIC_CFLAGS += -DNO_CURL
@@ -1059,13 +1076,13 @@
 	REMOTE_CURL_NAMES = $(REMOTE_CURL_PRIMARY) $(REMOTE_CURL_ALIASES)
 	PROGRAM_OBJS += http-fetch.o
 	PROGRAMS += $(REMOTE_CURL_NAMES)
-	curl_check := $(shell (echo 070908; curl-config --vernum | sed -e '/^70[BC]/s/^/0/') 2>/dev/null | sort -r | sed -ne 2p)
+	curl_check := $(shell (echo 070908; $(CURL_CONFIG) --vernum | sed -e '/^70[BC]/s/^/0/') 2>/dev/null | sort -r | sed -ne 2p)
 	ifeq "$(curl_check)" "070908"
 		ifndef NO_EXPAT
 			PROGRAM_OBJS += http-push.o
 		endif
 	endif
-	curl_check := $(shell (echo 072200; curl-config --vernum | sed -e '/^70[BC]/s/^/0/') 2>/dev/null | sort -r | sed -ne 2p)
+	curl_check := $(shell (echo 072200; $(CURL_CONFIG) --vernum | sed -e '/^70[BC]/s/^/0/') 2>/dev/null | sort -r | sed -ne 2p)
 	ifeq "$(curl_check)" "072200"
 		USE_CURL_FOR_IMAP_SEND = YesPlease
 	endif
@@ -1086,6 +1103,7 @@
 		endif
 	endif
 endif
+IMAP_SEND_LDFLAGS += $(OPENSSL_LINK) $(OPENSSL_LIBSSL) $(LIB_4_CRYPTO)
 
 ifdef ZLIB_PATH
 	BASIC_CFLAGS += -I$(ZLIB_PATH)/include
@@ -1156,9 +1174,6 @@
 ifdef NO_D_TYPE_IN_DIRENT
 	BASIC_CFLAGS += -DNO_D_TYPE_IN_DIRENT
 endif
-ifdef NO_D_INO_IN_DIRENT
-	BASIC_CFLAGS += -DNO_D_INO_IN_DIRENT
-endif
 ifdef NO_GECOS_IN_PWENT
 	BASIC_CFLAGS += -DNO_GECOS_IN_PWENT
 endif
@@ -1328,6 +1343,11 @@
 	BASIC_CFLAGS += -DNO_POSIX_GOODIES
 endif
 
+ifdef APPLE_COMMON_CRYPTO
+	# Apple CommonCrypto requires chunking
+	SHA1_MAX_BLOCK_SIZE = 1024L*1024L*1024L
+endif
+
 ifdef BLK_SHA1
 	SHA1_HEADER = "block-sha1/sha1.h"
 	LIB_OBJS += block-sha1/sha1.o
@@ -1346,6 +1366,10 @@
 endif
 endif
 
+ifdef SHA1_MAX_BLOCK_SIZE
+	LIB_OBJS += compat/sha1-chunked.o
+	BASIC_CFLAGS += -DSHA1_MAX_BLOCK_SIZE="$(SHA1_MAX_BLOCK_SIZE)"
+endif
 ifdef NO_PERL_MAKEMAKER
 	export NO_PERL_MAKEMAKER
 endif
@@ -1461,13 +1485,13 @@
 QUIET_SUBDIR0  = +$(MAKE) -C # space to separate -C and subdir
 QUIET_SUBDIR1  =
 
-ifneq ($(findstring $(MAKEFLAGS),w),w)
+ifneq ($(findstring w,$(MAKEFLAGS)),w)
 PRINT_DIR = --no-print-directory
 else # "make -w"
 NO_SUBDIR = :
 endif
 
-ifneq ($(findstring $(MAKEFLAGS),s),s)
+ifneq ($(findstring s,$(MAKEFLAGS)),s)
 ifndef V
 	QUIET_CC       = @echo '   ' CC $@;
 	QUIET_AR       = @echo '   ' AR $@;
@@ -1699,7 +1723,7 @@
 common-cmds.h: generate-cmdlist.sh command-list.txt
 
 common-cmds.h: $(wildcard Documentation/git-*.txt)
-	$(QUIET_GEN)./generate-cmdlist.sh command-list.txt >$@+ && mv $@+ $@
+	$(QUIET_GEN)$(SHELL_PATH) ./generate-cmdlist.sh command-list.txt >$@+ && mv $@+ $@
 
 SCRIPT_DEFINES = $(SHELL_PATH_SQ):$(DIFF_SQ):$(GIT_VERSION):\
 	$(localedir_SQ):$(NO_CURL):$(USE_GETTEXT_SCHEME):$(SANE_TOOL_PATH_SQ):\
@@ -1971,10 +1995,10 @@
 
 git-http-fetch$X: http.o http-walker.o http-fetch.o GIT-LDFLAGS $(GITLIBS)
 	$(QUIET_LINK)$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) -o $@ $(ALL_LDFLAGS) $(filter %.o,$^) \
-		$(LIBS) $(CURL_LIBCURL)
+		$(CURL_LIBCURL) $(LIBS)
 git-http-push$X: http.o http-push.o GIT-LDFLAGS $(GITLIBS)
 	$(QUIET_LINK)$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) -o $@ $(ALL_LDFLAGS) $(filter %.o,$^) \
-		$(LIBS) $(CURL_LIBCURL) $(EXPAT_LIBEXPAT)
+		$(CURL_LIBCURL) $(EXPAT_LIBEXPAT) $(LIBS)
 
 git-remote-testsvn$X: remote-testsvn.o GIT-LDFLAGS $(GITLIBS) $(VCSSVN_LIB)
 	$(QUIET_LINK)$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) -o $@ $(ALL_LDFLAGS) $(filter %.o,$^) $(LIBS) \
@@ -1988,16 +2012,16 @@
 
 $(REMOTE_CURL_PRIMARY): remote-curl.o http.o http-walker.o GIT-LDFLAGS $(GITLIBS)
 	$(QUIET_LINK)$(CC) $(ALL_CFLAGS) -o $@ $(ALL_LDFLAGS) $(filter %.o,$^) \
-		$(LIBS) $(CURL_LIBCURL) $(EXPAT_LIBEXPAT)
+		$(CURL_LIBCURL) $(EXPAT_LIBEXPAT) $(LIBS)
 
 $(LIB_FILE): $(LIB_OBJS)
-	$(QUIET_AR)$(RM) $@ && $(AR) rcs $@ $^
+	$(QUIET_AR)$(RM) $@ && $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $^
 
 $(XDIFF_LIB): $(XDIFF_OBJS)
-	$(QUIET_AR)$(RM) $@ && $(AR) rcs $@ $^
+	$(QUIET_AR)$(RM) $@ && $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $^
 
 $(VCSSVN_LIB): $(VCSSVN_OBJS)
-	$(QUIET_AR)$(RM) $@ && $(AR) rcs $@ $^
+	$(QUIET_AR)$(RM) $@ && $(AR) $(ARFLAGS) $@ $^
 
 export DEFAULT_EDITOR DEFAULT_PAGER
 
@@ -2409,7 +2433,7 @@
 	$(RM) $(addsuffix *.gcno,$(addprefix $(PROFILE_DIR)/, $(object_dirs)))
 
 clean: profile-clean coverage-clean
-	$(RM) *.o *.res block-sha1/*.o ppc/*.o compat/*.o compat/*/*.o
+	$(RM) *.o *.res refs/*.o block-sha1/*.o ppc/*.o compat/*.o compat/*/*.o
 	$(RM) xdiff/*.o vcs-svn/*.o ewah/*.o builtin/*.o
 	$(RM) $(LIB_FILE) $(XDIFF_LIB) $(VCSSVN_LIB)
 	$(RM) $(ALL_PROGRAMS) $(SCRIPT_LIB) $(BUILT_INS) git$X
diff --git a/RelNotes b/RelNotes
index cdb1b48..3ba13ce 120000
--- a/RelNotes
+++ b/RelNotes
@@ -1 +1 @@
-Documentation/RelNotes/2.5.4.txt
\ No newline at end of file
+Documentation/RelNotes/2.7.0.txt
\ No newline at end of file
diff --git a/advice.c b/advice.c
index 575bec2..4dc5cf1 100644
--- a/advice.c
+++ b/advice.c
@@ -96,6 +96,14 @@
 	die("Exiting because of an unresolved conflict.");
 }
 
+void NORETURN die_conclude_merge(void)
+{
+	error(_("You have not concluded your merge (MERGE_HEAD exists)."));
+	if (advice_resolve_conflict)
+		advise(_("Please, commit your changes before merging."));
+	die(_("Exiting because of unfinished merge."));
+}
+
 void detach_advice(const char *new_name)
 {
 	const char fmt[] =
diff --git a/advice.h b/advice.h
index 5ecc6c1..b341a55 100644
--- a/advice.h
+++ b/advice.h
@@ -24,6 +24,7 @@
 void advise(const char *advice, ...);
 int error_resolve_conflict(const char *me);
 extern void NORETURN die_resolve_conflict(const char *me);
+void NORETURN die_conclude_merge(void);
 void detach_advice(const char *new_name);
 
 #endif /* ADVICE_H */
diff --git a/archive-tar.c b/archive-tar.c
index 0d1e6bd..501ca97 100644
--- a/archive-tar.c
+++ b/archive-tar.c
@@ -167,21 +167,21 @@
 			   struct ustar_header *header,
 			   unsigned int mode, unsigned long size)
 {
-	sprintf(header->mode, "%07o", mode & 07777);
-	sprintf(header->size, "%011lo", S_ISREG(mode) ? size : 0);
-	sprintf(header->mtime, "%011lo", (unsigned long) args->time);
+	xsnprintf(header->mode, sizeof(header->mode), "%07o", mode & 07777);
+	xsnprintf(header->size, sizeof(header->size), "%011lo", S_ISREG(mode) ? size : 0);
+	xsnprintf(header->mtime, sizeof(header->mtime), "%011lo", (unsigned long) args->time);
 
-	sprintf(header->uid, "%07o", 0);
-	sprintf(header->gid, "%07o", 0);
+	xsnprintf(header->uid, sizeof(header->uid), "%07o", 0);
+	xsnprintf(header->gid, sizeof(header->gid), "%07o", 0);
 	strlcpy(header->uname, "root", sizeof(header->uname));
 	strlcpy(header->gname, "root", sizeof(header->gname));
-	sprintf(header->devmajor, "%07o", 0);
-	sprintf(header->devminor, "%07o", 0);
+	xsnprintf(header->devmajor, sizeof(header->devmajor), "%07o", 0);
+	xsnprintf(header->devminor, sizeof(header->devminor), "%07o", 0);
 
 	memcpy(header->magic, "ustar", 6);
 	memcpy(header->version, "00", 2);
 
-	sprintf(header->chksum, "%07o", ustar_header_chksum(header));
+	snprintf(header->chksum, sizeof(header->chksum), "%07o", ustar_header_chksum(header));
 }
 
 static int write_extended_header(struct archiver_args *args,
@@ -193,7 +193,7 @@
 	memset(&header, 0, sizeof(header));
 	*header.typeflag = TYPEFLAG_EXT_HEADER;
 	mode = 0100666;
-	sprintf(header.name, "%s.paxheader", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+	xsnprintf(header.name, sizeof(header.name), "%s.paxheader", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 	prepare_header(args, &header, mode, size);
 	write_blocked(&header, sizeof(header));
 	write_blocked(buffer, size);
@@ -233,10 +233,10 @@
 		size_t rest = pathlen - plen - 1;
 		if (plen > 0 && rest <= sizeof(header.name)) {
 			memcpy(header.prefix, path, plen);
-				memcpy(header.name, path + plen + 1, rest);
+			memcpy(header.name, path + plen + 1, rest);
 		} else {
-			sprintf(header.name, "%s.data",
-				sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+			xsnprintf(header.name, sizeof(header.name), "%s.data",
+				  sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 			strbuf_append_ext_header(&ext_header, "path",
 						 path, pathlen);
 		}
@@ -259,8 +259,8 @@
 
 	if (S_ISLNK(mode)) {
 		if (size > sizeof(header.linkname)) {
-			sprintf(header.linkname, "see %s.paxheader",
-			        sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+			xsnprintf(header.linkname, sizeof(header.linkname),
+				  "see %s.paxheader", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 			strbuf_append_ext_header(&ext_header, "linkpath",
 			                         buffer, size);
 		} else
@@ -301,7 +301,7 @@
 	memset(&header, 0, sizeof(header));
 	*header.typeflag = TYPEFLAG_GLOBAL_HEADER;
 	mode = 0100666;
-	strcpy(header.name, "pax_global_header");
+	xsnprintf(header.name, sizeof(header.name), "pax_global_header");
 	prepare_header(args, &header, mode, ext_header.len);
 	write_blocked(&header, sizeof(header));
 	write_blocked(ext_header.buf, ext_header.len);
diff --git a/archive.c b/archive.c
index d37c41d..0687afa 100644
--- a/archive.c
+++ b/archive.c
@@ -1,4 +1,5 @@
 #include "cache.h"
+#include "refs.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "tree-walk.h"
 #include "attr.h"
@@ -33,7 +34,7 @@
 	char *to_free = NULL;
 	struct strbuf fmt = STRBUF_INIT;
 	struct pretty_print_context ctx = {0};
-	ctx.date_mode = DATE_NORMAL;
+	ctx.date_mode.type = DATE_NORMAL;
 	ctx.abbrev = DEFAULT_ABBREV;
 
 	if (src == buf->buf)
@@ -170,13 +171,14 @@
 		unsigned mode, int stage, struct archiver_context *c)
 {
 	struct directory *d;
-	d = xmallocz(sizeof(*d) + base->len + 1 + strlen(filename));
+	size_t len = base->len + 1 + strlen(filename) + 1;
+	d = xmalloc(sizeof(*d) + len);
 	d->up	   = c->bottom;
 	d->baselen = base->len;
 	d->mode	   = mode;
 	d->stage   = stage;
 	c->bottom  = d;
-	d->len = sprintf(d->path, "%.*s%s/", (int)base->len, base->buf, filename);
+	d->len = xsnprintf(d->path, len, "%.*s%s/", (int)base->len, base->buf, filename);
 	hashcpy(d->oid.hash, sha1);
 }
 
@@ -239,7 +241,7 @@
 			len--;
 		if (args->verbose)
 			fprintf(stderr, "%.*s\n", (int)len, args->base);
-		err = write_entry(args, args->tree->object.sha1, args->base,
+		err = write_entry(args, args->tree->object.oid.hash, args->base,
 				  len, 040777);
 		if (err)
 			return err;
@@ -372,7 +374,7 @@
 
 	commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(oid.hash, 1);
 	if (commit) {
-		commit_sha1 = commit->object.sha1;
+		commit_sha1 = commit->object.oid.hash;
 		archive_time = commit->date;
 	} else {
 		commit_sha1 = NULL;
@@ -388,7 +390,7 @@
 		unsigned int mode;
 		int err;
 
-		err = get_tree_entry(tree->object.sha1, prefix,
+		err = get_tree_entry(tree->object.oid.hash, prefix,
 				     tree_oid.hash, &mode);
 		if (err || !S_ISDIR(mode))
 			die("current working directory is untracked");
diff --git a/argv-array.c b/argv-array.c
index 256741d..eaed477 100644
--- a/argv-array.c
+++ b/argv-array.c
@@ -49,6 +49,12 @@
 	va_end(ap);
 }
 
+void argv_array_pushv(struct argv_array *array, const char **argv)
+{
+	for (; *argv; argv++)
+		argv_array_push(array, *argv);
+}
+
 void argv_array_pop(struct argv_array *array)
 {
 	if (!array->argc)
diff --git a/argv-array.h b/argv-array.h
index c65e6e8..a2fa0aa 100644
--- a/argv-array.h
+++ b/argv-array.h
@@ -17,6 +17,7 @@
 void argv_array_pushf(struct argv_array *, const char *fmt, ...);
 LAST_ARG_MUST_BE_NULL
 void argv_array_pushl(struct argv_array *, ...);
+void argv_array_pushv(struct argv_array *, const char **);
 void argv_array_pop(struct argv_array *);
 void argv_array_clear(struct argv_array *);
 
diff --git a/attr.c b/attr.c
index 8f2ac6c..086c08d 100644
--- a/attr.c
+++ b/attr.c
@@ -490,6 +490,8 @@
 	return !git_env_bool("GIT_ATTR_NOSYSTEM", 0);
 }
 
+static GIT_PATH_FUNC(git_path_info_attributes, INFOATTRIBUTES_FILE)
+
 static void bootstrap_attr_stack(void)
 {
 	struct attr_stack *elem;
@@ -531,7 +533,7 @@
 		debug_push(elem);
 	}
 
-	elem = read_attr_from_file(git_path(INFOATTRIBUTES_FILE), 1);
+	elem = read_attr_from_file(git_path_info_attributes(), 1);
 	if (!elem)
 		elem = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*elem));
 	elem->origin = NULL;
diff --git a/bisect.c b/bisect.c
index 03d5cd9..42aa7aa 100644
--- a/bisect.c
+++ b/bisect.c
@@ -19,7 +19,9 @@
 
 static const char *argv_checkout[] = {"checkout", "-q", NULL, "--", NULL};
 static const char *argv_show_branch[] = {"show-branch", NULL, NULL};
-static const char *argv_update_ref[] = {"update-ref", "--no-deref", "BISECT_HEAD", NULL, NULL};
+
+static const char *term_bad;
+static const char *term_good;
 
 /* Remember to update object flag allocation in object.h */
 #define COUNTED		(1u<<16)
@@ -191,7 +193,7 @@
 	b = (struct commit_dist *)b_;
 	if (a->distance != b->distance)
 		return b->distance - a->distance; /* desc sort */
-	return hashcmp(a->commit->object.sha1, b->commit->object.sha1);
+	return oidcmp(&a->commit->object.oid, &b->commit->object.oid);
 }
 
 static struct commit_list *best_bisection_sorted(struct commit_list *list, int nr)
@@ -403,15 +405,21 @@
 static int register_ref(const char *refname, const struct object_id *oid,
 			int flags, void *cb_data)
 {
-	if (!strcmp(refname, "bad")) {
+	struct strbuf good_prefix = STRBUF_INIT;
+	strbuf_addstr(&good_prefix, term_good);
+	strbuf_addstr(&good_prefix, "-");
+
+	if (!strcmp(refname, term_bad)) {
 		current_bad_oid = xmalloc(sizeof(*current_bad_oid));
 		oidcpy(current_bad_oid, oid);
-	} else if (starts_with(refname, "good-")) {
+	} else if (starts_with(refname, good_prefix.buf)) {
 		sha1_array_append(&good_revs, oid->hash);
 	} else if (starts_with(refname, "skip-")) {
 		sha1_array_append(&skipped_revs, oid->hash);
 	}
 
+	strbuf_release(&good_prefix);
+
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -420,10 +428,13 @@
 	return for_each_ref_in("refs/bisect/", register_ref, NULL);
 }
 
+static GIT_PATH_FUNC(git_path_bisect_names, "BISECT_NAMES")
+static GIT_PATH_FUNC(git_path_bisect_expected_rev, "BISECT_EXPECTED_REV")
+
 static void read_bisect_paths(struct argv_array *array)
 {
 	struct strbuf str = STRBUF_INIT;
-	const char *filename = git_path("BISECT_NAMES");
+	const char *filename = git_path_bisect_names();
 	FILE *fp = fopen(filename, "r");
 
 	if (!fp)
@@ -489,7 +500,7 @@
 		struct commit_list *next = list->next;
 		list->next = NULL;
 		if (0 <= sha1_array_lookup(&skipped_revs,
-					   list->item->object.sha1)) {
+					   list->item->object.oid.hash)) {
 			if (skipped_first && !*skipped_first)
 				*skipped_first = 1;
 			/* Move current to tried list */
@@ -564,7 +575,7 @@
 
 	for (i = 0; cur; cur = cur->next, i++) {
 		if (i == index) {
-			if (hashcmp(cur->item->object.sha1, current_bad_oid->hash))
+			if (oidcmp(&cur->item->object.oid, current_bad_oid))
 				return cur;
 			if (previous)
 				return previous;
@@ -634,7 +645,7 @@
 		return;
 
 	printf("There are only 'skip'ped commits left to test.\n"
-	       "The first bad commit could be any of:\n");
+	       "The first %s commit could be any of:\n", term_bad);
 	print_commit_list(tried, "%s\n", "%s\n");
 	if (bad)
 		printf("%s\n", oid_to_hex(bad));
@@ -644,7 +655,7 @@
 
 static int is_expected_rev(const struct object_id *oid)
 {
-	const char *filename = git_path("BISECT_EXPECTED_REV");
+	const char *filename = git_path_bisect_expected_rev();
 	struct stat st;
 	struct strbuf str = STRBUF_INIT;
 	FILE *fp;
@@ -666,34 +677,16 @@
 	return res;
 }
 
-static void mark_expected_rev(char *bisect_rev_hex)
+static int bisect_checkout(const unsigned char *bisect_rev, int no_checkout)
 {
-	int len = strlen(bisect_rev_hex);
-	const char *filename = git_path("BISECT_EXPECTED_REV");
-	int fd = open(filename, O_CREAT | O_TRUNC | O_WRONLY, 0600);
+	char bisect_rev_hex[GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 1];
 
-	if (fd < 0)
-		die_errno("could not create file '%s'", filename);
-
-	bisect_rev_hex[len] = '\n';
-	write_or_die(fd, bisect_rev_hex, len + 1);
-	bisect_rev_hex[len] = '\0';
-
-	if (close(fd) < 0)
-		die("closing file %s: %s", filename, strerror(errno));
-}
-
-static int bisect_checkout(char *bisect_rev_hex, int no_checkout)
-{
-
-	mark_expected_rev(bisect_rev_hex);
+	memcpy(bisect_rev_hex, sha1_to_hex(bisect_rev), GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 1);
+	update_ref(NULL, "BISECT_EXPECTED_REV", bisect_rev, NULL, 0, UPDATE_REFS_DIE_ON_ERR);
 
 	argv_checkout[2] = bisect_rev_hex;
 	if (no_checkout) {
-		argv_update_ref[3] = bisect_rev_hex;
-		if (run_command_v_opt(argv_update_ref, RUN_GIT_CMD))
-			die("update-ref --no-deref HEAD failed on %s",
-			    bisect_rev_hex);
+		update_ref(NULL, "BISECT_HEAD", bisect_rev, NULL, 0, UPDATE_REFS_DIE_ON_ERR);
 	} else {
 		int res;
 		res = run_command_v_opt(argv_checkout, RUN_GIT_CMD);
@@ -732,18 +725,29 @@
 	if (is_expected_rev(current_bad_oid)) {
 		char *bad_hex = oid_to_hex(current_bad_oid);
 		char *good_hex = join_sha1_array_hex(&good_revs, ' ');
-
-		fprintf(stderr, "The merge base %s is bad.\n"
-			"This means the bug has been fixed "
-			"between %s and [%s].\n",
-			bad_hex, bad_hex, good_hex);
-
+		if (!strcmp(term_bad, "bad") && !strcmp(term_good, "good")) {
+			fprintf(stderr, "The merge base %s is bad.\n"
+				"This means the bug has been fixed "
+				"between %s and [%s].\n",
+				bad_hex, bad_hex, good_hex);
+		} else if (!strcmp(term_bad, "new") && !strcmp(term_good, "old")) {
+			fprintf(stderr, "The merge base %s is new.\n"
+				"The property has changed "
+				"between %s and [%s].\n",
+				bad_hex, bad_hex, good_hex);
+		} else {
+			fprintf(stderr, "The merge base %s is %s.\n"
+				"This means the first '%s' commit is "
+				"between %s and [%s].\n",
+				bad_hex, term_bad, term_good, bad_hex, good_hex);
+		}
 		exit(3);
 	}
 
-	fprintf(stderr, "Some good revs are not ancestor of the bad rev.\n"
+	fprintf(stderr, "Some %s revs are not ancestor of the %s rev.\n"
 		"git bisect cannot work properly in this case.\n"
-		"Maybe you mistake good and bad revs?\n");
+		"Maybe you mistook %s and %s revs?\n",
+		term_good, term_bad, term_good, term_bad);
 	exit(1);
 }
 
@@ -755,19 +759,19 @@
 
 	warning("the merge base between %s and [%s] "
 		"must be skipped.\n"
-		"So we cannot be sure the first bad commit is "
+		"So we cannot be sure the first %s commit is "
 		"between %s and %s.\n"
 		"We continue anyway.",
-		bad_hex, good_hex, mb_hex, bad_hex);
+		bad_hex, good_hex, term_bad, mb_hex, bad_hex);
 	free(good_hex);
 }
 
 /*
- * "check_merge_bases" checks that merge bases are not "bad".
+ * "check_merge_bases" checks that merge bases are not "bad" (or "new").
  *
- * - If one is "bad", it means the user assumed something wrong
+ * - If one is "bad" (or "new"), it means the user assumed something wrong
  * and we must exit with a non 0 error code.
- * - If one is "good", that's good, we have nothing to do.
+ * - If one is "good" (or "old"), that's good, we have nothing to do.
  * - If one is "skipped", we can't know but we should warn.
  * - If we don't know, we should check it out and ask the user to test.
  */
@@ -780,7 +784,7 @@
 	result = get_merge_bases_many(rev[0], rev_nr - 1, rev + 1);
 
 	for (; result; result = result->next) {
-		const unsigned char *mb = result->item->object.sha1;
+		const unsigned char *mb = result->item->object.oid.hash;
 		if (!hashcmp(mb, current_bad_oid->hash)) {
 			handle_bad_merge_base();
 		} else if (0 <= sha1_array_lookup(&good_revs, mb)) {
@@ -789,7 +793,7 @@
 			handle_skipped_merge_base(mb);
 		} else {
 			printf("Bisecting: a merge base must be tested\n");
-			exit(bisect_checkout(sha1_to_hex(mb), no_checkout));
+			exit(bisect_checkout(mb, no_checkout));
 		}
 	}
 
@@ -839,7 +843,7 @@
 	int fd;
 
 	if (!current_bad_oid)
-		die("a bad revision is needed");
+		die("a %s revision is needed", term_bad);
 
 	/* Check if file BISECT_ANCESTORS_OK exists. */
 	if (!stat(filename, &st) && S_ISREG(st.st_mode))
@@ -890,6 +894,36 @@
 }
 
 /*
+ * The terms used for this bisect session are stored in BISECT_TERMS.
+ * We read them and store them to adapt the messages accordingly.
+ * Default is bad/good.
+ */
+void read_bisect_terms(const char **read_bad, const char **read_good)
+{
+	struct strbuf str = STRBUF_INIT;
+	const char *filename = git_path("BISECT_TERMS");
+	FILE *fp = fopen(filename, "r");
+
+	if (!fp) {
+		if (errno == ENOENT) {
+			*read_bad = "bad";
+			*read_good = "good";
+			return;
+		} else {
+			die("could not read file '%s': %s", filename,
+				strerror(errno));
+		}
+	} else {
+		strbuf_getline(&str, fp, '\n');
+		*read_bad = strbuf_detach(&str, NULL);
+		strbuf_getline(&str, fp, '\n');
+		*read_good = strbuf_detach(&str, NULL);
+	}
+	strbuf_release(&str);
+	fclose(fp);
+}
+
+/*
  * We use the convention that exiting with an exit code 10 means that
  * the bisection process finished successfully.
  * In this case the calling shell script should exit 0.
@@ -903,8 +937,8 @@
 	struct commit_list *tried;
 	int reaches = 0, all = 0, nr, steps;
 	const unsigned char *bisect_rev;
-	char bisect_rev_hex[GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 1];
 
+	read_bisect_terms(&term_bad, &term_good);
 	if (read_bisect_refs())
 		die("reading bisect refs failed");
 
@@ -926,8 +960,10 @@
 		 */
 		exit_if_skipped_commits(tried, NULL);
 
-		printf("%s was both good and bad\n",
-		       oid_to_hex(current_bad_oid));
+		printf("%s was both %s and %s\n",
+		       oid_to_hex(current_bad_oid),
+		       term_good,
+		       term_bad);
 		exit(1);
 	}
 
@@ -937,12 +973,12 @@
 		exit(4);
 	}
 
-	bisect_rev = revs.commits->item->object.sha1;
-	memcpy(bisect_rev_hex, sha1_to_hex(bisect_rev), GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 1);
+	bisect_rev = revs.commits->item->object.oid.hash;
 
 	if (!hashcmp(bisect_rev, current_bad_oid->hash)) {
 		exit_if_skipped_commits(tried, current_bad_oid);
-		printf("%s is the first bad commit\n", bisect_rev_hex);
+		printf("%s is the first %s commit\n", sha1_to_hex(bisect_rev),
+			term_bad);
 		show_diff_tree(prefix, revs.commits->item);
 		/* This means the bisection process succeeded. */
 		exit(10);
@@ -954,7 +990,7 @@
 	       "(roughly %d step%s)\n", nr, (nr == 1 ? "" : "s"),
 	       steps, (steps == 1 ? "" : "s"));
 
-	return bisect_checkout(bisect_rev_hex, no_checkout);
+	return bisect_checkout(bisect_rev, no_checkout);
 }
 
 static inline int log2i(int n)
diff --git a/bisect.h b/bisect.h
index 2a6c831..acd12ef 100644
--- a/bisect.h
+++ b/bisect.h
@@ -26,4 +26,6 @@
 
 extern int estimate_bisect_steps(int all);
 
+extern void read_bisect_terms(const char **bad, const char **good);
+
 #endif
diff --git a/block-sha1/sha1.h b/block-sha1/sha1.h
index b864df6..4df6747 100644
--- a/block-sha1/sha1.h
+++ b/block-sha1/sha1.h
@@ -16,7 +16,7 @@
 void blk_SHA1_Update(blk_SHA_CTX *ctx, const void *dataIn, unsigned long len);
 void blk_SHA1_Final(unsigned char hashout[20], blk_SHA_CTX *ctx);
 
-#define git_SHA_CTX	blk_SHA_CTX
-#define git_SHA1_Init	blk_SHA1_Init
-#define git_SHA1_Update	blk_SHA1_Update
-#define git_SHA1_Final	blk_SHA1_Final
+#define platform_SHA_CTX	blk_SHA_CTX
+#define platform_SHA1_Init	blk_SHA1_Init
+#define platform_SHA1_Update	blk_SHA1_Update
+#define platform_SHA1_Final	blk_SHA1_Final
diff --git a/branch.c b/branch.c
index b002435..7ff3f20 100644
--- a/branch.c
+++ b/branch.c
@@ -4,6 +4,7 @@
 #include "refs.h"
 #include "remote.h"
 #include "commit.h"
+#include "worktree.h"
 
 struct tracking {
 	struct refspec spec;
@@ -266,7 +267,7 @@
 
 	if ((commit = lookup_commit_reference(sha1)) == NULL)
 		die(_("Not a valid branch point: '%s'."), start_name);
-	hashcpy(sha1, commit->object.sha1);
+	hashcpy(sha1, commit->object.oid.hash);
 
 	if (forcing)
 		snprintf(msg, sizeof msg, "branch: Reset to %s",
@@ -302,11 +303,22 @@
 
 void remove_branch_state(void)
 {
-	unlink(git_path("CHERRY_PICK_HEAD"));
-	unlink(git_path("REVERT_HEAD"));
-	unlink(git_path("MERGE_HEAD"));
-	unlink(git_path("MERGE_RR"));
-	unlink(git_path("MERGE_MSG"));
-	unlink(git_path("MERGE_MODE"));
-	unlink(git_path("SQUASH_MSG"));
+	unlink(git_path_cherry_pick_head());
+	unlink(git_path_revert_head());
+	unlink(git_path_merge_head());
+	unlink(git_path_merge_rr());
+	unlink(git_path_merge_msg());
+	unlink(git_path_merge_mode());
+	unlink(git_path_squash_msg());
+}
+
+void die_if_checked_out(const char *branch)
+{
+	char *existing;
+
+	existing = find_shared_symref("HEAD", branch);
+	if (existing) {
+		skip_prefix(branch, "refs/heads/", &branch);
+		die(_("'%s' is already checked out at '%s'"), branch, existing);
+	}
 }
diff --git a/branch.h b/branch.h
index 64173ab..58aa45f 100644
--- a/branch.h
+++ b/branch.h
@@ -52,4 +52,11 @@
  */
 extern int read_branch_desc(struct strbuf *, const char *branch_name);
 
+/*
+ * Check if a branch is checked out in the main worktree or any linked
+ * worktree and die (with a message describing its checkout location) if
+ * it is.
+ */
+extern void die_if_checked_out(const char *branch);
+
 #endif
diff --git a/builtin.h b/builtin.h
index 9e04f97..6b95006 100644
--- a/builtin.h
+++ b/builtin.h
@@ -30,6 +30,7 @@
 extern int is_builtin(const char *s);
 
 extern int cmd_add(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+extern int cmd_am(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_annotate(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_apply(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_archive(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
@@ -98,6 +99,7 @@
 extern int cmd_patch_id(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_prune(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_prune_packed(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+extern int cmd_pull(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_push(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_read_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_receive_pack(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
@@ -118,6 +120,7 @@
 extern int cmd_show_branch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_status(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_stripspace(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
+extern int cmd_submodule__helper(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_symbolic_ref(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_tag(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
 extern int cmd_tar_tree(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix);
diff --git a/builtin/add.c b/builtin/add.c
index b2a5c57..145f06e 100644
--- a/builtin/add.c
+++ b/builtin/add.c
@@ -336,14 +336,8 @@
 	if (!show_only && ignore_missing)
 		die(_("Option --ignore-missing can only be used together with --dry-run"));
 
-	if ((0 < addremove_explicit || take_worktree_changes) && !argc) {
-		static const char *whole[2] = { ":/", NULL };
-		argc = 1;
-		argv = whole;
-	}
-
 	add_new_files = !take_worktree_changes && !refresh_only;
-	require_pathspec = !take_worktree_changes;
+	require_pathspec = !(take_worktree_changes || (0 < addremove_explicit));
 
 	hold_locked_index(&lock_file, 1);
 
diff --git a/builtin/am.c b/builtin/am.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..95decc6
--- /dev/null
+++ b/builtin/am.c
@@ -0,0 +1,2444 @@
+/*
+ * Builtin "git am"
+ *
+ * Based on git-am.sh by Junio C Hamano.
+ */
+#include "cache.h"
+#include "builtin.h"
+#include "exec_cmd.h"
+#include "parse-options.h"
+#include "dir.h"
+#include "run-command.h"
+#include "quote.h"
+#include "tempfile.h"
+#include "lockfile.h"
+#include "cache-tree.h"
+#include "refs.h"
+#include "commit.h"
+#include "diff.h"
+#include "diffcore.h"
+#include "unpack-trees.h"
+#include "branch.h"
+#include "sequencer.h"
+#include "revision.h"
+#include "merge-recursive.h"
+#include "revision.h"
+#include "log-tree.h"
+#include "notes-utils.h"
+#include "rerere.h"
+#include "prompt.h"
+#include "mailinfo.h"
+
+/**
+ * Returns 1 if the file is empty or does not exist, 0 otherwise.
+ */
+static int is_empty_file(const char *filename)
+{
+	struct stat st;
+
+	if (stat(filename, &st) < 0) {
+		if (errno == ENOENT)
+			return 1;
+		die_errno(_("could not stat %s"), filename);
+	}
+
+	return !st.st_size;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Like strbuf_getline(), but treats both '\n' and "\r\n" as line terminators.
+ */
+static int strbuf_getline_crlf(struct strbuf *sb, FILE *fp)
+{
+	if (strbuf_getwholeline(sb, fp, '\n'))
+		return EOF;
+	if (sb->buf[sb->len - 1] == '\n') {
+		strbuf_setlen(sb, sb->len - 1);
+		if (sb->len > 0 && sb->buf[sb->len - 1] == '\r')
+			strbuf_setlen(sb, sb->len - 1);
+	}
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Returns the length of the first line of msg.
+ */
+static int linelen(const char *msg)
+{
+	return strchrnul(msg, '\n') - msg;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Returns true if `str` consists of only whitespace, false otherwise.
+ */
+static int str_isspace(const char *str)
+{
+	for (; *str; str++)
+		if (!isspace(*str))
+			return 0;
+
+	return 1;
+}
+
+enum patch_format {
+	PATCH_FORMAT_UNKNOWN = 0,
+	PATCH_FORMAT_MBOX,
+	PATCH_FORMAT_STGIT,
+	PATCH_FORMAT_STGIT_SERIES,
+	PATCH_FORMAT_HG
+};
+
+enum keep_type {
+	KEEP_FALSE = 0,
+	KEEP_TRUE,      /* pass -k flag to git-mailinfo */
+	KEEP_NON_PATCH  /* pass -b flag to git-mailinfo */
+};
+
+enum scissors_type {
+	SCISSORS_UNSET = -1,
+	SCISSORS_FALSE = 0,  /* pass --no-scissors to git-mailinfo */
+	SCISSORS_TRUE        /* pass --scissors to git-mailinfo */
+};
+
+enum signoff_type {
+	SIGNOFF_FALSE = 0,
+	SIGNOFF_TRUE = 1,
+	SIGNOFF_EXPLICIT /* --signoff was set on the command-line */
+};
+
+struct am_state {
+	/* state directory path */
+	char *dir;
+
+	/* current and last patch numbers, 1-indexed */
+	int cur;
+	int last;
+
+	/* commit metadata and message */
+	char *author_name;
+	char *author_email;
+	char *author_date;
+	char *msg;
+	size_t msg_len;
+
+	/* when --rebasing, records the original commit the patch came from */
+	unsigned char orig_commit[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ];
+
+	/* number of digits in patch filename */
+	int prec;
+
+	/* various operating modes and command line options */
+	int interactive;
+	int threeway;
+	int quiet;
+	int signoff; /* enum signoff_type */
+	int utf8;
+	int keep; /* enum keep_type */
+	int message_id;
+	int scissors; /* enum scissors_type */
+	struct argv_array git_apply_opts;
+	const char *resolvemsg;
+	int committer_date_is_author_date;
+	int ignore_date;
+	int allow_rerere_autoupdate;
+	const char *sign_commit;
+	int rebasing;
+};
+
+/**
+ * Initializes am_state with the default values. The state directory is set to
+ * dir.
+ */
+static void am_state_init(struct am_state *state, const char *dir)
+{
+	int gpgsign;
+
+	memset(state, 0, sizeof(*state));
+
+	assert(dir);
+	state->dir = xstrdup(dir);
+
+	state->prec = 4;
+
+	git_config_get_bool("am.threeway", &state->threeway);
+
+	state->utf8 = 1;
+
+	git_config_get_bool("am.messageid", &state->message_id);
+
+	state->scissors = SCISSORS_UNSET;
+
+	argv_array_init(&state->git_apply_opts);
+
+	if (!git_config_get_bool("commit.gpgsign", &gpgsign))
+		state->sign_commit = gpgsign ? "" : NULL;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Releases memory allocated by an am_state.
+ */
+static void am_state_release(struct am_state *state)
+{
+	free(state->dir);
+	free(state->author_name);
+	free(state->author_email);
+	free(state->author_date);
+	free(state->msg);
+	argv_array_clear(&state->git_apply_opts);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Returns path relative to the am_state directory.
+ */
+static inline const char *am_path(const struct am_state *state, const char *path)
+{
+	return mkpath("%s/%s", state->dir, path);
+}
+
+/**
+ * For convenience to call write_file()
+ */
+static int write_state_text(const struct am_state *state,
+			    const char *name, const char *string)
+{
+	return write_file(am_path(state, name), "%s", string);
+}
+
+static int write_state_count(const struct am_state *state,
+			     const char *name, int value)
+{
+	return write_file(am_path(state, name), "%d", value);
+}
+
+static int write_state_bool(const struct am_state *state,
+			    const char *name, int value)
+{
+	return write_state_text(state, name, value ? "t" : "f");
+}
+
+/**
+ * If state->quiet is false, calls fprintf(fp, fmt, ...), and appends a newline
+ * at the end.
+ */
+static void say(const struct am_state *state, FILE *fp, const char *fmt, ...)
+{
+	va_list ap;
+
+	va_start(ap, fmt);
+	if (!state->quiet) {
+		vfprintf(fp, fmt, ap);
+		putc('\n', fp);
+	}
+	va_end(ap);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Returns 1 if there is an am session in progress, 0 otherwise.
+ */
+static int am_in_progress(const struct am_state *state)
+{
+	struct stat st;
+
+	if (lstat(state->dir, &st) < 0 || !S_ISDIR(st.st_mode))
+		return 0;
+	if (lstat(am_path(state, "last"), &st) || !S_ISREG(st.st_mode))
+		return 0;
+	if (lstat(am_path(state, "next"), &st) || !S_ISREG(st.st_mode))
+		return 0;
+	return 1;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Reads the contents of `file` in the `state` directory into `sb`. Returns the
+ * number of bytes read on success, -1 if the file does not exist. If `trim` is
+ * set, trailing whitespace will be removed.
+ */
+static int read_state_file(struct strbuf *sb, const struct am_state *state,
+			const char *file, int trim)
+{
+	strbuf_reset(sb);
+
+	if (strbuf_read_file(sb, am_path(state, file), 0) >= 0) {
+		if (trim)
+			strbuf_trim(sb);
+
+		return sb->len;
+	}
+
+	if (errno == ENOENT)
+		return -1;
+
+	die_errno(_("could not read '%s'"), am_path(state, file));
+}
+
+/**
+ * Reads a KEY=VALUE shell variable assignment from `fp`, returning the VALUE
+ * as a newly-allocated string. VALUE must be a quoted string, and the KEY must
+ * match `key`. Returns NULL on failure.
+ *
+ * This is used by read_author_script() to read the GIT_AUTHOR_* variables from
+ * the author-script.
+ */
+static char *read_shell_var(FILE *fp, const char *key)
+{
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+	const char *str;
+
+	if (strbuf_getline(&sb, fp, '\n'))
+		goto fail;
+
+	if (!skip_prefix(sb.buf, key, &str))
+		goto fail;
+
+	if (!skip_prefix(str, "=", &str))
+		goto fail;
+
+	strbuf_remove(&sb, 0, str - sb.buf);
+
+	str = sq_dequote(sb.buf);
+	if (!str)
+		goto fail;
+
+	return strbuf_detach(&sb, NULL);
+
+fail:
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
+	return NULL;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Reads and parses the state directory's "author-script" file, and sets
+ * state->author_name, state->author_email and state->author_date accordingly.
+ * Returns 0 on success, -1 if the file could not be parsed.
+ *
+ * The author script is of the format:
+ *
+ *	GIT_AUTHOR_NAME='$author_name'
+ *	GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL='$author_email'
+ *	GIT_AUTHOR_DATE='$author_date'
+ *
+ * where $author_name, $author_email and $author_date are quoted. We are strict
+ * with our parsing, as the file was meant to be eval'd in the old git-am.sh
+ * script, and thus if the file differs from what this function expects, it is
+ * better to bail out than to do something that the user does not expect.
+ */
+static int read_author_script(struct am_state *state)
+{
+	const char *filename = am_path(state, "author-script");
+	FILE *fp;
+
+	assert(!state->author_name);
+	assert(!state->author_email);
+	assert(!state->author_date);
+
+	fp = fopen(filename, "r");
+	if (!fp) {
+		if (errno == ENOENT)
+			return 0;
+		die_errno(_("could not open '%s' for reading"), filename);
+	}
+
+	state->author_name = read_shell_var(fp, "GIT_AUTHOR_NAME");
+	if (!state->author_name) {
+		fclose(fp);
+		return -1;
+	}
+
+	state->author_email = read_shell_var(fp, "GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL");
+	if (!state->author_email) {
+		fclose(fp);
+		return -1;
+	}
+
+	state->author_date = read_shell_var(fp, "GIT_AUTHOR_DATE");
+	if (!state->author_date) {
+		fclose(fp);
+		return -1;
+	}
+
+	if (fgetc(fp) != EOF) {
+		fclose(fp);
+		return -1;
+	}
+
+	fclose(fp);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Saves state->author_name, state->author_email and state->author_date in the
+ * state directory's "author-script" file.
+ */
+static void write_author_script(const struct am_state *state)
+{
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	strbuf_addstr(&sb, "GIT_AUTHOR_NAME=");
+	sq_quote_buf(&sb, state->author_name);
+	strbuf_addch(&sb, '\n');
+
+	strbuf_addstr(&sb, "GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL=");
+	sq_quote_buf(&sb, state->author_email);
+	strbuf_addch(&sb, '\n');
+
+	strbuf_addstr(&sb, "GIT_AUTHOR_DATE=");
+	sq_quote_buf(&sb, state->author_date);
+	strbuf_addch(&sb, '\n');
+
+	write_state_text(state, "author-script", sb.buf);
+
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Reads the commit message from the state directory's "final-commit" file,
+ * setting state->msg to its contents and state->msg_len to the length of its
+ * contents in bytes.
+ *
+ * Returns 0 on success, -1 if the file does not exist.
+ */
+static int read_commit_msg(struct am_state *state)
+{
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	assert(!state->msg);
+
+	if (read_state_file(&sb, state, "final-commit", 0) < 0) {
+		strbuf_release(&sb);
+		return -1;
+	}
+
+	state->msg = strbuf_detach(&sb, &state->msg_len);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Saves state->msg in the state directory's "final-commit" file.
+ */
+static void write_commit_msg(const struct am_state *state)
+{
+	int fd;
+	const char *filename = am_path(state, "final-commit");
+
+	fd = xopen(filename, O_WRONLY | O_CREAT, 0666);
+	if (write_in_full(fd, state->msg, state->msg_len) < 0)
+		die_errno(_("could not write to %s"), filename);
+	close(fd);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Loads state from disk.
+ */
+static void am_load(struct am_state *state)
+{
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	if (read_state_file(&sb, state, "next", 1) < 0)
+		die("BUG: state file 'next' does not exist");
+	state->cur = strtol(sb.buf, NULL, 10);
+
+	if (read_state_file(&sb, state, "last", 1) < 0)
+		die("BUG: state file 'last' does not exist");
+	state->last = strtol(sb.buf, NULL, 10);
+
+	if (read_author_script(state) < 0)
+		die(_("could not parse author script"));
+
+	read_commit_msg(state);
+
+	if (read_state_file(&sb, state, "original-commit", 1) < 0)
+		hashclr(state->orig_commit);
+	else if (get_sha1_hex(sb.buf, state->orig_commit) < 0)
+		die(_("could not parse %s"), am_path(state, "original-commit"));
+
+	read_state_file(&sb, state, "threeway", 1);
+	state->threeway = !strcmp(sb.buf, "t");
+
+	read_state_file(&sb, state, "quiet", 1);
+	state->quiet = !strcmp(sb.buf, "t");
+
+	read_state_file(&sb, state, "sign", 1);
+	state->signoff = !strcmp(sb.buf, "t");
+
+	read_state_file(&sb, state, "utf8", 1);
+	state->utf8 = !strcmp(sb.buf, "t");
+
+	read_state_file(&sb, state, "keep", 1);
+	if (!strcmp(sb.buf, "t"))
+		state->keep = KEEP_TRUE;
+	else if (!strcmp(sb.buf, "b"))
+		state->keep = KEEP_NON_PATCH;
+	else
+		state->keep = KEEP_FALSE;
+
+	read_state_file(&sb, state, "messageid", 1);
+	state->message_id = !strcmp(sb.buf, "t");
+
+	read_state_file(&sb, state, "scissors", 1);
+	if (!strcmp(sb.buf, "t"))
+		state->scissors = SCISSORS_TRUE;
+	else if (!strcmp(sb.buf, "f"))
+		state->scissors = SCISSORS_FALSE;
+	else
+		state->scissors = SCISSORS_UNSET;
+
+	read_state_file(&sb, state, "apply-opt", 1);
+	argv_array_clear(&state->git_apply_opts);
+	if (sq_dequote_to_argv_array(sb.buf, &state->git_apply_opts) < 0)
+		die(_("could not parse %s"), am_path(state, "apply-opt"));
+
+	state->rebasing = !!file_exists(am_path(state, "rebasing"));
+
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Removes the am_state directory, forcefully terminating the current am
+ * session.
+ */
+static void am_destroy(const struct am_state *state)
+{
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	strbuf_addstr(&sb, state->dir);
+	remove_dir_recursively(&sb, 0);
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Runs applypatch-msg hook. Returns its exit code.
+ */
+static int run_applypatch_msg_hook(struct am_state *state)
+{
+	int ret;
+
+	assert(state->msg);
+	ret = run_hook_le(NULL, "applypatch-msg", am_path(state, "final-commit"), NULL);
+
+	if (!ret) {
+		free(state->msg);
+		state->msg = NULL;
+		if (read_commit_msg(state) < 0)
+			die(_("'%s' was deleted by the applypatch-msg hook"),
+				am_path(state, "final-commit"));
+	}
+
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Runs post-rewrite hook. Returns it exit code.
+ */
+static int run_post_rewrite_hook(const struct am_state *state)
+{
+	struct child_process cp = CHILD_PROCESS_INIT;
+	const char *hook = find_hook("post-rewrite");
+	int ret;
+
+	if (!hook)
+		return 0;
+
+	argv_array_push(&cp.args, hook);
+	argv_array_push(&cp.args, "rebase");
+
+	cp.in = xopen(am_path(state, "rewritten"), O_RDONLY);
+	cp.stdout_to_stderr = 1;
+
+	ret = run_command(&cp);
+
+	close(cp.in);
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Reads the state directory's "rewritten" file, and copies notes from the old
+ * commits listed in the file to their rewritten commits.
+ *
+ * Returns 0 on success, -1 on failure.
+ */
+static int copy_notes_for_rebase(const struct am_state *state)
+{
+	struct notes_rewrite_cfg *c;
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+	const char *invalid_line = _("Malformed input line: '%s'.");
+	const char *msg = "Notes added by 'git rebase'";
+	FILE *fp;
+	int ret = 0;
+
+	assert(state->rebasing);
+
+	c = init_copy_notes_for_rewrite("rebase");
+	if (!c)
+		return 0;
+
+	fp = xfopen(am_path(state, "rewritten"), "r");
+
+	while (!strbuf_getline(&sb, fp, '\n')) {
+		unsigned char from_obj[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ], to_obj[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ];
+
+		if (sb.len != GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ * 2 + 1) {
+			ret = error(invalid_line, sb.buf);
+			goto finish;
+		}
+
+		if (get_sha1_hex(sb.buf, from_obj)) {
+			ret = error(invalid_line, sb.buf);
+			goto finish;
+		}
+
+		if (sb.buf[GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ] != ' ') {
+			ret = error(invalid_line, sb.buf);
+			goto finish;
+		}
+
+		if (get_sha1_hex(sb.buf + GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 1, to_obj)) {
+			ret = error(invalid_line, sb.buf);
+			goto finish;
+		}
+
+		if (copy_note_for_rewrite(c, from_obj, to_obj))
+			ret = error(_("Failed to copy notes from '%s' to '%s'"),
+					sha1_to_hex(from_obj), sha1_to_hex(to_obj));
+	}
+
+finish:
+	finish_copy_notes_for_rewrite(c, msg);
+	fclose(fp);
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Determines if the file looks like a piece of RFC2822 mail by grabbing all
+ * non-indented lines and checking if they look like they begin with valid
+ * header field names.
+ *
+ * Returns 1 if the file looks like a piece of mail, 0 otherwise.
+ */
+static int is_mail(FILE *fp)
+{
+	const char *header_regex = "^[!-9;-~]+:";
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+	regex_t regex;
+	int ret = 1;
+
+	if (fseek(fp, 0L, SEEK_SET))
+		die_errno(_("fseek failed"));
+
+	if (regcomp(&regex, header_regex, REG_NOSUB | REG_EXTENDED))
+		die("invalid pattern: %s", header_regex);
+
+	while (!strbuf_getline_crlf(&sb, fp)) {
+		if (!sb.len)
+			break; /* End of header */
+
+		/* Ignore indented folded lines */
+		if (*sb.buf == '\t' || *sb.buf == ' ')
+			continue;
+
+		/* It's a header if it matches header_regex */
+		if (regexec(&regex, sb.buf, 0, NULL, 0)) {
+			ret = 0;
+			goto done;
+		}
+	}
+
+done:
+	regfree(&regex);
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Attempts to detect the patch_format of the patches contained in `paths`,
+ * returning the PATCH_FORMAT_* enum value. Returns PATCH_FORMAT_UNKNOWN if
+ * detection fails.
+ */
+static int detect_patch_format(const char **paths)
+{
+	enum patch_format ret = PATCH_FORMAT_UNKNOWN;
+	struct strbuf l1 = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct strbuf l2 = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct strbuf l3 = STRBUF_INIT;
+	FILE *fp;
+
+	/*
+	 * We default to mbox format if input is from stdin and for directories
+	 */
+	if (!*paths || !strcmp(*paths, "-") || is_directory(*paths))
+		return PATCH_FORMAT_MBOX;
+
+	/*
+	 * Otherwise, check the first few lines of the first patch, starting
+	 * from the first non-blank line, to try to detect its format.
+	 */
+
+	fp = xfopen(*paths, "r");
+
+	while (!strbuf_getline_crlf(&l1, fp)) {
+		if (l1.len)
+			break;
+	}
+
+	if (starts_with(l1.buf, "From ") || starts_with(l1.buf, "From: ")) {
+		ret = PATCH_FORMAT_MBOX;
+		goto done;
+	}
+
+	if (starts_with(l1.buf, "# This series applies on GIT commit")) {
+		ret = PATCH_FORMAT_STGIT_SERIES;
+		goto done;
+	}
+
+	if (!strcmp(l1.buf, "# HG changeset patch")) {
+		ret = PATCH_FORMAT_HG;
+		goto done;
+	}
+
+	strbuf_reset(&l2);
+	strbuf_getline_crlf(&l2, fp);
+	strbuf_reset(&l3);
+	strbuf_getline_crlf(&l3, fp);
+
+	/*
+	 * If the second line is empty and the third is a From, Author or Date
+	 * entry, this is likely an StGit patch.
+	 */
+	if (l1.len && !l2.len &&
+		(starts_with(l3.buf, "From:") ||
+		 starts_with(l3.buf, "Author:") ||
+		 starts_with(l3.buf, "Date:"))) {
+		ret = PATCH_FORMAT_STGIT;
+		goto done;
+	}
+
+	if (l1.len && is_mail(fp)) {
+		ret = PATCH_FORMAT_MBOX;
+		goto done;
+	}
+
+done:
+	fclose(fp);
+	strbuf_release(&l1);
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Splits out individual email patches from `paths`, where each path is either
+ * a mbox file or a Maildir. Returns 0 on success, -1 on failure.
+ */
+static int split_mail_mbox(struct am_state *state, const char **paths, int keep_cr)
+{
+	struct child_process cp = CHILD_PROCESS_INIT;
+	struct strbuf last = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	cp.git_cmd = 1;
+	argv_array_push(&cp.args, "mailsplit");
+	argv_array_pushf(&cp.args, "-d%d", state->prec);
+	argv_array_pushf(&cp.args, "-o%s", state->dir);
+	argv_array_push(&cp.args, "-b");
+	if (keep_cr)
+		argv_array_push(&cp.args, "--keep-cr");
+	argv_array_push(&cp.args, "--");
+	argv_array_pushv(&cp.args, paths);
+
+	if (capture_command(&cp, &last, 8))
+		return -1;
+
+	state->cur = 1;
+	state->last = strtol(last.buf, NULL, 10);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Callback signature for split_mail_conv(). The foreign patch should be
+ * read from `in`, and the converted patch (in RFC2822 mail format) should be
+ * written to `out`. Return 0 on success, or -1 on failure.
+ */
+typedef int (*mail_conv_fn)(FILE *out, FILE *in, int keep_cr);
+
+/**
+ * Calls `fn` for each file in `paths` to convert the foreign patch to the
+ * RFC2822 mail format suitable for parsing with git-mailinfo.
+ *
+ * Returns 0 on success, -1 on failure.
+ */
+static int split_mail_conv(mail_conv_fn fn, struct am_state *state,
+			const char **paths, int keep_cr)
+{
+	static const char *stdin_only[] = {"-", NULL};
+	int i;
+
+	if (!*paths)
+		paths = stdin_only;
+
+	for (i = 0; *paths; paths++, i++) {
+		FILE *in, *out;
+		const char *mail;
+		int ret;
+
+		if (!strcmp(*paths, "-"))
+			in = stdin;
+		else
+			in = fopen(*paths, "r");
+
+		if (!in)
+			return error(_("could not open '%s' for reading: %s"),
+					*paths, strerror(errno));
+
+		mail = mkpath("%s/%0*d", state->dir, state->prec, i + 1);
+
+		out = fopen(mail, "w");
+		if (!out)
+			return error(_("could not open '%s' for writing: %s"),
+					mail, strerror(errno));
+
+		ret = fn(out, in, keep_cr);
+
+		fclose(out);
+		fclose(in);
+
+		if (ret)
+			return error(_("could not parse patch '%s'"), *paths);
+	}
+
+	state->cur = 1;
+	state->last = i;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * A split_mail_conv() callback that converts an StGit patch to an RFC2822
+ * message suitable for parsing with git-mailinfo.
+ */
+static int stgit_patch_to_mail(FILE *out, FILE *in, int keep_cr)
+{
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+	int subject_printed = 0;
+
+	while (!strbuf_getline(&sb, in, '\n')) {
+		const char *str;
+
+		if (str_isspace(sb.buf))
+			continue;
+		else if (skip_prefix(sb.buf, "Author:", &str))
+			fprintf(out, "From:%s\n", str);
+		else if (starts_with(sb.buf, "From") || starts_with(sb.buf, "Date"))
+			fprintf(out, "%s\n", sb.buf);
+		else if (!subject_printed) {
+			fprintf(out, "Subject: %s\n", sb.buf);
+			subject_printed = 1;
+		} else {
+			fprintf(out, "\n%s\n", sb.buf);
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+
+	strbuf_reset(&sb);
+	while (strbuf_fread(&sb, 8192, in) > 0) {
+		fwrite(sb.buf, 1, sb.len, out);
+		strbuf_reset(&sb);
+	}
+
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * This function only supports a single StGit series file in `paths`.
+ *
+ * Given an StGit series file, converts the StGit patches in the series into
+ * RFC2822 messages suitable for parsing with git-mailinfo, and queues them in
+ * the state directory.
+ *
+ * Returns 0 on success, -1 on failure.
+ */
+static int split_mail_stgit_series(struct am_state *state, const char **paths,
+					int keep_cr)
+{
+	const char *series_dir;
+	char *series_dir_buf;
+	FILE *fp;
+	struct argv_array patches = ARGV_ARRAY_INIT;
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+	int ret;
+
+	if (!paths[0] || paths[1])
+		return error(_("Only one StGIT patch series can be applied at once"));
+
+	series_dir_buf = xstrdup(*paths);
+	series_dir = dirname(series_dir_buf);
+
+	fp = fopen(*paths, "r");
+	if (!fp)
+		return error(_("could not open '%s' for reading: %s"), *paths,
+				strerror(errno));
+
+	while (!strbuf_getline(&sb, fp, '\n')) {
+		if (*sb.buf == '#')
+			continue; /* skip comment lines */
+
+		argv_array_push(&patches, mkpath("%s/%s", series_dir, sb.buf));
+	}
+
+	fclose(fp);
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
+	free(series_dir_buf);
+
+	ret = split_mail_conv(stgit_patch_to_mail, state, patches.argv, keep_cr);
+
+	argv_array_clear(&patches);
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/**
+ * A split_patches_conv() callback that converts a mercurial patch to a RFC2822
+ * message suitable for parsing with git-mailinfo.
+ */
+static int hg_patch_to_mail(FILE *out, FILE *in, int keep_cr)
+{
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	while (!strbuf_getline(&sb, in, '\n')) {
+		const char *str;
+
+		if (skip_prefix(sb.buf, "# User ", &str))
+			fprintf(out, "From: %s\n", str);
+		else if (skip_prefix(sb.buf, "# Date ", &str)) {
+			unsigned long timestamp;
+			long tz, tz2;
+			char *end;
+
+			errno = 0;
+			timestamp = strtoul(str, &end, 10);
+			if (errno)
+				return error(_("invalid timestamp"));
+
+			if (!skip_prefix(end, " ", &str))
+				return error(_("invalid Date line"));
+
+			errno = 0;
+			tz = strtol(str, &end, 10);
+			if (errno)
+				return error(_("invalid timezone offset"));
+
+			if (*end)
+				return error(_("invalid Date line"));
+
+			/*
+			 * mercurial's timezone is in seconds west of UTC,
+			 * however git's timezone is in hours + minutes east of
+			 * UTC. Convert it.
+			 */
+			tz2 = labs(tz) / 3600 * 100 + labs(tz) % 3600 / 60;
+			if (tz > 0)
+				tz2 = -tz2;
+
+			fprintf(out, "Date: %s\n", show_date(timestamp, tz2, DATE_MODE(RFC2822)));
+		} else if (starts_with(sb.buf, "# ")) {
+			continue;
+		} else {
+			fprintf(out, "\n%s\n", sb.buf);
+			break;
+		}
+	}
+
+	strbuf_reset(&sb);
+	while (strbuf_fread(&sb, 8192, in) > 0) {
+		fwrite(sb.buf, 1, sb.len, out);
+		strbuf_reset(&sb);
+	}
+
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Splits a list of files/directories into individual email patches. Each path
+ * in `paths` must be a file/directory that is formatted according to
+ * `patch_format`.
+ *
+ * Once split out, the individual email patches will be stored in the state
+ * directory, with each patch's filename being its index, padded to state->prec
+ * digits.
+ *
+ * state->cur will be set to the index of the first mail, and state->last will
+ * be set to the index of the last mail.
+ *
+ * Set keep_cr to 0 to convert all lines ending with \r\n to end with \n, 1
+ * to disable this behavior, -1 to use the default configured setting.
+ *
+ * Returns 0 on success, -1 on failure.
+ */
+static int split_mail(struct am_state *state, enum patch_format patch_format,
+			const char **paths, int keep_cr)
+{
+	if (keep_cr < 0) {
+		keep_cr = 0;
+		git_config_get_bool("am.keepcr", &keep_cr);
+	}
+
+	switch (patch_format) {
+	case PATCH_FORMAT_MBOX:
+		return split_mail_mbox(state, paths, keep_cr);
+	case PATCH_FORMAT_STGIT:
+		return split_mail_conv(stgit_patch_to_mail, state, paths, keep_cr);
+	case PATCH_FORMAT_STGIT_SERIES:
+		return split_mail_stgit_series(state, paths, keep_cr);
+	case PATCH_FORMAT_HG:
+		return split_mail_conv(hg_patch_to_mail, state, paths, keep_cr);
+	default:
+		die("BUG: invalid patch_format");
+	}
+	return -1;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Setup a new am session for applying patches
+ */
+static void am_setup(struct am_state *state, enum patch_format patch_format,
+			const char **paths, int keep_cr)
+{
+	unsigned char curr_head[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ];
+	const char *str;
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	if (!patch_format)
+		patch_format = detect_patch_format(paths);
+
+	if (!patch_format) {
+		fprintf_ln(stderr, _("Patch format detection failed."));
+		exit(128);
+	}
+
+	if (mkdir(state->dir, 0777) < 0 && errno != EEXIST)
+		die_errno(_("failed to create directory '%s'"), state->dir);
+
+	if (split_mail(state, patch_format, paths, keep_cr) < 0) {
+		am_destroy(state);
+		die(_("Failed to split patches."));
+	}
+
+	if (state->rebasing)
+		state->threeway = 1;
+
+	write_state_bool(state, "threeway", state->threeway);
+	write_state_bool(state, "quiet", state->quiet);
+	write_state_bool(state, "sign", state->signoff);
+	write_state_bool(state, "utf8", state->utf8);
+
+	switch (state->keep) {
+	case KEEP_FALSE:
+		str = "f";
+		break;
+	case KEEP_TRUE:
+		str = "t";
+		break;
+	case KEEP_NON_PATCH:
+		str = "b";
+		break;
+	default:
+		die("BUG: invalid value for state->keep");
+	}
+
+	write_state_text(state, "keep", str);
+	write_state_bool(state, "messageid", state->message_id);
+
+	switch (state->scissors) {
+	case SCISSORS_UNSET:
+		str = "";
+		break;
+	case SCISSORS_FALSE:
+		str = "f";
+		break;
+	case SCISSORS_TRUE:
+		str = "t";
+		break;
+	default:
+		die("BUG: invalid value for state->scissors");
+	}
+	write_state_text(state, "scissors", str);
+
+	sq_quote_argv(&sb, state->git_apply_opts.argv, 0);
+	write_state_text(state, "apply-opt", sb.buf);
+
+	if (state->rebasing)
+		write_state_text(state, "rebasing", "");
+	else
+		write_state_text(state, "applying", "");
+
+	if (!get_sha1("HEAD", curr_head)) {
+		write_state_text(state, "abort-safety", sha1_to_hex(curr_head));
+		if (!state->rebasing)
+			update_ref("am", "ORIG_HEAD", curr_head, NULL, 0,
+					UPDATE_REFS_DIE_ON_ERR);
+	} else {
+		write_state_text(state, "abort-safety", "");
+		if (!state->rebasing)
+			delete_ref("ORIG_HEAD", NULL, 0);
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * NOTE: Since the "next" and "last" files determine if an am_state
+	 * session is in progress, they should be written last.
+	 */
+
+	write_state_count(state, "next", state->cur);
+	write_state_count(state, "last", state->last);
+
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Increments the patch pointer, and cleans am_state for the application of the
+ * next patch.
+ */
+static void am_next(struct am_state *state)
+{
+	unsigned char head[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ];
+
+	free(state->author_name);
+	state->author_name = NULL;
+
+	free(state->author_email);
+	state->author_email = NULL;
+
+	free(state->author_date);
+	state->author_date = NULL;
+
+	free(state->msg);
+	state->msg = NULL;
+	state->msg_len = 0;
+
+	unlink(am_path(state, "author-script"));
+	unlink(am_path(state, "final-commit"));
+
+	hashclr(state->orig_commit);
+	unlink(am_path(state, "original-commit"));
+
+	if (!get_sha1("HEAD", head))
+		write_state_text(state, "abort-safety", sha1_to_hex(head));
+	else
+		write_state_text(state, "abort-safety", "");
+
+	state->cur++;
+	write_state_count(state, "next", state->cur);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Returns the filename of the current patch email.
+ */
+static const char *msgnum(const struct am_state *state)
+{
+	static struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	strbuf_reset(&sb);
+	strbuf_addf(&sb, "%0*d", state->prec, state->cur);
+
+	return sb.buf;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Refresh and write index.
+ */
+static void refresh_and_write_cache(void)
+{
+	struct lock_file *lock_file = xcalloc(1, sizeof(struct lock_file));
+
+	hold_locked_index(lock_file, 1);
+	refresh_cache(REFRESH_QUIET);
+	if (write_locked_index(&the_index, lock_file, COMMIT_LOCK))
+		die(_("unable to write index file"));
+}
+
+/**
+ * Returns 1 if the index differs from HEAD, 0 otherwise. When on an unborn
+ * branch, returns 1 if there are entries in the index, 0 otherwise. If an
+ * strbuf is provided, the space-separated list of files that differ will be
+ * appended to it.
+ */
+static int index_has_changes(struct strbuf *sb)
+{
+	unsigned char head[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ];
+	int i;
+
+	if (!get_sha1_tree("HEAD", head)) {
+		struct diff_options opt;
+
+		diff_setup(&opt);
+		DIFF_OPT_SET(&opt, EXIT_WITH_STATUS);
+		if (!sb)
+			DIFF_OPT_SET(&opt, QUICK);
+		do_diff_cache(head, &opt);
+		diffcore_std(&opt);
+		for (i = 0; sb && i < diff_queued_diff.nr; i++) {
+			if (i)
+				strbuf_addch(sb, ' ');
+			strbuf_addstr(sb, diff_queued_diff.queue[i]->two->path);
+		}
+		diff_flush(&opt);
+		return DIFF_OPT_TST(&opt, HAS_CHANGES) != 0;
+	} else {
+		for (i = 0; sb && i < active_nr; i++) {
+			if (i)
+				strbuf_addch(sb, ' ');
+			strbuf_addstr(sb, active_cache[i]->name);
+		}
+		return !!active_nr;
+	}
+}
+
+/**
+ * Dies with a user-friendly message on how to proceed after resolving the
+ * problem. This message can be overridden with state->resolvemsg.
+ */
+static void NORETURN die_user_resolve(const struct am_state *state)
+{
+	if (state->resolvemsg) {
+		printf_ln("%s", state->resolvemsg);
+	} else {
+		const char *cmdline = state->interactive ? "git am -i" : "git am";
+
+		printf_ln(_("When you have resolved this problem, run \"%s --continue\"."), cmdline);
+		printf_ln(_("If you prefer to skip this patch, run \"%s --skip\" instead."), cmdline);
+		printf_ln(_("To restore the original branch and stop patching, run \"%s --abort\"."), cmdline);
+	}
+
+	exit(128);
+}
+
+static void am_signoff(struct strbuf *sb)
+{
+	char *cp;
+	struct strbuf mine = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	/* Does it end with our own sign-off? */
+	strbuf_addf(&mine, "\n%s%s\n",
+		    sign_off_header,
+		    fmt_name(getenv("GIT_COMMITTER_NAME"),
+			     getenv("GIT_COMMITTER_EMAIL")));
+	if (mine.len < sb->len &&
+	    !strcmp(mine.buf, sb->buf + sb->len - mine.len))
+		goto exit; /* no need to duplicate */
+
+	/* Does it have any Signed-off-by: in the text */
+	for (cp = sb->buf;
+	     cp && *cp && (cp = strstr(cp, sign_off_header)) != NULL;
+	     cp = strchr(cp, '\n')) {
+		if (sb->buf == cp || cp[-1] == '\n')
+			break;
+	}
+
+	strbuf_addstr(sb, mine.buf + !!cp);
+exit:
+	strbuf_release(&mine);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Appends signoff to the "msg" field of the am_state.
+ */
+static void am_append_signoff(struct am_state *state)
+{
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	strbuf_attach(&sb, state->msg, state->msg_len, state->msg_len);
+	am_signoff(&sb);
+	state->msg = strbuf_detach(&sb, &state->msg_len);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Parses `mail` using git-mailinfo, extracting its patch and authorship info.
+ * state->msg will be set to the patch message. state->author_name,
+ * state->author_email and state->author_date will be set to the patch author's
+ * name, email and date respectively. The patch body will be written to the
+ * state directory's "patch" file.
+ *
+ * Returns 1 if the patch should be skipped, 0 otherwise.
+ */
+static int parse_mail(struct am_state *state, const char *mail)
+{
+	FILE *fp;
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct strbuf msg = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct strbuf author_name = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct strbuf author_date = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct strbuf author_email = STRBUF_INIT;
+	int ret = 0;
+	struct mailinfo mi;
+
+	setup_mailinfo(&mi);
+
+	if (state->utf8)
+		mi.metainfo_charset = get_commit_output_encoding();
+	else
+		mi.metainfo_charset = NULL;
+
+	switch (state->keep) {
+	case KEEP_FALSE:
+		break;
+	case KEEP_TRUE:
+		mi.keep_subject = 1;
+		break;
+	case KEEP_NON_PATCH:
+		mi.keep_non_patch_brackets_in_subject = 1;
+		break;
+	default:
+		die("BUG: invalid value for state->keep");
+	}
+
+	if (state->message_id)
+		mi.add_message_id = 1;
+
+	switch (state->scissors) {
+	case SCISSORS_UNSET:
+		break;
+	case SCISSORS_FALSE:
+		mi.use_scissors = 0;
+		break;
+	case SCISSORS_TRUE:
+		mi.use_scissors = 1;
+		break;
+	default:
+		die("BUG: invalid value for state->scissors");
+	}
+
+	mi.input = fopen(mail, "r");
+	if (!mi.input)
+		die("could not open input");
+	mi.output = fopen(am_path(state, "info"), "w");
+	if (!mi.output)
+		die("could not open output 'info'");
+	if (mailinfo(&mi, am_path(state, "msg"), am_path(state, "patch")))
+		die("could not parse patch");
+
+	fclose(mi.input);
+	fclose(mi.output);
+
+	/* Extract message and author information */
+	fp = xfopen(am_path(state, "info"), "r");
+	while (!strbuf_getline(&sb, fp, '\n')) {
+		const char *x;
+
+		if (skip_prefix(sb.buf, "Subject: ", &x)) {
+			if (msg.len)
+				strbuf_addch(&msg, '\n');
+			strbuf_addstr(&msg, x);
+		} else if (skip_prefix(sb.buf, "Author: ", &x))
+			strbuf_addstr(&author_name, x);
+		else if (skip_prefix(sb.buf, "Email: ", &x))
+			strbuf_addstr(&author_email, x);
+		else if (skip_prefix(sb.buf, "Date: ", &x))
+			strbuf_addstr(&author_date, x);
+	}
+	fclose(fp);
+
+	/* Skip pine's internal folder data */
+	if (!strcmp(author_name.buf, "Mail System Internal Data")) {
+		ret = 1;
+		goto finish;
+	}
+
+	if (is_empty_file(am_path(state, "patch"))) {
+		printf_ln(_("Patch is empty. Was it split wrong?"));
+		die_user_resolve(state);
+	}
+
+	strbuf_addstr(&msg, "\n\n");
+	strbuf_addbuf(&msg, &mi.log_message);
+	strbuf_stripspace(&msg, 0);
+
+	if (state->signoff)
+		am_signoff(&msg);
+
+	assert(!state->author_name);
+	state->author_name = strbuf_detach(&author_name, NULL);
+
+	assert(!state->author_email);
+	state->author_email = strbuf_detach(&author_email, NULL);
+
+	assert(!state->author_date);
+	state->author_date = strbuf_detach(&author_date, NULL);
+
+	assert(!state->msg);
+	state->msg = strbuf_detach(&msg, &state->msg_len);
+
+finish:
+	strbuf_release(&msg);
+	strbuf_release(&author_date);
+	strbuf_release(&author_email);
+	strbuf_release(&author_name);
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
+	clear_mailinfo(&mi);
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Sets commit_id to the commit hash where the mail was generated from.
+ * Returns 0 on success, -1 on failure.
+ */
+static int get_mail_commit_sha1(unsigned char *commit_id, const char *mail)
+{
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+	FILE *fp = xfopen(mail, "r");
+	const char *x;
+
+	if (strbuf_getline(&sb, fp, '\n'))
+		return -1;
+
+	if (!skip_prefix(sb.buf, "From ", &x))
+		return -1;
+
+	if (get_sha1_hex(x, commit_id) < 0)
+		return -1;
+
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
+	fclose(fp);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Sets state->msg, state->author_name, state->author_email, state->author_date
+ * to the commit's respective info.
+ */
+static void get_commit_info(struct am_state *state, struct commit *commit)
+{
+	const char *buffer, *ident_line, *author_date, *msg;
+	size_t ident_len;
+	struct ident_split ident_split;
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	buffer = logmsg_reencode(commit, NULL, get_commit_output_encoding());
+
+	ident_line = find_commit_header(buffer, "author", &ident_len);
+
+	if (split_ident_line(&ident_split, ident_line, ident_len) < 0) {
+		strbuf_add(&sb, ident_line, ident_len);
+		die(_("invalid ident line: %s"), sb.buf);
+	}
+
+	assert(!state->author_name);
+	if (ident_split.name_begin) {
+		strbuf_add(&sb, ident_split.name_begin,
+			ident_split.name_end - ident_split.name_begin);
+		state->author_name = strbuf_detach(&sb, NULL);
+	} else
+		state->author_name = xstrdup("");
+
+	assert(!state->author_email);
+	if (ident_split.mail_begin) {
+		strbuf_add(&sb, ident_split.mail_begin,
+			ident_split.mail_end - ident_split.mail_begin);
+		state->author_email = strbuf_detach(&sb, NULL);
+	} else
+		state->author_email = xstrdup("");
+
+	author_date = show_ident_date(&ident_split, DATE_MODE(NORMAL));
+	strbuf_addstr(&sb, author_date);
+	assert(!state->author_date);
+	state->author_date = strbuf_detach(&sb, NULL);
+
+	assert(!state->msg);
+	msg = strstr(buffer, "\n\n");
+	if (!msg)
+		die(_("unable to parse commit %s"), oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid));
+	state->msg = xstrdup(msg + 2);
+	state->msg_len = strlen(state->msg);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Writes `commit` as a patch to the state directory's "patch" file.
+ */
+static void write_commit_patch(const struct am_state *state, struct commit *commit)
+{
+	struct rev_info rev_info;
+	FILE *fp;
+
+	fp = xfopen(am_path(state, "patch"), "w");
+	init_revisions(&rev_info, NULL);
+	rev_info.diff = 1;
+	rev_info.abbrev = 0;
+	rev_info.disable_stdin = 1;
+	rev_info.show_root_diff = 1;
+	rev_info.diffopt.output_format = DIFF_FORMAT_PATCH;
+	rev_info.no_commit_id = 1;
+	DIFF_OPT_SET(&rev_info.diffopt, BINARY);
+	DIFF_OPT_SET(&rev_info.diffopt, FULL_INDEX);
+	rev_info.diffopt.use_color = 0;
+	rev_info.diffopt.file = fp;
+	rev_info.diffopt.close_file = 1;
+	add_pending_object(&rev_info, &commit->object, "");
+	diff_setup_done(&rev_info.diffopt);
+	log_tree_commit(&rev_info, commit);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Writes the diff of the index against HEAD as a patch to the state
+ * directory's "patch" file.
+ */
+static void write_index_patch(const struct am_state *state)
+{
+	struct tree *tree;
+	unsigned char head[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ];
+	struct rev_info rev_info;
+	FILE *fp;
+
+	if (!get_sha1_tree("HEAD", head))
+		tree = lookup_tree(head);
+	else
+		tree = lookup_tree(EMPTY_TREE_SHA1_BIN);
+
+	fp = xfopen(am_path(state, "patch"), "w");
+	init_revisions(&rev_info, NULL);
+	rev_info.diff = 1;
+	rev_info.disable_stdin = 1;
+	rev_info.no_commit_id = 1;
+	rev_info.diffopt.output_format = DIFF_FORMAT_PATCH;
+	rev_info.diffopt.use_color = 0;
+	rev_info.diffopt.file = fp;
+	rev_info.diffopt.close_file = 1;
+	add_pending_object(&rev_info, &tree->object, "");
+	diff_setup_done(&rev_info.diffopt);
+	run_diff_index(&rev_info, 1);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Like parse_mail(), but parses the mail by looking up its commit ID
+ * directly. This is used in --rebasing mode to bypass git-mailinfo's munging
+ * of patches.
+ *
+ * state->orig_commit will be set to the original commit ID.
+ *
+ * Will always return 0 as the patch should never be skipped.
+ */
+static int parse_mail_rebase(struct am_state *state, const char *mail)
+{
+	struct commit *commit;
+	unsigned char commit_sha1[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ];
+
+	if (get_mail_commit_sha1(commit_sha1, mail) < 0)
+		die(_("could not parse %s"), mail);
+
+	commit = lookup_commit_or_die(commit_sha1, mail);
+
+	get_commit_info(state, commit);
+
+	write_commit_patch(state, commit);
+
+	hashcpy(state->orig_commit, commit_sha1);
+	write_state_text(state, "original-commit", sha1_to_hex(commit_sha1));
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Applies current patch with git-apply. Returns 0 on success, -1 otherwise. If
+ * `index_file` is not NULL, the patch will be applied to that index.
+ */
+static int run_apply(const struct am_state *state, const char *index_file)
+{
+	struct child_process cp = CHILD_PROCESS_INIT;
+
+	cp.git_cmd = 1;
+
+	if (index_file)
+		argv_array_pushf(&cp.env_array, "GIT_INDEX_FILE=%s", index_file);
+
+	/*
+	 * If we are allowed to fall back on 3-way merge, don't give false
+	 * errors during the initial attempt.
+	 */
+	if (state->threeway && !index_file) {
+		cp.no_stdout = 1;
+		cp.no_stderr = 1;
+	}
+
+	argv_array_push(&cp.args, "apply");
+
+	argv_array_pushv(&cp.args, state->git_apply_opts.argv);
+
+	if (index_file)
+		argv_array_push(&cp.args, "--cached");
+	else
+		argv_array_push(&cp.args, "--index");
+
+	argv_array_push(&cp.args, am_path(state, "patch"));
+
+	if (run_command(&cp))
+		return -1;
+
+	/* Reload index as git-apply will have modified it. */
+	discard_cache();
+	read_cache_from(index_file ? index_file : get_index_file());
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Builds an index that contains just the blobs needed for a 3way merge.
+ */
+static int build_fake_ancestor(const struct am_state *state, const char *index_file)
+{
+	struct child_process cp = CHILD_PROCESS_INIT;
+
+	cp.git_cmd = 1;
+	argv_array_push(&cp.args, "apply");
+	argv_array_pushv(&cp.args, state->git_apply_opts.argv);
+	argv_array_pushf(&cp.args, "--build-fake-ancestor=%s", index_file);
+	argv_array_push(&cp.args, am_path(state, "patch"));
+
+	if (run_command(&cp))
+		return -1;
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Do the three-way merge using fake ancestor, his tree constructed
+ * from the fake ancestor and the postimage of the patch, and our
+ * state.
+ */
+static int run_fallback_merge_recursive(const struct am_state *state,
+					unsigned char *orig_tree,
+					unsigned char *our_tree,
+					unsigned char *his_tree)
+{
+	struct child_process cp = CHILD_PROCESS_INIT;
+	int status;
+
+	cp.git_cmd = 1;
+
+	argv_array_pushf(&cp.env_array, "GITHEAD_%s=%.*s",
+			 sha1_to_hex(his_tree), linelen(state->msg), state->msg);
+	if (state->quiet)
+		argv_array_push(&cp.env_array, "GIT_MERGE_VERBOSITY=0");
+
+	argv_array_push(&cp.args, "merge-recursive");
+	argv_array_push(&cp.args, sha1_to_hex(orig_tree));
+	argv_array_push(&cp.args, "--");
+	argv_array_push(&cp.args, sha1_to_hex(our_tree));
+	argv_array_push(&cp.args, sha1_to_hex(his_tree));
+
+	status = run_command(&cp) ? (-1) : 0;
+	discard_cache();
+	read_cache();
+	return status;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Attempt a threeway merge, using index_path as the temporary index.
+ */
+static int fall_back_threeway(const struct am_state *state, const char *index_path)
+{
+	unsigned char orig_tree[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ], his_tree[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ],
+		      our_tree[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ];
+
+	if (get_sha1("HEAD", our_tree) < 0)
+		hashcpy(our_tree, EMPTY_TREE_SHA1_BIN);
+
+	if (build_fake_ancestor(state, index_path))
+		return error("could not build fake ancestor");
+
+	discard_cache();
+	read_cache_from(index_path);
+
+	if (write_index_as_tree(orig_tree, &the_index, index_path, 0, NULL))
+		return error(_("Repository lacks necessary blobs to fall back on 3-way merge."));
+
+	say(state, stdout, _("Using index info to reconstruct a base tree..."));
+
+	if (!state->quiet) {
+		/*
+		 * List paths that needed 3-way fallback, so that the user can
+		 * review them with extra care to spot mismerges.
+		 */
+		struct rev_info rev_info;
+		const char *diff_filter_str = "--diff-filter=AM";
+
+		init_revisions(&rev_info, NULL);
+		rev_info.diffopt.output_format = DIFF_FORMAT_NAME_STATUS;
+		diff_opt_parse(&rev_info.diffopt, &diff_filter_str, 1, rev_info.prefix);
+		add_pending_sha1(&rev_info, "HEAD", our_tree, 0);
+		diff_setup_done(&rev_info.diffopt);
+		run_diff_index(&rev_info, 1);
+	}
+
+	if (run_apply(state, index_path))
+		return error(_("Did you hand edit your patch?\n"
+				"It does not apply to blobs recorded in its index."));
+
+	if (write_index_as_tree(his_tree, &the_index, index_path, 0, NULL))
+		return error("could not write tree");
+
+	say(state, stdout, _("Falling back to patching base and 3-way merge..."));
+
+	discard_cache();
+	read_cache();
+
+	/*
+	 * This is not so wrong. Depending on which base we picked, orig_tree
+	 * may be wildly different from ours, but his_tree has the same set of
+	 * wildly different changes in parts the patch did not touch, so
+	 * recursive ends up canceling them, saying that we reverted all those
+	 * changes.
+	 */
+
+	if (run_fallback_merge_recursive(state, orig_tree, our_tree, his_tree)) {
+		rerere(state->allow_rerere_autoupdate);
+		return error(_("Failed to merge in the changes."));
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Commits the current index with state->msg as the commit message and
+ * state->author_name, state->author_email and state->author_date as the author
+ * information.
+ */
+static void do_commit(const struct am_state *state)
+{
+	unsigned char tree[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ], parent[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ],
+		      commit[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ];
+	unsigned char *ptr;
+	struct commit_list *parents = NULL;
+	const char *reflog_msg, *author;
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	if (run_hook_le(NULL, "pre-applypatch", NULL))
+		exit(1);
+
+	if (write_cache_as_tree(tree, 0, NULL))
+		die(_("git write-tree failed to write a tree"));
+
+	if (!get_sha1_commit("HEAD", parent)) {
+		ptr = parent;
+		commit_list_insert(lookup_commit(parent), &parents);
+	} else {
+		ptr = NULL;
+		say(state, stderr, _("applying to an empty history"));
+	}
+
+	author = fmt_ident(state->author_name, state->author_email,
+			state->ignore_date ? NULL : state->author_date,
+			IDENT_STRICT);
+
+	if (state->committer_date_is_author_date)
+		setenv("GIT_COMMITTER_DATE",
+			state->ignore_date ? "" : state->author_date, 1);
+
+	if (commit_tree(state->msg, state->msg_len, tree, parents, commit,
+				author, state->sign_commit))
+		die(_("failed to write commit object"));
+
+	reflog_msg = getenv("GIT_REFLOG_ACTION");
+	if (!reflog_msg)
+		reflog_msg = "am";
+
+	strbuf_addf(&sb, "%s: %.*s", reflog_msg, linelen(state->msg),
+			state->msg);
+
+	update_ref(sb.buf, "HEAD", commit, ptr, 0, UPDATE_REFS_DIE_ON_ERR);
+
+	if (state->rebasing) {
+		FILE *fp = xfopen(am_path(state, "rewritten"), "a");
+
+		assert(!is_null_sha1(state->orig_commit));
+		fprintf(fp, "%s ", sha1_to_hex(state->orig_commit));
+		fprintf(fp, "%s\n", sha1_to_hex(commit));
+		fclose(fp);
+	}
+
+	run_hook_le(NULL, "post-applypatch", NULL);
+
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Validates the am_state for resuming -- the "msg" and authorship fields must
+ * be filled up.
+ */
+static void validate_resume_state(const struct am_state *state)
+{
+	if (!state->msg)
+		die(_("cannot resume: %s does not exist."),
+			am_path(state, "final-commit"));
+
+	if (!state->author_name || !state->author_email || !state->author_date)
+		die(_("cannot resume: %s does not exist."),
+			am_path(state, "author-script"));
+}
+
+/**
+ * Interactively prompt the user on whether the current patch should be
+ * applied.
+ *
+ * Returns 0 if the user chooses to apply the patch, 1 if the user chooses to
+ * skip it.
+ */
+static int do_interactive(struct am_state *state)
+{
+	assert(state->msg);
+
+	if (!isatty(0))
+		die(_("cannot be interactive without stdin connected to a terminal."));
+
+	for (;;) {
+		const char *reply;
+
+		puts(_("Commit Body is:"));
+		puts("--------------------------");
+		printf("%s", state->msg);
+		puts("--------------------------");
+
+		/*
+		 * TRANSLATORS: Make sure to include [y], [n], [e], [v] and [a]
+		 * in your translation. The program will only accept English
+		 * input at this point.
+		 */
+		reply = git_prompt(_("Apply? [y]es/[n]o/[e]dit/[v]iew patch/[a]ccept all: "), PROMPT_ECHO);
+
+		if (!reply) {
+			continue;
+		} else if (*reply == 'y' || *reply == 'Y') {
+			return 0;
+		} else if (*reply == 'a' || *reply == 'A') {
+			state->interactive = 0;
+			return 0;
+		} else if (*reply == 'n' || *reply == 'N') {
+			return 1;
+		} else if (*reply == 'e' || *reply == 'E') {
+			struct strbuf msg = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+			if (!launch_editor(am_path(state, "final-commit"), &msg, NULL)) {
+				free(state->msg);
+				state->msg = strbuf_detach(&msg, &state->msg_len);
+			}
+			strbuf_release(&msg);
+		} else if (*reply == 'v' || *reply == 'V') {
+			const char *pager = git_pager(1);
+			struct child_process cp = CHILD_PROCESS_INIT;
+
+			if (!pager)
+				pager = "cat";
+			argv_array_push(&cp.args, pager);
+			argv_array_push(&cp.args, am_path(state, "patch"));
+			run_command(&cp);
+		}
+	}
+}
+
+/**
+ * Applies all queued mail.
+ *
+ * If `resume` is true, we are "resuming". The "msg" and authorship fields, as
+ * well as the state directory's "patch" file is used as-is for applying the
+ * patch and committing it.
+ */
+static void am_run(struct am_state *state, int resume)
+{
+	const char *argv_gc_auto[] = {"gc", "--auto", NULL};
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	unlink(am_path(state, "dirtyindex"));
+
+	refresh_and_write_cache();
+
+	if (index_has_changes(&sb)) {
+		write_state_bool(state, "dirtyindex", 1);
+		die(_("Dirty index: cannot apply patches (dirty: %s)"), sb.buf);
+	}
+
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
+
+	while (state->cur <= state->last) {
+		const char *mail = am_path(state, msgnum(state));
+		int apply_status;
+
+		if (!file_exists(mail))
+			goto next;
+
+		if (resume) {
+			validate_resume_state(state);
+		} else {
+			int skip;
+
+			if (state->rebasing)
+				skip = parse_mail_rebase(state, mail);
+			else
+				skip = parse_mail(state, mail);
+
+			if (skip)
+				goto next; /* mail should be skipped */
+
+			write_author_script(state);
+			write_commit_msg(state);
+		}
+
+		if (state->interactive && do_interactive(state))
+			goto next;
+
+		if (run_applypatch_msg_hook(state))
+			exit(1);
+
+		say(state, stdout, _("Applying: %.*s"), linelen(state->msg), state->msg);
+
+		apply_status = run_apply(state, NULL);
+
+		if (apply_status && state->threeway) {
+			struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+			strbuf_addstr(&sb, am_path(state, "patch-merge-index"));
+			apply_status = fall_back_threeway(state, sb.buf);
+			strbuf_release(&sb);
+
+			/*
+			 * Applying the patch to an earlier tree and merging
+			 * the result may have produced the same tree as ours.
+			 */
+			if (!apply_status && !index_has_changes(NULL)) {
+				say(state, stdout, _("No changes -- Patch already applied."));
+				goto next;
+			}
+		}
+
+		if (apply_status) {
+			int advice_amworkdir = 1;
+
+			printf_ln(_("Patch failed at %s %.*s"), msgnum(state),
+				linelen(state->msg), state->msg);
+
+			git_config_get_bool("advice.amworkdir", &advice_amworkdir);
+
+			if (advice_amworkdir)
+				printf_ln(_("The copy of the patch that failed is found in: %s"),
+						am_path(state, "patch"));
+
+			die_user_resolve(state);
+		}
+
+		do_commit(state);
+
+next:
+		am_next(state);
+
+		if (resume)
+			am_load(state);
+		resume = 0;
+	}
+
+	if (!is_empty_file(am_path(state, "rewritten"))) {
+		assert(state->rebasing);
+		copy_notes_for_rebase(state);
+		run_post_rewrite_hook(state);
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * In rebasing mode, it's up to the caller to take care of
+	 * housekeeping.
+	 */
+	if (!state->rebasing) {
+		am_destroy(state);
+		close_all_packs();
+		run_command_v_opt(argv_gc_auto, RUN_GIT_CMD);
+	}
+}
+
+/**
+ * Resume the current am session after patch application failure. The user did
+ * all the hard work, and we do not have to do any patch application. Just
+ * trust and commit what the user has in the index and working tree.
+ */
+static void am_resolve(struct am_state *state)
+{
+	validate_resume_state(state);
+
+	say(state, stdout, _("Applying: %.*s"), linelen(state->msg), state->msg);
+
+	if (!index_has_changes(NULL)) {
+		printf_ln(_("No changes - did you forget to use 'git add'?\n"
+			"If there is nothing left to stage, chances are that something else\n"
+			"already introduced the same changes; you might want to skip this patch."));
+		die_user_resolve(state);
+	}
+
+	if (unmerged_cache()) {
+		printf_ln(_("You still have unmerged paths in your index.\n"
+			"Did you forget to use 'git add'?"));
+		die_user_resolve(state);
+	}
+
+	if (state->interactive) {
+		write_index_patch(state);
+		if (do_interactive(state))
+			goto next;
+	}
+
+	rerere(0);
+
+	do_commit(state);
+
+next:
+	am_next(state);
+	am_load(state);
+	am_run(state, 0);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Performs a checkout fast-forward from `head` to `remote`. If `reset` is
+ * true, any unmerged entries will be discarded. Returns 0 on success, -1 on
+ * failure.
+ */
+static int fast_forward_to(struct tree *head, struct tree *remote, int reset)
+{
+	struct lock_file *lock_file;
+	struct unpack_trees_options opts;
+	struct tree_desc t[2];
+
+	if (parse_tree(head) || parse_tree(remote))
+		return -1;
+
+	lock_file = xcalloc(1, sizeof(struct lock_file));
+	hold_locked_index(lock_file, 1);
+
+	refresh_cache(REFRESH_QUIET);
+
+	memset(&opts, 0, sizeof(opts));
+	opts.head_idx = 1;
+	opts.src_index = &the_index;
+	opts.dst_index = &the_index;
+	opts.update = 1;
+	opts.merge = 1;
+	opts.reset = reset;
+	opts.fn = twoway_merge;
+	init_tree_desc(&t[0], head->buffer, head->size);
+	init_tree_desc(&t[1], remote->buffer, remote->size);
+
+	if (unpack_trees(2, t, &opts)) {
+		rollback_lock_file(lock_file);
+		return -1;
+	}
+
+	if (write_locked_index(&the_index, lock_file, COMMIT_LOCK))
+		die(_("unable to write new index file"));
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Merges a tree into the index. The index's stat info will take precedence
+ * over the merged tree's. Returns 0 on success, -1 on failure.
+ */
+static int merge_tree(struct tree *tree)
+{
+	struct lock_file *lock_file;
+	struct unpack_trees_options opts;
+	struct tree_desc t[1];
+
+	if (parse_tree(tree))
+		return -1;
+
+	lock_file = xcalloc(1, sizeof(struct lock_file));
+	hold_locked_index(lock_file, 1);
+
+	memset(&opts, 0, sizeof(opts));
+	opts.head_idx = 1;
+	opts.src_index = &the_index;
+	opts.dst_index = &the_index;
+	opts.merge = 1;
+	opts.fn = oneway_merge;
+	init_tree_desc(&t[0], tree->buffer, tree->size);
+
+	if (unpack_trees(1, t, &opts)) {
+		rollback_lock_file(lock_file);
+		return -1;
+	}
+
+	if (write_locked_index(&the_index, lock_file, COMMIT_LOCK))
+		die(_("unable to write new index file"));
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Clean the index without touching entries that are not modified between
+ * `head` and `remote`.
+ */
+static int clean_index(const unsigned char *head, const unsigned char *remote)
+{
+	struct tree *head_tree, *remote_tree, *index_tree;
+	unsigned char index[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ];
+
+	head_tree = parse_tree_indirect(head);
+	if (!head_tree)
+		return error(_("Could not parse object '%s'."), sha1_to_hex(head));
+
+	remote_tree = parse_tree_indirect(remote);
+	if (!remote_tree)
+		return error(_("Could not parse object '%s'."), sha1_to_hex(remote));
+
+	read_cache_unmerged();
+
+	if (fast_forward_to(head_tree, head_tree, 1))
+		return -1;
+
+	if (write_cache_as_tree(index, 0, NULL))
+		return -1;
+
+	index_tree = parse_tree_indirect(index);
+	if (!index_tree)
+		return error(_("Could not parse object '%s'."), sha1_to_hex(index));
+
+	if (fast_forward_to(index_tree, remote_tree, 0))
+		return -1;
+
+	if (merge_tree(remote_tree))
+		return -1;
+
+	remove_branch_state();
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Resets rerere's merge resolution metadata.
+ */
+static void am_rerere_clear(void)
+{
+	struct string_list merge_rr = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
+	rerere_clear(&merge_rr);
+	string_list_clear(&merge_rr, 1);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Resume the current am session by skipping the current patch.
+ */
+static void am_skip(struct am_state *state)
+{
+	unsigned char head[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ];
+
+	am_rerere_clear();
+
+	if (get_sha1("HEAD", head))
+		hashcpy(head, EMPTY_TREE_SHA1_BIN);
+
+	if (clean_index(head, head))
+		die(_("failed to clean index"));
+
+	am_next(state);
+	am_load(state);
+	am_run(state, 0);
+}
+
+/**
+ * Returns true if it is safe to reset HEAD to the ORIG_HEAD, false otherwise.
+ *
+ * It is not safe to reset HEAD when:
+ * 1. git-am previously failed because the index was dirty.
+ * 2. HEAD has moved since git-am previously failed.
+ */
+static int safe_to_abort(const struct am_state *state)
+{
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+	unsigned char abort_safety[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ], head[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ];
+
+	if (file_exists(am_path(state, "dirtyindex")))
+		return 0;
+
+	if (read_state_file(&sb, state, "abort-safety", 1) > 0) {
+		if (get_sha1_hex(sb.buf, abort_safety))
+			die(_("could not parse %s"), am_path(state, "abort_safety"));
+	} else
+		hashclr(abort_safety);
+
+	if (get_sha1("HEAD", head))
+		hashclr(head);
+
+	if (!hashcmp(head, abort_safety))
+		return 1;
+
+	error(_("You seem to have moved HEAD since the last 'am' failure.\n"
+		"Not rewinding to ORIG_HEAD"));
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/**
+ * Aborts the current am session if it is safe to do so.
+ */
+static void am_abort(struct am_state *state)
+{
+	unsigned char curr_head[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ], orig_head[GIT_SHA1_RAWSZ];
+	int has_curr_head, has_orig_head;
+	char *curr_branch;
+
+	if (!safe_to_abort(state)) {
+		am_destroy(state);
+		return;
+	}
+
+	am_rerere_clear();
+
+	curr_branch = resolve_refdup("HEAD", 0, curr_head, NULL);
+	has_curr_head = !is_null_sha1(curr_head);
+	if (!has_curr_head)
+		hashcpy(curr_head, EMPTY_TREE_SHA1_BIN);
+
+	has_orig_head = !get_sha1("ORIG_HEAD", orig_head);
+	if (!has_orig_head)
+		hashcpy(orig_head, EMPTY_TREE_SHA1_BIN);
+
+	clean_index(curr_head, orig_head);
+
+	if (has_orig_head)
+		update_ref("am --abort", "HEAD", orig_head,
+				has_curr_head ? curr_head : NULL, 0,
+				UPDATE_REFS_DIE_ON_ERR);
+	else if (curr_branch)
+		delete_ref(curr_branch, NULL, REF_NODEREF);
+
+	free(curr_branch);
+	am_destroy(state);
+}
+
+/**
+ * parse_options() callback that validates and sets opt->value to the
+ * PATCH_FORMAT_* enum value corresponding to `arg`.
+ */
+static int parse_opt_patchformat(const struct option *opt, const char *arg, int unset)
+{
+	int *opt_value = opt->value;
+
+	if (!strcmp(arg, "mbox"))
+		*opt_value = PATCH_FORMAT_MBOX;
+	else if (!strcmp(arg, "stgit"))
+		*opt_value = PATCH_FORMAT_STGIT;
+	else if (!strcmp(arg, "stgit-series"))
+		*opt_value = PATCH_FORMAT_STGIT_SERIES;
+	else if (!strcmp(arg, "hg"))
+		*opt_value = PATCH_FORMAT_HG;
+	else
+		return error(_("Invalid value for --patch-format: %s"), arg);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+enum resume_mode {
+	RESUME_FALSE = 0,
+	RESUME_APPLY,
+	RESUME_RESOLVED,
+	RESUME_SKIP,
+	RESUME_ABORT
+};
+
+static int git_am_config(const char *k, const char *v, void *cb)
+{
+	int status;
+
+	status = git_gpg_config(k, v, NULL);
+	if (status)
+		return status;
+
+	return git_default_config(k, v, NULL);
+}
+
+int cmd_am(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
+{
+	struct am_state state;
+	int binary = -1;
+	int keep_cr = -1;
+	int patch_format = PATCH_FORMAT_UNKNOWN;
+	enum resume_mode resume = RESUME_FALSE;
+	int in_progress;
+
+	const char * const usage[] = {
+		N_("git am [<options>] [(<mbox>|<Maildir>)...]"),
+		N_("git am [<options>] (--continue | --skip | --abort)"),
+		NULL
+	};
+
+	struct option options[] = {
+		OPT_BOOL('i', "interactive", &state.interactive,
+			N_("run interactively")),
+		OPT_HIDDEN_BOOL('b', "binary", &binary,
+			N_("historical option -- no-op")),
+		OPT_BOOL('3', "3way", &state.threeway,
+			N_("allow fall back on 3way merging if needed")),
+		OPT__QUIET(&state.quiet, N_("be quiet")),
+		OPT_SET_INT('s', "signoff", &state.signoff,
+			N_("add a Signed-off-by line to the commit message"),
+			SIGNOFF_EXPLICIT),
+		OPT_BOOL('u', "utf8", &state.utf8,
+			N_("recode into utf8 (default)")),
+		OPT_SET_INT('k', "keep", &state.keep,
+			N_("pass -k flag to git-mailinfo"), KEEP_TRUE),
+		OPT_SET_INT(0, "keep-non-patch", &state.keep,
+			N_("pass -b flag to git-mailinfo"), KEEP_NON_PATCH),
+		OPT_BOOL('m', "message-id", &state.message_id,
+			N_("pass -m flag to git-mailinfo")),
+		{ OPTION_SET_INT, 0, "keep-cr", &keep_cr, NULL,
+		  N_("pass --keep-cr flag to git-mailsplit for mbox format"),
+		  PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_NONEG, NULL, 1},
+		{ OPTION_SET_INT, 0, "no-keep-cr", &keep_cr, NULL,
+		  N_("do not pass --keep-cr flag to git-mailsplit independent of am.keepcr"),
+		  PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_NONEG, NULL, 0},
+		OPT_BOOL('c', "scissors", &state.scissors,
+			N_("strip everything before a scissors line")),
+		OPT_PASSTHRU_ARGV(0, "whitespace", &state.git_apply_opts, N_("action"),
+			N_("pass it through git-apply"),
+			0),
+		OPT_PASSTHRU_ARGV(0, "ignore-space-change", &state.git_apply_opts, NULL,
+			N_("pass it through git-apply"),
+			PARSE_OPT_NOARG),
+		OPT_PASSTHRU_ARGV(0, "ignore-whitespace", &state.git_apply_opts, NULL,
+			N_("pass it through git-apply"),
+			PARSE_OPT_NOARG),
+		OPT_PASSTHRU_ARGV(0, "directory", &state.git_apply_opts, N_("root"),
+			N_("pass it through git-apply"),
+			0),
+		OPT_PASSTHRU_ARGV(0, "exclude", &state.git_apply_opts, N_("path"),
+			N_("pass it through git-apply"),
+			0),
+		OPT_PASSTHRU_ARGV(0, "include", &state.git_apply_opts, N_("path"),
+			N_("pass it through git-apply"),
+			0),
+		OPT_PASSTHRU_ARGV('C', NULL, &state.git_apply_opts, N_("n"),
+			N_("pass it through git-apply"),
+			0),
+		OPT_PASSTHRU_ARGV('p', NULL, &state.git_apply_opts, N_("num"),
+			N_("pass it through git-apply"),
+			0),
+		OPT_CALLBACK(0, "patch-format", &patch_format, N_("format"),
+			N_("format the patch(es) are in"),
+			parse_opt_patchformat),
+		OPT_PASSTHRU_ARGV(0, "reject", &state.git_apply_opts, NULL,
+			N_("pass it through git-apply"),
+			PARSE_OPT_NOARG),
+		OPT_STRING(0, "resolvemsg", &state.resolvemsg, NULL,
+			N_("override error message when patch failure occurs")),
+		OPT_CMDMODE(0, "continue", &resume,
+			N_("continue applying patches after resolving a conflict"),
+			RESUME_RESOLVED),
+		OPT_CMDMODE('r', "resolved", &resume,
+			N_("synonyms for --continue"),
+			RESUME_RESOLVED),
+		OPT_CMDMODE(0, "skip", &resume,
+			N_("skip the current patch"),
+			RESUME_SKIP),
+		OPT_CMDMODE(0, "abort", &resume,
+			N_("restore the original branch and abort the patching operation."),
+			RESUME_ABORT),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "committer-date-is-author-date",
+			&state.committer_date_is_author_date,
+			N_("lie about committer date")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "ignore-date", &state.ignore_date,
+			N_("use current timestamp for author date")),
+		OPT_RERERE_AUTOUPDATE(&state.allow_rerere_autoupdate),
+		{ OPTION_STRING, 'S', "gpg-sign", &state.sign_commit, N_("key-id"),
+		  N_("GPG-sign commits"),
+		  PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, NULL, (intptr_t) "" },
+		OPT_HIDDEN_BOOL(0, "rebasing", &state.rebasing,
+			N_("(internal use for git-rebase)")),
+		OPT_END()
+	};
+
+	git_config(git_am_config, NULL);
+
+	am_state_init(&state, git_path("rebase-apply"));
+
+	in_progress = am_in_progress(&state);
+	if (in_progress)
+		am_load(&state);
+
+	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options, usage, 0);
+
+	if (binary >= 0)
+		fprintf_ln(stderr, _("The -b/--binary option has been a no-op for long time, and\n"
+				"it will be removed. Please do not use it anymore."));
+
+	/* Ensure a valid committer ident can be constructed */
+	git_committer_info(IDENT_STRICT);
+
+	if (read_index_preload(&the_index, NULL) < 0)
+		die(_("failed to read the index"));
+
+	if (in_progress) {
+		/*
+		 * Catch user error to feed us patches when there is a session
+		 * in progress:
+		 *
+		 * 1. mbox path(s) are provided on the command-line.
+		 * 2. stdin is not a tty: the user is trying to feed us a patch
+		 *    from standard input. This is somewhat unreliable -- stdin
+		 *    could be /dev/null for example and the caller did not
+		 *    intend to feed us a patch but wanted to continue
+		 *    unattended.
+		 */
+		if (argc || (resume == RESUME_FALSE && !isatty(0)))
+			die(_("previous rebase directory %s still exists but mbox given."),
+				state.dir);
+
+		if (resume == RESUME_FALSE)
+			resume = RESUME_APPLY;
+
+		if (state.signoff == SIGNOFF_EXPLICIT)
+			am_append_signoff(&state);
+	} else {
+		struct argv_array paths = ARGV_ARRAY_INIT;
+		int i;
+
+		/*
+		 * Handle stray state directory in the independent-run case. In
+		 * the --rebasing case, it is up to the caller to take care of
+		 * stray directories.
+		 */
+		if (file_exists(state.dir) && !state.rebasing) {
+			if (resume == RESUME_ABORT) {
+				am_destroy(&state);
+				am_state_release(&state);
+				return 0;
+			}
+
+			die(_("Stray %s directory found.\n"
+				"Use \"git am --abort\" to remove it."),
+				state.dir);
+		}
+
+		if (resume)
+			die(_("Resolve operation not in progress, we are not resuming."));
+
+		for (i = 0; i < argc; i++) {
+			if (is_absolute_path(argv[i]) || !prefix)
+				argv_array_push(&paths, argv[i]);
+			else
+				argv_array_push(&paths, mkpath("%s/%s", prefix, argv[i]));
+		}
+
+		am_setup(&state, patch_format, paths.argv, keep_cr);
+
+		argv_array_clear(&paths);
+	}
+
+	switch (resume) {
+	case RESUME_FALSE:
+		am_run(&state, 0);
+		break;
+	case RESUME_APPLY:
+		am_run(&state, 1);
+		break;
+	case RESUME_RESOLVED:
+		am_resolve(&state);
+		break;
+	case RESUME_SKIP:
+		am_skip(&state);
+		break;
+	case RESUME_ABORT:
+		am_abort(&state);
+		break;
+	default:
+		die("BUG: invalid resume value");
+	}
+
+	am_state_release(&state);
+
+	return 0;
+}
diff --git a/builtin/apply.c b/builtin/apply.c
index 54aba4e..deb1364 100644
--- a/builtin/apply.c
+++ b/builtin/apply.c
@@ -77,8 +77,7 @@
 
 
 static const char *patch_input_file;
-static const char *root;
-static int root_len;
+static struct strbuf root = STRBUF_INIT;
 static int read_stdin = 1;
 static int options;
 
@@ -494,8 +493,8 @@
 	}
 
 	strbuf_remove(&name, 0, cp - name.buf);
-	if (root)
-		strbuf_insert(&name, 0, root, root_len);
+	if (root.len)
+		strbuf_insert(&name, 0, root.buf, root.len);
 	return squash_slash(strbuf_detach(&name, NULL));
 }
 
@@ -697,11 +696,8 @@
 			return squash_slash(xstrdup(def));
 	}
 
-	if (root) {
-		char *ret = xmalloc(root_len + len + 1);
-		strcpy(ret, root);
-		memcpy(ret + root_len, start, len);
-		ret[root_len + len] = '\0';
+	if (root.len) {
+		char *ret = xstrfmt("%s%.*s", root.buf, len, start);
 		return squash_slash(ret);
 	}
 
@@ -785,7 +781,7 @@
 }
 
 /*
- * Does the ---/+++ line has the POSIX timestamp after the last HT?
+ * Does the ---/+++ line have the POSIX timestamp after the last HT?
  * GNU diff puts epoch there to signal a creation/deletion event.  Is
  * this such a timestamp?
  */
@@ -1277,8 +1273,8 @@
 	 * the default name from the header.
 	 */
 	patch->def_name = git_header_name(line, len);
-	if (patch->def_name && root) {
-		char *s = xstrfmt("%s%s", root, patch->def_name);
+	if (patch->def_name && root.len) {
+		char *s = xstrfmt("%s%s", root.buf, patch->def_name);
 		free(patch->def_name);
 		patch->def_name = s;
 	}
@@ -4501,14 +4497,9 @@
 static int option_parse_directory(const struct option *opt,
 				  const char *arg, int unset)
 {
-	root_len = strlen(arg);
-	if (root_len && arg[root_len - 1] != '/') {
-		char *new_root;
-		root = new_root = xmalloc(root_len + 2);
-		strcpy(new_root, arg);
-		strcpy(new_root + root_len++, "/");
-	} else
-		root = arg;
+	strbuf_reset(&root);
+	strbuf_addstr(&root, arg);
+	strbuf_complete(&root, '/');
 	return 0;
 }
 
diff --git a/builtin/blame.c b/builtin/blame.c
index 191368b..1df13cf 100644
--- a/builtin/blame.c
+++ b/builtin/blame.c
@@ -6,6 +6,7 @@
  */
 
 #include "cache.h"
+#include "refs.h"
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "blob.h"
 #include "commit.h"
@@ -50,7 +51,7 @@
 static int abbrev = -1;
 static int no_whole_file_rename;
 
-static enum date_mode blame_date_mode = DATE_ISO8601;
+static struct date_mode blame_date_mode = { DATE_ISO8601 };
 static size_t blame_date_width;
 
 static struct string_list mailmap;
@@ -458,12 +459,13 @@
 static struct origin *make_origin(struct commit *commit, const char *path)
 {
 	struct origin *o;
-	o = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*o) + strlen(path) + 1);
+	size_t pathlen = strlen(path) + 1;
+	o = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*o) + pathlen);
 	o->commit = commit;
 	o->refcnt = 1;
 	o->next = commit->util;
 	commit->util = o;
-	strcpy(o->path, path);
+	memcpy(o->path, path, pathlen); /* includes NUL */
 	return o;
 }
 
@@ -504,7 +506,7 @@
 {
 	if (!is_null_sha1(origin->blob_sha1))
 		return 0;
-	if (get_tree_entry(origin->commit->object.sha1,
+	if (get_tree_entry(origin->commit->object.oid.hash,
 			   origin->path,
 			   origin->blob_sha1, &origin->mode))
 		goto error_out;
@@ -555,11 +557,11 @@
 		       PATHSPEC_LITERAL_PATH, "", paths);
 	diff_setup_done(&diff_opts);
 
-	if (is_null_sha1(origin->commit->object.sha1))
-		do_diff_cache(parent->tree->object.sha1, &diff_opts);
+	if (is_null_oid(&origin->commit->object.oid))
+		do_diff_cache(parent->tree->object.oid.hash, &diff_opts);
 	else
-		diff_tree_sha1(parent->tree->object.sha1,
-			       origin->commit->tree->object.sha1,
+		diff_tree_sha1(parent->tree->object.oid.hash,
+			       origin->commit->tree->object.oid.hash,
 			       "", &diff_opts);
 	diffcore_std(&diff_opts);
 
@@ -625,11 +627,11 @@
 	diff_opts.single_follow = origin->path;
 	diff_setup_done(&diff_opts);
 
-	if (is_null_sha1(origin->commit->object.sha1))
-		do_diff_cache(parent->tree->object.sha1, &diff_opts);
+	if (is_null_oid(&origin->commit->object.oid))
+		do_diff_cache(parent->tree->object.oid.hash, &diff_opts);
 	else
-		diff_tree_sha1(parent->tree->object.sha1,
-			       origin->commit->tree->object.sha1,
+		diff_tree_sha1(parent->tree->object.oid.hash,
+			       origin->commit->tree->object.oid.hash,
 			       "", &diff_opts);
 	diffcore_std(&diff_opts);
 
@@ -975,8 +977,8 @@
 
 	if (diff_hunks(&file_p, &file_o, 0, blame_chunk_cb, &d))
 		die("unable to generate diff (%s -> %s)",
-		    sha1_to_hex(parent->commit->object.sha1),
-		    sha1_to_hex(target->commit->object.sha1));
+		    oid_to_hex(&parent->commit->object.oid),
+		    oid_to_hex(&target->commit->object.oid));
 	/* The rest are the same as the parent */
 	blame_chunk(&d.dstq, &d.srcq, INT_MAX, d.offset, INT_MAX, parent);
 	*d.dstq = NULL;
@@ -1124,7 +1126,7 @@
 	memset(split, 0, sizeof(struct blame_entry [3]));
 	if (diff_hunks(file_p, &file_o, 1, handle_split_cb, &d))
 		die("unable to generate diff (%s)",
-		    sha1_to_hex(parent->commit->object.sha1));
+		    oid_to_hex(&parent->commit->object.oid));
 	/* remainder, if any, all match the preimage */
 	handle_split(sb, ent, d.tlno, d.plno, ent->num_lines, parent, split);
 }
@@ -1273,11 +1275,11 @@
 		&& (!porigin || strcmp(target->path, porigin->path))))
 		DIFF_OPT_SET(&diff_opts, FIND_COPIES_HARDER);
 
-	if (is_null_sha1(target->commit->object.sha1))
-		do_diff_cache(parent->tree->object.sha1, &diff_opts);
+	if (is_null_oid(&target->commit->object.oid))
+		do_diff_cache(parent->tree->object.oid.hash, &diff_opts);
 	else
-		diff_tree_sha1(parent->tree->object.sha1,
-			       target->commit->tree->object.sha1,
+		diff_tree_sha1(parent->tree->object.oid.hash,
+			       target->commit->tree->object.oid.hash,
 			       "", &diff_opts);
 
 	if (!DIFF_OPT_TST(&diff_opts, FIND_COPIES_HARDER))
@@ -1370,8 +1372,15 @@
  */
 static struct commit_list *first_scapegoat(struct rev_info *revs, struct commit *commit)
 {
-	if (!reverse)
+	if (!reverse) {
+		if (revs->first_parent_only &&
+		    commit->parents &&
+		    commit->parents->next) {
+			free_commit_list(commit->parents->next);
+			commit->parents->next = NULL;
+		}
 		return commit->parents;
+	}
 	return lookup_decoration(&revs->children, &commit->object);
 }
 
@@ -1681,7 +1690,7 @@
 	if (len)
 		strbuf_add(&ret->summary, subject, len);
 	else
-		strbuf_addf(&ret->summary, "(%s)", sha1_to_hex(commit->object.sha1));
+		strbuf_addf(&ret->summary, "(%s)", oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid));
 
 	unuse_commit_buffer(commit, message);
 }
@@ -1724,7 +1733,7 @@
 		printf("boundary\n");
 	if (suspect->previous) {
 		struct origin *prev = suspect->previous;
-		printf("previous %s ", sha1_to_hex(prev->commit->object.sha1));
+		printf("previous %s ", oid_to_hex(&prev->commit->object.oid));
 		write_name_quoted(prev->path, stdout, '\n');
 	}
 
@@ -1743,7 +1752,7 @@
 		struct origin *suspect = ent->suspect;
 
 		printf("%s %d %d %d\n",
-		       sha1_to_hex(suspect->commit->object.sha1),
+		       oid_to_hex(&suspect->commit->object.oid),
 		       ent->s_lno + 1, ent->lno + 1, ent->num_lines);
 		emit_one_suspect_detail(suspect, 0);
 		write_filename_info(suspect->path);
@@ -1832,7 +1841,7 @@
 		size_t time_width;
 		int tz;
 		tz = atoi(tz_str);
-		time_str = show_date(time, tz, blame_date_mode);
+		time_str = show_date(time, tz, &blame_date_mode);
 		strbuf_addstr(&time_buf, time_str);
 		/*
 		 * Add space paddings to time_buf to display a fixed width
@@ -1871,9 +1880,9 @@
 	int cnt;
 	const char *cp;
 	struct origin *suspect = ent->suspect;
-	char hex[41];
+	char hex[GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 1];
 
-	strcpy(hex, sha1_to_hex(suspect->commit->object.sha1));
+	sha1_to_hex_r(hex, suspect->commit->object.oid.hash);
 	printf("%s %d %d %d\n",
 	       hex,
 	       ent->s_lno + 1,
@@ -1909,11 +1918,11 @@
 	const char *cp;
 	struct origin *suspect = ent->suspect;
 	struct commit_info ci;
-	char hex[41];
+	char hex[GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 1];
 	int show_raw_time = !!(opt & OUTPUT_RAW_TIMESTAMP);
 
 	get_commit_info(suspect->commit, &ci, 1);
-	strcpy(hex, sha1_to_hex(suspect->commit->object.sha1));
+	sha1_to_hex_r(hex, suspect->commit->object.oid.hash);
 
 	cp = nth_line(sb, ent->lno);
 	for (cnt = 0; cnt < ent->num_lines; cnt++) {
@@ -2068,7 +2077,7 @@
 
 static int update_auto_abbrev(int auto_abbrev, struct origin *suspect)
 {
-	const char *uniq = find_unique_abbrev(suspect->commit->object.sha1,
+	const char *uniq = find_unique_abbrev(suspect->commit->object.oid.hash,
 					      auto_abbrev);
 	int len = strlen(uniq);
 	if (auto_abbrev < len)
@@ -2144,7 +2153,7 @@
 		if (ent->suspect->refcnt <= 0) {
 			fprintf(stderr, "%s in %s has negative refcnt %d\n",
 				ent->suspect->path,
-				sha1_to_hex(ent->suspect->commit->object.sha1),
+				oid_to_hex(&ent->suspect->commit->object.oid),
 				ent->suspect->refcnt);
 			baa = 1;
 		}
@@ -2192,7 +2201,7 @@
 	if (!strcmp(var, "blame.date")) {
 		if (!value)
 			return config_error_nonbool(var);
-		blame_date_mode = parse_date_format(value);
+		parse_date_format(value, &blame_date_mode);
 		return 0;
 	}
 
@@ -2207,7 +2216,7 @@
 	struct commit_list *parents;
 
 	for (parents = work_tree->parents; parents; parents = parents->next) {
-		const unsigned char *commit_sha1 = parents->item->object.sha1;
+		const unsigned char *commit_sha1 = parents->item->object.oid.hash;
 		unsigned char blob_sha1[20];
 		unsigned mode;
 
@@ -2231,20 +2240,19 @@
 static void append_merge_parents(struct commit_list **tail)
 {
 	int merge_head;
-	const char *merge_head_file = git_path("MERGE_HEAD");
 	struct strbuf line = STRBUF_INIT;
 
-	merge_head = open(merge_head_file, O_RDONLY);
+	merge_head = open(git_path_merge_head(), O_RDONLY);
 	if (merge_head < 0) {
 		if (errno == ENOENT)
 			return;
-		die("cannot open '%s' for reading", merge_head_file);
+		die("cannot open '%s' for reading", git_path_merge_head());
 	}
 
 	while (!strbuf_getwholeline_fd(&line, merge_head, '\n')) {
 		unsigned char sha1[20];
 		if (line.len < 40 || get_sha1_hex(line.buf, sha1))
-			die("unknown line in '%s': %s", merge_head_file, line.buf);
+			die("unknown line in '%s': %s", git_path_merge_head(), line.buf);
 		tail = append_parent(tail, sha1);
 	}
 	close(merge_head);
@@ -2302,7 +2310,7 @@
 	strbuf_addstr(&msg, "tree 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000\n");
 	for (parent = commit->parents; parent; parent = parent->next)
 		strbuf_addf(&msg, "parent %s\n",
-			    sha1_to_hex(parent->item->object.sha1));
+			    oid_to_hex(&parent->item->object.oid));
 	strbuf_addf(&msg,
 		    "author %s\n"
 		    "committer %s\n\n"
@@ -2394,16 +2402,13 @@
 	return commit;
 }
 
-static char *prepare_final(struct scoreboard *sb)
+static struct commit *find_single_final(struct rev_info *revs,
+					const char **name_p)
 {
 	int i;
-	const char *final_commit_name = NULL;
-	struct rev_info *revs = sb->revs;
+	struct commit *found = NULL;
+	const char *name = NULL;
 
-	/*
-	 * There must be one and only one positive commit in the
-	 * revs->pending array.
-	 */
 	for (i = 0; i < revs->pending.nr; i++) {
 		struct object *obj = revs->pending.objects[i].item;
 		if (obj->flags & UNINTERESTING)
@@ -2412,14 +2417,22 @@
 			obj = deref_tag(obj, NULL, 0);
 		if (obj->type != OBJ_COMMIT)
 			die("Non commit %s?", revs->pending.objects[i].name);
-		if (sb->final)
+		if (found)
 			die("More than one commit to dig from %s and %s?",
-			    revs->pending.objects[i].name,
-			    final_commit_name);
-		sb->final = (struct commit *) obj;
-		final_commit_name = revs->pending.objects[i].name;
+			    revs->pending.objects[i].name, name);
+		found = (struct commit *)obj;
+		name = revs->pending.objects[i].name;
 	}
-	return xstrdup_or_null(final_commit_name);
+	if (name_p)
+		*name_p = name;
+	return found;
+}
+
+static char *prepare_final(struct scoreboard *sb)
+{
+	const char *name;
+	sb->final = find_single_final(sb->revs, &name);
+	return xstrdup_or_null(name);
 }
 
 static char *prepare_initial(struct scoreboard *sb)
@@ -2495,6 +2508,7 @@
 	long dashdash_pos, lno;
 	char *final_commit_name = NULL;
 	enum object_type type;
+	struct commit *final_commit = NULL;
 
 	static struct string_list range_list;
 	static int output_option = 0, opt = 0;
@@ -2574,13 +2588,13 @@
 
 	if (cmd_is_annotate) {
 		output_option |= OUTPUT_ANNOTATE_COMPAT;
-		blame_date_mode = DATE_ISO8601;
+		blame_date_mode.type = DATE_ISO8601;
 	} else {
 		blame_date_mode = revs.date_mode;
 	}
 
 	/* The maximum width used to show the dates */
-	switch (blame_date_mode) {
+	switch (blame_date_mode.type) {
 	case DATE_RFC2822:
 		blame_date_width = sizeof("Thu, 19 Oct 2006 16:00:04 -0700");
 		break;
@@ -2605,10 +2619,12 @@
 		   fewer display columns. */
 		blame_date_width = utf8_strwidth(_("4 years, 11 months ago")) + 1; /* add the null */
 		break;
-	case DATE_LOCAL:
 	case DATE_NORMAL:
 		blame_date_width = sizeof("Thu Oct 19 16:00:04 2006 -0700");
 		break;
+	case DATE_STRFTIME:
+		blame_date_width = strlen(show_date(0, 0, &blame_date_mode)) + 1; /* add the null */
+		break;
 	}
 	blame_date_width -= 1; /* strip the null */
 
@@ -2681,10 +2697,12 @@
 		sb.commits.compare = compare_commits_by_commit_date;
 	}
 	else if (contents_from)
-		die("--contents and --children do not blend well.");
+		die("--contents and --reverse do not blend well.");
 	else {
 		final_commit_name = prepare_initial(&sb);
 		sb.commits.compare = compare_commits_by_reverse_commit_date;
+		if (revs.first_parent_only)
+			revs.children.name = NULL;
 	}
 
 	if (!sb.final) {
@@ -2701,6 +2719,12 @@
 	else if (contents_from)
 		die("Cannot use --contents with final commit object name");
 
+	if (reverse && revs.first_parent_only) {
+		final_commit = find_single_final(sb.revs, NULL);
+		if (!final_commit)
+			die("--reverse and --first-parent together require specified latest commit");
+	}
+
 	/*
 	 * If we have bottom, this will mark the ancestors of the
 	 * bottom commits we would reach while traversing as
@@ -2709,7 +2733,26 @@
 	if (prepare_revision_walk(&revs))
 		die(_("revision walk setup failed"));
 
-	if (is_null_sha1(sb.final->object.sha1)) {
+	if (reverse && revs.first_parent_only) {
+		struct commit *c = final_commit;
+
+		sb.revs->children.name = "children";
+		while (c->parents &&
+		       oidcmp(&c->object.oid, &sb.final->object.oid)) {
+			struct commit_list *l = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*l));
+
+			l->item = c;
+			if (add_decoration(&sb.revs->children,
+					   &c->parents->item->object, l))
+				die("BUG: not unique item in first-parent chain");
+			c = c->parents->item;
+		}
+
+		if (oidcmp(&c->object.oid, &sb.final->object.oid))
+			die("--reverse --first-parent together require range along first-parent chain");
+	}
+
+	if (is_null_oid(&sb.final->object.oid)) {
 		o = sb.final->util;
 		sb.final_buf = xmemdupz(o->file.ptr, o->file.size);
 		sb.final_buf_size = o->file.size;
diff --git a/builtin/branch.c b/builtin/branch.c
index b42e5b6..3f6c825 100644
--- a/builtin/branch.c
+++ b/builtin/branch.c
@@ -19,18 +19,17 @@
 #include "column.h"
 #include "utf8.h"
 #include "wt-status.h"
+#include "ref-filter.h"
 
 static const char * const builtin_branch_usage[] = {
 	N_("git branch [<options>] [-r | -a] [--merged | --no-merged]"),
 	N_("git branch [<options>] [-l] [-f] <branch-name> [<start-point>]"),
 	N_("git branch [<options>] [-r] (-d | -D) <branch-name>..."),
 	N_("git branch [<options>] (-m | -M) [<old-branch>] <new-branch>"),
+	N_("git branch [<options>] [-r | -a] [--points-at]"),
 	NULL
 };
 
-#define REF_LOCAL_BRANCH    0x01
-#define REF_REMOTE_BRANCH   0x02
-
 static const char *head;
 static unsigned char head_sha1[20];
 
@@ -52,13 +51,6 @@
 	BRANCH_COLOR_UPSTREAM = 5
 };
 
-static enum merge_filter {
-	NO_FILTER = 0,
-	SHOW_NOT_MERGED,
-	SHOW_MERGED
-} merge_filter;
-static unsigned char merge_filter_ref[20];
-
 static struct string_list output = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
 static unsigned int colopts;
 
@@ -121,7 +113,7 @@
 	void *reference_name_to_free = NULL;
 	int merged;
 
-	if (kind == REF_LOCAL_BRANCH) {
+	if (kind == FILTER_REFS_BRANCHES) {
 		struct branch *branch = branch_get(name);
 		const char *upstream = branch_get_upstream(branch, NULL);
 		unsigned char sha1[20];
@@ -160,7 +152,7 @@
 }
 
 static int check_branch_commit(const char *branchname, const char *refname,
-			       unsigned char *sha1, struct commit *head_rev,
+			       const unsigned char *sha1, struct commit *head_rev,
 			       int kinds, int force)
 {
 	struct commit *rev = lookup_commit_reference(sha1);
@@ -199,14 +191,14 @@
 	struct strbuf bname = STRBUF_INIT;
 
 	switch (kinds) {
-	case REF_REMOTE_BRANCH:
+	case FILTER_REFS_REMOTES:
 		fmt = "refs/remotes/%s";
 		/* For subsequent UI messages */
 		remote_branch = 1;
 
 		force = 1;
 		break;
-	case REF_LOCAL_BRANCH:
+	case FILTER_REFS_BRANCHES:
 		fmt = "refs/heads/%s";
 		break;
 	default:
@@ -223,7 +215,7 @@
 		int flags = 0;
 
 		strbuf_branchname(&bname, argv[i]);
-		if (kinds == REF_LOCAL_BRANCH && !strcmp(head, bname.buf)) {
+		if (kinds == FILTER_REFS_BRANCHES && !strcmp(head, bname.buf)) {
 			error(_("Cannot delete the branch '%s' "
 			      "which you are currently on."), bname.buf);
 			ret = 1;
@@ -253,7 +245,8 @@
 			continue;
 		}
 
-		if (delete_ref(name, sha1, REF_NODEREF)) {
+		if (delete_ref(name, is_null_sha1(sha1) ? NULL : sha1,
+			       REF_NODEREF)) {
 			error(remote_branch
 			      ? _("Error deleting remote-tracking branch '%s'")
 			      : _("Error deleting branch '%s'"),
@@ -278,147 +271,6 @@
 	return(ret);
 }
 
-struct ref_item {
-	char *name;
-	char *dest;
-	unsigned int kind, width;
-	struct commit *commit;
-	int ignore;
-};
-
-struct ref_list {
-	struct rev_info revs;
-	int index, alloc, maxwidth, verbose, abbrev;
-	struct ref_item *list;
-	struct commit_list *with_commit;
-	int kinds;
-};
-
-static char *resolve_symref(const char *src, const char *prefix)
-{
-	unsigned char sha1[20];
-	int flag;
-	const char *dst;
-
-	dst = resolve_ref_unsafe(src, 0, sha1, &flag);
-	if (!(dst && (flag & REF_ISSYMREF)))
-		return NULL;
-	if (prefix)
-		skip_prefix(dst, prefix, &dst);
-	return xstrdup(dst);
-}
-
-struct append_ref_cb {
-	struct ref_list *ref_list;
-	const char **pattern;
-	int ret;
-};
-
-static int match_patterns(const char **pattern, const char *refname)
-{
-	if (!*pattern)
-		return 1; /* no pattern always matches */
-	while (*pattern) {
-		if (!wildmatch(*pattern, refname, 0, NULL))
-			return 1;
-		pattern++;
-	}
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static int append_ref(const char *refname, const struct object_id *oid, int flags, void *cb_data)
-{
-	struct append_ref_cb *cb = (struct append_ref_cb *)(cb_data);
-	struct ref_list *ref_list = cb->ref_list;
-	struct ref_item *newitem;
-	struct commit *commit;
-	int kind, i;
-	const char *prefix, *orig_refname = refname;
-
-	static struct {
-		int kind;
-		const char *prefix;
-	} ref_kind[] = {
-		{ REF_LOCAL_BRANCH, "refs/heads/" },
-		{ REF_REMOTE_BRANCH, "refs/remotes/" },
-	};
-
-	/* Detect kind */
-	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(ref_kind); i++) {
-		prefix = ref_kind[i].prefix;
-		if (skip_prefix(refname, prefix, &refname)) {
-			kind = ref_kind[i].kind;
-			break;
-		}
-	}
-	if (ARRAY_SIZE(ref_kind) <= i)
-		return 0;
-
-	/* Don't add types the caller doesn't want */
-	if ((kind & ref_list->kinds) == 0)
-		return 0;
-
-	if (!match_patterns(cb->pattern, refname))
-		return 0;
-
-	commit = NULL;
-	if (ref_list->verbose || ref_list->with_commit || merge_filter != NO_FILTER) {
-		commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(oid->hash, 1);
-		if (!commit) {
-			cb->ret = error(_("branch '%s' does not point at a commit"), refname);
-			return 0;
-		}
-
-		/* Filter with with_commit if specified */
-		if (!is_descendant_of(commit, ref_list->with_commit))
-			return 0;
-
-		if (merge_filter != NO_FILTER)
-			add_pending_object(&ref_list->revs,
-					   (struct object *)commit, refname);
-	}
-
-	ALLOC_GROW(ref_list->list, ref_list->index + 1, ref_list->alloc);
-
-	/* Record the new item */
-	newitem = &(ref_list->list[ref_list->index++]);
-	newitem->name = xstrdup(refname);
-	newitem->kind = kind;
-	newitem->commit = commit;
-	newitem->width = utf8_strwidth(refname);
-	newitem->dest = resolve_symref(orig_refname, prefix);
-	newitem->ignore = 0;
-	/* adjust for "remotes/" */
-	if (newitem->kind == REF_REMOTE_BRANCH &&
-	    ref_list->kinds != REF_REMOTE_BRANCH)
-		newitem->width += 8;
-	if (newitem->width > ref_list->maxwidth)
-		ref_list->maxwidth = newitem->width;
-
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static void free_ref_list(struct ref_list *ref_list)
-{
-	int i;
-
-	for (i = 0; i < ref_list->index; i++) {
-		free(ref_list->list[i].name);
-		free(ref_list->list[i].dest);
-	}
-	free(ref_list->list);
-}
-
-static int ref_cmp(const void *r1, const void *r2)
-{
-	struct ref_item *c1 = (struct ref_item *)(r1);
-	struct ref_item *c2 = (struct ref_item *)(r2);
-
-	if (c1->kind != c2->kind)
-		return c1->kind - c2->kind;
-	return strcmp(c1->name, c2->name);
-}
-
 static void fill_tracking_info(struct strbuf *stat, const char *branch_name,
 		int show_upstream_ref)
 {
@@ -481,8 +333,8 @@
 	free(ref);
 }
 
-static void add_verbose_info(struct strbuf *out, struct ref_item *item,
-			     int verbose, int abbrev)
+static void add_verbose_info(struct strbuf *out, struct ref_array_item *item,
+			     struct ref_filter *filter, const char *refname)
 {
 	struct strbuf subject = STRBUF_INIT, stat = STRBUF_INIT;
 	const char *sub = _(" **** invalid ref ****");
@@ -493,81 +345,16 @@
 		sub = subject.buf;
 	}
 
-	if (item->kind == REF_LOCAL_BRANCH)
-		fill_tracking_info(&stat, item->name, verbose > 1);
+	if (item->kind == FILTER_REFS_BRANCHES)
+		fill_tracking_info(&stat, refname, filter->verbose > 1);
 
 	strbuf_addf(out, " %s %s%s",
-		find_unique_abbrev(item->commit->object.sha1, abbrev),
+		find_unique_abbrev(item->commit->object.oid.hash, filter->abbrev),
 		stat.buf, sub);
 	strbuf_release(&stat);
 	strbuf_release(&subject);
 }
 
-static void print_ref_item(struct ref_item *item, int maxwidth, int verbose,
-			   int abbrev, int current, char *prefix)
-{
-	char c;
-	int color;
-	struct strbuf out = STRBUF_INIT, name = STRBUF_INIT;
-
-	if (item->ignore)
-		return;
-
-	switch (item->kind) {
-	case REF_LOCAL_BRANCH:
-		color = BRANCH_COLOR_LOCAL;
-		break;
-	case REF_REMOTE_BRANCH:
-		color = BRANCH_COLOR_REMOTE;
-		break;
-	default:
-		color = BRANCH_COLOR_PLAIN;
-		break;
-	}
-
-	c = ' ';
-	if (current) {
-		c = '*';
-		color = BRANCH_COLOR_CURRENT;
-	}
-
-	strbuf_addf(&name, "%s%s", prefix, item->name);
-	if (verbose) {
-		int utf8_compensation = strlen(name.buf) - utf8_strwidth(name.buf);
-		strbuf_addf(&out, "%c %s%-*s%s", c, branch_get_color(color),
-			    maxwidth + utf8_compensation, name.buf,
-			    branch_get_color(BRANCH_COLOR_RESET));
-	} else
-		strbuf_addf(&out, "%c %s%s%s", c, branch_get_color(color),
-			    name.buf, branch_get_color(BRANCH_COLOR_RESET));
-
-	if (item->dest)
-		strbuf_addf(&out, " -> %s", item->dest);
-	else if (verbose)
-		/* " f7c0c00 [ahead 58, behind 197] vcs-svn: drop obj_pool.h" */
-		add_verbose_info(&out, item, verbose, abbrev);
-	if (column_active(colopts)) {
-		assert(!verbose && "--column and --verbose are incompatible");
-		string_list_append(&output, out.buf);
-	} else {
-		printf("%s\n", out.buf);
-	}
-	strbuf_release(&name);
-	strbuf_release(&out);
-}
-
-static int calc_maxwidth(struct ref_list *refs)
-{
-	int i, w = 0;
-	for (i = 0; i < refs->index; i++) {
-		if (refs->list[i].ignore)
-			continue;
-		if (refs->list[i].width > w)
-			w = refs->list[i].width;
-	}
-	return w;
-}
-
 static char *get_head_description(void)
 {
 	struct strbuf desc = STRBUF_INIT;
@@ -599,97 +386,131 @@
 	return strbuf_detach(&desc, NULL);
 }
 
-static void show_detached(struct ref_list *ref_list)
+static void format_and_print_ref_item(struct ref_array_item *item, int maxwidth,
+				      struct ref_filter *filter, const char *remote_prefix)
 {
-	struct commit *head_commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(head_sha1, 1);
+	char c;
+	int current = 0;
+	int color;
+	struct strbuf out = STRBUF_INIT, name = STRBUF_INIT;
+	const char *prefix = "";
+	const char *desc = item->refname;
+	char *to_free = NULL;
 
-	if (head_commit && is_descendant_of(head_commit, ref_list->with_commit)) {
-		struct ref_item item;
-		item.name = get_head_description();
-		item.width = utf8_strwidth(item.name);
-		item.kind = REF_LOCAL_BRANCH;
-		item.dest = NULL;
-		item.commit = head_commit;
-		item.ignore = 0;
-		if (item.width > ref_list->maxwidth)
-			ref_list->maxwidth = item.width;
-		print_ref_item(&item, ref_list->maxwidth, ref_list->verbose, ref_list->abbrev, 1, "");
-		free(item.name);
+	switch (item->kind) {
+	case FILTER_REFS_BRANCHES:
+		skip_prefix(desc, "refs/heads/", &desc);
+		if (!filter->detached && !strcmp(desc, head))
+			current = 1;
+		else
+			color = BRANCH_COLOR_LOCAL;
+		break;
+	case FILTER_REFS_REMOTES:
+		skip_prefix(desc, "refs/remotes/", &desc);
+		color = BRANCH_COLOR_REMOTE;
+		prefix = remote_prefix;
+		break;
+	case FILTER_REFS_DETACHED_HEAD:
+		desc = to_free = get_head_description();
+		current = 1;
+		break;
+	default:
+		color = BRANCH_COLOR_PLAIN;
+		break;
 	}
+
+	c = ' ';
+	if (current) {
+		c = '*';
+		color = BRANCH_COLOR_CURRENT;
+	}
+
+	strbuf_addf(&name, "%s%s", prefix, desc);
+	if (filter->verbose) {
+		int utf8_compensation = strlen(name.buf) - utf8_strwidth(name.buf);
+		strbuf_addf(&out, "%c %s%-*s%s", c, branch_get_color(color),
+			    maxwidth + utf8_compensation, name.buf,
+			    branch_get_color(BRANCH_COLOR_RESET));
+	} else
+		strbuf_addf(&out, "%c %s%s%s", c, branch_get_color(color),
+			    name.buf, branch_get_color(BRANCH_COLOR_RESET));
+
+	if (item->symref) {
+		skip_prefix(item->symref, "refs/remotes/", &desc);
+		strbuf_addf(&out, " -> %s", desc);
+	}
+	else if (filter->verbose)
+		/* " f7c0c00 [ahead 58, behind 197] vcs-svn: drop obj_pool.h" */
+		add_verbose_info(&out, item, filter, desc);
+	if (column_active(colopts)) {
+		assert(!filter->verbose && "--column and --verbose are incompatible");
+		string_list_append(&output, out.buf);
+	} else {
+		printf("%s\n", out.buf);
+	}
+	strbuf_release(&name);
+	strbuf_release(&out);
+	free(to_free);
 }
 
-static int print_ref_list(int kinds, int detached, int verbose, int abbrev, struct commit_list *with_commit, const char **pattern)
+static int calc_maxwidth(struct ref_array *refs, int remote_bonus)
+{
+	int i, max = 0;
+	for (i = 0; i < refs->nr; i++) {
+		struct ref_array_item *it = refs->items[i];
+		const char *desc = it->refname;
+		int w;
+
+		skip_prefix(it->refname, "refs/heads/", &desc);
+		skip_prefix(it->refname, "refs/remotes/", &desc);
+		w = utf8_strwidth(desc);
+
+		if (it->kind == FILTER_REFS_REMOTES)
+			w += remote_bonus;
+		if (w > max)
+			max = w;
+	}
+	return max;
+}
+
+static void print_ref_list(struct ref_filter *filter, struct ref_sorting *sorting)
 {
 	int i;
-	struct append_ref_cb cb;
-	struct ref_list ref_list;
+	struct ref_array array;
+	int maxwidth = 0;
+	const char *remote_prefix = "";
 
-	memset(&ref_list, 0, sizeof(ref_list));
-	ref_list.kinds = kinds;
-	ref_list.verbose = verbose;
-	ref_list.abbrev = abbrev;
-	ref_list.with_commit = with_commit;
-	if (merge_filter != NO_FILTER)
-		init_revisions(&ref_list.revs, NULL);
-	cb.ref_list = &ref_list;
-	cb.pattern = pattern;
-	cb.ret = 0;
-	for_each_rawref(append_ref, &cb);
-	if (merge_filter != NO_FILTER) {
-		struct commit *filter;
-		filter = lookup_commit_reference_gently(merge_filter_ref, 0);
-		if (!filter)
-			die(_("object '%s' does not point to a commit"),
-			    sha1_to_hex(merge_filter_ref));
+	/*
+	 * If we are listing more than just remote branches,
+	 * then remote branches will have a "remotes/" prefix.
+	 * We need to account for this in the width.
+	 */
+	if (filter->kind != FILTER_REFS_REMOTES)
+		remote_prefix = "remotes/";
 
-		filter->object.flags |= UNINTERESTING;
-		add_pending_object(&ref_list.revs,
-				   (struct object *) filter, "");
-		ref_list.revs.limited = 1;
+	memset(&array, 0, sizeof(array));
 
-		if (prepare_revision_walk(&ref_list.revs))
-			die(_("revision walk setup failed"));
+	verify_ref_format("%(refname)%(symref)");
+	filter_refs(&array, filter, filter->kind | FILTER_REFS_INCLUDE_BROKEN);
 
-		for (i = 0; i < ref_list.index; i++) {
-			struct ref_item *item = &ref_list.list[i];
-			struct commit *commit = item->commit;
-			int is_merged = !!(commit->object.flags & UNINTERESTING);
-			item->ignore = is_merged != (merge_filter == SHOW_MERGED);
-		}
+	if (filter->verbose)
+		maxwidth = calc_maxwidth(&array, strlen(remote_prefix));
 
-		for (i = 0; i < ref_list.index; i++) {
-			struct ref_item *item = &ref_list.list[i];
-			clear_commit_marks(item->commit, ALL_REV_FLAGS);
-		}
-		clear_commit_marks(filter, ALL_REV_FLAGS);
+	/*
+	 * If no sorting parameter is given then we default to sorting
+	 * by 'refname'. This would give us an alphabetically sorted
+	 * array with the 'HEAD' ref at the beginning followed by
+	 * local branches 'refs/heads/...' and finally remote-tacking
+	 * branches 'refs/remotes/...'.
+	 */
+	if (!sorting)
+		sorting = ref_default_sorting();
+	ref_array_sort(sorting, &array);
 
-		if (verbose)
-			ref_list.maxwidth = calc_maxwidth(&ref_list);
-	}
+	for (i = 0; i < array.nr; i++)
+		format_and_print_ref_item(array.items[i], maxwidth, filter, remote_prefix);
 
-	qsort(ref_list.list, ref_list.index, sizeof(struct ref_item), ref_cmp);
-
-	detached = (detached && (kinds & REF_LOCAL_BRANCH));
-	if (detached && match_patterns(pattern, "HEAD"))
-		show_detached(&ref_list);
-
-	for (i = 0; i < ref_list.index; i++) {
-		int current = !detached &&
-			(ref_list.list[i].kind == REF_LOCAL_BRANCH) &&
-			!strcmp(ref_list.list[i].name, head);
-		char *prefix = (kinds != REF_REMOTE_BRANCH &&
-				ref_list.list[i].kind == REF_REMOTE_BRANCH)
-				? "remotes/" : "";
-		print_ref_item(&ref_list.list[i], ref_list.maxwidth, verbose,
-			       abbrev, current, prefix);
-	}
-
-	free_ref_list(&ref_list);
-
-	if (cb.ret)
-		error(_("some refs could not be read"));
-
-	return cb.ret;
+	ref_array_clear(&array);
 }
 
 static void rename_branch(const char *oldname, const char *newname, int force)
@@ -745,20 +566,6 @@
 	strbuf_release(&newsection);
 }
 
-static int opt_parse_merge_filter(const struct option *opt, const char *arg, int unset)
-{
-	merge_filter = ((opt->long_name[0] == 'n')
-			? SHOW_NOT_MERGED
-			: SHOW_MERGED);
-	if (unset)
-		merge_filter = SHOW_NOT_MERGED; /* b/c for --no-merged */
-	if (!arg)
-		arg = "HEAD";
-	if (get_sha1(arg, merge_filter_ref))
-		die(_("malformed object name %s"), arg);
-	return 0;
-}
-
 static const char edit_description[] = "BRANCH_DESCRIPTION";
 
 static int edit_branch_description(const char *branch_name)
@@ -775,7 +582,7 @@
 		    "  %s\n"
 		    "Lines starting with '%c' will be stripped.\n",
 		    branch_name, comment_line_char);
-	if (write_file(git_path(edit_description), 0, "%s", buf.buf)) {
+	if (write_file_gently(git_path(edit_description), "%s", buf.buf)) {
 		strbuf_release(&buf);
 		return error(_("could not write branch description template: %s"),
 			     strerror(errno));
@@ -785,7 +592,7 @@
 		strbuf_release(&buf);
 		return -1;
 	}
-	stripspace(&buf, 1);
+	strbuf_stripspace(&buf, 1);
 
 	strbuf_addf(&name, "branch.%s.description", branch_name);
 	status = git_config_set(name.buf, buf.len ? buf.buf : NULL);
@@ -798,17 +605,16 @@
 int cmd_branch(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
 	int delete = 0, rename = 0, force = 0, list = 0;
-	int verbose = 0, abbrev = -1, detached = 0;
 	int reflog = 0, edit_description = 0;
 	int quiet = 0, unset_upstream = 0;
 	const char *new_upstream = NULL;
 	enum branch_track track;
-	int kinds = REF_LOCAL_BRANCH;
-	struct commit_list *with_commit = NULL;
+	struct ref_filter filter;
+	static struct ref_sorting *sorting = NULL, **sorting_tail = &sorting;
 
 	struct option options[] = {
 		OPT_GROUP(N_("Generic options")),
-		OPT__VERBOSE(&verbose,
+		OPT__VERBOSE(&filter.verbose,
 			N_("show hash and subject, give twice for upstream branch")),
 		OPT__QUIET(&quiet, N_("suppress informational messages")),
 		OPT_SET_INT('t', "track",  &track, N_("set up tracking mode (see git-pull(1))"),
@@ -818,25 +624,15 @@
 		OPT_STRING('u', "set-upstream-to", &new_upstream, "upstream", "change the upstream info"),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "unset-upstream", &unset_upstream, "Unset the upstream info"),
 		OPT__COLOR(&branch_use_color, N_("use colored output")),
-		OPT_SET_INT('r', "remotes",     &kinds, N_("act on remote-tracking branches"),
-			REF_REMOTE_BRANCH),
-		{
-			OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "contains", &with_commit, N_("commit"),
-			N_("print only branches that contain the commit"),
-			PARSE_OPT_LASTARG_DEFAULT,
-			parse_opt_with_commit, (intptr_t)"HEAD",
-		},
-		{
-			OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "with", &with_commit, N_("commit"),
-			N_("print only branches that contain the commit"),
-			PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN | PARSE_OPT_LASTARG_DEFAULT,
-			parse_opt_with_commit, (intptr_t) "HEAD",
-		},
-		OPT__ABBREV(&abbrev),
+		OPT_SET_INT('r', "remotes",     &filter.kind, N_("act on remote-tracking branches"),
+			FILTER_REFS_REMOTES),
+		OPT_CONTAINS(&filter.with_commit, N_("print only branches that contain the commit")),
+		OPT_WITH(&filter.with_commit, N_("print only branches that contain the commit")),
+		OPT__ABBREV(&filter.abbrev),
 
 		OPT_GROUP(N_("Specific git-branch actions:")),
-		OPT_SET_INT('a', "all", &kinds, N_("list both remote-tracking and local branches"),
-			REF_REMOTE_BRANCH | REF_LOCAL_BRANCH),
+		OPT_SET_INT('a', "all", &filter.kind, N_("list both remote-tracking and local branches"),
+			FILTER_REFS_REMOTES | FILTER_REFS_BRANCHES),
 		OPT_BIT('d', "delete", &delete, N_("delete fully merged branch"), 1),
 		OPT_BIT('D', NULL, &delete, N_("delete branch (even if not merged)"), 2),
 		OPT_BIT('m', "move", &rename, N_("move/rename a branch and its reflog"), 1),
@@ -846,22 +642,22 @@
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "edit-description", &edit_description,
 			 N_("edit the description for the branch")),
 		OPT__FORCE(&force, N_("force creation, move/rename, deletion")),
-		{
-			OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "no-merged", &merge_filter_ref,
-			N_("commit"), N_("print only not merged branches"),
-			PARSE_OPT_LASTARG_DEFAULT | PARSE_OPT_NONEG,
-			opt_parse_merge_filter, (intptr_t) "HEAD",
-		},
-		{
-			OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "merged", &merge_filter_ref,
-			N_("commit"), N_("print only merged branches"),
-			PARSE_OPT_LASTARG_DEFAULT | PARSE_OPT_NONEG,
-			opt_parse_merge_filter, (intptr_t) "HEAD",
-		},
+		OPT_MERGED(&filter, N_("print only branches that are merged")),
+		OPT_NO_MERGED(&filter, N_("print only branches that are not merged")),
 		OPT_COLUMN(0, "column", &colopts, N_("list branches in columns")),
+		OPT_CALLBACK(0 , "sort", sorting_tail, N_("key"),
+			     N_("field name to sort on"), &parse_opt_ref_sorting),
+		{
+			OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "points-at", &filter.points_at, N_("object"),
+			N_("print only branches of the object"), 0, parse_opt_object_name
+		},
 		OPT_END(),
 	};
 
+	memset(&filter, 0, sizeof(filter));
+	filter.kind = FILTER_REFS_BRANCHES;
+	filter.abbrev = -1;
+
 	if (argc == 2 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-h"))
 		usage_with_options(builtin_branch_usage, options);
 
@@ -873,11 +669,9 @@
 	if (!head)
 		die(_("Failed to resolve HEAD as a valid ref."));
 	if (!strcmp(head, "HEAD"))
-		detached = 1;
+		filter.detached = 1;
 	else if (!skip_prefix(head, "refs/heads/", &head))
 		die(_("HEAD not found below refs/heads!"));
-	hashcpy(merge_filter_ref, head_sha1);
-
 
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options, builtin_branch_usage,
 			     0);
@@ -885,17 +679,17 @@
 	if (!delete && !rename && !edit_description && !new_upstream && !unset_upstream && argc == 0)
 		list = 1;
 
-	if (with_commit || merge_filter != NO_FILTER)
+	if (filter.with_commit || filter.merge != REF_FILTER_MERGED_NONE || filter.points_at.nr)
 		list = 1;
 
 	if (!!delete + !!rename + !!new_upstream +
 	    list + unset_upstream > 1)
 		usage_with_options(builtin_branch_usage, options);
 
-	if (abbrev == -1)
-		abbrev = DEFAULT_ABBREV;
+	if (filter.abbrev == -1)
+		filter.abbrev = DEFAULT_ABBREV;
 	finalize_colopts(&colopts, -1);
-	if (verbose) {
+	if (filter.verbose) {
 		if (explicitly_enable_column(colopts))
 			die(_("--column and --verbose are incompatible"));
 		colopts = 0;
@@ -909,20 +703,23 @@
 	if (delete) {
 		if (!argc)
 			die(_("branch name required"));
-		return delete_branches(argc, argv, delete > 1, kinds, quiet);
+		return delete_branches(argc, argv, delete > 1, filter.kind, quiet);
 	} else if (list) {
-		int ret = print_ref_list(kinds, detached, verbose, abbrev,
-					 with_commit, argv);
+		/*  git branch --local also shows HEAD when it is detached */
+		if ((filter.kind & FILTER_REFS_BRANCHES) && filter.detached)
+			filter.kind |= FILTER_REFS_DETACHED_HEAD;
+		filter.name_patterns = argv;
+		print_ref_list(&filter, sorting);
 		print_columns(&output, colopts, NULL);
 		string_list_clear(&output, 0);
-		return ret;
+		return 0;
 	}
 	else if (edit_description) {
 		const char *branch_name;
 		struct strbuf branch_ref = STRBUF_INIT;
 
 		if (!argc) {
-			if (detached)
+			if (filter.detached)
 				die(_("Cannot give description to detached HEAD"));
 			branch_name = head;
 		} else if (argc == 1)
@@ -1010,7 +807,7 @@
 		if (!branch)
 			die(_("no such branch '%s'"), argv[0]);
 
-		if (kinds != REF_LOCAL_BRANCH)
+		if (filter.kind != FILTER_REFS_BRANCHES)
 			die(_("-a and -r options to 'git branch' do not make sense with a branch name"));
 
 		if (track == BRANCH_TRACK_OVERRIDE)
diff --git a/builtin/cat-file.c b/builtin/cat-file.c
index 049a95f..c0fd8db 100644
--- a/builtin/cat-file.c
+++ b/builtin/cat-file.c
@@ -9,6 +9,16 @@
 #include "userdiff.h"
 #include "streaming.h"
 #include "tree-walk.h"
+#include "sha1-array.h"
+
+struct batch_options {
+	int enabled;
+	int follow_symlinks;
+	int print_contents;
+	int buffer_output;
+	int all_objects;
+	const char *format;
+};
 
 static int cat_one_file(int opt, const char *exp_type, const char *obj_name,
 			int unknown_type)
@@ -204,14 +214,25 @@
 	return end - start + 1;
 }
 
-static void print_object_or_die(int fd, struct expand_data *data)
+static void batch_write(struct batch_options *opt, const void *data, int len)
+{
+	if (opt->buffer_output) {
+		if (fwrite(data, 1, len, stdout) != len)
+			die_errno("unable to write to stdout");
+	} else
+		write_or_die(1, data, len);
+}
+
+static void print_object_or_die(struct batch_options *opt, struct expand_data *data)
 {
 	const unsigned char *sha1 = data->sha1;
 
 	assert(data->info.typep);
 
 	if (data->type == OBJ_BLOB) {
-		if (stream_blob_to_fd(fd, sha1, NULL, 0) < 0)
+		if (opt->buffer_output)
+			fflush(stdout);
+		if (stream_blob_to_fd(1, sha1, NULL, 0) < 0)
 			die("unable to stream %s to stdout", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 	}
 	else {
@@ -227,29 +248,40 @@
 		if (data->info.sizep && size != data->size)
 			die("object %s changed size!?", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 
-		write_or_die(fd, contents, size);
+		batch_write(opt, contents, size);
 		free(contents);
 	}
 }
 
-struct batch_options {
-	int enabled;
-	int follow_symlinks;
-	int print_contents;
-	const char *format;
-};
-
-static int batch_one_object(const char *obj_name, struct batch_options *opt,
-			    struct expand_data *data)
+static void batch_object_write(const char *obj_name, struct batch_options *opt,
+			       struct expand_data *data)
 {
 	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	if (sha1_object_info_extended(data->sha1, &data->info, LOOKUP_REPLACE_OBJECT) < 0) {
+		printf("%s missing\n", obj_name ? obj_name : sha1_to_hex(data->sha1));
+		fflush(stdout);
+		return;
+	}
+
+	strbuf_expand(&buf, opt->format, expand_format, data);
+	strbuf_addch(&buf, '\n');
+	batch_write(opt, buf.buf, buf.len);
+	strbuf_release(&buf);
+
+	if (opt->print_contents) {
+		print_object_or_die(opt, data);
+		batch_write(opt, "\n", 1);
+	}
+}
+
+static void batch_one_object(const char *obj_name, struct batch_options *opt,
+			     struct expand_data *data)
+{
 	struct object_context ctx;
 	int flags = opt->follow_symlinks ? GET_SHA1_FOLLOW_SYMLINKS : 0;
 	enum follow_symlinks_result result;
 
-	if (!obj_name)
-	   return 1;
-
 	result = get_sha1_with_context(obj_name, flags, data->sha1, &ctx);
 	if (result != FOUND) {
 		switch (result) {
@@ -274,7 +306,7 @@
 			break;
 		}
 		fflush(stdout);
-		return 0;
+		return;
 	}
 
 	if (ctx.mode == 0) {
@@ -282,24 +314,38 @@
 		       (uintmax_t)ctx.symlink_path.len,
 		       ctx.symlink_path.buf);
 		fflush(stdout);
-		return 0;
+		return;
 	}
 
-	if (sha1_object_info_extended(data->sha1, &data->info, LOOKUP_REPLACE_OBJECT) < 0) {
-		printf("%s missing\n", obj_name);
-		fflush(stdout);
-		return 0;
-	}
+	batch_object_write(obj_name, opt, data);
+}
 
-	strbuf_expand(&buf, opt->format, expand_format, data);
-	strbuf_addch(&buf, '\n');
-	write_or_die(1, buf.buf, buf.len);
-	strbuf_release(&buf);
+struct object_cb_data {
+	struct batch_options *opt;
+	struct expand_data *expand;
+};
 
-	if (opt->print_contents) {
-		print_object_or_die(1, data);
-		write_or_die(1, "\n", 1);
-	}
+static void batch_object_cb(const unsigned char sha1[20], void *vdata)
+{
+	struct object_cb_data *data = vdata;
+	hashcpy(data->expand->sha1, sha1);
+	batch_object_write(NULL, data->opt, data->expand);
+}
+
+static int batch_loose_object(const unsigned char *sha1,
+			      const char *path,
+			      void *data)
+{
+	sha1_array_append(data, sha1);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int batch_packed_object(const unsigned char *sha1,
+			       struct packed_git *pack,
+			       uint32_t pos,
+			       void *data)
+{
+	sha1_array_append(data, sha1);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -330,6 +376,21 @@
 	if (opt->print_contents)
 		data.info.typep = &data.type;
 
+	if (opt->all_objects) {
+		struct sha1_array sa = SHA1_ARRAY_INIT;
+		struct object_cb_data cb;
+
+		for_each_loose_object(batch_loose_object, &sa, 0);
+		for_each_packed_object(batch_packed_object, &sa, 0);
+
+		cb.opt = opt;
+		cb.expand = &data;
+		sha1_array_for_each_unique(&sa, batch_object_cb, &cb);
+
+		sha1_array_clear(&sa);
+		return 0;
+	}
+
 	/*
 	 * We are going to call get_sha1 on a potentially very large number of
 	 * objects. In most large cases, these will be actual object sha1s. The
@@ -355,9 +416,7 @@
 			data.rest = p;
 		}
 
-		retval = batch_one_object(buf.buf, opt, &data);
-		if (retval)
-			break;
+		batch_one_object(buf.buf, opt, &data);
 	}
 
 	strbuf_release(&buf);
@@ -367,7 +426,7 @@
 
 static const char * const cat_file_usage[] = {
 	N_("git cat-file (-t [--allow-unknown-type]|-s [--allow-unknown-type]|-e|-p|<type>|--textconv) <object>"),
-	N_("git cat-file (--batch | --batch-check) [--follow-symlinks] < <list-of-objects>"),
+	N_("git cat-file (--batch | --batch-check) [--follow-symlinks]"),
 	NULL
 };
 
@@ -412,8 +471,9 @@
 		OPT_CMDMODE('p', NULL, &opt, N_("pretty-print object's content"), 'p'),
 		OPT_CMDMODE(0, "textconv", &opt,
 			    N_("for blob objects, run textconv on object's content"), 'c'),
-		OPT_BOOL( 0, "allow-unknown-type", &unknown_type,
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "allow-unknown-type", &unknown_type,
 			  N_("allow -s and -t to work with broken/corrupt objects")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "buffer", &batch.buffer_output, N_("buffer --batch output")),
 		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "batch", &batch, "format",
 			N_("show info and content of objects fed from the standard input"),
 			PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, batch_option_callback },
@@ -422,6 +482,8 @@
 			PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, batch_option_callback },
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "follow-symlinks", &batch.follow_symlinks,
 			 N_("follow in-tree symlinks (used with --batch or --batch-check)")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "batch-all-objects", &batch.all_objects,
+			 N_("show all objects with --batch or --batch-check")),
 		OPT_END()
 	};
 
@@ -446,7 +508,7 @@
 		usage_with_options(cat_file_usage, options);
 	}
 
-	if (batch.follow_symlinks && !batch.enabled) {
+	if ((batch.follow_symlinks || batch.all_objects) && !batch.enabled) {
 		usage_with_options(cat_file_usage, options);
 	}
 
diff --git a/builtin/check-attr.c b/builtin/check-attr.c
index 21d2bed..265c9ba 100644
--- a/builtin/check-attr.c
+++ b/builtin/check-attr.c
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
 static int stdin_paths;
 static const char * const check_attr_usage[] = {
 N_("git check-attr [-a | --all | <attr>...] [--] <pathname>..."),
-N_("git check-attr --stdin [-z] [-a | --all | <attr>...] < <list-of-paths>"),
+N_("git check-attr --stdin [-z] [-a | --all | <attr>...]"),
 NULL
 };
 
diff --git a/builtin/check-ignore.c b/builtin/check-ignore.c
index dc8d97c..43f3617 100644
--- a/builtin/check-ignore.c
+++ b/builtin/check-ignore.c
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@
 static int quiet, verbose, stdin_paths, show_non_matching, no_index;
 static const char * const check_ignore_usage[] = {
 "git check-ignore [<options>] <pathname>...",
-"git check-ignore [<options>] --stdin < <list-of-paths>",
+"git check-ignore [<options>] --stdin",
 NULL
 };
 
diff --git a/builtin/checkout.c b/builtin/checkout.c
index 3b6e499..e8110a9 100644
--- a/builtin/checkout.c
+++ b/builtin/checkout.c
@@ -18,6 +18,7 @@
 #include "xdiff-interface.h"
 #include "ll-merge.h"
 #include "resolve-undo.h"
+#include "submodule-config.h"
 #include "submodule.h"
 
 static const char * const checkout_usage[] = {
@@ -36,6 +37,7 @@
 	int overwrite_ignore;
 	int ignore_skipworktree;
 	int ignore_other_worktrees;
+	int show_progress;
 
 	const char *new_branch;
 	const char *new_branch_force;
@@ -48,16 +50,14 @@
 	const char *prefix;
 	struct pathspec pathspec;
 	struct tree *source_tree;
-
-	int new_worktree_mode;
 };
 
 static int post_checkout_hook(struct commit *old, struct commit *new,
 			      int changed)
 {
 	return run_hook_le(NULL, "post-checkout",
-			   sha1_to_hex(old ? old->object.sha1 : null_sha1),
-			   sha1_to_hex(new ? new->object.sha1 : null_sha1),
+			   sha1_to_hex(old ? old->object.oid.hash : null_sha1),
+			   sha1_to_hex(new ? new->object.oid.hash : null_sha1),
 			   changed ? "1" : "0", NULL);
 	/* "new" can be NULL when checking out from the index before
 	   a commit exists. */
@@ -401,7 +401,7 @@
 	if (!parse_commit(commit))
 		pp_commit_easy(CMIT_FMT_ONELINE, commit, &sb);
 	fprintf(stderr, "%s %s... %s\n", msg,
-		find_unique_abbrev(commit->object.sha1, DEFAULT_ABBREV), sb.buf);
+		find_unique_abbrev(commit->object.oid.hash, DEFAULT_ABBREV), sb.buf);
 	strbuf_release(&sb);
 }
 
@@ -418,7 +418,7 @@
 	opts.reset = 1;
 	opts.merge = 1;
 	opts.fn = oneway_merge;
-	opts.verbose_update = !o->quiet && isatty(2);
+	opts.verbose_update = o->show_progress;
 	opts.src_index = &the_index;
 	opts.dst_index = &the_index;
 	parse_tree(tree);
@@ -502,18 +502,18 @@
 		topts.update = 1;
 		topts.merge = 1;
 		topts.gently = opts->merge && old->commit;
-		topts.verbose_update = !opts->quiet && isatty(2);
+		topts.verbose_update = opts->show_progress;
 		topts.fn = twoway_merge;
 		if (opts->overwrite_ignore) {
 			topts.dir = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*topts.dir));
 			topts.dir->flags |= DIR_SHOW_IGNORED;
 			setup_standard_excludes(topts.dir);
 		}
-		tree = parse_tree_indirect(old->commit && !opts->new_worktree_mode ?
-					   old->commit->object.sha1 :
+		tree = parse_tree_indirect(old->commit ?
+					   old->commit->object.oid.hash :
 					   EMPTY_TREE_SHA1_BIN);
 		init_tree_desc(&trees[0], tree->buffer, tree->size);
-		tree = parse_tree_indirect(new->commit->object.sha1);
+		tree = parse_tree_indirect(new->commit->object.oid.hash);
 		init_tree_desc(&trees[1], tree->buffer, tree->size);
 
 		ret = unpack_trees(2, trees, &topts);
@@ -612,22 +612,20 @@
 	if (opts->new_branch) {
 		if (opts->new_orphan_branch) {
 			if (opts->new_branch_log && !log_all_ref_updates) {
-				int temp;
-				struct strbuf log_file = STRBUF_INIT;
 				int ret;
-				const char *ref_name;
+				char *refname;
+				struct strbuf err = STRBUF_INIT;
 
-				ref_name = mkpath("refs/heads/%s", opts->new_orphan_branch);
-				temp = log_all_ref_updates;
-				log_all_ref_updates = 1;
-				ret = log_ref_setup(ref_name, &log_file);
-				log_all_ref_updates = temp;
-				strbuf_release(&log_file);
+				refname = mkpathdup("refs/heads/%s", opts->new_orphan_branch);
+				ret = safe_create_reflog(refname, 1, &err);
+				free(refname);
 				if (ret) {
-					fprintf(stderr, _("Can not do reflog for '%s'\n"),
-					    opts->new_orphan_branch);
+					fprintf(stderr, _("Can not do reflog for '%s': %s\n"),
+						opts->new_orphan_branch, err.buf);
+					strbuf_release(&err);
 					return;
 				}
+				strbuf_release(&err);
 			}
 		}
 		else
@@ -643,7 +641,7 @@
 
 	old_desc = old->name;
 	if (!old_desc && old->commit)
-		old_desc = sha1_to_hex(old->commit->object.sha1);
+		old_desc = oid_to_hex(&old->commit->object.oid);
 
 	reflog_msg = getenv("GIT_REFLOG_ACTION");
 	if (!reflog_msg)
@@ -655,7 +653,7 @@
 	if (!strcmp(new->name, "HEAD") && !new->path && !opts->force_detach) {
 		/* Nothing to do. */
 	} else if (opts->force_detach || !new->path) {	/* No longer on any branch. */
-		update_ref(msg.buf, "HEAD", new->commit->object.sha1, NULL,
+		update_ref(msg.buf, "HEAD", new->commit->object.oid.hash, NULL,
 			   REF_NODEREF, UPDATE_REFS_DIE_ON_ERR);
 		if (!opts->quiet) {
 			if (old->path && advice_detached_head)
@@ -706,7 +704,7 @@
 {
 	strbuf_addstr(sb, "  ");
 	strbuf_addstr(sb,
-		find_unique_abbrev(commit->object.sha1, DEFAULT_ABBREV));
+		find_unique_abbrev(commit->object.oid.hash, DEFAULT_ABBREV));
 	strbuf_addch(sb, ' ');
 	if (!parse_commit(commit))
 		pp_commit_easy(CMIT_FMT_ONELINE, commit, sb);
@@ -764,7 +762,7 @@
 			" git branch <new-branch-name> %s\n\n",
 			/* Give ngettext() the count */
 			lost),
-			find_unique_abbrev(commit->object.sha1, DEFAULT_ABBREV));
+			find_unique_abbrev(commit->object.oid.hash, DEFAULT_ABBREV));
 }
 
 /*
@@ -782,10 +780,10 @@
 	setup_revisions(0, NULL, &revs, NULL);
 
 	object->flags &= ~UNINTERESTING;
-	add_pending_object(&revs, object, sha1_to_hex(object->sha1));
+	add_pending_object(&revs, object, oid_to_hex(&object->oid));
 
 	for_each_ref(add_pending_uninteresting_ref, &revs);
-	add_pending_sha1(&revs, "HEAD", new->object.sha1, UNINTERESTING);
+	add_pending_sha1(&revs, "HEAD", new->object.oid.hash, UNINTERESTING);
 
 	refs = revs.pending;
 	revs.leak_pending = 1;
@@ -832,8 +830,7 @@
 		return ret;
 	}
 
-	if (!opts->quiet && !old.path && old.commit &&
-	    new->commit != old.commit && !opts->new_worktree_mode)
+	if (!opts->quiet && !old.path && old.commit && new->commit != old.commit)
 		orphaned_commit_warning(old.commit, new->commit);
 
 	update_refs_for_switch(opts, &old, new);
@@ -898,71 +895,6 @@
 	return NULL;
 }
 
-static void check_linked_checkout(struct branch_info *new, const char *id)
-{
-	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
-	struct strbuf path = STRBUF_INIT;
-	struct strbuf gitdir = STRBUF_INIT;
-	const char *start, *end;
-
-	if (id)
-		strbuf_addf(&path, "%s/worktrees/%s/HEAD", get_git_common_dir(), id);
-	else
-		strbuf_addf(&path, "%s/HEAD", get_git_common_dir());
-
-	if (strbuf_read_file(&sb, path.buf, 0) < 0 ||
-	    !skip_prefix(sb.buf, "ref:", &start))
-		goto done;
-	while (isspace(*start))
-		start++;
-	end = start;
-	while (*end && !isspace(*end))
-		end++;
-	if (strncmp(start, new->path, end - start) || new->path[end - start] != '\0')
-		goto done;
-	if (id) {
-		strbuf_reset(&path);
-		strbuf_addf(&path, "%s/worktrees/%s/gitdir", get_git_common_dir(), id);
-		if (strbuf_read_file(&gitdir, path.buf, 0) <= 0)
-			goto done;
-		strbuf_rtrim(&gitdir);
-	} else
-		strbuf_addstr(&gitdir, get_git_common_dir());
-	die(_("'%s' is already checked out at '%s'"), new->name, gitdir.buf);
-done:
-	strbuf_release(&path);
-	strbuf_release(&sb);
-	strbuf_release(&gitdir);
-}
-
-static void check_linked_checkouts(struct branch_info *new)
-{
-	struct strbuf path = STRBUF_INIT;
-	DIR *dir;
-	struct dirent *d;
-
-	strbuf_addf(&path, "%s/worktrees", get_git_common_dir());
-	if ((dir = opendir(path.buf)) == NULL) {
-		strbuf_release(&path);
-		return;
-	}
-
-	/*
-	 * $GIT_COMMON_DIR/HEAD is practically outside
-	 * $GIT_DIR so resolve_ref_unsafe() won't work (it
-	 * uses git_path). Parse the ref ourselves.
-	 */
-	check_linked_checkout(new, NULL);
-
-	while ((d = readdir(dir)) != NULL) {
-		if (!strcmp(d->d_name, ".") || !strcmp(d->d_name, ".."))
-			continue;
-		check_linked_checkout(new, d->d_name);
-	}
-	strbuf_release(&path);
-	closedir(dir);
-}
-
 static int parse_branchname_arg(int argc, const char **argv,
 				int dwim_new_local_branch_ok,
 				struct branch_info *new,
@@ -1170,14 +1102,14 @@
 		die(_("Cannot switch branch to a non-commit '%s'"),
 		    new->name);
 
-	if (new->path && !opts->force_detach && !opts->new_branch) {
+	if (new->path && !opts->force_detach && !opts->new_branch &&
+	    !opts->ignore_other_worktrees) {
 		unsigned char sha1[20];
 		int flag;
 		char *head_ref = resolve_refdup("HEAD", 0, sha1, &flag);
 		if (head_ref &&
-		    (!(flag & REF_ISSYMREF) || strcmp(head_ref, new->path)) &&
-		    !opts->ignore_other_worktrees)
-			check_linked_checkouts(new);
+		    (!(flag & REF_ISSYMREF) || strcmp(head_ref, new->path)))
+			die_if_checked_out(new->path);
 		free(head_ref);
 	}
 
@@ -1225,6 +1157,7 @@
 				N_("second guess 'git checkout <no-such-branch>'")),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "ignore-other-worktrees", &opts.ignore_other_worktrees,
 			 N_("do not check if another worktree is holding the given ref")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "progress", &opts.show_progress, N_("force progress reporting")),
 		OPT_END(),
 	};
 
@@ -1232,6 +1165,7 @@
 	memset(&new, 0, sizeof(new));
 	opts.overwrite_ignore = 1;
 	opts.prefix = prefix;
+	opts.show_progress = -1;
 
 	gitmodules_config();
 	git_config(git_checkout_config, &opts);
@@ -1241,7 +1175,12 @@
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options, checkout_usage,
 			     PARSE_OPT_KEEP_DASHDASH);
 
-	opts.new_worktree_mode = getenv("GIT_CHECKOUT_NEW_WORKTREE") != NULL;
+	if (opts.show_progress < 0) {
+		if (opts.quiet)
+			opts.show_progress = 0;
+		else
+			opts.show_progress = isatty(2);
+	}
 
 	if (conflict_style) {
 		opts.merge = 1; /* implied */
diff --git a/builtin/clean.c b/builtin/clean.c
index 6dcb72e..919157b 100644
--- a/builtin/clean.c
+++ b/builtin/clean.c
@@ -10,7 +10,6 @@
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "dir.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
-#include "refs.h"
 #include "string-list.h"
 #include "quote.h"
 #include "column.h"
@@ -155,13 +154,11 @@
 	struct strbuf quoted = STRBUF_INIT;
 	struct dirent *e;
 	int res = 0, ret = 0, gone = 1, original_len = path->len, len;
-	unsigned char submodule_head[20];
 	struct string_list dels = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
 
 	*dir_gone = 1;
 
-	if ((force_flag & REMOVE_DIR_KEEP_NESTED_GIT) &&
-			!resolve_gitlink_ref(path->buf, "HEAD", submodule_head)) {
+	if ((force_flag & REMOVE_DIR_KEEP_NESTED_GIT) && is_nonbare_repository_dir(path)) {
 		if (!quiet) {
 			quote_path_relative(path->buf, prefix, &quoted);
 			printf(dry_run ?  _(msg_would_skip_git_dir) : _(msg_skip_git_dir),
@@ -184,8 +181,7 @@
 		return res;
 	}
 
-	if (path->buf[original_len - 1] != '/')
-		strbuf_addch(path, '/');
+	strbuf_complete(path, '/');
 
 	len = path->len;
 	while ((e = readdir(dir)) != NULL) {
diff --git a/builtin/clone.c b/builtin/clone.c
index 53cf545..a0b3cd9 100644
--- a/builtin/clone.c
+++ b/builtin/clone.c
@@ -99,77 +99,130 @@
 	"submodule", "update", "--init", "--recursive", NULL
 };
 
-static char *get_repo_path(const char *repo, int *is_bundle)
+static const char *get_repo_path_1(struct strbuf *path, int *is_bundle)
 {
 	static char *suffix[] = { "/.git", "", ".git/.git", ".git" };
 	static char *bundle_suffix[] = { ".bundle", "" };
+	size_t baselen = path->len;
 	struct stat st;
 	int i;
 
 	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(suffix); i++) {
-		const char *path;
-		path = mkpath("%s%s", repo, suffix[i]);
-		if (stat(path, &st))
+		strbuf_setlen(path, baselen);
+		strbuf_addstr(path, suffix[i]);
+		if (stat(path->buf, &st))
 			continue;
-		if (S_ISDIR(st.st_mode) && is_git_directory(path)) {
+		if (S_ISDIR(st.st_mode) && is_git_directory(path->buf)) {
 			*is_bundle = 0;
-			return xstrdup(absolute_path(path));
+			return path->buf;
 		} else if (S_ISREG(st.st_mode) && st.st_size > 8) {
 			/* Is it a "gitfile"? */
 			char signature[8];
-			int len, fd = open(path, O_RDONLY);
+			const char *dst;
+			int len, fd = open(path->buf, O_RDONLY);
 			if (fd < 0)
 				continue;
 			len = read_in_full(fd, signature, 8);
 			close(fd);
 			if (len != 8 || strncmp(signature, "gitdir: ", 8))
 				continue;
-			path = read_gitfile(path);
-			if (path) {
+			dst = read_gitfile(path->buf);
+			if (dst) {
 				*is_bundle = 0;
-				return xstrdup(absolute_path(path));
+				return dst;
 			}
 		}
 	}
 
 	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(bundle_suffix); i++) {
-		const char *path;
-		path = mkpath("%s%s", repo, bundle_suffix[i]);
-		if (!stat(path, &st) && S_ISREG(st.st_mode)) {
+		strbuf_setlen(path, baselen);
+		strbuf_addstr(path, bundle_suffix[i]);
+		if (!stat(path->buf, &st) && S_ISREG(st.st_mode)) {
 			*is_bundle = 1;
-			return xstrdup(absolute_path(path));
+			return path->buf;
 		}
 	}
 
 	return NULL;
 }
 
+static char *get_repo_path(const char *repo, int *is_bundle)
+{
+	struct strbuf path = STRBUF_INIT;
+	const char *raw;
+	char *canon;
+
+	strbuf_addstr(&path, repo);
+	raw = get_repo_path_1(&path, is_bundle);
+	canon = raw ? xstrdup(absolute_path(raw)) : NULL;
+	strbuf_release(&path);
+	return canon;
+}
+
 static char *guess_dir_name(const char *repo, int is_bundle, int is_bare)
 {
-	const char *end = repo + strlen(repo), *start;
+	const char *end = repo + strlen(repo), *start, *ptr;
 	size_t len;
 	char *dir;
 
 	/*
+	 * Skip scheme.
+	 */
+	start = strstr(repo, "://");
+	if (start == NULL)
+		start = repo;
+	else
+		start += 3;
+
+	/*
+	 * Skip authentication data. The stripping does happen
+	 * greedily, such that we strip up to the last '@' inside
+	 * the host part.
+	 */
+	for (ptr = start; ptr < end && !is_dir_sep(*ptr); ptr++) {
+		if (*ptr == '@')
+			start = ptr + 1;
+	}
+
+	/*
 	 * Strip trailing spaces, slashes and /.git
 	 */
-	while (repo < end && (is_dir_sep(end[-1]) || isspace(end[-1])))
+	while (start < end && (is_dir_sep(end[-1]) || isspace(end[-1])))
 		end--;
-	if (end - repo > 5 && is_dir_sep(end[-5]) &&
+	if (end - start > 5 && is_dir_sep(end[-5]) &&
 	    !strncmp(end - 4, ".git", 4)) {
 		end -= 5;
-		while (repo < end && is_dir_sep(end[-1]))
+		while (start < end && is_dir_sep(end[-1]))
 			end--;
 	}
 
 	/*
-	 * Find last component, but be prepared that repo could have
-	 * the form  "remote.example.com:foo.git", i.e. no slash
-	 * in the directory part.
+	 * Strip trailing port number if we've got only a
+	 * hostname (that is, there is no dir separator but a
+	 * colon). This check is required such that we do not
+	 * strip URI's like '/foo/bar:2222.git', which should
+	 * result in a dir '2222' being guessed due to backwards
+	 * compatibility.
 	 */
-	start = end;
-	while (repo < start && !is_dir_sep(start[-1]) && start[-1] != ':')
-		start--;
+	if (memchr(start, '/', end - start) == NULL
+	    && memchr(start, ':', end - start) != NULL) {
+		ptr = end;
+		while (start < ptr && isdigit(ptr[-1]) && ptr[-1] != ':')
+			ptr--;
+		if (start < ptr && ptr[-1] == ':')
+			end = ptr - 1;
+	}
+
+	/*
+	 * Find last component. To remain backwards compatible we
+	 * also regard colons as path separators, such that
+	 * cloning a repository 'foo:bar.git' would result in a
+	 * directory 'bar' being guessed.
+	 */
+	ptr = end;
+	while (start < ptr && !is_dir_sep(ptr[-1]) && ptr[-1] != ':')
+		ptr--;
+	start = ptr;
 
 	/*
 	 * Strip .{bundle,git}.
@@ -177,6 +230,10 @@
 	len = end - start;
 	strip_suffix_mem(start, &len, is_bundle ? ".bundle" : ".git");
 
+	if (!len || (len == 1 && *start == '/'))
+	    die("No directory name could be guessed.\n"
+		"Please specify a directory on the command line");
+
 	if (is_bare)
 		dir = xstrfmt("%.*s.git", (int)len, start);
 	else
@@ -237,9 +294,14 @@
 		char *ref_git_git = mkpathdup("%s/.git", ref_git);
 		free(ref_git);
 		ref_git = ref_git_git;
-	} else if (!is_directory(mkpath("%s/objects", ref_git)))
+	} else if (!is_directory(mkpath("%s/objects", ref_git))) {
+		struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+		if (get_common_dir(&sb, ref_git))
+			die(_("reference repository '%s' as a linked checkout is not supported yet."),
+			    item->string);
 		die(_("reference repository '%s' is not a local repository."),
 		    item->string);
+	}
 
 	if (!access(mkpath("%s/shallow", ref_git), F_OK))
 		die(_("reference repository '%s' is shallow"), item->string);
@@ -367,8 +429,10 @@
 	} else {
 		struct strbuf src = STRBUF_INIT;
 		struct strbuf dest = STRBUF_INIT;
-		strbuf_addf(&src, "%s/objects", src_repo);
-		strbuf_addf(&dest, "%s/objects", dest_repo);
+		get_common_dir(&src, src_repo);
+		get_common_dir(&dest, dest_repo);
+		strbuf_addstr(&src, "/objects");
+		strbuf_addstr(&dest, "/objects");
 		copy_or_link_directory(&src, &dest, src_repo, src.len);
 		strbuf_release(&src);
 		strbuf_release(&dest);
@@ -485,16 +549,26 @@
 {
 	const struct ref *r;
 
-	lock_packed_refs(LOCK_DIE_ON_ERROR);
+	struct ref_transaction *t;
+	struct strbuf err = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+	t = ref_transaction_begin(&err);
+	if (!t)
+		die("%s", err.buf);
 
 	for (r = local_refs; r; r = r->next) {
 		if (!r->peer_ref)
 			continue;
-		add_packed_ref(r->peer_ref->name, r->old_sha1);
+		if (ref_transaction_create(t, r->peer_ref->name, r->old_oid.hash,
+					   0, NULL, &err))
+			die("%s", err.buf);
 	}
 
-	if (commit_packed_refs())
-		die_errno("unable to overwrite old ref-pack file");
+	if (initial_ref_transaction_commit(t, &err))
+		die("%s", err.buf);
+
+	strbuf_release(&err);
+	ref_transaction_free(t);
 }
 
 static void write_followtags(const struct ref *refs, const char *msg)
@@ -505,9 +579,9 @@
 			continue;
 		if (ends_with(ref->name, "^{}"))
 			continue;
-		if (!has_sha1_file(ref->old_sha1))
+		if (!has_object_file(&ref->old_oid))
 			continue;
-		update_ref(msg, ref->name, ref->old_sha1,
+		update_ref(msg, ref->name, ref->old_oid.hash,
 			   NULL, 0, UPDATE_REFS_DIE_ON_ERR);
 	}
 }
@@ -527,7 +601,7 @@
 	if (!ref)
 		return -1;
 
-	hashcpy(sha1, ref->old_sha1);
+	hashcpy(sha1, ref->old_oid.hash);
 	*rm = ref->next;
 	return 0;
 }
@@ -576,14 +650,14 @@
 		/* Local default branch link */
 		create_symref("HEAD", our->name, NULL);
 		if (!option_bare) {
-			update_ref(msg, "HEAD", our->old_sha1, NULL, 0,
+			update_ref(msg, "HEAD", our->old_oid.hash, NULL, 0,
 				   UPDATE_REFS_DIE_ON_ERR);
 			install_branch_config(0, head, option_origin, our->name);
 		}
 	} else if (our) {
-		struct commit *c = lookup_commit_reference(our->old_sha1);
+		struct commit *c = lookup_commit_reference(our->old_oid.hash);
 		/* --branch specifies a non-branch (i.e. tags), detach HEAD */
-		update_ref(msg, "HEAD", c->object.sha1,
+		update_ref(msg, "HEAD", c->object.oid.hash,
 			   NULL, REF_NODEREF, UPDATE_REFS_DIE_ON_ERR);
 	} else if (remote) {
 		/*
@@ -591,7 +665,7 @@
 		 * HEAD points to a branch but we don't know which one.
 		 * Detach HEAD in all these cases.
 		 */
-		update_ref(msg, "HEAD", remote->old_sha1,
+		update_ref(msg, "HEAD", remote->old_oid.hash,
 			   NULL, REF_NODEREF, UPDATE_REFS_DIE_ON_ERR);
 	}
 }
@@ -727,11 +801,15 @@
 static void dissociate_from_references(void)
 {
 	static const char* argv[] = { "repack", "-a", "-d", NULL };
+	char *alternates = git_pathdup("objects/info/alternates");
 
-	if (run_command_v_opt(argv, RUN_GIT_CMD|RUN_COMMAND_NO_STDIN))
-		die(_("cannot repack to clean up"));
-	if (unlink(git_path("objects/info/alternates")) && errno != ENOENT)
-		die_errno(_("cannot unlink temporary alternates file"));
+	if (!access(alternates, F_OK)) {
+		if (run_command_v_opt(argv, RUN_GIT_CMD|RUN_COMMAND_NO_STDIN))
+			die(_("cannot repack to clean up"));
+		if (unlink(alternates) && errno != ENOENT)
+			die_errno(_("cannot unlink temporary alternates file"));
+	}
+	free(alternates);
 }
 
 int cmd_clone(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
@@ -880,10 +958,6 @@
 
 	if (option_reference.nr)
 		setup_reference();
-	else if (option_dissociate) {
-		warning(_("--dissociate given, but there is no --reference"));
-		option_dissociate = 0;
-	}
 
 	fetch_pattern = value.buf;
 	refspec = parse_fetch_refspec(1, &fetch_pattern);
@@ -942,7 +1016,7 @@
 		 * remote HEAD check.
 		 */
 		for (ref = refs; ref; ref = ref->next)
-			if (is_null_sha1(ref->old_sha1)) {
+			if (is_null_oid(&ref->old_oid)) {
 				complete_refs_before_fetch = 0;
 				break;
 			}
@@ -997,8 +1071,10 @@
 	transport_unlock_pack(transport);
 	transport_disconnect(transport);
 
-	if (option_dissociate)
+	if (option_dissociate) {
+		close_all_packs();
 		dissociate_from_references();
+	}
 
 	junk_mode = JUNK_LEAVE_REPO;
 	err = checkout();
diff --git a/builtin/commit-tree.c b/builtin/commit-tree.c
index 25aa2cd..3feeffe 100644
--- a/builtin/commit-tree.c
+++ b/builtin/commit-tree.c
@@ -10,17 +10,17 @@
 #include "utf8.h"
 #include "gpg-interface.h"
 
-static const char commit_tree_usage[] = "git commit-tree [(-p <sha1>)...] [-S[<keyid>]] [-m <message>] [-F <file>] <sha1> <changelog";
+static const char commit_tree_usage[] = "git commit-tree [(-p <sha1>)...] [-S[<keyid>]] [-m <message>] [-F <file>] <sha1>";
 
 static const char *sign_commit;
 
 static void new_parent(struct commit *parent, struct commit_list **parents_p)
 {
-	unsigned char *sha1 = parent->object.sha1;
+	struct object_id *oid = &parent->object.oid;
 	struct commit_list *parents;
 	for (parents = *parents_p; parents; parents = parents->next) {
 		if (parents->item == parent) {
-			error("duplicate parent %s ignored", sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+			error("duplicate parent %s ignored", oid_to_hex(oid));
 			return;
 		}
 		parents_p = &parents->next;
diff --git a/builtin/commit.c b/builtin/commit.c
index 1692620..89bf6ad 100644
--- a/builtin/commit.c
+++ b/builtin/commit.c
@@ -32,6 +32,7 @@
 #include "sequencer.h"
 #include "notes-utils.h"
 #include "mailmap.h"
+#include "sigchain.h"
 
 static const char * const builtin_commit_usage[] = {
 	N_("git commit [<options>] [--] <pathspec>..."),
@@ -166,9 +167,9 @@
 
 static void determine_whence(struct wt_status *s)
 {
-	if (file_exists(git_path("MERGE_HEAD")))
+	if (file_exists(git_path_merge_head()))
 		whence = FROM_MERGE;
-	else if (file_exists(git_path("CHERRY_PICK_HEAD"))) {
+	else if (file_exists(git_path_cherry_pick_head())) {
 		whence = FROM_CHERRY_PICK;
 		if (file_exists(git_path(SEQ_DIR)))
 			sequencer_in_use = 1;
@@ -299,7 +300,7 @@
 	opts.dst_index = &the_index;
 
 	opts.fn = oneway_merge;
-	tree = parse_tree_indirect(current_head->object.sha1);
+	tree = parse_tree_indirect(current_head->object.oid.hash);
 	if (!tree)
 		die(_("failed to unpack HEAD tree object"));
 	parse_tree(tree);
@@ -324,6 +325,7 @@
 	struct string_list partial;
 	struct pathspec pathspec;
 	int refresh_flags = REFRESH_QUIET;
+	const char *ret;
 
 	if (is_status)
 		refresh_flags |= REFRESH_UNMERGED;
@@ -344,7 +346,7 @@
 			die(_("unable to create temporary index"));
 
 		old_index_env = getenv(INDEX_ENVIRONMENT);
-		setenv(INDEX_ENVIRONMENT, index_lock.filename.buf, 1);
+		setenv(INDEX_ENVIRONMENT, get_lock_file_path(&index_lock), 1);
 
 		if (interactive_add(argc, argv, prefix, patch_interactive) != 0)
 			die(_("interactive add failed"));
@@ -355,7 +357,7 @@
 			unsetenv(INDEX_ENVIRONMENT);
 
 		discard_cache();
-		read_cache_from(index_lock.filename.buf);
+		read_cache_from(get_lock_file_path(&index_lock));
 		if (update_main_cache_tree(WRITE_TREE_SILENT) == 0) {
 			if (reopen_lock_file(&index_lock) < 0)
 				die(_("unable to write index file"));
@@ -365,7 +367,7 @@
 			warning(_("Failed to update main cache tree"));
 
 		commit_style = COMMIT_NORMAL;
-		return index_lock.filename.buf;
+		return get_lock_file_path(&index_lock);
 	}
 
 	/*
@@ -388,7 +390,7 @@
 		if (write_locked_index(&the_index, &index_lock, CLOSE_LOCK))
 			die(_("unable to write new_index file"));
 		commit_style = COMMIT_NORMAL;
-		return index_lock.filename.buf;
+		return get_lock_file_path(&index_lock);
 	}
 
 	/*
@@ -473,9 +475,9 @@
 		die(_("unable to write temporary index file"));
 
 	discard_cache();
-	read_cache_from(false_lock.filename.buf);
-
-	return false_lock.filename.buf;
+	ret = get_lock_file_path(&false_lock);
+	read_cache_from(ret);
+	return ret;
 }
 
 static int run_status(FILE *fp, const char *index_file, const char *prefix, int nowarn,
@@ -723,12 +725,12 @@
 		format_commit_message(commit, "fixup! %s\n\n",
 				      &sb, &ctx);
 		hook_arg1 = "message";
-	} else if (!stat(git_path("MERGE_MSG"), &statbuf)) {
-		if (strbuf_read_file(&sb, git_path("MERGE_MSG"), 0) < 0)
+	} else if (!stat(git_path_merge_msg(), &statbuf)) {
+		if (strbuf_read_file(&sb, git_path_merge_msg(), 0) < 0)
 			die_errno(_("could not read MERGE_MSG"));
 		hook_arg1 = "merge";
-	} else if (!stat(git_path("SQUASH_MSG"), &statbuf)) {
-		if (strbuf_read_file(&sb, git_path("SQUASH_MSG"), 0) < 0)
+	} else if (!stat(git_path_squash_msg(), &statbuf)) {
+		if (strbuf_read_file(&sb, git_path_squash_msg(), 0) < 0)
 			die_errno(_("could not read SQUASH_MSG"));
 		hook_arg1 = "squash";
 	} else if (template_file) {
@@ -759,7 +761,7 @@
 		hook_arg2 = "";
 	}
 
-	s->fp = fopen(git_path(commit_editmsg), "w");
+	s->fp = fopen_for_writing(git_path(commit_editmsg));
 	if (s->fp == NULL)
 		die_errno(_("could not open '%s'"), git_path(commit_editmsg));
 
@@ -774,7 +776,7 @@
 	s->hints = 0;
 
 	if (clean_message_contents)
-		stripspace(&sb, 0);
+		strbuf_stripspace(&sb, 0);
 
 	if (signoff)
 		append_signoff(&sb, ignore_non_trailer(&sb), 0);
@@ -854,7 +856,7 @@
 				_("%s"
 				"Date:      %s"),
 				ident_shown++ ? "" : "\n",
-				show_ident_date(&ai, DATE_NORMAL));
+				show_ident_date(&ai, DATE_MODE(NORMAL)));
 
 		if (!committer_ident_sufficiently_given())
 			status_printf_ln(s, GIT_COLOR_NORMAL,
@@ -1013,7 +1015,7 @@
 	if (!template_file || strbuf_read_file(&tmpl, template_file, 0) <= 0)
 		return 0;
 
-	stripspace(&tmpl, cleanup_mode == CLEANUP_ALL);
+	strbuf_stripspace(&tmpl, cleanup_mode == CLEANUP_ALL);
 	if (!skip_prefix(sb->buf, tmpl.buf, &start))
 		start = sb->buf;
 	strbuf_release(&tmpl);
@@ -1044,7 +1046,7 @@
 	commit = get_revision(&revs);
 	if (commit) {
 		struct pretty_print_context ctx = {0};
-		ctx.date_mode = DATE_NORMAL;
+		ctx.date_mode.type = DATE_NORMAL;
 		strbuf_release(&buf);
 		format_commit_message(commit, "%aN <%aE>", &buf, &ctx);
 		clear_mailmap(&mailmap);
@@ -1536,8 +1538,10 @@
 		return code;
 	n = snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%s %s\n",
 		     sha1_to_hex(oldsha1), sha1_to_hex(newsha1));
+	sigchain_push(SIGPIPE, SIG_IGN);
 	write_in_full(proc.in, buf, n);
 	close(proc.in);
+	sigchain_pop(SIGPIPE);
 	return finish_command(&proc);
 }
 
@@ -1682,10 +1686,10 @@
 		if (!reflog_msg)
 			reflog_msg = "commit (merge)";
 		pptr = &commit_list_insert(current_head, pptr)->next;
-		fp = fopen(git_path("MERGE_HEAD"), "r");
+		fp = fopen(git_path_merge_head(), "r");
 		if (fp == NULL)
 			die_errno(_("could not open '%s' for reading"),
-				  git_path("MERGE_HEAD"));
+				  git_path_merge_head());
 		while (strbuf_getline(&m, fp, '\n') != EOF) {
 			struct commit *parent;
 
@@ -1696,8 +1700,8 @@
 		}
 		fclose(fp);
 		strbuf_release(&m);
-		if (!stat(git_path("MERGE_MODE"), &statbuf)) {
-			if (strbuf_read_file(&sb, git_path("MERGE_MODE"), 0) < 0)
+		if (!stat(git_path_merge_mode(), &statbuf)) {
+			if (strbuf_read_file(&sb, git_path_merge_mode(), 0) < 0)
 				die_errno(_("could not read MERGE_MODE"));
 			if (!strcmp(sb.buf, "no-ff"))
 				allow_fast_forward = 0;
@@ -1725,7 +1729,7 @@
 		wt_status_truncate_message_at_cut_line(&sb);
 
 	if (cleanup_mode != CLEANUP_NONE)
-		stripspace(&sb, cleanup_mode == CLEANUP_ALL);
+		strbuf_stripspace(&sb, cleanup_mode == CLEANUP_ALL);
 	if (template_untouched(&sb) && !allow_empty_message) {
 		rollback_index_files();
 		fprintf(stderr, _("Aborting commit; you did not edit the message.\n"));
@@ -1765,7 +1769,7 @@
 	if (!transaction ||
 	    ref_transaction_update(transaction, "HEAD", sha1,
 				   current_head
-				   ? current_head->object.sha1 : null_sha1,
+				   ? current_head->object.oid.hash : null_sha1,
 				   0, sb.buf, &err) ||
 	    ref_transaction_commit(transaction, &err)) {
 		rollback_index_files();
@@ -1773,12 +1777,12 @@
 	}
 	ref_transaction_free(transaction);
 
-	unlink(git_path("CHERRY_PICK_HEAD"));
-	unlink(git_path("REVERT_HEAD"));
-	unlink(git_path("MERGE_HEAD"));
-	unlink(git_path("MERGE_MSG"));
-	unlink(git_path("MERGE_MODE"));
-	unlink(git_path("SQUASH_MSG"));
+	unlink(git_path_cherry_pick_head());
+	unlink(git_path_revert_head());
+	unlink(git_path_merge_head());
+	unlink(git_path_merge_msg());
+	unlink(git_path_merge_mode());
+	unlink(git_path_squash_msg());
 
 	if (commit_index_files())
 		die (_("Repository has been updated, but unable to write\n"
@@ -1792,10 +1796,10 @@
 		cfg = init_copy_notes_for_rewrite("amend");
 		if (cfg) {
 			/* we are amending, so current_head is not NULL */
-			copy_note_for_rewrite(cfg, current_head->object.sha1, sha1);
+			copy_note_for_rewrite(cfg, current_head->object.oid.hash, sha1);
 			finish_copy_notes_for_rewrite(cfg, "Notes added by 'git commit --amend'");
 		}
-		run_rewrite_hook(current_head->object.sha1, sha1);
+		run_rewrite_hook(current_head->object.oid.hash, sha1);
 	}
 	if (!quiet)
 		print_summary(prefix, sha1, !current_head);
diff --git a/builtin/config.c b/builtin/config.c
index 7188405..adc7727 100644
--- a/builtin/config.c
+++ b/builtin/config.c
@@ -13,6 +13,7 @@
 static regex_t *key_regexp;
 static regex_t *regexp;
 static int show_keys;
+static int omit_values;
 static int use_key_regexp;
 static int do_all;
 static int do_not_match;
@@ -78,6 +79,7 @@
 	OPT_BIT(0, "path", &types, N_("value is a path (file or directory name)"), TYPE_PATH),
 	OPT_GROUP(N_("Other")),
 	OPT_BOOL('z', "null", &end_null, N_("terminate values with NUL byte")),
+	OPT_BOOL(0, "name-only", &omit_values, N_("show variable names only")),
 	OPT_BOOL(0, "includes", &respect_includes, N_("respect include directives on lookup")),
 	OPT_END(),
 };
@@ -91,7 +93,7 @@
 
 static int show_all_config(const char *key_, const char *value_, void *cb)
 {
-	if (value_)
+	if (!omit_values && value_)
 		printf("%s%c%s%c", key_, delim, value_, term);
 	else
 		printf("%s%c", key_, term);
@@ -106,48 +108,40 @@
 
 static int format_config(struct strbuf *buf, const char *key_, const char *value_)
 {
-	int must_free_vptr = 0;
-	int must_print_delim = 0;
-	char value[256];
-	const char *vptr = value;
-
-	strbuf_init(buf, 0);
-
-	if (show_keys) {
+	if (show_keys)
 		strbuf_addstr(buf, key_);
-		must_print_delim = 1;
-	}
-	if (types == TYPE_INT)
-		sprintf(value, "%"PRId64,
-			git_config_int64(key_, value_ ? value_ : ""));
-	else if (types == TYPE_BOOL)
-		vptr = git_config_bool(key_, value_) ? "true" : "false";
-	else if (types == TYPE_BOOL_OR_INT) {
-		int is_bool, v;
-		v = git_config_bool_or_int(key_, value_, &is_bool);
-		if (is_bool)
-			vptr = v ? "true" : "false";
-		else
-			sprintf(value, "%d", v);
-	} else if (types == TYPE_PATH) {
-		if (git_config_pathname(&vptr, key_, value_) < 0)
-			return -1;
-		must_free_vptr = 1;
-	} else if (value_) {
-		vptr = value_;
-	} else {
-		/* Just show the key name */
-		vptr = "";
-		must_print_delim = 0;
-	}
+	if (!omit_values) {
+		if (show_keys)
+			strbuf_addch(buf, key_delim);
 
-	if (must_print_delim)
-		strbuf_addch(buf, key_delim);
-	strbuf_addstr(buf, vptr);
+		if (types == TYPE_INT)
+			strbuf_addf(buf, "%"PRId64,
+				    git_config_int64(key_, value_ ? value_ : ""));
+		else if (types == TYPE_BOOL)
+			strbuf_addstr(buf, git_config_bool(key_, value_) ?
+				      "true" : "false");
+		else if (types == TYPE_BOOL_OR_INT) {
+			int is_bool, v;
+			v = git_config_bool_or_int(key_, value_, &is_bool);
+			if (is_bool)
+				strbuf_addstr(buf, v ? "true" : "false");
+			else
+				strbuf_addf(buf, "%d", v);
+		} else if (types == TYPE_PATH) {
+			const char *v;
+			if (git_config_pathname(&v, key_, value_) < 0)
+				return -1;
+			strbuf_addstr(buf, v);
+			free((char *)v);
+		} else if (value_) {
+			strbuf_addstr(buf, value_);
+		} else {
+			/* Just show the key name; back out delimiter */
+			if (show_keys)
+				strbuf_setlen(buf, buf->len - 1);
+		}
+	}
 	strbuf_addch(buf, term);
-
-	if (must_free_vptr)
-		free((char *)vptr);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -164,6 +158,7 @@
 		return 0;
 
 	ALLOC_GROW(values->items, values->nr + 1, values->alloc);
+	strbuf_init(&values->items[values->nr], 0);
 
 	return format_config(&values->items[values->nr++], key_, value_);
 }
@@ -251,8 +246,6 @@
 
 static char *normalize_value(const char *key, const char *value)
 {
-	char *normalized;
-
 	if (!value)
 		return NULL;
 
@@ -263,27 +256,21 @@
 		 * "~/foobar/" in the config file, and to expand the ~
 		 * when retrieving the value.
 		 */
-		normalized = xstrdup(value);
-	else {
-		normalized = xmalloc(64);
-		if (types == TYPE_INT) {
-			int64_t v = git_config_int64(key, value);
-			sprintf(normalized, "%"PRId64, v);
-		}
-		else if (types == TYPE_BOOL)
-			sprintf(normalized, "%s",
-				git_config_bool(key, value) ? "true" : "false");
-		else if (types == TYPE_BOOL_OR_INT) {
-			int is_bool, v;
-			v = git_config_bool_or_int(key, value, &is_bool);
-			if (!is_bool)
-				sprintf(normalized, "%d", v);
-			else
-				sprintf(normalized, "%s", v ? "true" : "false");
-		}
+		return xstrdup(value);
+	if (types == TYPE_INT)
+		return xstrfmt("%"PRId64, git_config_int64(key, value));
+	if (types == TYPE_BOOL)
+		return xstrdup(git_config_bool(key, value) ?  "true" : "false");
+	if (types == TYPE_BOOL_OR_INT) {
+		int is_bool, v;
+		v = git_config_bool_or_int(key, value, &is_bool);
+		if (!is_bool)
+			return xstrfmt("%d", v);
+		else
+			return xstrdup(v ? "true" : "false");
 	}
 
-	return normalized;
+	die("BUG: cannot normalize type %d", types);
 }
 
 static int get_color_found;
@@ -430,14 +417,11 @@
 
 	for_each_string_list_item(item, &values) {
 		struct urlmatch_current_candidate_value *matched = item->util;
-		struct strbuf key = STRBUF_INIT;
 		struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 
-		strbuf_addstr(&key, item->string);
-		format_config(&buf, key.buf,
+		format_config(&buf, item->string,
 			      matched->value_is_null ? NULL : matched->value.buf);
 		fwrite(buf.buf, 1, buf.len, stdout);
-		strbuf_release(&key);
 		strbuf_release(&buf);
 
 		strbuf_release(&matched->value);
@@ -549,7 +533,11 @@
 		default:
 			usage_with_options(builtin_config_usage, builtin_config_options);
 		}
-
+	if (omit_values &&
+	    !(actions == ACTION_LIST || actions == ACTION_GET_REGEXP)) {
+		error("--name-only is only applicable to --list or --get-regexp");
+		usage_with_options(builtin_config_usage, builtin_config_options);
+	}
 	if (actions == ACTION_LIST) {
 		check_argc(argc, 0, 0);
 		if (git_config_with_options(show_all_config, NULL,
diff --git a/builtin/count-objects.c b/builtin/count-objects.c
index ad0c799..ba92919 100644
--- a/builtin/count-objects.c
+++ b/builtin/count-objects.c
@@ -15,9 +15,31 @@
 static unsigned long loose, packed, packed_loose;
 static off_t loose_size;
 
-static void real_report_garbage(const char *desc, const char *path)
+static const char *bits_to_msg(unsigned seen_bits)
+{
+	switch (seen_bits) {
+	case 0:
+		return "no corresponding .idx or .pack";
+	case PACKDIR_FILE_GARBAGE:
+		return "garbage found";
+	case PACKDIR_FILE_PACK:
+		return "no corresponding .idx";
+	case PACKDIR_FILE_IDX:
+		return "no corresponding .pack";
+	case PACKDIR_FILE_PACK|PACKDIR_FILE_IDX:
+	default:
+		return NULL;
+	}
+}
+
+static void real_report_garbage(unsigned seen_bits, const char *path)
 {
 	struct stat st;
+	const char *desc = bits_to_msg(seen_bits);
+
+	if (!desc)
+		return;
+
 	if (!stat(path, &st))
 		size_garbage += st.st_size;
 	warning("%s: %s", desc, path);
@@ -27,7 +49,7 @@
 static void loose_garbage(const char *path)
 {
 	if (verbose)
-		report_garbage("garbage found", path);
+		report_garbage(PACKDIR_FILE_GARBAGE, path);
 }
 
 static int count_loose(const unsigned char *sha1, const char *path, void *data)
diff --git a/builtin/describe.c b/builtin/describe.c
index a36c829..8a25abe 100644
--- a/builtin/describe.c
+++ b/builtin/describe.c
@@ -252,14 +252,14 @@
 	if (!cmit)
 		die(_("%s is not a valid '%s' object"), arg, commit_type);
 
-	n = find_commit_name(cmit->object.sha1);
+	n = find_commit_name(cmit->object.oid.hash);
 	if (n && (tags || all || n->prio == 2)) {
 		/*
 		 * Exact match to an existing ref.
 		 */
 		display_name(n);
 		if (longformat)
-			show_suffix(0, n->tag ? n->tag->tagged->sha1 : sha1);
+			show_suffix(0, n->tag ? n->tag->tagged->oid.hash : sha1);
 		if (dirty)
 			printf("%s", dirty);
 		printf("\n");
@@ -267,7 +267,7 @@
 	}
 
 	if (!max_candidates)
-		die(_("no tag exactly matches '%s'"), sha1_to_hex(cmit->object.sha1));
+		die(_("no tag exactly matches '%s'"), oid_to_hex(&cmit->object.oid));
 	if (debug)
 		fprintf(stderr, _("searching to describe %s\n"), arg);
 
@@ -317,7 +317,7 @@
 		if (annotated_cnt && !list) {
 			if (debug)
 				fprintf(stderr, _("finished search at %s\n"),
-					sha1_to_hex(c->object.sha1));
+					oid_to_hex(&c->object.oid));
 			break;
 		}
 		while (parents) {
@@ -334,9 +334,9 @@
 	}
 
 	if (!match_cnt) {
-		const unsigned char *sha1 = cmit->object.sha1;
+		struct object_id *oid = &cmit->object.oid;
 		if (always) {
-			printf("%s", find_unique_abbrev(sha1, abbrev));
+			printf("%s", find_unique_abbrev(oid->hash, abbrev));
 			if (dirty)
 				printf("%s", dirty);
 			printf("\n");
@@ -345,11 +345,11 @@
 		if (unannotated_cnt)
 			die(_("No annotated tags can describe '%s'.\n"
 			    "However, there were unannotated tags: try --tags."),
-			    sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+			    oid_to_hex(oid));
 		else
 			die(_("No tags can describe '%s'.\n"
 			    "Try --always, or create some tags."),
-			    sha1_to_hex(sha1));
+			    oid_to_hex(oid));
 	}
 
 	qsort(all_matches, match_cnt, sizeof(all_matches[0]), compare_pt);
@@ -374,13 +374,13 @@
 				_("more than %i tags found; listed %i most recent\n"
 				"gave up search at %s\n"),
 				max_candidates, max_candidates,
-				sha1_to_hex(gave_up_on->object.sha1));
+				oid_to_hex(&gave_up_on->object.oid));
 		}
 	}
 
 	display_name(all_matches[0].name);
 	if (abbrev)
-		show_suffix(all_matches[0].depth, cmit->object.sha1);
+		show_suffix(all_matches[0].depth, cmit->object.oid.hash);
 	if (dirty)
 		printf("%s", dirty);
 	printf("\n");
@@ -443,10 +443,10 @@
 			if (pattern)
 				argv_array_pushf(&args, "--refs=refs/tags/%s", pattern);
 		}
-		while (*argv) {
-			argv_array_push(&args, *argv);
-			argv++;
-		}
+		if (argc)
+			argv_array_pushv(&args, argv);
+		else
+			argv_array_push(&args, "HEAD");
 		return cmd_name_rev(args.argc, args.argv, prefix);
 	}
 
diff --git a/builtin/diff-tree.c b/builtin/diff-tree.c
index 12b683d..2a12b81 100644
--- a/builtin/diff-tree.c
+++ b/builtin/diff-tree.c
@@ -49,9 +49,9 @@
 	tree2 = lookup_tree(sha1);
 	if (!tree2 || parse_tree(tree2))
 		return -1;
-	printf("%s %s\n", sha1_to_hex(tree1->object.sha1),
-			  sha1_to_hex(tree2->object.sha1));
-	diff_tree_sha1(tree1->object.sha1, tree2->object.sha1,
+	printf("%s %s\n", oid_to_hex(&tree1->object.oid),
+			  oid_to_hex(&tree2->object.oid));
+	diff_tree_sha1(tree1->object.oid.hash, tree2->object.oid.hash,
 		       "", &log_tree_opt.diffopt);
 	log_tree_diff_flush(&log_tree_opt);
 	return 0;
@@ -139,7 +139,7 @@
 		break;
 	case 1:
 		tree1 = opt->pending.objects[0].item;
-		diff_tree_commit_sha1(tree1->sha1);
+		diff_tree_commit_sha1(tree1->oid.hash);
 		break;
 	case 2:
 		tree1 = opt->pending.objects[0].item;
@@ -149,8 +149,8 @@
 			tree2 = tree1;
 			tree1 = tmp;
 		}
-		diff_tree_sha1(tree1->sha1,
-			       tree2->sha1,
+		diff_tree_sha1(tree1->oid.hash,
+			       tree2->oid.hash,
 			       "", &opt->diffopt);
 		log_tree_diff_flush(opt);
 		break;
diff --git a/builtin/diff.c b/builtin/diff.c
index 4326fa5..52c98a9 100644
--- a/builtin/diff.c
+++ b/builtin/diff.c
@@ -175,8 +175,8 @@
 	 */
 	if (ent1->item->flags & UNINTERESTING)
 		swap = 1;
-	sha1[swap] = ent0->item->sha1;
-	sha1[1 - swap] = ent1->item->sha1;
+	sha1[swap] = ent0->item->oid.hash;
+	sha1[1 - swap] = ent1->item->oid.hash;
 	diff_tree_sha1(sha1[0], sha1[1], "", &revs->diffopt);
 	log_tree_diff_flush(revs);
 	return 0;
@@ -196,8 +196,8 @@
 	if (!revs->dense_combined_merges && !revs->combine_merges)
 		revs->dense_combined_merges = revs->combine_merges = 1;
 	for (i = 1; i < ents; i++)
-		sha1_array_append(&parents, ent[i].item->sha1);
-	diff_tree_combined(ent[0].item->sha1, &parents,
+		sha1_array_append(&parents, ent[i].item->oid.hash);
+	diff_tree_combined(ent[0].item->oid.hash, &parents,
 			   revs->dense_combined_merges, revs);
 	sha1_array_clear(&parents);
 	return 0;
@@ -341,7 +341,7 @@
 	}
 	if (no_index)
 		/* If this is a no-index diff, just run it and exit there. */
-		diff_no_index(&rev, argc, argv, prefix);
+		diff_no_index(&rev, argc, argv);
 
 	/* Otherwise, we are doing the usual "git" diff */
 	rev.diffopt.skip_stat_unmatch = !!diff_auto_refresh_index;
@@ -395,7 +395,7 @@
 		const char *name = entry->name;
 		int flags = (obj->flags & UNINTERESTING);
 		if (!obj->parsed)
-			obj = parse_object(obj->sha1);
+			obj = parse_object(obj->oid.hash);
 		obj = deref_tag(obj, NULL, 0);
 		if (!obj)
 			die(_("invalid object '%s' given."), name);
@@ -408,7 +408,7 @@
 		} else if (obj->type == OBJ_BLOB) {
 			if (2 <= blobs)
 				die(_("more than two blobs given: '%s'"), name);
-			hashcpy(blob[blobs].sha1, obj->sha1);
+			hashcpy(blob[blobs].sha1, obj->oid.hash);
 			blob[blobs].name = name;
 			blob[blobs].mode = entry->mode;
 			blobs++;
diff --git a/builtin/fast-export.c b/builtin/fast-export.c
index b8182c2..2471297 100644
--- a/builtin/fast-export.c
+++ b/builtin/fast-export.c
@@ -5,6 +5,7 @@
  */
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "cache.h"
+#include "refs.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "object.h"
 #include "tag.h"
@@ -543,13 +544,13 @@
 	author = strstr(commit_buffer, "\nauthor ");
 	if (!author)
 		die ("Could not find author in commit %s",
-		     sha1_to_hex(commit->object.sha1));
+		     oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid));
 	author++;
 	author_end = strchrnul(author, '\n');
 	committer = strstr(author_end, "\ncommitter ");
 	if (!committer)
 		die ("Could not find committer in commit %s",
-		     sha1_to_hex(commit->object.sha1));
+		     oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid));
 	committer++;
 	committer_end = strchrnul(committer, '\n');
 	message = strstr(committer_end, "\n\n");
@@ -561,11 +562,11 @@
 	    get_object_mark(&commit->parents->item->object) != 0 &&
 	    !full_tree) {
 		parse_commit_or_die(commit->parents->item);
-		diff_tree_sha1(commit->parents->item->tree->object.sha1,
-			       commit->tree->object.sha1, "", &rev->diffopt);
+		diff_tree_sha1(commit->parents->item->tree->object.oid.hash,
+			       commit->tree->object.oid.hash, "", &rev->diffopt);
 	}
 	else
-		diff_root_tree_sha1(commit->tree->object.sha1,
+		diff_root_tree_sha1(commit->tree->object.oid.hash,
 				    "", &rev->diffopt);
 
 	/* Export the referenced blobs, and remember the marks. */
@@ -660,13 +661,13 @@
 	}
 	if (tagged->type == OBJ_TREE) {
 		warning("Omitting tag %s,\nsince tags of trees (or tags of tags of trees, etc.) are not supported.",
-			sha1_to_hex(tag->object.sha1));
+			oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
 		return;
 	}
 
-	buf = read_sha1_file(tag->object.sha1, &type, &size);
+	buf = read_sha1_file(tag->object.oid.hash, &type, &size);
 	if (!buf)
-		die ("Could not read tag %s", sha1_to_hex(tag->object.sha1));
+		die ("Could not read tag %s", oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
 	message = memmem(buf, size, "\n\n", 2);
 	if (message) {
 		message += 2;
@@ -705,16 +706,16 @@
 			case ABORT:
 				die ("Encountered signed tag %s; use "
 				     "--signed-tags=<mode> to handle it.",
-				     sha1_to_hex(tag->object.sha1));
+				     oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
 			case WARN:
 				warning ("Exporting signed tag %s",
-					 sha1_to_hex(tag->object.sha1));
+					 oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
 				/* fallthru */
 			case VERBATIM:
 				break;
 			case WARN_STRIP:
 				warning ("Stripping signature from tag %s",
-					 sha1_to_hex(tag->object.sha1));
+					 oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
 				/* fallthru */
 			case STRIP:
 				message_size = signature + 1 - message;
@@ -730,14 +731,14 @@
 		case ABORT:
 			die ("Tag %s tags unexported object; use "
 			     "--tag-of-filtered-object=<mode> to handle it.",
-			     sha1_to_hex(tag->object.sha1));
+			     oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
 		case DROP:
 			/* Ignore this tag altogether */
 			return;
 		case REWRITE:
 			if (tagged->type != OBJ_COMMIT) {
 				die ("Tag %s tags unexported %s!",
-				     sha1_to_hex(tag->object.sha1),
+				     oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid),
 				     typename(tagged->type));
 			}
 			p = (struct commit *)tagged;
@@ -750,7 +751,7 @@
 					break;
 				if (!p->parents)
 					die ("Can't find replacement commit for tag %s\n",
-					     sha1_to_hex(tag->object.sha1));
+					     oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
 				p = p->parents->item;
 			}
 			tagged_mark = get_object_mark(&p->object);
@@ -776,7 +777,7 @@
 
 		/* handle nested tags */
 		while (tag && tag->object.type == OBJ_TAG) {
-			parse_object(tag->object.sha1);
+			parse_object(tag->object.oid.hash);
 			string_list_append(&extra_refs, full_name)->util = tag;
 			tag = (struct tag *)tag->tagged;
 		}
@@ -827,7 +828,7 @@
 		case OBJ_COMMIT:
 			break;
 		case OBJ_BLOB:
-			export_blob(commit->object.sha1);
+			export_blob(commit->object.oid.hash);
 			continue;
 		default: /* OBJ_TAG (nested tags) is already handled */
 			warning("Tag points to object of unexpected type %s, skipping.",
@@ -879,7 +880,7 @@
 	FILE *f;
 	int e = 0;
 
-	f = fopen(file, "w");
+	f = fopen_for_writing(file);
 	if (!f)
 		die_errno("Unable to open marks file %s for writing.", file);
 
@@ -887,7 +888,7 @@
 		if (deco->base && deco->base->type == 1) {
 			mark = ptr_to_mark(deco->decoration);
 			if (fprintf(f, ":%"PRIu32" %s\n", mark,
-				sha1_to_hex(deco->base->sha1)) < 0) {
+				oid_to_hex(&deco->base->oid)) < 0) {
 			    e = 1;
 			    break;
 			}
diff --git a/builtin/fetch-pack.c b/builtin/fetch-pack.c
index 4a6b340..cf3019e 100644
--- a/builtin/fetch-pack.c
+++ b/builtin/fetch-pack.c
@@ -14,12 +14,14 @@
 				 const char *name, int namelen)
 {
 	struct ref *ref = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*ref) + namelen + 1);
-	unsigned char sha1[20];
+	struct object_id oid;
+	const int chunksz = GIT_SHA1_HEXSZ + 1;
 
-	if (namelen > 41 && name[40] == ' ' && !get_sha1_hex(name, sha1)) {
-		hashcpy(ref->old_sha1, sha1);
-		name += 41;
-		namelen -= 41;
+	if (namelen > chunksz && name[chunksz - 1] == ' ' &&
+		!get_oid_hex(name, &oid)) {
+		oidcpy(&ref->old_oid, &oid);
+		name += chunksz;
+		namelen -= chunksz;
 	}
 
 	memcpy(ref->name, name, namelen);
@@ -210,7 +212,7 @@
 
 	while (ref) {
 		printf("%s %s\n",
-		       sha1_to_hex(ref->old_sha1), ref->name);
+		       oid_to_hex(&ref->old_oid), ref->name);
 		ref = ref->next;
 	}
 
diff --git a/builtin/fetch.c b/builtin/fetch.c
index 635bbdf..17f40e1 100644
--- a/builtin/fetch.c
+++ b/builtin/fetch.c
@@ -11,6 +11,7 @@
 #include "run-command.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
 #include "sigchain.h"
+#include "submodule-config.h"
 #include "submodule.h"
 #include "connected.h"
 #include "argv-array.h"
@@ -195,7 +196,7 @@
 {
 	struct ref *rm = *head;
 	while (rm) {
-		if (!hashcmp(rm->old_sha1, sha1))
+		if (!hashcmp(rm->old_oid.hash, sha1))
 			return 1;
 		rm = rm->next;
 	}
@@ -223,8 +224,8 @@
 		 * as one to ignore by setting util to NULL.
 		 */
 		if (ends_with(ref->name, "^{}")) {
-			if (item && !has_sha1_file(ref->old_sha1) &&
-			    !will_fetch(head, ref->old_sha1) &&
+			if (item && !has_object_file(&ref->old_oid) &&
+			    !will_fetch(head, ref->old_oid.hash) &&
 			    !has_sha1_file(item->util) &&
 			    !will_fetch(head, item->util))
 				item->util = NULL;
@@ -250,7 +251,7 @@
 			continue;
 
 		item = string_list_insert(&remote_refs, ref->name);
-		item->util = (void *)ref->old_sha1;
+		item->util = (void *)&ref->old_oid;
 	}
 	string_list_clear(&existing_refs, 1);
 
@@ -272,7 +273,7 @@
 		{
 			struct ref *rm = alloc_ref(item->string);
 			rm->peer_ref = alloc_ref(item->string);
-			hashcpy(rm->old_sha1, item->util);
+			oidcpy(&rm->old_oid, item->util);
 			**tail = rm;
 			*tail = &rm->next;
 		}
@@ -418,8 +419,8 @@
 	transaction = ref_transaction_begin(&err);
 	if (!transaction ||
 	    ref_transaction_update(transaction, ref->name,
-				   ref->new_sha1,
-				   check_old ? ref->old_sha1 : NULL,
+				   ref->new_oid.hash,
+				   check_old ? ref->old_oid.hash : NULL,
 				   0, msg, &err))
 		goto fail;
 
@@ -452,11 +453,11 @@
 	struct branch *current_branch = branch_get(NULL);
 	const char *pretty_ref = prettify_refname(ref->name);
 
-	type = sha1_object_info(ref->new_sha1, NULL);
+	type = sha1_object_info(ref->new_oid.hash, NULL);
 	if (type < 0)
-		die(_("object %s not found"), sha1_to_hex(ref->new_sha1));
+		die(_("object %s not found"), oid_to_hex(&ref->new_oid));
 
-	if (!hashcmp(ref->old_sha1, ref->new_sha1)) {
+	if (!oidcmp(&ref->old_oid, &ref->new_oid)) {
 		if (verbosity > 0)
 			strbuf_addf(display, "= %-*s %-*s -> %s",
 				    TRANSPORT_SUMMARY(_("[up to date]")),
@@ -467,7 +468,7 @@
 	if (current_branch &&
 	    !strcmp(ref->name, current_branch->name) &&
 	    !(update_head_ok || is_bare_repository()) &&
-	    !is_null_sha1(ref->old_sha1)) {
+	    !is_null_oid(&ref->old_oid)) {
 		/*
 		 * If this is the head, and it's not okay to update
 		 * the head, and the old value of the head isn't empty...
@@ -479,7 +480,7 @@
 		return 1;
 	}
 
-	if (!is_null_sha1(ref->old_sha1) &&
+	if (!is_null_oid(&ref->old_oid) &&
 	    starts_with(ref->name, "refs/tags/")) {
 		int r;
 		r = s_update_ref("updating tag", ref, 0);
@@ -491,8 +492,8 @@
 		return r;
 	}
 
-	current = lookup_commit_reference_gently(ref->old_sha1, 1);
-	updated = lookup_commit_reference_gently(ref->new_sha1, 1);
+	current = lookup_commit_reference_gently(ref->old_oid.hash, 1);
+	updated = lookup_commit_reference_gently(ref->new_oid.hash, 1);
 	if (!current || !updated) {
 		const char *msg;
 		const char *what;
@@ -516,7 +517,7 @@
 
 		if ((recurse_submodules != RECURSE_SUBMODULES_OFF) &&
 		    (recurse_submodules != RECURSE_SUBMODULES_ON))
-			check_for_new_submodule_commits(ref->new_sha1);
+			check_for_new_submodule_commits(ref->new_oid.hash);
 		r = s_update_ref(msg, ref, 0);
 		strbuf_addf(display, "%c %-*s %-*s -> %s%s",
 			    r ? '!' : '*',
@@ -527,36 +528,38 @@
 	}
 
 	if (in_merge_bases(current, updated)) {
-		char quickref[83];
+		struct strbuf quickref = STRBUF_INIT;
 		int r;
-		strcpy(quickref, find_unique_abbrev(current->object.sha1, DEFAULT_ABBREV));
-		strcat(quickref, "..");
-		strcat(quickref, find_unique_abbrev(ref->new_sha1, DEFAULT_ABBREV));
+		strbuf_add_unique_abbrev(&quickref, current->object.oid.hash, DEFAULT_ABBREV);
+		strbuf_addstr(&quickref, "..");
+		strbuf_add_unique_abbrev(&quickref, ref->new_oid.hash, DEFAULT_ABBREV);
 		if ((recurse_submodules != RECURSE_SUBMODULES_OFF) &&
 		    (recurse_submodules != RECURSE_SUBMODULES_ON))
-			check_for_new_submodule_commits(ref->new_sha1);
+			check_for_new_submodule_commits(ref->new_oid.hash);
 		r = s_update_ref("fast-forward", ref, 1);
 		strbuf_addf(display, "%c %-*s %-*s -> %s%s",
 			    r ? '!' : ' ',
-			    TRANSPORT_SUMMARY_WIDTH, quickref,
+			    TRANSPORT_SUMMARY_WIDTH, quickref.buf,
 			    REFCOL_WIDTH, remote, pretty_ref,
 			    r ? _("  (unable to update local ref)") : "");
+		strbuf_release(&quickref);
 		return r;
 	} else if (force || ref->force) {
-		char quickref[84];
+		struct strbuf quickref = STRBUF_INIT;
 		int r;
-		strcpy(quickref, find_unique_abbrev(current->object.sha1, DEFAULT_ABBREV));
-		strcat(quickref, "...");
-		strcat(quickref, find_unique_abbrev(ref->new_sha1, DEFAULT_ABBREV));
+		strbuf_add_unique_abbrev(&quickref, current->object.oid.hash, DEFAULT_ABBREV);
+		strbuf_addstr(&quickref, "...");
+		strbuf_add_unique_abbrev(&quickref, ref->new_oid.hash, DEFAULT_ABBREV);
 		if ((recurse_submodules != RECURSE_SUBMODULES_OFF) &&
 		    (recurse_submodules != RECURSE_SUBMODULES_ON))
-			check_for_new_submodule_commits(ref->new_sha1);
+			check_for_new_submodule_commits(ref->new_oid.hash);
 		r = s_update_ref("forced-update", ref, 1);
 		strbuf_addf(display, "%c %-*s %-*s -> %s  (%s)",
 			    r ? '!' : '+',
-			    TRANSPORT_SUMMARY_WIDTH, quickref,
+			    TRANSPORT_SUMMARY_WIDTH, quickref.buf,
 			    REFCOL_WIDTH, remote, pretty_ref,
 			    r ? _("unable to update local ref") : _("forced update"));
+		strbuf_release(&quickref);
 		return r;
 	} else {
 		strbuf_addf(display, "! %-*s %-*s -> %s  %s",
@@ -577,7 +580,7 @@
 	if (!ref)
 		return -1; /* end of the list */
 	*rm = ref->next;
-	hashcpy(sha1, ref->old_sha1);
+	hashcpy(sha1, ref->old_oid.hash);
 	return 0;
 }
 
@@ -591,7 +594,7 @@
 	const char *what, *kind;
 	struct ref *rm;
 	char *url;
-	const char *filename = dry_run ? "/dev/null" : git_path("FETCH_HEAD");
+	const char *filename = dry_run ? "/dev/null" : git_path_fetch_head();
 	int want_status;
 
 	fp = fopen(filename, "a");
@@ -628,7 +631,7 @@
 				continue;
 			}
 
-			commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(rm->old_sha1, 1);
+			commit = lookup_commit_reference_gently(rm->old_oid.hash, 1);
 			if (!commit)
 				rm->fetch_head_status = FETCH_HEAD_NOT_FOR_MERGE;
 
@@ -636,10 +639,9 @@
 				continue;
 
 			if (rm->peer_ref) {
-				ref = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*ref) + strlen(rm->peer_ref->name) + 1);
-				strcpy(ref->name, rm->peer_ref->name);
-				hashcpy(ref->old_sha1, rm->peer_ref->old_sha1);
-				hashcpy(ref->new_sha1, rm->old_sha1);
+				ref = alloc_ref(rm->peer_ref->name);
+				oidcpy(&ref->old_oid, &rm->peer_ref->old_oid);
+				oidcpy(&ref->new_oid, &rm->old_oid);
 				ref->force = rm->peer_ref->force;
 			}
 
@@ -684,7 +686,7 @@
 				/* fall-through */
 			case FETCH_HEAD_MERGE:
 				fprintf(fp, "%s\t%s\t%s",
-					sha1_to_hex(rm->old_sha1),
+					oid_to_hex(&rm->old_oid),
 					merge_status_marker,
 					note.buf);
 				for (i = 0; i < url_len; ++i)
@@ -790,20 +792,29 @@
 	if (4 < i && !strncmp(".git", url + i - 3, 4))
 		url_len = i - 3;
 
-	for (ref = stale_refs; ref; ref = ref->next) {
-		if (!dry_run)
-			result |= delete_ref(ref->name, NULL, 0);
-		if (verbosity >= 0 && !shown_url) {
-			fprintf(stderr, _("From %.*s\n"), url_len, url);
-			shown_url = 1;
-		}
-		if (verbosity >= 0) {
+	if (!dry_run) {
+		struct string_list refnames = STRING_LIST_INIT_NODUP;
+
+		for (ref = stale_refs; ref; ref = ref->next)
+			string_list_append(&refnames, ref->name);
+
+		result = delete_refs(&refnames);
+		string_list_clear(&refnames, 0);
+	}
+
+	if (verbosity >= 0) {
+		for (ref = stale_refs; ref; ref = ref->next) {
+			if (!shown_url) {
+				fprintf(stderr, _("From %.*s\n"), url_len, url);
+				shown_url = 1;
+			}
 			fprintf(stderr, " x %-*s %-*s -> %s\n",
 				TRANSPORT_SUMMARY(_("[deleted]")),
 				REFCOL_WIDTH, _("(none)"), prettify_refname(ref->name));
 			warn_dangling_symref(stderr, dangling_msg, ref->name);
 		}
 	}
+
 	free(url);
 	free_refs(stale_refs);
 	return result;
@@ -825,8 +836,8 @@
 
 static int truncate_fetch_head(void)
 {
-	const char *filename = git_path("FETCH_HEAD");
-	FILE *fp = fopen(filename, "w");
+	const char *filename = git_path_fetch_head();
+	FILE *fp = fopen_for_writing(filename);
 
 	if (!fp)
 		return error(_("cannot open %s: %s\n"), filename, strerror(errno));
@@ -917,7 +928,7 @@
 						   rm->peer_ref->name);
 			if (peer_item) {
 				struct object_id *old_oid = peer_item->util;
-				hashcpy(rm->peer_ref->old_sha1, old_oid->hash);
+				oidcpy(&rm->peer_ref->old_oid, old_oid);
 			}
 		}
 	}
@@ -1146,11 +1157,8 @@
 			die(_("--depth and --unshallow cannot be used together"));
 		else if (!is_repository_shallow())
 			die(_("--unshallow on a complete repository does not make sense"));
-		else {
-			static char inf_depth[12];
-			sprintf(inf_depth, "%d", INFINITE_DEPTH);
-			depth = inf_depth;
-		}
+		else
+			depth = xstrfmt("%d", INFINITE_DEPTH);
 	}
 
 	/* no need to be strict, transport_set_option() will validate it again */
@@ -1213,6 +1221,8 @@
 	list.strdup_strings = 1;
 	string_list_clear(&list, 0);
 
+	close_all_packs();
+
 	argv_array_pushl(&argv_gc_auto, "gc", "--auto", NULL);
 	if (verbosity < 0)
 		argv_array_push(&argv_gc_auto, "--quiet");
diff --git a/builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c b/builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c
index 05f4c26..e5658c3 100644
--- a/builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c
+++ b/builtin/fmt-merge-msg.c
@@ -1,5 +1,6 @@
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "cache.h"
+#include "refs.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "diff.h"
 #include "revision.h"
@@ -377,7 +378,7 @@
 
 		if (!sb.len)
 			string_list_append(&subjects,
-					   sha1_to_hex(commit->object.sha1));
+					   oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid));
 		else
 			string_list_append(&subjects, strbuf_detach(&sb, NULL));
 	}
@@ -536,7 +537,7 @@
 static void find_merge_parents(struct merge_parents *result,
 			       struct strbuf *in, unsigned char *head)
 {
-	struct commit_list *parents, *next;
+	struct commit_list *parents;
 	struct commit *head_commit;
 	int pos = 0, i, j;
 
@@ -567,7 +568,7 @@
 		if (!parent)
 			continue;
 		commit_list_insert(parent, &parents);
-		add_merge_parent(result, obj->sha1, parent->object.sha1);
+		add_merge_parent(result, obj->oid.hash, parent->object.oid.hash);
 	}
 	head_commit = lookup_commit(head);
 	if (head_commit)
@@ -575,13 +576,10 @@
 	parents = reduce_heads(parents);
 
 	while (parents) {
+		struct commit *cmit = pop_commit(&parents);
 		for (i = 0; i < result->nr; i++)
-			if (!hashcmp(result->item[i].commit,
-				     parents->item->object.sha1))
+			if (!hashcmp(result->item[i].commit, cmit->object.oid.hash))
 				result->item[i].used = 1;
-		next = parents->next;
-		free(parents);
-		parents = next;
 	}
 
 	for (i = j = 0; i < result->nr; i++) {
diff --git a/builtin/for-each-ref.c b/builtin/for-each-ref.c
index cb7db23..4e9f6c2 100644
--- a/builtin/for-each-ref.c
+++ b/builtin/for-each-ref.c
@@ -2,1096 +2,25 @@
 #include "cache.h"
 #include "refs.h"
 #include "object.h"
-#include "tag.h"
-#include "commit.h"
-#include "tree.h"
-#include "blob.h"
-#include "quote.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
-#include "remote.h"
-#include "color.h"
-
-/* Quoting styles */
-#define QUOTE_NONE 0
-#define QUOTE_SHELL 1
-#define QUOTE_PERL 2
-#define QUOTE_PYTHON 4
-#define QUOTE_TCL 8
-
-typedef enum { FIELD_STR, FIELD_ULONG, FIELD_TIME } cmp_type;
-
-struct atom_value {
-	const char *s;
-	unsigned long ul; /* used for sorting when not FIELD_STR */
-};
-
-struct ref_sort {
-	struct ref_sort *next;
-	int atom; /* index into used_atom array */
-	unsigned reverse : 1;
-};
-
-struct refinfo {
-	char *refname;
-	unsigned char objectname[20];
-	int flag;
-	const char *symref;
-	struct atom_value *value;
-};
-
-static struct {
-	const char *name;
-	cmp_type cmp_type;
-} valid_atom[] = {
-	{ "refname" },
-	{ "objecttype" },
-	{ "objectsize", FIELD_ULONG },
-	{ "objectname" },
-	{ "tree" },
-	{ "parent" },
-	{ "numparent", FIELD_ULONG },
-	{ "object" },
-	{ "type" },
-	{ "tag" },
-	{ "author" },
-	{ "authorname" },
-	{ "authoremail" },
-	{ "authordate", FIELD_TIME },
-	{ "committer" },
-	{ "committername" },
-	{ "committeremail" },
-	{ "committerdate", FIELD_TIME },
-	{ "tagger" },
-	{ "taggername" },
-	{ "taggeremail" },
-	{ "taggerdate", FIELD_TIME },
-	{ "creator" },
-	{ "creatordate", FIELD_TIME },
-	{ "subject" },
-	{ "body" },
-	{ "contents" },
-	{ "contents:subject" },
-	{ "contents:body" },
-	{ "contents:signature" },
-	{ "upstream" },
-	{ "push" },
-	{ "symref" },
-	{ "flag" },
-	{ "HEAD" },
-	{ "color" },
-};
-
-/*
- * An atom is a valid field atom listed above, possibly prefixed with
- * a "*" to denote deref_tag().
- *
- * We parse given format string and sort specifiers, and make a list
- * of properties that we need to extract out of objects.  refinfo
- * structure will hold an array of values extracted that can be
- * indexed with the "atom number", which is an index into this
- * array.
- */
-static const char **used_atom;
-static cmp_type *used_atom_type;
-static int used_atom_cnt, need_tagged, need_symref;
-static int need_color_reset_at_eol;
-
-/*
- * Used to parse format string and sort specifiers
- */
-static int parse_atom(const char *atom, const char *ep)
-{
-	const char *sp;
-	int i, at;
-
-	sp = atom;
-	if (*sp == '*' && sp < ep)
-		sp++; /* deref */
-	if (ep <= sp)
-		die("malformed field name: %.*s", (int)(ep-atom), atom);
-
-	/* Do we have the atom already used elsewhere? */
-	for (i = 0; i < used_atom_cnt; i++) {
-		int len = strlen(used_atom[i]);
-		if (len == ep - atom && !memcmp(used_atom[i], atom, len))
-			return i;
-	}
-
-	/* Is the atom a valid one? */
-	for (i = 0; i < ARRAY_SIZE(valid_atom); i++) {
-		int len = strlen(valid_atom[i].name);
-		/*
-		 * If the atom name has a colon, strip it and everything after
-		 * it off - it specifies the format for this entry, and
-		 * shouldn't be used for checking against the valid_atom
-		 * table.
-		 */
-		const char *formatp = strchr(sp, ':');
-		if (!formatp || ep < formatp)
-			formatp = ep;
-		if (len == formatp - sp && !memcmp(valid_atom[i].name, sp, len))
-			break;
-	}
-
-	if (ARRAY_SIZE(valid_atom) <= i)
-		die("unknown field name: %.*s", (int)(ep-atom), atom);
-
-	/* Add it in, including the deref prefix */
-	at = used_atom_cnt;
-	used_atom_cnt++;
-	REALLOC_ARRAY(used_atom, used_atom_cnt);
-	REALLOC_ARRAY(used_atom_type, used_atom_cnt);
-	used_atom[at] = xmemdupz(atom, ep - atom);
-	used_atom_type[at] = valid_atom[i].cmp_type;
-	if (*atom == '*')
-		need_tagged = 1;
-	if (!strcmp(used_atom[at], "symref"))
-		need_symref = 1;
-	return at;
-}
-
-/*
- * In a format string, find the next occurrence of %(atom).
- */
-static const char *find_next(const char *cp)
-{
-	while (*cp) {
-		if (*cp == '%') {
-			/*
-			 * %( is the start of an atom;
-			 * %% is a quoted per-cent.
-			 */
-			if (cp[1] == '(')
-				return cp;
-			else if (cp[1] == '%')
-				cp++; /* skip over two % */
-			/* otherwise this is a singleton, literal % */
-		}
-		cp++;
-	}
-	return NULL;
-}
-
-/*
- * Make sure the format string is well formed, and parse out
- * the used atoms.
- */
-static int verify_format(const char *format)
-{
-	const char *cp, *sp;
-
-	need_color_reset_at_eol = 0;
-	for (cp = format; *cp && (sp = find_next(cp)); ) {
-		const char *color, *ep = strchr(sp, ')');
-		int at;
-
-		if (!ep)
-			return error("malformed format string %s", sp);
-		/* sp points at "%(" and ep points at the closing ")" */
-		at = parse_atom(sp + 2, ep);
-		cp = ep + 1;
-
-		if (skip_prefix(used_atom[at], "color:", &color))
-			need_color_reset_at_eol = !!strcmp(color, "reset");
-	}
-	return 0;
-}
-
-/*
- * Given an object name, read the object data and size, and return a
- * "struct object".  If the object data we are returning is also borrowed
- * by the "struct object" representation, set *eaten as well---it is a
- * signal from parse_object_buffer to us not to free the buffer.
- */
-static void *get_obj(const unsigned char *sha1, struct object **obj, unsigned long *sz, int *eaten)
-{
-	enum object_type type;
-	void *buf = read_sha1_file(sha1, &type, sz);
-
-	if (buf)
-		*obj = parse_object_buffer(sha1, type, *sz, buf, eaten);
-	else
-		*obj = NULL;
-	return buf;
-}
-
-static int grab_objectname(const char *name, const unsigned char *sha1,
-			    struct atom_value *v)
-{
-	if (!strcmp(name, "objectname")) {
-		char *s = xmalloc(41);
-		strcpy(s, sha1_to_hex(sha1));
-		v->s = s;
-		return 1;
-	}
-	if (!strcmp(name, "objectname:short")) {
-		v->s = xstrdup(find_unique_abbrev(sha1, DEFAULT_ABBREV));
-		return 1;
-	}
-	return 0;
-}
-
-/* See grab_values */
-static void grab_common_values(struct atom_value *val, int deref, struct object *obj, void *buf, unsigned long sz)
-{
-	int i;
-
-	for (i = 0; i < used_atom_cnt; i++) {
-		const char *name = used_atom[i];
-		struct atom_value *v = &val[i];
-		if (!!deref != (*name == '*'))
-			continue;
-		if (deref)
-			name++;
-		if (!strcmp(name, "objecttype"))
-			v->s = typename(obj->type);
-		else if (!strcmp(name, "objectsize")) {
-			char *s = xmalloc(40);
-			sprintf(s, "%lu", sz);
-			v->ul = sz;
-			v->s = s;
-		}
-		else if (deref)
-			grab_objectname(name, obj->sha1, v);
-	}
-}
-
-/* See grab_values */
-static void grab_tag_values(struct atom_value *val, int deref, struct object *obj, void *buf, unsigned long sz)
-{
-	int i;
-	struct tag *tag = (struct tag *) obj;
-
-	for (i = 0; i < used_atom_cnt; i++) {
-		const char *name = used_atom[i];
-		struct atom_value *v = &val[i];
-		if (!!deref != (*name == '*'))
-			continue;
-		if (deref)
-			name++;
-		if (!strcmp(name, "tag"))
-			v->s = tag->tag;
-		else if (!strcmp(name, "type") && tag->tagged)
-			v->s = typename(tag->tagged->type);
-		else if (!strcmp(name, "object") && tag->tagged) {
-			char *s = xmalloc(41);
-			strcpy(s, sha1_to_hex(tag->tagged->sha1));
-			v->s = s;
-		}
-	}
-}
-
-/* See grab_values */
-static void grab_commit_values(struct atom_value *val, int deref, struct object *obj, void *buf, unsigned long sz)
-{
-	int i;
-	struct commit *commit = (struct commit *) obj;
-
-	for (i = 0; i < used_atom_cnt; i++) {
-		const char *name = used_atom[i];
-		struct atom_value *v = &val[i];
-		if (!!deref != (*name == '*'))
-			continue;
-		if (deref)
-			name++;
-		if (!strcmp(name, "tree")) {
-			char *s = xmalloc(41);
-			strcpy(s, sha1_to_hex(commit->tree->object.sha1));
-			v->s = s;
-		}
-		if (!strcmp(name, "numparent")) {
-			char *s = xmalloc(40);
-			v->ul = commit_list_count(commit->parents);
-			sprintf(s, "%lu", v->ul);
-			v->s = s;
-		}
-		else if (!strcmp(name, "parent")) {
-			int num = commit_list_count(commit->parents);
-			int i;
-			struct commit_list *parents;
-			char *s = xmalloc(41 * num + 1);
-			v->s = s;
-			for (i = 0, parents = commit->parents;
-			     parents;
-			     parents = parents->next, i = i + 41) {
-				struct commit *parent = parents->item;
-				strcpy(s+i, sha1_to_hex(parent->object.sha1));
-				if (parents->next)
-					s[i+40] = ' ';
-			}
-			if (!i)
-				*s = '\0';
-		}
-	}
-}
-
-static const char *find_wholine(const char *who, int wholen, const char *buf, unsigned long sz)
-{
-	const char *eol;
-	while (*buf) {
-		if (!strncmp(buf, who, wholen) &&
-		    buf[wholen] == ' ')
-			return buf + wholen + 1;
-		eol = strchr(buf, '\n');
-		if (!eol)
-			return "";
-		eol++;
-		if (*eol == '\n')
-			return ""; /* end of header */
-		buf = eol;
-	}
-	return "";
-}
-
-static const char *copy_line(const char *buf)
-{
-	const char *eol = strchrnul(buf, '\n');
-	return xmemdupz(buf, eol - buf);
-}
-
-static const char *copy_name(const char *buf)
-{
-	const char *cp;
-	for (cp = buf; *cp && *cp != '\n'; cp++) {
-		if (!strncmp(cp, " <", 2))
-			return xmemdupz(buf, cp - buf);
-	}
-	return "";
-}
-
-static const char *copy_email(const char *buf)
-{
-	const char *email = strchr(buf, '<');
-	const char *eoemail;
-	if (!email)
-		return "";
-	eoemail = strchr(email, '>');
-	if (!eoemail)
-		return "";
-	return xmemdupz(email, eoemail + 1 - email);
-}
-
-static char *copy_subject(const char *buf, unsigned long len)
-{
-	char *r = xmemdupz(buf, len);
-	int i;
-
-	for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
-		if (r[i] == '\n')
-			r[i] = ' ';
-
-	return r;
-}
-
-static void grab_date(const char *buf, struct atom_value *v, const char *atomname)
-{
-	const char *eoemail = strstr(buf, "> ");
-	char *zone;
-	unsigned long timestamp;
-	long tz;
-	enum date_mode date_mode = DATE_NORMAL;
-	const char *formatp;
-
-	/*
-	 * We got here because atomname ends in "date" or "date<something>";
-	 * it's not possible that <something> is not ":<format>" because
-	 * parse_atom() wouldn't have allowed it, so we can assume that no
-	 * ":" means no format is specified, and use the default.
-	 */
-	formatp = strchr(atomname, ':');
-	if (formatp != NULL) {
-		formatp++;
-		date_mode = parse_date_format(formatp);
-	}
-
-	if (!eoemail)
-		goto bad;
-	timestamp = strtoul(eoemail + 2, &zone, 10);
-	if (timestamp == ULONG_MAX)
-		goto bad;
-	tz = strtol(zone, NULL, 10);
-	if ((tz == LONG_MIN || tz == LONG_MAX) && errno == ERANGE)
-		goto bad;
-	v->s = xstrdup(show_date(timestamp, tz, date_mode));
-	v->ul = timestamp;
-	return;
- bad:
-	v->s = "";
-	v->ul = 0;
-}
-
-/* See grab_values */
-static void grab_person(const char *who, struct atom_value *val, int deref, struct object *obj, void *buf, unsigned long sz)
-{
-	int i;
-	int wholen = strlen(who);
-	const char *wholine = NULL;
-
-	for (i = 0; i < used_atom_cnt; i++) {
-		const char *name = used_atom[i];
-		struct atom_value *v = &val[i];
-		if (!!deref != (*name == '*'))
-			continue;
-		if (deref)
-			name++;
-		if (strncmp(who, name, wholen))
-			continue;
-		if (name[wholen] != 0 &&
-		    strcmp(name + wholen, "name") &&
-		    strcmp(name + wholen, "email") &&
-		    !starts_with(name + wholen, "date"))
-			continue;
-		if (!wholine)
-			wholine = find_wholine(who, wholen, buf, sz);
-		if (!wholine)
-			return; /* no point looking for it */
-		if (name[wholen] == 0)
-			v->s = copy_line(wholine);
-		else if (!strcmp(name + wholen, "name"))
-			v->s = copy_name(wholine);
-		else if (!strcmp(name + wholen, "email"))
-			v->s = copy_email(wholine);
-		else if (starts_with(name + wholen, "date"))
-			grab_date(wholine, v, name);
-	}
-
-	/*
-	 * For a tag or a commit object, if "creator" or "creatordate" is
-	 * requested, do something special.
-	 */
-	if (strcmp(who, "tagger") && strcmp(who, "committer"))
-		return; /* "author" for commit object is not wanted */
-	if (!wholine)
-		wholine = find_wholine(who, wholen, buf, sz);
-	if (!wholine)
-		return;
-	for (i = 0; i < used_atom_cnt; i++) {
-		const char *name = used_atom[i];
-		struct atom_value *v = &val[i];
-		if (!!deref != (*name == '*'))
-			continue;
-		if (deref)
-			name++;
-
-		if (starts_with(name, "creatordate"))
-			grab_date(wholine, v, name);
-		else if (!strcmp(name, "creator"))
-			v->s = copy_line(wholine);
-	}
-}
-
-static void find_subpos(const char *buf, unsigned long sz,
-			const char **sub, unsigned long *sublen,
-			const char **body, unsigned long *bodylen,
-			unsigned long *nonsiglen,
-			const char **sig, unsigned long *siglen)
-{
-	const char *eol;
-	/* skip past header until we hit empty line */
-	while (*buf && *buf != '\n') {
-		eol = strchrnul(buf, '\n');
-		if (*eol)
-			eol++;
-		buf = eol;
-	}
-	/* skip any empty lines */
-	while (*buf == '\n')
-		buf++;
-
-	/* parse signature first; we might not even have a subject line */
-	*sig = buf + parse_signature(buf, strlen(buf));
-	*siglen = strlen(*sig);
-
-	/* subject is first non-empty line */
-	*sub = buf;
-	/* subject goes to first empty line */
-	while (buf < *sig && *buf && *buf != '\n') {
-		eol = strchrnul(buf, '\n');
-		if (*eol)
-			eol++;
-		buf = eol;
-	}
-	*sublen = buf - *sub;
-	/* drop trailing newline, if present */
-	if (*sublen && (*sub)[*sublen - 1] == '\n')
-		*sublen -= 1;
-
-	/* skip any empty lines */
-	while (*buf == '\n')
-		buf++;
-	*body = buf;
-	*bodylen = strlen(buf);
-	*nonsiglen = *sig - buf;
-}
-
-/* See grab_values */
-static void grab_sub_body_contents(struct atom_value *val, int deref, struct object *obj, void *buf, unsigned long sz)
-{
-	int i;
-	const char *subpos = NULL, *bodypos = NULL, *sigpos = NULL;
-	unsigned long sublen = 0, bodylen = 0, nonsiglen = 0, siglen = 0;
-
-	for (i = 0; i < used_atom_cnt; i++) {
-		const char *name = used_atom[i];
-		struct atom_value *v = &val[i];
-		if (!!deref != (*name == '*'))
-			continue;
-		if (deref)
-			name++;
-		if (strcmp(name, "subject") &&
-		    strcmp(name, "body") &&
-		    strcmp(name, "contents") &&
-		    strcmp(name, "contents:subject") &&
-		    strcmp(name, "contents:body") &&
-		    strcmp(name, "contents:signature"))
-			continue;
-		if (!subpos)
-			find_subpos(buf, sz,
-				    &subpos, &sublen,
-				    &bodypos, &bodylen, &nonsiglen,
-				    &sigpos, &siglen);
-
-		if (!strcmp(name, "subject"))
-			v->s = copy_subject(subpos, sublen);
-		else if (!strcmp(name, "contents:subject"))
-			v->s = copy_subject(subpos, sublen);
-		else if (!strcmp(name, "body"))
-			v->s = xmemdupz(bodypos, bodylen);
-		else if (!strcmp(name, "contents:body"))
-			v->s = xmemdupz(bodypos, nonsiglen);
-		else if (!strcmp(name, "contents:signature"))
-			v->s = xmemdupz(sigpos, siglen);
-		else if (!strcmp(name, "contents"))
-			v->s = xstrdup(subpos);
-	}
-}
-
-/*
- * We want to have empty print-string for field requests
- * that do not apply (e.g. "authordate" for a tag object)
- */
-static void fill_missing_values(struct atom_value *val)
-{
-	int i;
-	for (i = 0; i < used_atom_cnt; i++) {
-		struct atom_value *v = &val[i];
-		if (v->s == NULL)
-			v->s = "";
-	}
-}
-
-/*
- * val is a list of atom_value to hold returned values.  Extract
- * the values for atoms in used_atom array out of (obj, buf, sz).
- * when deref is false, (obj, buf, sz) is the object that is
- * pointed at by the ref itself; otherwise it is the object the
- * ref (which is a tag) refers to.
- */
-static void grab_values(struct atom_value *val, int deref, struct object *obj, void *buf, unsigned long sz)
-{
-	grab_common_values(val, deref, obj, buf, sz);
-	switch (obj->type) {
-	case OBJ_TAG:
-		grab_tag_values(val, deref, obj, buf, sz);
-		grab_sub_body_contents(val, deref, obj, buf, sz);
-		grab_person("tagger", val, deref, obj, buf, sz);
-		break;
-	case OBJ_COMMIT:
-		grab_commit_values(val, deref, obj, buf, sz);
-		grab_sub_body_contents(val, deref, obj, buf, sz);
-		grab_person("author", val, deref, obj, buf, sz);
-		grab_person("committer", val, deref, obj, buf, sz);
-		break;
-	case OBJ_TREE:
-		/* grab_tree_values(val, deref, obj, buf, sz); */
-		break;
-	case OBJ_BLOB:
-		/* grab_blob_values(val, deref, obj, buf, sz); */
-		break;
-	default:
-		die("Eh?  Object of type %d?", obj->type);
-	}
-}
-
-static inline char *copy_advance(char *dst, const char *src)
-{
-	while (*src)
-		*dst++ = *src++;
-	return dst;
-}
-
-/*
- * Parse the object referred by ref, and grab needed value.
- */
-static void populate_value(struct refinfo *ref)
-{
-	void *buf;
-	struct object *obj;
-	int eaten, i;
-	unsigned long size;
-	const unsigned char *tagged;
-
-	ref->value = xcalloc(used_atom_cnt, sizeof(struct atom_value));
-
-	if (need_symref && (ref->flag & REF_ISSYMREF) && !ref->symref) {
-		unsigned char unused1[20];
-		ref->symref = resolve_refdup(ref->refname, RESOLVE_REF_READING,
-					     unused1, NULL);
-		if (!ref->symref)
-			ref->symref = "";
-	}
-
-	/* Fill in specials first */
-	for (i = 0; i < used_atom_cnt; i++) {
-		const char *name = used_atom[i];
-		struct atom_value *v = &ref->value[i];
-		int deref = 0;
-		const char *refname;
-		const char *formatp;
-		struct branch *branch = NULL;
-
-		if (*name == '*') {
-			deref = 1;
-			name++;
-		}
-
-		if (starts_with(name, "refname"))
-			refname = ref->refname;
-		else if (starts_with(name, "symref"))
-			refname = ref->symref ? ref->symref : "";
-		else if (starts_with(name, "upstream")) {
-			const char *branch_name;
-			/* only local branches may have an upstream */
-			if (!skip_prefix(ref->refname, "refs/heads/",
-					 &branch_name))
-				continue;
-			branch = branch_get(branch_name);
-
-			refname = branch_get_upstream(branch, NULL);
-			if (!refname)
-				continue;
-		} else if (starts_with(name, "push")) {
-			const char *branch_name;
-			if (!skip_prefix(ref->refname, "refs/heads/",
-					 &branch_name))
-				continue;
-			branch = branch_get(branch_name);
-
-			refname = branch_get_push(branch, NULL);
-			if (!refname)
-				continue;
-		} else if (starts_with(name, "color:")) {
-			char color[COLOR_MAXLEN] = "";
-
-			if (color_parse(name + 6, color) < 0)
-				die(_("unable to parse format"));
-			v->s = xstrdup(color);
-			continue;
-		} else if (!strcmp(name, "flag")) {
-			char buf[256], *cp = buf;
-			if (ref->flag & REF_ISSYMREF)
-				cp = copy_advance(cp, ",symref");
-			if (ref->flag & REF_ISPACKED)
-				cp = copy_advance(cp, ",packed");
-			if (cp == buf)
-				v->s = "";
-			else {
-				*cp = '\0';
-				v->s = xstrdup(buf + 1);
-			}
-			continue;
-		} else if (!deref && grab_objectname(name, ref->objectname, v)) {
-			continue;
-		} else if (!strcmp(name, "HEAD")) {
-			const char *head;
-			unsigned char sha1[20];
-
-			head = resolve_ref_unsafe("HEAD", RESOLVE_REF_READING,
-						  sha1, NULL);
-			if (!strcmp(ref->refname, head))
-				v->s = "*";
-			else
-				v->s = " ";
-			continue;
-		} else
-			continue;
-
-		formatp = strchr(name, ':');
-		if (formatp) {
-			int num_ours, num_theirs;
-
-			formatp++;
-			if (!strcmp(formatp, "short"))
-				refname = shorten_unambiguous_ref(refname,
-						      warn_ambiguous_refs);
-			else if (!strcmp(formatp, "track") &&
-				 (starts_with(name, "upstream") ||
-				  starts_with(name, "push"))) {
-				char buf[40];
-
-				if (stat_tracking_info(branch, &num_ours,
-						       &num_theirs, NULL))
-					continue;
-
-				if (!num_ours && !num_theirs)
-					v->s = "";
-				else if (!num_ours) {
-					sprintf(buf, "[behind %d]", num_theirs);
-					v->s = xstrdup(buf);
-				} else if (!num_theirs) {
-					sprintf(buf, "[ahead %d]", num_ours);
-					v->s = xstrdup(buf);
-				} else {
-					sprintf(buf, "[ahead %d, behind %d]",
-						num_ours, num_theirs);
-					v->s = xstrdup(buf);
-				}
-				continue;
-			} else if (!strcmp(formatp, "trackshort") &&
-				   (starts_with(name, "upstream") ||
-				    starts_with(name, "push"))) {
-				assert(branch);
-
-				if (stat_tracking_info(branch, &num_ours,
-							&num_theirs, NULL))
-					continue;
-
-				if (!num_ours && !num_theirs)
-					v->s = "=";
-				else if (!num_ours)
-					v->s = "<";
-				else if (!num_theirs)
-					v->s = ">";
-				else
-					v->s = "<>";
-				continue;
-			} else
-				die("unknown %.*s format %s",
-				    (int)(formatp - name), name, formatp);
-		}
-
-		if (!deref)
-			v->s = refname;
-		else {
-			int len = strlen(refname);
-			char *s = xmalloc(len + 4);
-			sprintf(s, "%s^{}", refname);
-			v->s = s;
-		}
-	}
-
-	for (i = 0; i < used_atom_cnt; i++) {
-		struct atom_value *v = &ref->value[i];
-		if (v->s == NULL)
-			goto need_obj;
-	}
-	return;
-
- need_obj:
-	buf = get_obj(ref->objectname, &obj, &size, &eaten);
-	if (!buf)
-		die("missing object %s for %s",
-		    sha1_to_hex(ref->objectname), ref->refname);
-	if (!obj)
-		die("parse_object_buffer failed on %s for %s",
-		    sha1_to_hex(ref->objectname), ref->refname);
-
-	grab_values(ref->value, 0, obj, buf, size);
-	if (!eaten)
-		free(buf);
-
-	/*
-	 * If there is no atom that wants to know about tagged
-	 * object, we are done.
-	 */
-	if (!need_tagged || (obj->type != OBJ_TAG))
-		return;
-
-	/*
-	 * If it is a tag object, see if we use a value that derefs
-	 * the object, and if we do grab the object it refers to.
-	 */
-	tagged = ((struct tag *)obj)->tagged->sha1;
-
-	/*
-	 * NEEDSWORK: This derefs tag only once, which
-	 * is good to deal with chains of trust, but
-	 * is not consistent with what deref_tag() does
-	 * which peels the onion to the core.
-	 */
-	buf = get_obj(tagged, &obj, &size, &eaten);
-	if (!buf)
-		die("missing object %s for %s",
-		    sha1_to_hex(tagged), ref->refname);
-	if (!obj)
-		die("parse_object_buffer failed on %s for %s",
-		    sha1_to_hex(tagged), ref->refname);
-	grab_values(ref->value, 1, obj, buf, size);
-	if (!eaten)
-		free(buf);
-}
-
-/*
- * Given a ref, return the value for the atom.  This lazily gets value
- * out of the object by calling populate value.
- */
-static void get_value(struct refinfo *ref, int atom, struct atom_value **v)
-{
-	if (!ref->value) {
-		populate_value(ref);
-		fill_missing_values(ref->value);
-	}
-	*v = &ref->value[atom];
-}
-
-struct grab_ref_cbdata {
-	struct refinfo **grab_array;
-	const char **grab_pattern;
-	int grab_cnt;
-};
-
-/*
- * A call-back given to for_each_ref().  Filter refs and keep them for
- * later object processing.
- */
-static int grab_single_ref(const char *refname, const struct object_id *oid,
-			   int flag, void *cb_data)
-{
-	struct grab_ref_cbdata *cb = cb_data;
-	struct refinfo *ref;
-	int cnt;
-
-	if (flag & REF_BAD_NAME) {
-		  warning("ignoring ref with broken name %s", refname);
-		  return 0;
-	}
-
-	if (flag & REF_ISBROKEN) {
-		  warning("ignoring broken ref %s", refname);
-		  return 0;
-	}
-
-	if (*cb->grab_pattern) {
-		const char **pattern;
-		int namelen = strlen(refname);
-		for (pattern = cb->grab_pattern; *pattern; pattern++) {
-			const char *p = *pattern;
-			int plen = strlen(p);
-
-			if ((plen <= namelen) &&
-			    !strncmp(refname, p, plen) &&
-			    (refname[plen] == '\0' ||
-			     refname[plen] == '/' ||
-			     p[plen-1] == '/'))
-				break;
-			if (!wildmatch(p, refname, WM_PATHNAME, NULL))
-				break;
-		}
-		if (!*pattern)
-			return 0;
-	}
-
-	/*
-	 * We do not open the object yet; sort may only need refname
-	 * to do its job and the resulting list may yet to be pruned
-	 * by maxcount logic.
-	 */
-	ref = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*ref));
-	ref->refname = xstrdup(refname);
-	hashcpy(ref->objectname, oid->hash);
-	ref->flag = flag;
-
-	cnt = cb->grab_cnt;
-	REALLOC_ARRAY(cb->grab_array, cnt + 1);
-	cb->grab_array[cnt++] = ref;
-	cb->grab_cnt = cnt;
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static int cmp_ref_sort(struct ref_sort *s, struct refinfo *a, struct refinfo *b)
-{
-	struct atom_value *va, *vb;
-	int cmp;
-	cmp_type cmp_type = used_atom_type[s->atom];
-
-	get_value(a, s->atom, &va);
-	get_value(b, s->atom, &vb);
-	switch (cmp_type) {
-	case FIELD_STR:
-		cmp = strcmp(va->s, vb->s);
-		break;
-	default:
-		if (va->ul < vb->ul)
-			cmp = -1;
-		else if (va->ul == vb->ul)
-			cmp = 0;
-		else
-			cmp = 1;
-		break;
-	}
-	return (s->reverse) ? -cmp : cmp;
-}
-
-static struct ref_sort *ref_sort;
-static int compare_refs(const void *a_, const void *b_)
-{
-	struct refinfo *a = *((struct refinfo **)a_);
-	struct refinfo *b = *((struct refinfo **)b_);
-	struct ref_sort *s;
-
-	for (s = ref_sort; s; s = s->next) {
-		int cmp = cmp_ref_sort(s, a, b);
-		if (cmp)
-			return cmp;
-	}
-	return 0;
-}
-
-static void sort_refs(struct ref_sort *sort, struct refinfo **refs, int num_refs)
-{
-	ref_sort = sort;
-	qsort(refs, num_refs, sizeof(struct refinfo *), compare_refs);
-}
-
-static void print_value(struct atom_value *v, int quote_style)
-{
-	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
-	switch (quote_style) {
-	case QUOTE_NONE:
-		fputs(v->s, stdout);
-		break;
-	case QUOTE_SHELL:
-		sq_quote_buf(&sb, v->s);
-		break;
-	case QUOTE_PERL:
-		perl_quote_buf(&sb, v->s);
-		break;
-	case QUOTE_PYTHON:
-		python_quote_buf(&sb, v->s);
-		break;
-	case QUOTE_TCL:
-		tcl_quote_buf(&sb, v->s);
-		break;
-	}
-	if (quote_style != QUOTE_NONE) {
-		fputs(sb.buf, stdout);
-		strbuf_release(&sb);
-	}
-}
-
-static int hex1(char ch)
-{
-	if ('0' <= ch && ch <= '9')
-		return ch - '0';
-	else if ('a' <= ch && ch <= 'f')
-		return ch - 'a' + 10;
-	else if ('A' <= ch && ch <= 'F')
-		return ch - 'A' + 10;
-	return -1;
-}
-static int hex2(const char *cp)
-{
-	if (cp[0] && cp[1])
-		return (hex1(cp[0]) << 4) | hex1(cp[1]);
-	else
-		return -1;
-}
-
-static void emit(const char *cp, const char *ep)
-{
-	while (*cp && (!ep || cp < ep)) {
-		if (*cp == '%') {
-			if (cp[1] == '%')
-				cp++;
-			else {
-				int ch = hex2(cp + 1);
-				if (0 <= ch) {
-					putchar(ch);
-					cp += 3;
-					continue;
-				}
-			}
-		}
-		putchar(*cp);
-		cp++;
-	}
-}
-
-static void show_ref(struct refinfo *info, const char *format, int quote_style)
-{
-	const char *cp, *sp, *ep;
-
-	for (cp = format; *cp && (sp = find_next(cp)); cp = ep + 1) {
-		struct atom_value *atomv;
-
-		ep = strchr(sp, ')');
-		if (cp < sp)
-			emit(cp, sp);
-		get_value(info, parse_atom(sp + 2, ep), &atomv);
-		print_value(atomv, quote_style);
-	}
-	if (*cp) {
-		sp = cp + strlen(cp);
-		emit(cp, sp);
-	}
-	if (need_color_reset_at_eol) {
-		struct atom_value resetv;
-		char color[COLOR_MAXLEN] = "";
-
-		if (color_parse("reset", color) < 0)
-			die("BUG: couldn't parse 'reset' as a color");
-		resetv.s = color;
-		print_value(&resetv, quote_style);
-	}
-	putchar('\n');
-}
-
-static struct ref_sort *default_sort(void)
-{
-	static const char cstr_name[] = "refname";
-
-	struct ref_sort *sort = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*sort));
-
-	sort->next = NULL;
-	sort->atom = parse_atom(cstr_name, cstr_name + strlen(cstr_name));
-	return sort;
-}
-
-static int opt_parse_sort(const struct option *opt, const char *arg, int unset)
-{
-	struct ref_sort **sort_tail = opt->value;
-	struct ref_sort *s;
-	int len;
-
-	if (!arg) /* should --no-sort void the list ? */
-		return -1;
-
-	s = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*s));
-	s->next = *sort_tail;
-	*sort_tail = s;
-
-	if (*arg == '-') {
-		s->reverse = 1;
-		arg++;
-	}
-	len = strlen(arg);
-	s->atom = parse_atom(arg, arg+len);
-	return 0;
-}
+#include "ref-filter.h"
 
 static char const * const for_each_ref_usage[] = {
 	N_("git for-each-ref [<options>] [<pattern>]"),
+	N_("git for-each-ref [--points-at <object>]"),
+	N_("git for-each-ref [(--merged | --no-merged) [<object>]]"),
+	N_("git for-each-ref [--contains [<object>]]"),
 	NULL
 };
 
 int cmd_for_each_ref(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
-	int i, num_refs;
+	int i;
 	const char *format = "%(objectname) %(objecttype)\t%(refname)";
-	struct ref_sort *sort = NULL, **sort_tail = &sort;
+	struct ref_sorting *sorting = NULL, **sorting_tail = &sorting;
 	int maxcount = 0, quote_style = 0;
-	struct refinfo **refs;
-	struct grab_ref_cbdata cbdata;
+	struct ref_array array;
+	struct ref_filter filter;
 
 	struct option opts[] = {
 		OPT_BIT('s', "shell", &quote_style,
@@ -1106,11 +35,20 @@
 		OPT_GROUP(""),
 		OPT_INTEGER( 0 , "count", &maxcount, N_("show only <n> matched refs")),
 		OPT_STRING(  0 , "format", &format, N_("format"), N_("format to use for the output")),
-		OPT_CALLBACK(0 , "sort", sort_tail, N_("key"),
-			    N_("field name to sort on"), &opt_parse_sort),
+		OPT_CALLBACK(0 , "sort", sorting_tail, N_("key"),
+			    N_("field name to sort on"), &parse_opt_ref_sorting),
+		OPT_CALLBACK(0, "points-at", &filter.points_at,
+			     N_("object"), N_("print only refs which points at the given object"),
+			     parse_opt_object_name),
+		OPT_MERGED(&filter, N_("print only refs that are merged")),
+		OPT_NO_MERGED(&filter, N_("print only refs that are not merged")),
+		OPT_CONTAINS(&filter.with_commit, N_("print only refs which contain the commit")),
 		OPT_END(),
 	};
 
+	memset(&array, 0, sizeof(array));
+	memset(&filter, 0, sizeof(filter));
+
 	parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, opts, for_each_ref_usage, 0);
 	if (maxcount < 0) {
 		error("invalid --count argument: `%d'", maxcount);
@@ -1120,26 +58,24 @@
 		error("more than one quoting style?");
 		usage_with_options(for_each_ref_usage, opts);
 	}
-	if (verify_format(format))
+	if (verify_ref_format(format))
 		usage_with_options(for_each_ref_usage, opts);
 
-	if (!sort)
-		sort = default_sort();
+	if (!sorting)
+		sorting = ref_default_sorting();
 
 	/* for warn_ambiguous_refs */
 	git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
 
-	memset(&cbdata, 0, sizeof(cbdata));
-	cbdata.grab_pattern = argv;
-	for_each_rawref(grab_single_ref, &cbdata);
-	refs = cbdata.grab_array;
-	num_refs = cbdata.grab_cnt;
+	filter.name_patterns = argv;
+	filter.match_as_path = 1;
+	filter_refs(&array, &filter, FILTER_REFS_ALL | FILTER_REFS_INCLUDE_BROKEN);
+	ref_array_sort(sorting, &array);
 
-	sort_refs(sort, refs, num_refs);
-
-	if (!maxcount || num_refs < maxcount)
-		maxcount = num_refs;
+	if (!maxcount || array.nr < maxcount)
+		maxcount = array.nr;
 	for (i = 0; i < maxcount; i++)
-		show_ref(refs[i], format, quote_style);
+		show_ref_array_item(array.items[i], format, quote_style);
+	ref_array_clear(&array);
 	return 0;
 }
diff --git a/builtin/fsck.c b/builtin/fsck.c
index 2679793..55eac75 100644
--- a/builtin/fsck.c
+++ b/builtin/fsck.c
@@ -23,8 +23,11 @@
 static int show_unreachable;
 static int include_reflogs = 1;
 static int check_full = 1;
+static int connectivity_only;
 static int check_strict;
 static int keep_cache_objects;
+static struct fsck_options fsck_walk_options = FSCK_OPTIONS_DEFAULT;
+static struct fsck_options fsck_obj_options = FSCK_OPTIONS_DEFAULT;
 static struct object_id head_oid;
 static const char *head_points_at;
 static int errors_found;
@@ -35,48 +38,54 @@
 #define ERROR_OBJECT 01
 #define ERROR_REACHABLE 02
 #define ERROR_PACK 04
+#define ERROR_REFS 010
 
-#ifdef NO_D_INO_IN_DIRENT
-#define SORT_DIRENT 0
-#define DIRENT_SORT_HINT(de) 0
-#else
-#define SORT_DIRENT 1
-#define DIRENT_SORT_HINT(de) ((de)->d_ino)
-#endif
-
-static void objreport(struct object *obj, const char *severity,
-                      const char *err, va_list params)
+static int fsck_config(const char *var, const char *value, void *cb)
 {
-	fprintf(stderr, "%s in %s %s: ",
-	        severity, typename(obj->type), sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
-	vfprintf(stderr, err, params);
-	fputs("\n", stderr);
+	if (strcmp(var, "fsck.skiplist") == 0) {
+		const char *path;
+		struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+
+		if (git_config_pathname(&path, var, value))
+			return 1;
+		strbuf_addf(&sb, "skiplist=%s", path);
+		free((char *)path);
+		fsck_set_msg_types(&fsck_obj_options, sb.buf);
+		strbuf_release(&sb);
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	if (skip_prefix(var, "fsck.", &var)) {
+		fsck_set_msg_type(&fsck_obj_options, var, value);
+		return 0;
+	}
+
+	return git_default_config(var, value, cb);
 }
 
-__attribute__((format (printf, 2, 3)))
-static int objerror(struct object *obj, const char *err, ...)
+static void objreport(struct object *obj, const char *msg_type,
+			const char *err)
 {
-	va_list params;
-	va_start(params, err);
+	fprintf(stderr, "%s in %s %s: %s\n",
+		msg_type, typename(obj->type), oid_to_hex(&obj->oid), err);
+}
+
+static int objerror(struct object *obj, const char *err)
+{
 	errors_found |= ERROR_OBJECT;
-	objreport(obj, "error", err, params);
-	va_end(params);
+	objreport(obj, "error", err);
 	return -1;
 }
 
-__attribute__((format (printf, 3, 4)))
-static int fsck_error_func(struct object *obj, int type, const char *err, ...)
+static int fsck_error_func(struct object *obj, int type, const char *message)
 {
-	va_list params;
-	va_start(params, err);
-	objreport(obj, (type == FSCK_WARN) ? "warning" : "error", err, params);
-	va_end(params);
+	objreport(obj, (type == FSCK_WARN) ? "warning" : "error", message);
 	return (type == FSCK_WARN) ? 0 : 1;
 }
 
 static struct object_array pending;
 
-static int mark_object(struct object *obj, int type, void *data)
+static int mark_object(struct object *obj, int type, void *data, struct fsck_options *options)
 {
 	struct object *parent = data;
 
@@ -88,7 +97,7 @@
 	if (!obj) {
 		/* ... these references to parent->fld are safe here */
 		printf("broken link from %7s %s\n",
-			   typename(parent->type), sha1_to_hex(parent->sha1));
+			   typename(parent->type), oid_to_hex(&parent->oid));
 		printf("broken link from %7s %s\n",
 			   (type == OBJ_ANY ? "unknown" : typename(type)), "unknown");
 		errors_found |= ERROR_REACHABLE;
@@ -103,11 +112,11 @@
 		return 0;
 	obj->flags |= REACHABLE;
 	if (!(obj->flags & HAS_OBJ)) {
-		if (parent && !has_sha1_file(obj->sha1)) {
+		if (parent && !has_object_file(&obj->oid)) {
 			printf("broken link from %7s %s\n",
-				 typename(parent->type), sha1_to_hex(parent->sha1));
+				 typename(parent->type), oid_to_hex(&parent->oid));
 			printf("              to %7s %s\n",
-				 typename(obj->type), sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
+				 typename(obj->type), oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
 			errors_found |= ERROR_REACHABLE;
 		}
 		return 1;
@@ -119,7 +128,7 @@
 
 static void mark_object_reachable(struct object *obj)
 {
-	mark_object(obj, OBJ_ANY, NULL);
+	mark_object(obj, OBJ_ANY, NULL, NULL);
 }
 
 static int traverse_one_object(struct object *obj)
@@ -132,7 +141,7 @@
 		if (parse_tree(tree) < 0)
 			return 1; /* error already displayed */
 	}
-	result = fsck_walk(obj, mark_object, obj);
+	result = fsck_walk(obj, obj, &fsck_walk_options);
 	if (tree)
 		free_tree_buffer(tree);
 	return result;
@@ -158,7 +167,7 @@
 	return !!result;
 }
 
-static int mark_used(struct object *obj, int type, void *data)
+static int mark_used(struct object *obj, int type, void *data, struct fsck_options *options)
 {
 	if (!obj)
 		return 1;
@@ -177,9 +186,11 @@
 	 * do a full fsck
 	 */
 	if (!(obj->flags & HAS_OBJ)) {
-		if (has_sha1_pack(obj->sha1))
+		if (has_sha1_pack(obj->oid.hash))
 			return; /* it is in pack - forget about it */
-		printf("missing %s %s\n", typename(obj->type), sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
+		if (connectivity_only && has_object_file(&obj->oid))
+			return;
+		printf("missing %s %s\n", typename(obj->type), oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
 		errors_found |= ERROR_REACHABLE;
 		return;
 	}
@@ -204,7 +215,7 @@
 	 * since this is something that is prunable.
 	 */
 	if (show_unreachable) {
-		printf("unreachable %s %s\n", typename(obj->type), sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
+		printf("unreachable %s %s\n", typename(obj->type), oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
 		return;
 	}
 
@@ -223,27 +234,29 @@
 	if (!obj->used) {
 		if (show_dangling)
 			printf("dangling %s %s\n", typename(obj->type),
-			       sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
+			       oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
 		if (write_lost_and_found) {
-			const char *filename = git_path("lost-found/%s/%s",
+			char *filename = git_pathdup("lost-found/%s/%s",
 				obj->type == OBJ_COMMIT ? "commit" : "other",
-				sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
+				oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
 			FILE *f;
 
 			if (safe_create_leading_directories_const(filename)) {
 				error("Could not create lost-found");
+				free(filename);
 				return;
 			}
 			if (!(f = fopen(filename, "w")))
 				die_errno("Could not open '%s'", filename);
 			if (obj->type == OBJ_BLOB) {
-				if (stream_blob_to_fd(fileno(f), obj->sha1, NULL, 1))
+				if (stream_blob_to_fd(fileno(f), obj->oid.hash, NULL, 1))
 					die_errno("Could not write '%s'", filename);
 			} else
-				fprintf(f, "%s\n", sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
+				fprintf(f, "%s\n", oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
 			if (fclose(f))
 				die_errno("Could not finish '%s'",
 					  filename);
+			free(filename);
 		}
 		return;
 	}
@@ -258,7 +271,7 @@
 static void check_object(struct object *obj)
 {
 	if (verbose)
-		fprintf(stderr, "Checking %s\n", sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
+		fprintf(stderr, "Checking %s\n", oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
 
 	if (obj->flags & REACHABLE)
 		check_reachable_object(obj);
@@ -294,11 +307,11 @@
 
 	if (verbose)
 		fprintf(stderr, "Checking %s %s\n",
-			typename(obj->type), sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
+			typename(obj->type), oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
 
-	if (fsck_walk(obj, mark_used, NULL))
+	if (fsck_walk(obj, NULL, &fsck_obj_options))
 		objerror(obj, "broken links");
-	if (fsck_object(obj, NULL, 0, check_strict, fsck_error_func))
+	if (fsck_object(obj, NULL, 0, &fsck_obj_options))
 		return -1;
 
 	if (obj->type == OBJ_TREE) {
@@ -313,15 +326,15 @@
 		free_commit_buffer(commit);
 
 		if (!commit->parents && show_root)
-			printf("root %s\n", sha1_to_hex(commit->object.sha1));
+			printf("root %s\n", oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid));
 	}
 
 	if (obj->type == OBJ_TAG) {
 		struct tag *tag = (struct tag *) obj;
 
 		if (show_tags && tag->tagged) {
-			printf("tagged %s %s", typename(tag->tagged->type), sha1_to_hex(tag->tagged->sha1));
-			printf(" (%s) in %s\n", tag->tag, sha1_to_hex(tag->object.sha1));
+			printf("tagged %s %s", typename(tag->tagged->type), oid_to_hex(&tag->tagged->oid));
+			printf(" (%s) in %s\n", tag->tag, oid_to_hex(&tag->object.oid));
 		}
 	}
 
@@ -353,102 +366,6 @@
 	return fsck_obj(obj);
 }
 
-/*
- * This is the sorting chunk size: make it reasonably
- * big so that we can sort well..
- */
-#define MAX_SHA1_ENTRIES (1024)
-
-struct sha1_entry {
-	unsigned long ino;
-	unsigned char sha1[20];
-};
-
-static struct {
-	unsigned long nr;
-	struct sha1_entry *entry[MAX_SHA1_ENTRIES];
-} sha1_list;
-
-static int ino_compare(const void *_a, const void *_b)
-{
-	const struct sha1_entry *a = _a, *b = _b;
-	unsigned long ino1 = a->ino, ino2 = b->ino;
-	return ino1 < ino2 ? -1 : ino1 > ino2 ? 1 : 0;
-}
-
-static void fsck_sha1_list(void)
-{
-	int i, nr = sha1_list.nr;
-
-	if (SORT_DIRENT)
-		qsort(sha1_list.entry, nr,
-		      sizeof(struct sha1_entry *), ino_compare);
-	for (i = 0; i < nr; i++) {
-		struct sha1_entry *entry = sha1_list.entry[i];
-		unsigned char *sha1 = entry->sha1;
-
-		sha1_list.entry[i] = NULL;
-		if (fsck_sha1(sha1))
-			errors_found |= ERROR_OBJECT;
-		free(entry);
-	}
-	sha1_list.nr = 0;
-}
-
-static void add_sha1_list(unsigned char *sha1, unsigned long ino)
-{
-	struct sha1_entry *entry = xmalloc(sizeof(*entry));
-	int nr;
-
-	entry->ino = ino;
-	hashcpy(entry->sha1, sha1);
-	nr = sha1_list.nr;
-	if (nr == MAX_SHA1_ENTRIES) {
-		fsck_sha1_list();
-		nr = 0;
-	}
-	sha1_list.entry[nr] = entry;
-	sha1_list.nr = ++nr;
-}
-
-static inline int is_loose_object_file(struct dirent *de,
-				       char *name, unsigned char *sha1)
-{
-	if (strlen(de->d_name) != 38)
-		return 0;
-	memcpy(name + 2, de->d_name, 39);
-	return !get_sha1_hex(name, sha1);
-}
-
-static void fsck_dir(int i, char *path)
-{
-	DIR *dir = opendir(path);
-	struct dirent *de;
-	char name[100];
-
-	if (!dir)
-		return;
-
-	if (verbose)
-		fprintf(stderr, "Checking directory %s\n", path);
-
-	sprintf(name, "%02x", i);
-	while ((de = readdir(dir)) != NULL) {
-		unsigned char sha1[20];
-
-		if (is_dot_or_dotdot(de->d_name))
-			continue;
-		if (is_loose_object_file(de, name, sha1)) {
-			add_sha1_list(sha1, DIRENT_SORT_HINT(de));
-			continue;
-		}
-		if (starts_with(de->d_name, "tmp_obj_"))
-			continue;
-		fprintf(stderr, "bad sha1 file: %s/%s\n", path, de->d_name);
-	}
-	closedir(dir);
-}
-
 static int default_refs;
 
 static void fsck_handle_reflog_sha1(const char *refname, unsigned char *sha1)
@@ -501,8 +418,10 @@
 		/* We'll continue with the rest despite the error.. */
 		return 0;
 	}
-	if (obj->type != OBJ_COMMIT && is_branch(refname))
+	if (obj->type != OBJ_COMMIT && is_branch(refname)) {
 		error("%s: not a commit", refname);
+		errors_found |= ERROR_REFS;
+	}
 	default_refs++;
 	obj->used = 1;
 	mark_object_reachable(obj);
@@ -536,9 +455,28 @@
 	}
 }
 
+static int fsck_loose(const unsigned char *sha1, const char *path, void *data)
+{
+	if (fsck_sha1(sha1))
+		errors_found |= ERROR_OBJECT;
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int fsck_cruft(const char *basename, const char *path, void *data)
+{
+	if (!starts_with(basename, "tmp_obj_"))
+		fprintf(stderr, "bad sha1 file: %s\n", path);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int fsck_subdir(int nr, const char *path, void *progress)
+{
+	display_progress(progress, nr + 1);
+	return 0;
+}
+
 static void fsck_object_dir(const char *path)
 {
-	int i;
 	struct progress *progress = NULL;
 
 	if (verbose)
@@ -546,14 +484,11 @@
 
 	if (show_progress)
 		progress = start_progress(_("Checking object directories"), 256);
-	for (i = 0; i < 256; i++) {
-		static char dir[4096];
-		sprintf(dir, "%s/%02x", path, i);
-		fsck_dir(i, dir);
-		display_progress(progress, i+1);
-	}
+
+	for_each_loose_file_in_objdir(path, fsck_loose, fsck_cruft, fsck_subdir,
+				      progress);
+	display_progress(progress, 256);
 	stop_progress(&progress);
-	fsck_sha1_list();
 }
 
 static int fsck_head_link(void)
@@ -565,17 +500,23 @@
 		fprintf(stderr, "Checking HEAD link\n");
 
 	head_points_at = resolve_ref_unsafe("HEAD", 0, head_oid.hash, &flag);
-	if (!head_points_at)
+	if (!head_points_at) {
+		errors_found |= ERROR_REFS;
 		return error("Invalid HEAD");
+	}
 	if (!strcmp(head_points_at, "HEAD"))
 		/* detached HEAD */
 		null_is_error = 1;
-	else if (!starts_with(head_points_at, "refs/heads/"))
+	else if (!starts_with(head_points_at, "refs/heads/")) {
+		errors_found |= ERROR_REFS;
 		return error("HEAD points to something strange (%s)",
 			     head_points_at);
+	}
 	if (is_null_oid(&head_oid)) {
-		if (null_is_error)
+		if (null_is_error) {
+			errors_found |= ERROR_REFS;
 			return error("HEAD: detached HEAD points at nothing");
+		}
 		fprintf(stderr, "notice: HEAD points to an unborn branch (%s)\n",
 			head_points_at + 11);
 	}
@@ -595,6 +536,7 @@
 		if (!obj) {
 			error("%s: invalid sha1 pointer in cache-tree",
 			      sha1_to_hex(it->sha1));
+			errors_found |= ERROR_REFS;
 			return 1;
 		}
 		obj->used = 1;
@@ -621,6 +563,7 @@
 	OPT_BOOL(0, "cache", &keep_cache_objects, N_("make index objects head nodes")),
 	OPT_BOOL(0, "reflogs", &include_reflogs, N_("make reflogs head nodes (default)")),
 	OPT_BOOL(0, "full", &check_full, N_("also consider packs and alternate objects")),
+	OPT_BOOL(0, "connectivity-only", &connectivity_only, N_("check only connectivity")),
 	OPT_BOOL(0, "strict", &check_strict, N_("enable more strict checking")),
 	OPT_BOOL(0, "lost-found", &write_lost_and_found,
 				N_("write dangling objects in .git/lost-found")),
@@ -638,6 +581,12 @@
 
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, fsck_opts, fsck_usage, 0);
 
+	fsck_walk_options.walk = mark_object;
+	fsck_obj_options.walk = mark_used;
+	fsck_obj_options.error_func = fsck_error_func;
+	if (check_strict)
+		fsck_obj_options.strict = 1;
+
 	if (show_progress == -1)
 		show_progress = isatty(2);
 	if (verbose)
@@ -648,16 +597,21 @@
 		include_reflogs = 0;
 	}
 
-	fsck_head_link();
-	fsck_object_dir(get_object_directory());
+	git_config(fsck_config, NULL);
 
-	prepare_alt_odb();
-	for (alt = alt_odb_list; alt; alt = alt->next) {
-		char namebuf[PATH_MAX];
-		int namelen = alt->name - alt->base;
-		memcpy(namebuf, alt->base, namelen);
-		namebuf[namelen - 1] = 0;
-		fsck_object_dir(namebuf);
+	fsck_head_link();
+	if (!connectivity_only) {
+		fsck_object_dir(get_object_directory());
+
+		prepare_alt_odb();
+		for (alt = alt_odb_list; alt; alt = alt->next) {
+			/* directory name, minus trailing slash */
+			size_t namelen = alt->name - alt->base - 1;
+			struct strbuf name = STRBUF_INIT;
+			strbuf_add(&name, alt->base, namelen);
+			fsck_object_dir(name.buf);
+			strbuf_release(&name);
+		}
 	}
 
 	if (check_full) {
diff --git a/builtin/gc.c b/builtin/gc.c
index 4957c39..c583aad 100644
--- a/builtin/gc.c
+++ b/builtin/gc.c
@@ -11,6 +11,7 @@
  */
 
 #include "builtin.h"
+#include "tempfile.h"
 #include "lockfile.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
 #include "run-command.h"
@@ -42,19 +43,23 @@
 static struct argv_array prune_worktrees = ARGV_ARRAY_INIT;
 static struct argv_array rerere = ARGV_ARRAY_INIT;
 
-static char *pidfile;
+static struct tempfile pidfile;
+static struct lock_file log_lock;
 
-static void remove_pidfile(void)
+static struct string_list pack_garbage = STRING_LIST_INIT_DUP;
+
+static void clean_pack_garbage(void)
 {
-	if (pidfile)
-		unlink(pidfile);
+	int i;
+	for (i = 0; i < pack_garbage.nr; i++)
+		unlink_or_warn(pack_garbage.items[i].string);
+	string_list_clear(&pack_garbage, 0);
 }
 
-static void remove_pidfile_on_signal(int signo)
+static void report_pack_garbage(unsigned seen_bits, const char *path)
 {
-	remove_pidfile();
-	sigchain_pop(signo);
-	raise(signo);
+	if (seen_bits == PACKDIR_FILE_IDX)
+		string_list_append(&pack_garbage, path);
 }
 
 static void git_config_date_string(const char *key, const char **output)
@@ -68,6 +73,28 @@
 	}
 }
 
+static void process_log_file(void)
+{
+	struct stat st;
+	if (!fstat(get_lock_file_fd(&log_lock), &st) && st.st_size)
+		commit_lock_file(&log_lock);
+	else
+		rollback_lock_file(&log_lock);
+}
+
+static void process_log_file_at_exit(void)
+{
+	fflush(stderr);
+	process_log_file();
+}
+
+static void process_log_file_on_signal(int signo)
+{
+	process_log_file();
+	sigchain_pop(signo);
+	raise(signo);
+}
+
 static void gc_config(void)
 {
 	const char *value;
@@ -85,7 +112,7 @@
 	git_config_get_int("gc.autopacklimit", &gc_auto_pack_limit);
 	git_config_get_bool("gc.autodetach", &detach_auto);
 	git_config_date_string("gc.pruneexpire", &prune_expire);
-	git_config_date_string("gc.pruneworktreesexpire", &prune_worktrees_expire);
+	git_config_date_string("gc.worktreepruneexpire", &prune_worktrees_expire);
 	git_config(git_default_config, NULL);
 }
 
@@ -199,20 +226,22 @@
 	uintmax_t pid;
 	FILE *fp;
 	int fd;
+	char *pidfile_path;
 
-	if (pidfile)
+	if (is_tempfile_active(&pidfile))
 		/* already locked */
 		return NULL;
 
 	if (gethostname(my_host, sizeof(my_host)))
-		strcpy(my_host, "unknown");
+		xsnprintf(my_host, sizeof(my_host), "unknown");
 
-	fd = hold_lock_file_for_update(&lock, git_path("gc.pid"),
+	pidfile_path = git_pathdup("gc.pid");
+	fd = hold_lock_file_for_update(&lock, pidfile_path,
 				       LOCK_DIE_ON_ERROR);
 	if (!force) {
 		static char locking_host[128];
 		int should_exit;
-		fp = fopen(git_path("gc.pid"), "r");
+		fp = fopen(pidfile_path, "r");
 		memset(locking_host, 0, sizeof(locking_host));
 		should_exit =
 			fp != NULL &&
@@ -227,7 +256,7 @@
 			 * running.
 			 */
 			time(NULL) - st.st_mtime <= 12 * 3600 &&
-			fscanf(fp, "%"PRIuMAX" %127c", &pid, locking_host) == 2 &&
+			fscanf(fp, "%"SCNuMAX" %127c", &pid, locking_host) == 2 &&
 			/* be gentle to concurrent "gc" on remote hosts */
 			(strcmp(locking_host, my_host) || !kill(pid, 0) || errno == EPERM);
 		if (fp != NULL)
@@ -236,6 +265,7 @@
 			if (fd >= 0)
 				rollback_lock_file(&lock);
 			*ret_pid = pid;
+			free(pidfile_path);
 			return locking_host;
 		}
 	}
@@ -245,14 +275,29 @@
 	write_in_full(fd, sb.buf, sb.len);
 	strbuf_release(&sb);
 	commit_lock_file(&lock);
-
-	pidfile = git_pathdup("gc.pid");
-	sigchain_push_common(remove_pidfile_on_signal);
-	atexit(remove_pidfile);
-
+	register_tempfile(&pidfile, pidfile_path);
+	free(pidfile_path);
 	return NULL;
 }
 
+static int report_last_gc_error(void)
+{
+	struct strbuf sb = STRBUF_INIT;
+	int ret;
+
+	ret = strbuf_read_file(&sb, git_path("gc.log"), 0);
+	if (ret > 0)
+		return error(_("The last gc run reported the following. "
+			       "Please correct the root cause\n"
+			       "and remove %s.\n"
+			       "Automatic cleanup will not be performed "
+			       "until the file is removed.\n\n"
+			       "%s"),
+			     git_path("gc.log"), sb.buf);
+	strbuf_release(&sb);
+	return 0;
+}
+
 static int gc_before_repack(void)
 {
 	if (pack_refs && run_command_v_opt(pack_refs_cmd.argv, RUN_GIT_CMD))
@@ -274,6 +319,7 @@
 	int force = 0;
 	const char *name;
 	pid_t pid;
+	int daemonized = 0;
 
 	struct option builtin_gc_options[] = {
 		OPT__QUIET(&quiet, N_("suppress progress reporting")),
@@ -330,13 +376,16 @@
 			fprintf(stderr, _("See \"git help gc\" for manual housekeeping.\n"));
 		}
 		if (detach_auto) {
+			if (report_last_gc_error())
+				return -1;
+
 			if (gc_before_repack())
 				return -1;
 			/*
 			 * failure to daemonize is ok, we'll continue
 			 * in foreground
 			 */
-			daemonize();
+			daemonized = !daemonize();
 		}
 	} else
 		add_repack_all_option();
@@ -349,18 +398,29 @@
 		    name, (uintmax_t)pid);
 	}
 
+	if (daemonized) {
+		hold_lock_file_for_update(&log_lock,
+					  git_path("gc.log"),
+					  LOCK_DIE_ON_ERROR);
+		dup2(get_lock_file_fd(&log_lock), 2);
+		sigchain_push_common(process_log_file_on_signal);
+		atexit(process_log_file_at_exit);
+	}
+
 	if (gc_before_repack())
 		return -1;
 
-	if (run_command_v_opt(repack.argv, RUN_GIT_CMD))
-		return error(FAILED_RUN, repack.argv[0]);
+	if (!repository_format_precious_objects) {
+		if (run_command_v_opt(repack.argv, RUN_GIT_CMD))
+			return error(FAILED_RUN, repack.argv[0]);
 
-	if (prune_expire) {
-		argv_array_push(&prune, prune_expire);
-		if (quiet)
-			argv_array_push(&prune, "--no-progress");
-		if (run_command_v_opt(prune.argv, RUN_GIT_CMD))
-			return error(FAILED_RUN, prune.argv[0]);
+		if (prune_expire) {
+			argv_array_push(&prune, prune_expire);
+			if (quiet)
+				argv_array_push(&prune, "--no-progress");
+			if (run_command_v_opt(prune.argv, RUN_GIT_CMD))
+				return error(FAILED_RUN, prune.argv[0]);
+		}
 	}
 
 	if (prune_worktrees_expire) {
@@ -372,6 +432,11 @@
 	if (run_command_v_opt(rerere.argv, RUN_GIT_CMD))
 		return error(FAILED_RUN, rerere.argv[0]);
 
+	report_garbage = report_pack_garbage;
+	reprepare_packed_git();
+	if (pack_garbage.nr > 0)
+		clean_pack_garbage();
+
 	if (auto_gc && too_many_loose_objects())
 		warning(_("There are too many unreachable loose objects; "
 			"run 'git prune' to remove them."));
diff --git a/builtin/get-tar-commit-id.c b/builtin/get-tar-commit-id.c
index 6f4147a..e21c541 100644
--- a/builtin/get-tar-commit-id.c
+++ b/builtin/get-tar-commit-id.c
@@ -8,7 +8,7 @@
 #include "quote.h"
 
 static const char builtin_get_tar_commit_id_usage[] =
-"git get-tar-commit-id < <tarfile>";
+"git get-tar-commit-id";
 
 /* ustar header + extended global header content */
 #define RECORDSIZE	(512)
diff --git a/builtin/grep.c b/builtin/grep.c
index d04f440..4229cae 100644
--- a/builtin/grep.c
+++ b/builtin/grep.c
@@ -459,7 +459,7 @@
 		       struct object *obj, const char *name, const char *path)
 {
 	if (obj->type == OBJ_BLOB)
-		return grep_sha1(opt, obj->sha1, name, 0, path);
+		return grep_sha1(opt, obj->oid.hash, name, 0, path);
 	if (obj->type == OBJ_COMMIT || obj->type == OBJ_TREE) {
 		struct tree_desc tree;
 		void *data;
@@ -468,12 +468,12 @@
 		int hit, len;
 
 		grep_read_lock();
-		data = read_object_with_reference(obj->sha1, tree_type,
+		data = read_object_with_reference(obj->oid.hash, tree_type,
 						  &size, NULL);
 		grep_read_unlock();
 
 		if (!data)
-			die(_("unable to read tree (%s)"), sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
+			die(_("unable to read tree (%s)"), oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
 
 		len = name ? strlen(name) : 0;
 		strbuf_init(&base, PATH_MAX + len + 1);
@@ -612,11 +612,6 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static int help_callback(const struct option *opt, const char *arg, int unset)
-{
-	return -1;
-}
-
 int cmd_grep(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
 	int hit = 0;
@@ -738,18 +733,9 @@
 			PARSE_OPT_OPTARG, NULL, (intptr_t)default_pager },
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "ext-grep", &external_grep_allowed__ignored,
 			 N_("allow calling of grep(1) (ignored by this build)")),
-		{ OPTION_CALLBACK, 0, "help-all", NULL, NULL, N_("show usage"),
-		  PARSE_OPT_HIDDEN | PARSE_OPT_NOARG, help_callback },
 		OPT_END()
 	};
 
-	/*
-	 * 'git grep -h', unlike 'git grep -h <pattern>', is a request
-	 * to show usage information and exit.
-	 */
-	if (argc == 2 && !strcmp(argv[1], "-h"))
-		usage_with_options(grep_usage, options);
-
 	init_grep_defaults();
 	git_config(grep_cmd_config, NULL);
 	grep_init(&opt, prefix);
@@ -766,8 +752,7 @@
 	 */
 	argc = parse_options(argc, argv, prefix, options, grep_usage,
 			     PARSE_OPT_KEEP_DASHDASH |
-			     PARSE_OPT_STOP_AT_NON_OPTION |
-			     PARSE_OPT_NO_INTERNAL_HELP);
+			     PARSE_OPT_STOP_AT_NON_OPTION);
 	grep_commit_pattern_type(pattern_type_arg, &opt);
 
 	if (use_index && !startup_info->have_repository)
diff --git a/builtin/hash-object.c b/builtin/hash-object.c
index 07fef3c..43b098b 100644
--- a/builtin/hash-object.c
+++ b/builtin/hash-object.c
@@ -78,7 +78,7 @@
 {
 	static const char * const hash_object_usage[] = {
 		N_("git hash-object [-t <type>] [-w] [--path=<file> | --no-filters] [--stdin] [--] <file>..."),
-		N_("git hash-object  --stdin-paths < <list-of-paths>"),
+		N_("git hash-object  --stdin-paths"),
 		NULL
 	};
 	const char *type = blob_type;
diff --git a/builtin/help.c b/builtin/help.c
index 3422e73..1cd0c1e 100644
--- a/builtin/help.c
+++ b/builtin/help.c
@@ -140,17 +140,10 @@
 
 		/* It's simpler to launch konqueror using kfmclient. */
 		if (path) {
-			const char *file = strrchr(path, '/');
-			if (file && !strcmp(file + 1, "konqueror")) {
-				char *new = xstrdup(path);
-				char *dest = strrchr(new, '/');
-
-				/* strlen("konqueror") == strlen("kfmclient") */
-				strcpy(dest + 1, "kfmclient");
-				path = new;
-			}
-			if (file)
-				filename = file;
+			size_t len;
+			if (strip_suffix(path, "/konqueror", &len))
+				path = xstrfmt("%.*s/kfmclient", (int)len, path);
+			filename = basename((char *)path);
 		} else
 			path = "kfmclient";
 		strbuf_addf(&man_page, "man:%s(1)", page);
@@ -183,7 +176,7 @@
 	while (*p)
 		p = &((*p)->next);
 	*p = xcalloc(1, (sizeof(**p) + len + 1));
-	strncpy((*p)->name, name, len);
+	memcpy((*p)->name, name, len); /* NUL-terminated by xcalloc */
 }
 
 static int supported_man_viewer(const char *name, size_t len)
@@ -199,7 +192,7 @@
 {
 	struct man_viewer_info_list *new = xcalloc(1, sizeof(*new) + len + 1);
 
-	strncpy(new->name, name, len);
+	memcpy(new->name, name, len); /* NUL-terminated by xcalloc */
 	new->info = xstrdup(value);
 	new->next = man_viewer_info_list;
 	man_viewer_info_list = new;
@@ -295,16 +288,6 @@
 		is_in_cmdlist(&other_cmds, s);
 }
 
-static const char *prepend(const char *prefix, const char *cmd)
-{
-	size_t pre_len = strlen(prefix);
-	size_t cmd_len = strlen(cmd);
-	char *p = xmalloc(pre_len + cmd_len + 1);
-	memcpy(p, prefix, pre_len);
-	strcpy(p + pre_len, cmd);
-	return p;
-}
-
 static const char *cmd_to_page(const char *git_cmd)
 {
 	if (!git_cmd)
@@ -312,9 +295,9 @@
 	else if (starts_with(git_cmd, "git"))
 		return git_cmd;
 	else if (is_git_command(git_cmd))
-		return prepend("git-", git_cmd);
+		return xstrfmt("git-%s", git_cmd);
 	else
-		return prepend("git", git_cmd);
+		return xstrfmt("git%s", git_cmd);
 }
 
 static void setup_man_path(void)
diff --git a/builtin/index-pack.c b/builtin/index-pack.c
index f07bc66..6a01509 100644
--- a/builtin/index-pack.c
+++ b/builtin/index-pack.c
@@ -75,6 +75,7 @@
 static int from_stdin;
 static int strict;
 static int do_fsck_object;
+static struct fsck_options fsck_options = FSCK_OPTIONS_STRICT;
 static int verbose;
 static int show_stat;
 static int check_self_contained_and_connected;
@@ -192,13 +193,13 @@
 #endif
 
 
-static int mark_link(struct object *obj, int type, void *data)
+static int mark_link(struct object *obj, int type, void *data, struct fsck_options *options)
 {
 	if (!obj)
 		return -1;
 
 	if (type != OBJ_ANY && obj->type != type)
-		die(_("object type mismatch at %s"), sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
+		die(_("object type mismatch at %s"), oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
 
 	obj->flags |= FLAG_LINK;
 	return 0;
@@ -216,13 +217,13 @@
 
 	if (!(obj->flags & FLAG_CHECKED)) {
 		unsigned long size;
-		int type = sha1_object_info(obj->sha1, &size);
+		int type = sha1_object_info(obj->oid.hash, &size);
 		if (type <= 0)
 			die(_("did not receive expected object %s"),
-			      sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
+			      oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
 		if (type != obj->type)
 			die(_("object %s: expected type %s, found %s"),
-			    sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1),
+			    oid_to_hex(&obj->oid),
 			    typename(obj->type), typename(type));
 		obj->flags |= FLAG_CHECKED;
 		return 1;
@@ -440,7 +441,7 @@
 	int hdrlen;
 
 	if (!is_delta_type(type)) {
-		hdrlen = sprintf(hdr, "%s %lu", typename(type), size) + 1;
+		hdrlen = xsnprintf(hdr, sizeof(hdr), "%s %lu", typename(type), size) + 1;
 		git_SHA1_Init(&c);
 		git_SHA1_Update(&c, hdr, hdrlen);
 	} else
@@ -838,11 +839,10 @@
 			if (!obj)
 				die(_("invalid %s"), typename(type));
 			if (do_fsck_object &&
-			    fsck_object(obj, buf, size, 1,
-				    fsck_error_function))
+			    fsck_object(obj, buf, size, &fsck_options))
 				die(_("Error in object"));
-			if (fsck_walk(obj, mark_link, NULL))
-				die(_("Not all child objects of %s are reachable"), sha1_to_hex(obj->sha1));
+			if (fsck_walk(obj, NULL, &fsck_options))
+				die(_("Not all child objects of %s are reachable"), oid_to_hex(&obj->oid));
 
 			if (obj->type == OBJ_TREE) {
 				struct tree *item = (struct tree *) obj;
@@ -1421,7 +1421,7 @@
 				 get_object_directory(), sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 			final_pack_name = name;
 		}
-		if (move_temp_to_file(curr_pack_name, final_pack_name))
+		if (finalize_object_file(curr_pack_name, final_pack_name))
 			die(_("cannot store pack file"));
 	} else if (from_stdin)
 		chmod(final_pack_name, 0444);
@@ -1432,7 +1432,7 @@
 				 get_object_directory(), sha1_to_hex(sha1));
 			final_index_name = name;
 		}
-		if (move_temp_to_file(curr_index_name, final_index_name))
+		if (finalize_object_file(curr_index_name, final_index_name))
 			die(_("cannot store index file"));
 	} else
 		chmod(final_index_name, 0444);
@@ -1615,6 +1615,7 @@
 		usage(index_pack_usage);
 
 	check_replace_refs = 0;
+	fsck_options.walk = mark_link;
 
 	reset_pack_idx_option(&opts);
 	git_config(git_index_pack_config, &opts);
@@ -1632,6 +1633,10 @@
 			} else if (!strcmp(arg, "--strict")) {
 				strict = 1;
 				do_fsck_object = 1;
+			} else if (skip_prefix(arg, "--strict=", &arg)) {
+				strict = 1;
+				do_fsck_object = 1;
+				fsck_set_msg_types(&fsck_options, arg);
 			} else if (!strcmp(arg, "--check-self-contained-and-connected")) {
 				strict = 1;
 				check_self_contained_and_connected = 1;
diff --git a/builtin/init-db.c b/builtin/init-db.c
index 4335738..07229d6 100644
--- a/builtin/init-db.c
+++ b/builtin/init-db.c
@@ -4,6 +4,7 @@
  * Copyright (C) Linus Torvalds, 2005
  */
 #include "cache.h"
+#include "refs.h"
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "exec_cmd.h"
 #include "parse-options.h"
@@ -23,22 +24,11 @@
 static const char *init_db_template_dir;
 static const char *git_link;
 
-static void safe_create_dir(const char *dir, int share)
-{
-	if (mkdir(dir, 0777) < 0) {
-		if (errno != EEXIST) {
-			perror(dir);
-			exit(1);
-		}
-	}
-	else if (share && adjust_shared_perm(dir))
-		die(_("Could not make %s writable by group"), dir);
-}
-
-static void copy_templates_1(char *path, int baselen,
-			     char *template, int template_baselen,
+static void copy_templates_1(struct strbuf *path, struct strbuf *template,
 			     DIR *dir)
 {
+	size_t path_baselen = path->len;
+	size_t template_baselen = template->len;
 	struct dirent *de;
 
 	/* Note: if ".git/hooks" file exists in the repository being
@@ -48,77 +38,64 @@
 	 * with the way the namespace under .git/ is organized, should
 	 * be really carefully chosen.
 	 */
-	safe_create_dir(path, 1);
+	safe_create_dir(path->buf, 1);
 	while ((de = readdir(dir)) != NULL) {
 		struct stat st_git, st_template;
-		int namelen;
 		int exists = 0;
 
+		strbuf_setlen(path, path_baselen);
+		strbuf_setlen(template, template_baselen);
+
 		if (de->d_name[0] == '.')
 			continue;
-		namelen = strlen(de->d_name);
-		if ((PATH_MAX <= baselen + namelen) ||
-		    (PATH_MAX <= template_baselen + namelen))
-			die(_("insanely long template name %s"), de->d_name);
-		memcpy(path + baselen, de->d_name, namelen+1);
-		memcpy(template + template_baselen, de->d_name, namelen+1);
-		if (lstat(path, &st_git)) {
+		strbuf_addstr(path, de->d_name);
+		strbuf_addstr(template, de->d_name);
+		if (lstat(path->buf, &st_git)) {
 			if (errno != ENOENT)
-				die_errno(_("cannot stat '%s'"), path);
+				die_errno(_("cannot stat '%s'"), path->buf);
 		}
 		else
 			exists = 1;
 
-		if (lstat(template, &st_template))
-			die_errno(_("cannot stat template '%s'"), template);
+		if (lstat(template->buf, &st_template))
+			die_errno(_("cannot stat template '%s'"), template->buf);
 
 		if (S_ISDIR(st_template.st_mode)) {
-			DIR *subdir = opendir(template);
-			int baselen_sub = baselen + namelen;
-			int template_baselen_sub = template_baselen + namelen;
+			DIR *subdir = opendir(template->buf);
 			if (!subdir)
-				die_errno(_("cannot opendir '%s'"), template);
-			path[baselen_sub++] =
-				template[template_baselen_sub++] = '/';
-			path[baselen_sub] =
-				template[template_baselen_sub] = 0;
-			copy_templates_1(path, baselen_sub,
-					 template, template_baselen_sub,
-					 subdir);
+				die_errno(_("cannot opendir '%s'"), template->buf);
+			strbuf_addch(path, '/');
+			strbuf_addch(template, '/');
+			copy_templates_1(path, template, subdir);
 			closedir(subdir);
 		}
 		else if (exists)
 			continue;
 		else if (S_ISLNK(st_template.st_mode)) {
-			char lnk[256];
-			int len;
-			len = readlink(template, lnk, sizeof(lnk));
-			if (len < 0)
-				die_errno(_("cannot readlink '%s'"), template);
-			if (sizeof(lnk) <= len)
-				die(_("insanely long symlink %s"), template);
-			lnk[len] = 0;
-			if (symlink(lnk, path))
-				die_errno(_("cannot symlink '%s' '%s'"), lnk, path);
+			struct strbuf lnk = STRBUF_INIT;
+			if (strbuf_readlink(&lnk, template->buf, 0) < 0)
+				die_errno(_("cannot readlink '%s'"), template->buf);
+			if (symlink(lnk.buf, path->buf))
+				die_errno(_("cannot symlink '%s' '%s'"),
+					  lnk.buf, path->buf);
+			strbuf_release(&lnk);
 		}
 		else if (S_ISREG(st_template.st_mode)) {
-			if (copy_file(path, template, st_template.st_mode))
-				die_errno(_("cannot copy '%s' to '%s'"), template,
-					  path);
+			if (copy_file(path->buf, template->buf, st_template.st_mode))
+				die_errno(_("cannot copy '%s' to '%s'"),
+					  template->buf, path->buf);
 		}
 		else
-			error(_("ignoring template %s"), template);
+			error(_("ignoring template %s"), template->buf);
 	}
 }
 
 static void copy_templates(const char *template_dir)
 {
-	char path[PATH_MAX];
-	char template_path[PATH_MAX];
-	int template_len;
+	struct strbuf path = STRBUF_INIT;
+	struct strbuf template_path = STRBUF_INIT;
+	size_t template_len;
 	DIR *dir;
-	const char *git_dir = get_git_dir();
-	int len = strlen(git_dir);
 	char *to_free = NULL;
 
 	if (!template_dir)
@@ -131,26 +108,23 @@
 		free(to_free);
 		return;
 	}
-	template_len = strlen(template_dir);
-	if (PATH_MAX <= (template_len+strlen("/config")))
-		die(_("insanely long template path %s"), template_dir);
-	strcpy(template_path, template_dir);
-	if (template_path[template_len-1] != '/') {
-		template_path[template_len++] = '/';
-		template_path[template_len] = 0;
-	}
-	dir = opendir(template_path);
+
+	strbuf_addstr(&template_path, template_dir);
+	strbuf_complete(&template_path, '/');
+	template_len = template_path.len;
+
+	dir = opendir(template_path.buf);
 	if (!dir) {
 		warning(_("templates not found %s"), template_dir);
 		goto free_return;
 	}
 
 	/* Make sure that template is from the correct vintage */
-	strcpy(template_path + template_len, "config");
+	strbuf_addstr(&template_path, "config");
 	repository_format_version = 0;
 	git_config_from_file(check_repository_format_version,
-			     template_path, NULL);
-	template_path[template_len] = 0;
+			     template_path.buf, NULL);
+	strbuf_setlen(&template_path, template_len);
 
 	if (repository_format_version &&
 	    repository_format_version != GIT_REPO_VERSION) {
@@ -161,17 +135,15 @@
 		goto close_free_return;
 	}
 
-	memcpy(path, git_dir, len);
-	if (len && path[len - 1] != '/')
-		path[len++] = '/';
-	path[len] = 0;
-	copy_templates_1(path, len,
-			 template_path, template_len,
-			 dir);
+	strbuf_addstr(&path, get_git_dir());
+	strbuf_complete(&path, '/');
+	copy_templates_1(&path, &template_path, dir);
 close_free_return:
 	closedir(dir);
 free_return:
 	free(to_free);
+	strbuf_release(&path);
+	strbuf_release(&template_path);
 }
 
 static int git_init_db_config(const char *k, const char *v, void *cb)
@@ -198,28 +170,20 @@
 
 static int create_default_files(const char *template_path)
 {
-	const char *git_dir = get_git_dir();
-	unsigned len = strlen(git_dir);
-	static char path[PATH_MAX];
 	struct stat st1;
+	struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
+	char *path;
 	char repo_version_string[10];
 	char junk[2];
 	int reinit;
 	int filemode;
 
-	if (len > sizeof(path)-50)
-		die(_("insane git directory %s"), git_dir);
-	memcpy(path, git_dir, len);
-
-	if (len && path[len-1] != '/')
-		path[len++] = '/';
-
 	/*
 	 * Create .git/refs/{heads,tags}
 	 */
-	safe_create_dir(git_path("refs"), 1);
-	safe_create_dir(git_path("refs/heads"), 1);
-	safe_create_dir(git_path("refs/tags"), 1);
+	safe_create_dir(git_path_buf(&buf, "refs"), 1);
+	safe_create_dir(git_path_buf(&buf, "refs/heads"), 1);
+	safe_create_dir(git_path_buf(&buf, "refs/tags"), 1);
 
 	/* Just look for `init.templatedir` */
 	git_config(git_init_db_config, NULL);
@@ -243,16 +207,16 @@
 	 */
 	if (shared_repository) {
 		adjust_shared_perm(get_git_dir());
-		adjust_shared_perm(git_path("refs"));
-		adjust_shared_perm(git_path("refs/heads"));
-		adjust_shared_perm(git_path("refs/tags"));
+		adjust_shared_perm(git_path_buf(&buf, "refs"));
+		adjust_shared_perm(git_path_buf(&buf, "refs/heads"));
+		adjust_shared_perm(git_path_buf(&buf, "refs/tags"));
 	}
 
 	/*
 	 * Create the default symlink from ".git/HEAD" to the "master"
 	 * branch, if it does not exist yet.
 	 */
-	strcpy(path + len, "HEAD");
+	path = git_path_buf(&buf, "HEAD");
 	reinit = (!access(path, R_OK)
 		  || readlink(path, junk, sizeof(junk)-1) != -1);
 	if (!reinit) {
@@ -261,13 +225,12 @@
 	}
 
 	/* This forces creation of new config file */
-	sprintf(repo_version_string, "%d", GIT_REPO_VERSION);
+	xsnprintf(repo_version_string, sizeof(repo_version_string),
+		  "%d", GIT_REPO_VERSION);
 	git_config_set("core.repositoryformatversion", repo_version_string);
 
-	path[len] = 0;
-	strcpy(path + len, "config");
-
 	/* Check filemode trustability */
+	path = git_path_buf(&buf, "config");
 	filemode = TEST_FILEMODE;
 	if (TEST_FILEMODE && !lstat(path, &st1)) {
 		struct stat st2;
@@ -288,14 +251,13 @@
 		/* allow template config file to override the default */
 		if (log_all_ref_updates == -1)
 		    git_config_set("core.logallrefupdates", "true");
-		if (needs_work_tree_config(git_dir, work_tree))
+		if (needs_work_tree_config(get_git_dir(), work_tree))
 			git_config_set("core.worktree", work_tree);
 	}
 
 	if (!reinit) {
 		/* Check if symlink is supported in the work tree */
-		path[len] = 0;
-		strcpy(path + len, "tXXXXXX");
+		path = git_path_buf(&buf, "tXXXXXX");
 		if (!close(xmkstemp(path)) &&
 		    !unlink(path) &&
 		    !symlink("testing", path) &&
@@ -306,31 +268,35 @@
 			git_config_set("core.symlinks", "false");
 
 		/* Check if the filesystem is case-insensitive */
-		path[len] = 0;
-		strcpy(path + len, "CoNfIg");
+		path = git_path_buf(&buf, "CoNfIg");
 		if (!access(path, F_OK))
 			git_config_set("core.ignorecase", "true");
-		probe_utf8_pathname_composition(path, len);
+		probe_utf8_pathname_composition();
 	}
 
+	strbuf_release(&buf);
 	return reinit;
 }
 
 static void create_object_directory(void)
 {
-	const char *object_directory = get_object_directory();
-	int len = strlen(object_directory);
-	char *path = xmalloc(len + 40);
+	struct strbuf path = STRBUF_INIT;
+	size_t baselen;
 
-	memcpy(path, object_directory, len);
+	strbuf_addstr(&path, get_object_directory());
+	baselen = path.len;
 
-	safe_create_dir(object_directory, 1);
-	strcpy(path+len, "/pack");
-	safe_create_dir(path, 1);
-	strcpy(path+len, "/info");
-	safe_create_dir(path, 1);
+	safe_create_dir(path.buf, 1);
 
-	free(path);
+	strbuf_setlen(&path, baselen);
+	strbuf_addstr(&path, "/pack");
+	safe_create_dir(path.buf, 1);
+
+	strbuf_setlen(&path, baselen);
+	strbuf_addstr(&path, "/info");
+	safe_create_dir(path.buf, 1);
+
+	strbuf_release(&path);
 }
 
 int set_git_dir_init(const char *git_dir, const char *real_git_dir,
@@ -377,7 +343,7 @@
 			die_errno(_("unable to move %s to %s"), src, git_dir);
 	}
 
-	write_file(git_link, 1, "gitdir: %s\n", git_dir);
+	write_file(git_link, "gitdir: %s", git_dir);
 }
 
 int init_db(const char *template_dir, unsigned int flags)
@@ -413,13 +379,13 @@
 		 */
 		if (shared_repository < 0)
 			/* force to the mode value */
-			sprintf(buf, "0%o", -shared_repository);
+			xsnprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "0%o", -shared_repository);
 		else if (shared_repository == PERM_GROUP)
-			sprintf(buf, "%d", OLD_PERM_GROUP);
+			xsnprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%d", OLD_PERM_GROUP);
 		else if (shared_repository == PERM_EVERYBODY)
-			sprintf(buf, "%d", OLD_PERM_EVERYBODY);
+			xsnprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), "%d", OLD_PERM_EVERYBODY);
 		else
-			die("oops");
+			die("BUG: invalid value for shared_repository");
 		git_config_set("core.sharedrepository", buf);
 		git_config_set("receive.denyNonFastforwards", "true");
 	}
diff --git a/builtin/log.c b/builtin/log.c
index 8781049..e00cea7 100644
--- a/builtin/log.c
+++ b/builtin/log.c
@@ -5,6 +5,7 @@
  *		 2006 Junio Hamano
  */
 #include "cache.h"
+#include "refs.h"
 #include "color.h"
 #include "commit.h"
 #include "diff.h"
@@ -31,6 +32,7 @@
 
 static int default_abbrev_commit;
 static int default_show_root = 1;
+static int default_follow;
 static int decoration_style;
 static int decoration_given;
 static int use_mailmap_config;
@@ -102,6 +104,8 @@
 {
 	if (fmt_pretty)
 		get_commit_format(fmt_pretty, rev);
+	if (default_follow)
+		DIFF_OPT_SET(&rev->diffopt, DEFAULT_FOLLOW_RENAMES);
 	rev->verbose_header = 1;
 	DIFF_OPT_SET(&rev->diffopt, RECURSIVE);
 	rev->diffopt.stat_width = -1; /* use full terminal width */
@@ -112,7 +116,7 @@
 	DIFF_OPT_SET(&rev->diffopt, ALLOW_TEXTCONV);
 
 	if (default_date_mode)
-		rev->date_mode = parse_date_format(default_date_mode);
+		parse_date_format(default_date_mode, &rev->date_mode);
 	rev->diffopt.touched_flags = 0;
 }
 
@@ -338,8 +342,7 @@
 	 * retain that state information if replacing rev->diffopt in this loop
 	 */
 	while ((commit = get_revision(rev)) != NULL) {
-		if (!log_tree_commit(rev, commit) &&
-		    rev->max_count >= 0)
+		if (!log_tree_commit(rev, commit) && rev->max_count >= 0)
 			/*
 			 * We decremented max_count in get_revision,
 			 * but we didn't actually show the commit.
@@ -390,6 +393,10 @@
 		default_show_root = git_config_bool(var, value);
 		return 0;
 	}
+	if (!strcmp(var, "log.follow")) {
+		default_follow = git_config_bool(var, value);
+		return 0;
+	}
 	if (skip_prefix(var, "color.decorate.", &slot_name))
 		return parse_decorate_color_config(var, slot_name, value);
 	if (!strcmp(var, "log.mailmap")) {
@@ -496,7 +503,8 @@
 	return 0;
 }
 
-static void show_rev_tweak_rev(struct rev_info *rev, struct setup_revision_opt *opt)
+static void show_setup_revisions_tweak(struct rev_info *rev,
+				       struct setup_revision_opt *opt)
 {
 	if (rev->ignore_merges) {
 		/* There was no "-m" on the command line */
@@ -531,7 +539,7 @@
 
 	memset(&opt, 0, sizeof(opt));
 	opt.def = "HEAD";
-	opt.tweak = show_rev_tweak_rev;
+	opt.tweak = show_setup_revisions_tweak;
 	cmd_log_init(argc, argv, prefix, &rev, &opt);
 
 	if (!rev.no_walk)
@@ -544,7 +552,7 @@
 		const char *name = objects[i].name;
 		switch (o->type) {
 		case OBJ_BLOB:
-			ret = show_blob_object(o->sha1, &rev, name);
+			ret = show_blob_object(o->oid.hash, &rev, name);
 			break;
 		case OBJ_TAG: {
 			struct tag *t = (struct tag *)o;
@@ -555,14 +563,14 @@
 					diff_get_color_opt(&rev.diffopt, DIFF_COMMIT),
 					t->tag,
 					diff_get_color_opt(&rev.diffopt, DIFF_RESET));
-			ret = show_tag_object(o->sha1, &rev);
+			ret = show_tag_object(o->oid.hash, &rev);
 			rev.shown_one = 1;
 			if (ret)
 				break;
-			o = parse_object(t->tagged->sha1);
+			o = parse_object(t->tagged->oid.hash);
 			if (!o)
 				ret = error(_("Could not read object %s"),
-					    sha1_to_hex(t->tagged->sha1));
+					    oid_to_hex(&t->tagged->oid));
 			objects[i].item = o;
 			i--;
 			break;
@@ -618,6 +626,22 @@
 	return cmd_log_walk(&rev);
 }
 
+static void log_setup_revisions_tweak(struct rev_info *rev,
+				      struct setup_revision_opt *opt)
+{
+	if (DIFF_OPT_TST(&rev->diffopt, DEFAULT_FOLLOW_RENAMES) &&
+	    rev->prune_data.nr == 1)
+		DIFF_OPT_SET(&rev->diffopt, FOLLOW_RENAMES);
+
+	/* Turn --cc/-c into -p --cc/-c when -p was not given */
+	if (!rev->diffopt.output_format && rev->combine_merges)
+		rev->diffopt.output_format = DIFF_FORMAT_PATCH;
+
+	/* Turn -m on when --cc/-c was given */
+	if (rev->combine_merges)
+		rev->ignore_merges = 0;
+}
+
 int cmd_log(int argc, const char **argv, const char *prefix)
 {
 	struct rev_info rev;
@@ -631,6 +655,7 @@
 	memset(&opt, 0, sizeof(opt));
 	opt.def = "HEAD";
 	opt.revarg_opt = REVARG_COMMITTISH;
+	opt.tweak = log_setup_revisions_tweak;
 	cmd_log_init(argc, argv, prefix, &rev, &opt);
 	return cmd_log_walk(&rev);
 }
@@ -771,8 +796,7 @@
 		if (filename.len >=
 		    PATH_MAX - FORMAT_PATCH_NAME_MAX - suffix_len)
 			return error(_("name of output directory is too long"));
-		if (filename.buf[filename.len - 1] != '/')
-			strbuf_addch(&filename, '/');
+		strbuf_complete(&filename, '/');
 	}
 
 	if (rev->numbered_files)
@@ -806,8 +830,8 @@
 	o2 = rev->pending.objects[1].item;
 	flags1 = o1->flags;
 	flags2 = o2->flags;
-	c1 = lookup_commit_reference(o1->sha1);
-	c2 = lookup_commit_reference(o2->sha1);
+	c1 = lookup_commit_reference(o1->oid.hash);
+	c2 = lookup_commit_reference(o2->oid.hash);
 
 	if ((flags1 & UNINTERESTING) == (flags2 & UNINTERESTING))
 		die(_("Not a range."));
@@ -872,8 +896,8 @@
 static char *find_branch_name(struct rev_info *rev)
 {
 	int i, positive = -1;
-	unsigned char branch_sha1[20];
-	const unsigned char *tip_sha1;
+	struct object_id branch_oid;
+	const struct object_id *tip_oid;
 	const char *ref, *v;
 	char *full_ref, *branch = NULL;
 
@@ -888,10 +912,10 @@
 	if (positive < 0)
 		return NULL;
 	ref = rev->cmdline.rev[positive].name;
-	tip_sha1 = rev->cmdline.rev[positive].item->sha1;
-	if (dwim_ref(ref, strlen(ref), branch_sha1, &full_ref) &&
+	tip_oid = &rev->cmdline.rev[positive].item->oid;
+	if (dwim_ref(ref, strlen(ref), branch_oid.hash, &full_ref) &&
 	    skip_prefix(full_ref, "refs/heads/", &v) &&
-	    !hashcmp(tip_sha1, branch_sha1))
+	    !oidcmp(tip_oid, &branch_oid))
 		branch = xstrdup(v);
 	free(full_ref);
 	return branch;
@@ -939,7 +963,7 @@
 
 	msg = body;
 	pp.fmt = CMIT_FMT_EMAIL;
-	pp.date_mode = DATE_RFC2822;
+	pp.date_mode.type = DATE_RFC2822;
 	pp_user_info(&pp, NULL, &sb, committer, encoding);
 	pp_title_line(&pp, &msg, &sb, encoding, need_8bit_cte);
 	pp_remainder(&pp, &msg, &sb, 0);
@@ -969,8 +993,8 @@
 
 	diff_setup_done(&opts);
 
-	diff_tree_sha1(origin->tree->object.sha1,
-		       head->tree->object.sha1,
+	diff_tree_sha1(origin->tree->object.oid.hash,
+		       head->tree->object.oid.hash,
 		       "", &opts);
 	diffcore_std(&opts);
 	diff_flush(&opts);
@@ -1172,6 +1196,7 @@
 	int cover_letter = -1;
 	int boundary_count = 0;
 	int no_binary_diff = 0;
+	int zero_commit = 0;
 	struct commit *origin = NULL;
 	const char *in_reply_to = NULL;
 	struct patch_ids ids;
@@ -1212,6 +1237,8 @@
 			    PARSE_OPT_NOARG | PARSE_OPT_NONEG, keep_callback },
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "no-binary", &no_binary_diff,
 			 N_("don't output binary diffs")),
+		OPT_BOOL(0, "zero-commit", &zero_commit,
+			 N_("output all-zero hash in From header")),
 		OPT_BOOL(0, "ignore-if-in-upstream", &ignore_if_in_upstream,
 			 N_("don't include a patch matching a commit upstream")),
 		{ OPTION_SET_INT, 'p', "no-stat", &use_patch_format, NULL,
@@ -1356,6 +1383,8 @@
 	/* Always generate a patch */
 	rev.diffopt.output_format |= DIFF_FORMAT_PATCH;
 
+	rev.zero_commit = zero_commit;
+
 	if (!DIFF_OPT_TST(&rev.diffopt, TEXT) && !no_binary_diff)
 		DIFF_OPT_SET(&rev.diffopt, BINARY);
 
@@ -1419,7 +1448,7 @@
 		/* Don't say anything if head and upstream are the same. */
 		if (rev.pending.nr == 2) {
 			struct object_array_entry *o = rev.pending.objects;
-			if (hashcmp(o[0].item->sha1, o[1].item->sha1) == 0)
+			if (oidcmp(&o[0].item->oid, &o[1].item->oid) == 0)
 				return 0;
 		}
 		get_patch_ids(&rev, &ids);
@@ -1438,8 +1467,7 @@
 			continue;
 		}
 
-		if (ignore_if_in_upstream &&
-				has_commit_patch_id(commit, &ids))
+		if (ignore_if_in_upstream && has_commit_patch_id(commit, &ids))
 			continue;
 
 		nr++;
@@ -1527,7 +1555,7 @@
 					string_list_append(rev.ref_message_ids,
 							   rev.message_id);
 			}
-			gen_message_id(&rev, sha1_to_hex(commit->object.sha1));
+			gen_message_id(&rev, oid_to_hex(&commit->object.oid));
 		}
 
 		if (!use_stdout &&
@@ -1589,12 +1617,12 @@
 {
 	if (!verbose) {
 		printf("%c %s\n", sign,
-		       find_unique_abbrev(commit->object.sha1, abbrev));
+		       find_unique_abbrev(commit->object.oid.hash, abbrev));
 	} else {
 		struct strbuf buf = STRBUF_INIT;
 		pp_commit_easy(CMIT_FMT_ONELINE, commit, &buf);
 		printf("%c %s %s\n", sign,
-		       find_unique_abbrev(commit->object.sha1, abbrev),
+		       find_unique_abbrev(commit->object.oid.hash, abbrev),
 		       buf.buf);
 		strbuf_release(&buf);
 	}
@@ -1652,7 +1680,7 @@
 	/* Don't say anything if head and upstream are the same. */
 	if (revs.pending.nr == 2) {
 		struct object_array_entry *o = revs.pending.objects;
-		if (hashcmp(o[0].item->sha1, o[1].item->sha1) == 0)
+		if (oidcmp(&o[0].item->oid, &o[1].item->oid) == 0)
 			return 0;
 	}
 
diff --git a/builtin/ls-remote.c b/builtin/ls-remote.c
index 4554dbc..fa65a84 100644
--- a/builtin/ls-remote.c
+++ b/builtin/ls-remote.c
@@ -4,7 +4,7 @@
 #include "remote.h"
 
 static const char ls_remote_usage[] =
-"git ls-remote [--heads] [--tags]  [-u <exec> | --upload-pack <exec>]\n"
+"git ls-remote [--heads] [--tags]  [--upload-pack=<exec>]\n"
 "                     [-q | --quiet] [--exit-code] [--get-url] [<repository> [<refs>...]]";
 
 /*
@@ -93,12 +93,8 @@
 	if (argv[i]) {
 		int j;
 		pattern = xcalloc(argc - i + 1, sizeof(const char *));
-		for (j = i; j < argc; j++) {
-			int len = strlen(argv[j]);
-			char *p = xmalloc(len + 3);
-			sprintf(p, "*/%s", argv[j]);
-			pattern[j - i] = p;
-		}
+		for (j = i; j < argc; j++)
+			pattern[j - i] = xstrfmt("*/%s", argv[j]);
 	}
 	remote = remote_get(dest);
 	if (!remote) {
@@ -129,7 +125,7 @@
 			continue;
 		if (!tail_match(pattern, ref->name))
 			continue;
-		printf("%s	%s\n", sha1_to_hex(ref->old_sha1), ref->name);
+		printf("%s	%s\n", oid_to_hex(&ref->old_oid), ref->name);
 		status = 0; /* we found something */
 	}
 	return status;
diff --git a/builtin/ls-tree.c b/builtin/ls-tree.c
index 3b04a0f..0e30d86 100644
--- a/builtin/ls-tree.c
+++ b/builtin/ls-tree.c
@@ -96,12 +96,13 @@
 			if (!strcmp(type, blob_type)) {
 				unsigned long size;
 				if (sha1_object_info(sha1, &size) == OBJ_BAD)
-					strcpy(size_text, "BAD");
+					xsnprintf(size_text, sizeof(size_text),
+						  "BAD");
 				else
-					snprintf(size_text, sizeof(size_text),
-						 "%lu", size);
+					xsnprintf(size_text, sizeof(size_text),
+						  "%lu", size);
 			} else
-				strcpy(size_text, "-");
+				xsnprintf(size_text, sizeof(size_text), "-");
 			printf("%06o %s %s %7s\t", mode, type,
 			       find_unique_abbrev(sha1, abbrev),
 			       size_text);
diff --git a/builtin/mailinfo.c b/builtin/mailinfo.c
index 999a525..f6df274 100644
--- a/builtin/mailinfo.c
+++ b/builtin/mailinfo.c
@@ -6,1029 +6,7 @@
 #include "builtin.h"
 #include "utf8.h"
 #include "strbuf.h"
-
-static FILE *cmitmsg, *patchfile, *fin, *fout;
-
-static int keep_subject;
-static int keep_non_patch_brackets_in_subject;
-static const char *metainfo_charset;
-static struct strbuf line = STRBUF_INIT;
-static struct strbuf name = STRBUF_INIT;
-static struct strbuf email = STRBUF_INIT;
-static char *message_id;
-
-static enum  {
-	TE_DONTCARE, TE_QP, TE_BASE64
-} transfer_encoding;
-
-static struct strbuf charset = STRBUF_INIT;
-static int patch_lines;
-static struct strbuf **p_hdr_data, **s_hdr_data;
-static int use_scissors;
-static int add_message_id;
-static int use_inbody_headers = 1;
-
-#define MAX_HDR_PARSED 10
-#define MAX_BOUNDARIES 5
-
-static void cleanup_space(struct strbuf *sb);
-
-
-static void get_sane_name(struct strbuf *out, struct strbuf *name, struct strbuf *email)
-{
-	struct strbuf *src = name;
-	if (name->len < 3 || 60 < name->len || strchr(name->buf, '@') ||
-		strchr(name->buf, '<') || strchr(name->buf, '>'))
-		src = email;
-	else if (name == out)
-		return;
-	strbuf_reset(out);
-	strbuf_addbuf(out, src);
-}
-
-static void parse_bogus_from(const struct strbuf *line)
-{
-	/* John Doe <johndoe> */
-
-	char *bra, *ket;
-	/* This is fallback, so do not bother if we already have an
-	 * e-mail address.
-	 */
-	if (email.len)
-		return;
-
-	bra = strchr(line->buf, '<');
-	if (!bra)
-		return;
-	ket = strchr(bra, '>');
-	if (!ket)
-		return;
-
-	strbuf_reset(&email);
-	strbuf_add(&email, bra + 1, ket - bra - 1);
-
-	strbuf_reset(&name);
-	strbuf_add(&name, line->buf, bra - line->buf);
-	strbuf_trim(&name);
-	get_sane_name(&name, &name, &email);
-}
-
-static void handle_from(const struct strbuf *from)
-{
-	char *at;
-	size_t el;
-	struct strbuf f;
-
-	strbuf_init(&f, from->len);
-	strbuf_addbuf(&f, from);
-
-	at = strchr(f.buf, '@');
-	if (!at) {
-		parse_bogus_from(from);
-		return;
-	}
-
-	/*
-	 * If we already have one email, don't take any confusing lines
-	 */
-	if (email.len && strchr(at + 1, '@')) {
-		strbuf_release(&f);
-		return;
-	}
-
-	/* Pick up the string around '@', possibly delimited with <>
-	 * pair; that is the email part.
-	 */
-	while (at > f.buf) {
-		char c = at[-1];
-		if (isspace(c))
-			break;
-		if (c == '<') {
-			at[-1] = ' ';
-			break;
-		}
-		at--;
-	}
-	el = strcspn(at, " \n\t\r\v\f>");
-	strbuf_reset(&email);
-	strbuf_add(&email, at, el);
-	strbuf_remove(&f, at - f.buf, el + (at[el] ? 1 : 0));
-
-	/* The remainder is name.  It could be
-	 *
-	 * - "John Doe <john.doe@xz>"			(a), or
-	 * - "john.doe@xz (John Doe)"			(b), or
-	 * - "John (zzz) Doe <john.doe@xz> (Comment)"	(c)
-	 *
-	 * but we have removed the email part, so
-	 *
-	 * - remove extra spaces which could stay after email (case 'c'), and
-	 * - trim from both ends, possibly removing the () pair at the end
-	 *   (cases 'a' and 'b').
-	 */
-	cleanup_space(&f);
-	strbuf_trim(&f);
-	if (f.buf[0] == '(' && f.len && f.buf[f.len - 1] == ')') {
-		strbuf_remove(&f, 0, 1);
-		strbuf_setlen(&f, f.len - 1);
-	}
-
-	get_sane_name(&name, &f, &email);
-	strbuf_release(&f);
-}
-
-static void handle_header(struct strbuf **out, const struct strbuf *line)
-{
-	if (!*out) {
-		*out = xmalloc(sizeof(struct strbuf));
-		strbuf_init(*out, line->